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Sample records for greece current policies

  1. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  2. Considerations on the current universal vaccination policy against hepatitis A in Greece after recent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiani Mellou

    Full Text Available Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP. Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (p<0.001. However, universal vaccination (~ 80% vaccine coverage of children had no significant effect on the annual number of reported cases (p = 0.261 and has resulted to a progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5 was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1 (p<0.001. In the last decade, one third of all reported cases were Roma (a population accounting for 1.5% of the country's total population and in 2013 three outbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a vaccination of high risk groups, b universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c education of the population and travel advice, and d enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods.

  3. Considerations on the current universal vaccination policy against hepatitis A in Greece after recent outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellou, Kassiani; Sideroglou, Theologia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Verykouki, Eleni; Triantafillou, Eleni; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP). Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (pvaccination (~ 80% vaccine coverage of children) had no significant effect on the annual number of reported cases (p = 0.261) and has resulted to a progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5) was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1) (poutbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a) vaccination of high risk groups, b) universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c) education of the population and travel advice, and d) enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods.

  4. Considerations on the Current Universal Vaccination Policy against Hepatitis A in Greece after Recent Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellou, Kassiani; Sideroglou, Theologia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Verykouki, Eleni; Triantafillou, Eleni; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP). Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (pa progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5) was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1) (pa population accounting for 1.5% of the country’s total population) and in 2013 three outbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a) vaccination of high risk groups, b) universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c) education of the population and travel advice, and d) enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods. PMID:25590132

  5. Considerations on the Current Universal Vaccination Policy against Hepatitis A in Greece after Recent Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Mellou, Kassiani; Sideroglou, Theologia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Verykouki, Eleni; Triantafillou, Eleni; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP). Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects ...

  6. Environmental cost-effectiveness of bio diesel production in Greece. Current policies and alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Constantine; Rozakis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Following European Directive 2003/30/EC, the Greek Government adapted legislation that introduces and regulates the bio diesel market. The implemented quota scheme allocates the country's annual, predetermined, tax exempt production of bio diesel to industries based on their ability to meet several criteria. A number of bio diesel supply chain stakeholders have criticized this policy for being efficiency-robbing and vague. This paper uses 2007 data from energy crop farms and three bio diesel-producing companies in order to assess these criticisms. We study the economic and environmental aspects of the currently adopted policy and compare them to three alternative scenarios. We conclude that such criticisms have a merit and that policy makers need to reconsider their alternative options regarding the promotion of bio diesel in transport. Permission of sales directly to local consumers and promotion of forward integration by farmers are efficiency enhancing and environment-friendly means of promoting the use of bio diesel in transport. (author)

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  9. Country policy profile - Greece. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014. This EurObserv'ER report reports on a new Greek law: 'Measures for the support and development of Greek economy within the scope of application of Law 4046/2012 and other provisions', published in the Government Gazette on 7 April 2014, introducing various new elements in the Greek RES policy

  10. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  11. Abortion policy and practice in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, E

    1996-02-01

    Despite its illegality until recently, abortion is estimated to have been responsible for almost half of the sharp postwar decline in the Greek birth rate. This article examines abortion as a part of a Greek contraceptive culture which has taken shape during the postwar period both in response, and in resistance to, a variety of macro- and micropolitical institutions and forces. During much of this period, pronatalist policies and discourses of both state and church combined to foreclose most medical contraceptive alternatives. In contrast, illegal abortion was a relatively safe, medicalized procedure widely practiced by doctors. Even after being legalized in 1980, female medical contraceptive methods continue to be rejected by the great majority of Greek women, and abortion and male methods of birth control remain the principal means of controlling fertility. The article focuses on the specific abortion practices and meanings of three generations of married women living in the city of Rhodes, capital of the Dodecanese Province of Greece's Eastern Aegean, and explores the ways in which they have been shaped by, and reflect, local cultural understandings of the body, health, sexuality, morality, motherhood and childhood, as well as micropolitical relations within the family.

  12. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  13. Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  15. Country policy profile - Greece. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014

  16. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  17. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  18. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT FOR INTRODUCING HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN GREECE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kani, Chara; Kourafalos, Vasilios; Litsa, Panagiota

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current regulatory environment in Greece to evaluate the potential introduction of health technology assessment (HTA) for medicinal products for human use. Data sources consist of national legislation on pricing and reimbursement of health technologies to identify the potential need of establishing HTA and its relevant structure. The pricing procedure regarding medicinal products for human use is based on an external reference pricing mechanism which considers the average of the three lowest Euorpean Union prices. Currently, a formal HTA procedure has not been applied in Greece, and the only prerequisite used for the reimbursement of medicinal products for human use is their inclusion in the Positive Reimbursement List. To restrict pharmaceutical expenditure, a variety of measures-such as clawback mechanisms, rebates, monthly budget caps per physician, generics penetration targeting-have been imposed, aiming mainly to regulate the price level rather than control the introduction of medicinal products for human use in the Greek pharmaceutical market. Greece has the opportunity to rapidly build capacity, implement, and take advantage of the application of HTA mechanisms by clearly defining the goals, scope, systems, context, stakeholders, and methods that will be involved in the local HTA processes, taking into account the country's established e-prescription system and the recently adapted legislative framework.

  19. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Ragkos; Anna Siasiou; Vasiliki Lagka; Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Zaphiris Abas

    2013-01-01

    Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the tra...

  20. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  2. THE AIMS OF EMPLOYABILITY AND SOCIAL INCLUSION / ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP IN LIFELONG LEARNING POLICIES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Prokou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The argument of this article is that during the last two decades or so, in lifelong learning policies in Greece, priority was given to the confrontation of social exclusion that stems from unemployment and, thus, to the achievement of the aims of employability and social inclusion. EU funding and the relatively centralised character of the regulated part of adult/continuing education in Greece favoured the expansion of training programmes for the unemployed. As in the 1990s, so in the 2000s, ...

  3. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq Al; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2016-04-01

    Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011–2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Al Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N.; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Asma, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Methods Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Results Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. Conclusions E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. PMID:25895951

  5. Manpower Policy and Problems in Greece. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    A full solution of the employment problems of countries in the stage of development now existing in Greece, to a great extent depends upon the possibilities of achieving the accumulation of capital necessary for the establishment of new industries and other investment. It is important for Greece to promote economic progress in the different…

  6. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  7. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  8. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  9. High voltage direct current (HVDC) link between the power networks of Italy and Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcano, C.; Oliva, P.; Voyatzakis, J.

    1996-01-01

    Interconnection between the power networks of Italy and Greece has long been declared of European interest. The link, which will directly connect Greece with the power network of UCPTE, is perfectly in line with the targets of the European Union in terms of trans-European power networks. The interconnection, which benefits of a financial contribution of the EU, will rely on a 400 kV d.c. transmission system with one submarine cable between the Italian and Greek coasts, overhead lines on land, d.c./a.c. conversion stations, return of current to sea via marine electrodes. The main technical features of the project are described, highlighting its most significant design concepts. (author)

  10. Pharmaceutical pricing policy in Greece: towards a different path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Affordable, accessible and innovation-promoting pharmaceutical care is essential to the operation of a sustainable health system. External reference pricing (ERP, a common pharmaceutical policy in Europe, suffers today from indigenous weaknesses that may cause market distortions and barriers to care, burdening mostly the weak economies, and hence, raising ethical and political worrying. Objectives and Methods: A non-randomized experiment was conducted, in order to examine the influence of flexible and adaptable to health systems’ affordability ERP structures. Outcomes were assessed by measuring deviations from Greek prices’ level ex ante, as well as effects on pharmaceutical markets affiliated to the European ERP system. Results and Conclusions: Pharmaceutical pricing models that fit prices to income and affordability are better in all aspects, as they produce fairer results, while resulting in low external costs for the European ERP network as a whole. Small sets of reference countries are preferred to large baskets, as they produce similar results, while presenting better qualities by increasing the flexibility of the reimbursement system and the transparency of the market.

  11. Archaeological zones in Italy and Greece restored with reinforced concrete. Assessment of their current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Esponda Cascajares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This interesting study is one of the pioneers in examining in depth the effects of reinforced concrete in the restoration of important archaeological monuments of the past in Italy and Greece. It is a privilege to observe and compare the similar criteria adopted in the firsthalfofthe20thcenturyinmanywell-knownplaces, such as the Parthenon, the Palace of Knossos, the Temple of Selinunte, the city of Pompeii or the city of Lindos, and the negative effect of the reinforced concrete that characterises all these interventions on the conservation of these monuments in the long term, with the current problems arising from the need to de-restore the monument.

  12. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  13. A new call for quality. Shifting the paradigm for development policy in Greece through competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Psilopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is following up on Kouzelis, Psilopoulou and Psilopoulos (2010, where it was partly suggested that skipping architectural competitions in favour of a quantitative (i.e., fiscal approach was a prevailing paradigm for the building procurement policy in Greece at the time. Here the aim is to trace a notable shift from that paradigm by reviewing three case studies: the case of the UpTo35 competition conducted as part of a private development scheme, the case of two ideas competitions organized by architecture review GreekArchitects.gr as part of an open discourse on politics and urban issues, and finally a general turn in policy by the ‘Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change including a new legislative framework aiming to establish a central role for architectural competitions in the development of public space. As these cases are studied in terms of narrative inquiry, the focus will be primarily on the incentives behind them and a proposal that they all find themselves on common ground by the narrative of simply ‘breaking with past practices’, in addition to introducing the notion of quality, not by prescribing it in qualificatory terms but rather by simply supporting and safeguarding it in both policy and will.

  14. Adult Education/Lifelong Learning Policies in Greece in the Early 2010s: Influences from European Education Policy and National Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…

  15. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2014-09-01

    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  17. De l’ancien au moderne French cultural policy in Greece during the Metaxas dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Chèze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article qui suit a pour but d’étudier en quoi la deuxième moitié des années 1930 constitue un moment clé dans la présence culturelle française en Grèce. En effet, à cette époque, les situations politiques intérieures grecque et française prennent des directions diamétralement opposées : dictature de « droite » avec Métaxas d’un côté et mise en place de gouvernements de gauche de l’autre avec le Front populaire. Poussée à repenser sa présence face aux divergences idéologiques, la France se trouve alors dans l’obligation de réorganiser sa politique culturelle. C’est dans ces circonstances qu’elle s’engage pour la première fois sur la voie d’une véritable « économie culturelle ». Sans délaisser les piliers traditionnels de son implantation (institutions scolaires, politiques du livre, son intérêt se porte sur des canaux nouveaux de rayonnement tels que le tourisme, le cinéma.The aim of the article is to study how the second part of the Thirties represent a key moment for the cultural presence of France in Greece. Indeed, between 1935 and 1939, political situations in France and Greece are very differents: on one hand right-wing dictatorship with Metaxas and on the other left-wing governments with the Popular Front. Forced to redefine its presence, Paris seems, in order to preserve its positions, to change tack. For the first time, France tries out a new policy which may be defined as cultural economics. Strengthening its former positions (schools, book policy, France starts to focus on new ways of influence such as tourism and cinema.

  18. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  19. Financial Crisis and Higher Education Policies in Greece: Between Intra- and Supranational Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmas, Aristotelis

    2015-01-01

    The current financial crisis is blamed for the proliferation of neoliberal policies in Greek universities. However, this article argues that the imposition of relevant policies has wider causes linked to contradictions observed during the democratization and modernization of universities over the last 40 years. At the same time policymakers are…

  20. Monitoring interhospital transfers in Western Greece during 2003-2011: its role in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Kalyva, Athanasia; Merekoulias, Georgios; Niakas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Interhospital transfers (ITs) could provide insight into regional healthcare efficiency and evidence for policy-making. The aim of this study was to analyse ITs carried out in the Western Greece region over a nine-year period. Archives of the National Center of Emergency Medical Services of Patras and official healthcare resources were used to analyze patient transfers from rural to 'reception' hospitals in the area, during the period 2003-2011, by hospital, medical, seasonal and population variations. A total of 2500 ITs from the eight rural hospitals to the central ones in the metropolitan area of Patras were monitored yearly. Transfer rates per population ranged between less than 0.3% and more than 1.0%. Only a few patients transferred outside the area (0.9%). Almost 10% of total transfers regarded diagnostic evaluation (mostly CT scan). Transfer rates were inversely related to hospital admission rates (Pearson -0.973, p=0.027), while time (in minutes) (Pearson -0.903, =0.036) and distance (in kilometers) between the rural and central hospitals (Pearson -0.907, p=0.034) also exhibited significant relationships. The level of understaffing does not have a clear effect on ITs. By monitoring ITs, it becomes evident where efforts should be prioritized and which of the interconnections should be optimized in a specific network of health care. In this case, interventions should be focused towards the (a) very high transfer rates from the general hospital (GH) of Aigio, (b) lack of orthopedists at GH Kalavryta, which could provide a 24 hour emergency service in a tourist ski area, (c) understaffing in the microbiological laboratory and lack of a CT scanner at GH Mesologi, and (d) lack of radiologists in several hospitals, rendering the installed equipment worthless. By monitoring the ITs, real needs and win-win actions may emerge in the complex interplay of infrastructural factors.

  1. Rabies in Greece; historical perspectives in view of the current re-emergence in wild and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Tzani, Myrsini; Tasioudi, Konstantia E; Kalachanis, Kostantinos; Mangana-Vougiouka, Olga; Rigakos, George; Dougas, George; Seimenis, Aristarchos M; Kontos, Vassileios

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been rabies free since 1987 while no human cases have been seen since 1970. The re-emergence of rabies in Northern Greece during 2012-2013 in wild and domestic animals prompted a systematic review of historical evidence of the presence of the disease in the country from ancient years till the present. Historical data is presented along with efforts to prevent disease in animals and humans especially during the high prevalent periods in the country in the mid-20th century. These efforts serve as a guide to current extensive efforts to prevent spread especially in the wild and domestic animal populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why do generic drugs fail to achieve an adequate market share in Greece? Empirical findings and policy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasopoulos, T; Charonis, A; Athanasakis, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Pavi, E

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, the memoranda of understanding were implemented in Greece as a measure of fiscal adjustment. Public pharmaceutical expenditure was one of the main focuses of this implementation. Numerous policies, targeted on pharma spending, reduced the pharmaceutical budget by 60.5%. Yet, generics' penetration in Greece remained among the lowest among OECD countries. This study aims to highlight the factors that affect the perceptions of the population on generic drugs and to suggest effective policy measures. The empirical analysis is based on a national cross-sectional survey that was conducted through a sample of 2003 individuals, representative of the general population. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify the determinants that affect the respondents' beliefs on the safety and the effectiveness of generic drugs. The empirical findings presented a positive and statistically significant correlation with income, bill payment difficulties, safety and effectiveness of drugs, prescription and dispensing preferences and the views toward pharmaceutical companies. Also, age and trust toward medical community have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the perception on the safety of generic drugs. Policy interventions are suggested on the bases of the empirical results on 3 major categories; (a) information campaigns, (b) incentives to doctors and pharmacists and (c) to strengthen the bioequivalence control framework and the dissemination of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  4. Socioeconomic factors that determine the phenomenon of\\ud migration in current Greece: a quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karli, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis commences with a meticulous examination on whether financial, social and institutional determinants associate with the migration performance in Europe and accordingly in Greece. Motivated by the intensity, the magnitude and the financial recession, this thesis presents three empirical chapters on the examination of the determinants that affect the phenomenon of migration. Prior to these three empirical studies a chapter introduces and defines all the variables used as wel...

  5. The role and current status of IFRS in the completion of national rules: Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Law 4308/2014 is the main regulation that transposed Accounting Directive 2013/34 of the EU into national law in Greece. This short paper summarises the underlying background and the process followed up to the issuance of this Law. It also outlines the key accounting principles introduced with this Law and how they compare with IFRS. This brief analysis indicates that, to a large extent, Greek accounting standards have now been aligned with IFRS. Given the preceding substantial differences be...

  6. Health policy in interwar Greece: the intervention by the League of Nations Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2008-01-01

    The first serious attempts to deal with public health problems in Greece were undertaken between 1925 and 1935. This period also witnessed setbacks to developments in public health, caused by the lack of welfare infrastructure for social relief, as well as extensive health problems brought about by the settlement in Greece of 1,300,000 refugees from Asia Minor. In 1928 following the example set by other European countries, the Liberal Government appealed to international health organisations for support in order to effectively deal with these problems. This contribution constitutes a case study addressing the following issues: a) the impact the League of Nations Health Organisation intervention had on the establishment of public health services; b) the framework for a collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation and the League of Nations Health Organisation; and c) the factors that led to the failure of the health care reorganisation.

  7. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  8. Historical, Comparative and Statistical Perspectives of School Effectiveness Research: Rethinking Educational Evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdis, Athanasios; Kriemadis, Thanos; Pashiardis, Petros

    2003-01-01

    Offers insights into educational evaluation in Greece by presenting history and the current state of school effectiveness research. Reviews a number of studies, including studies from other countries, to examine the policy implications of school effectiveness research. (SLD)

  9. A knowledge brokerage approach for assessing the impacts of the setting up young farmers policy measure in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaris, Th.; Moulogianni, Ch.; Arampatzis, S.; Kiomourtzi, F. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Wascher, D.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR (Netherlands); Manos, B., E-mail: manosb@agro.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.

  10. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  11. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  12. Teaching Social Policy: Integration of Current Legislation and Media Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRigne, LeaAnne

    2011-01-01

    Social work students enter the field of social work for many reasons--from wanting to become clinicians to wanting to advocate for a more socially just world. Social policy classes can be the ideal courses to provide instruction on conducting research on current policy issues. Teaching students about policy advocacy can lead to a class rich with…

  13. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  14. Liberals, Conservatives and Romantic Nationalists in Interwar Education Policy in Greece: "The High Mountains" Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiades, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Greek historiography of interwar education policy unproblematically accepts the assumption that the bone of contention between the "Liberal demoticists" and the "Conservative purists" was the language issue; particularly whether "demotic" or "katharevousa" should be the language of instruction in schooling.…

  15. Optimal combination of energy crops under different policy scenarios; The case of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafeiriou, Eleni; Petridis, Konstantinos; Karelakis, Christos; Arabatzis, Garyfallos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops production is considered as environmentally benign and socially acceptable, offering ecological benefits over fossil fuels through their contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and acidifying emissions. Energy crops are subjected to persistent policy support by the EU, despite their limited or even marginally negative impact on the greenhouse effect. The present study endeavors to optimize the agricultural income generated by energy crops in a remote and disadvantageous region, with the assistance of linear programming. The optimization concerns the income created from soybean, sunflower (proxy for energy crop), and corn. Different policy scenarios imposed restrictions on the value of the subsidies as a proxy for EU policy tools, the value of inputs (costs of capital and labor) and different irrigation conditions. The results indicate that the area and the imports per energy crop remain unchanged, independently of the policy scenario enacted. Furthermore, corn cultivation contributes the most to iFncome maximization, whereas the implemented CAP policy plays an incremental role in uptaking an energy crop. A key implication is that alternative forms of motivation should be provided to the farmers beyond the financial ones in order the extensive use of energy crops to be achieved. - Highlights: •A stochastic and a deterministic LP model is formulated. •The role of CAP is vital in generated income. •Imports and cultivated areas are subsidy neutral. •The regime of free market results in lower income acquired from the potential crop mix. •Non – financial motivation is a key determinant of the farmers’ attitude towards energy crops.

  16. Health economic evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  17. Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the effects of fiscal policy shocks on the current account as well as the dynamic interactions among fiscal policy shocks and current account with the other macroeconomic variables: real output, real interest rate and exchange rate for Nigeria over the periods 1980:1-2010:4. The identification of fiscal ...

  18. adjustment policies and current account behaviour: empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-10-15

    Oct 15, 2009 ... development, the per capita income is also a significant factor in current account movement. The study found no ... account targeting was detected, whereas in Malaysia and Philippines, the .... Assume that government derives most of its revenue from tax (T), equation 1 becomes. Y= C + I + (G-T) + X-M ...

  19. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  20. Evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work is presented an overview of trends and current thinking in environmental management, broadly defined, as a context for people consideration of the environmental and ethical aspects of the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. The author sets out a general framework of the principles and strategies which have been, and are being, used by OECD Member countries to manage environmental problems and risks. (O.L.)

  1. Language Policy in Ethiopia: History and Current Trends | Getachew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical survey of language use policy was made based on the secondary data (i.e. written documents) from different sources. The study on the implementation of the current language policy of the country focuses mainly on four regional states, namely Amhara, Oromiya and SNNP regional states and the Addis Ababa ...

  2. Educational Psychology Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka-Paraskeva, Sophia

    1984-01-01

    Research on testing, use of intelligence scales, and use of personality scales is a major part of educational psychological research in Greece. A great deal of research has also been done in Greece on the problem of evaluating current educational practice. (BW)

  3. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  4. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  5. MIGRANT WOMEN, DOMESTIC WORK AND THE SEX TRADE IN GREECE-A SNAPSHOT OF MIGRANT POLICY IN THE MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Karakatsanis, Neovi M.; Swarts, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on migrant women’s diverse experiences in the Greek labour market. Since the early 1980s all four Southern European countries of the EU, Spain, Portugal, Greece and Italy, have been transformed from emigration into immigration countries. The new immigrants, mostly undocumented and illegal, join the informal labour market under highly exploitative conditions. Starting from migrant women’s own perspectives, we analyze their experiences (1) in the framework of the unfolding ...

  6. School Psychology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Allina

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the present educational system in Greece at all levels and describes special education services. Describes the place of school psychology in Greek educational and professional structures and the major problems that the field is currently facing. Delineates emerging trends and presents recommendations for the alleviation of problems.…

  7. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  8. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FOREIGN DEBT IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The impact of foreign debt growth on the social and economic performance of Greece was shown. The parameters of GDP, consumption, interest rates, unemployment and government spendings were analyzed. Methodology. Data obtained for 2001-2014 was used for regression analysis, vector autoregression and as well as Kalman filter. Results. A multi-faced analysis of the debt for EU-member states and Greece in particular was performed. The events and decisions of Greek authorities leading to the crisis were summarized in structural and logical scheme. The recommendations for the economic policy of Greece, based on the performed analysis were suggested. The practical applications. Establishment of all weaknesses and empirical testing of the necessary indicators in this study was the basis for the justification of measures to stabilize the economic situation in Ukraine and Greece. Value/originality. The Mandel-Fleming model and the model of balance of savings-investments was used for the first time for the theoretical interpretation of the nature of the debt crisis in Greece, that under the influence of capital inflows caused by the deterioration of the current account balance and interest rate cuts. The increase in foreign borrowings has led to an increase in the budget deficit and reduction in savings. Also for the first time performed regression-correlation analysis, in particular the Kalman filter is used to study the effect of debt on macroeconomic performance of the Greek economy.

  9. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  10. Iran's petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran's oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future

  11. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  12. Switzerland: current energy and climate policies. Political boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previdoli, P.

    2006-01-01

    End use energy consumption in Switzerland has increased almost ninefold over the past 95 years, amounting to nearly 88 PJ in 2004. This figure breaks down as follows: coal 5%, oil-based fuels 29%, motor fuels 31%, electricity 22%, gas 11%, district heat, solid municipal and industrial waste as well as renewables (excluding electricity) approx. 1%. In 2004 alone, end use energy consumption rose by half a percent, thus reaching a new record high. This development is due, above all, to the population increase and to economic growth. To achieve its goals in energy and climate policies, and to initiate sustainable energy supply, the Swiss federal council in 2001 launched the 'EnergySwitzerland' Program. The new strategy of the Program focuses on these three goals: 'Climate', 'Electricity: Efficiency Goal', and 'Renewable Energies'. On the basis of perspectives of the development of the population and of the economy, the consequences of a number of policy variants for energy supply and demand and for the economy and the environment have been examined. Four scenarios (variants) are to help design energy policy on a medium and long term by showing energy policy options. For the area of electricity supply facing increasing requirements, 4 options and their pros and cons are distinguished: electricity imports, renewable energies, fossil- fired thermal plants (combined-cycle plants), and nuclear power. With a 40% share in domestic production, nuclear power continues to be a pillar of Swiss energy supply. The fundamental question about the future of nuclear power is not a question of technical or economic know-how, but a question of the system of political values. As the current legal system in the field of electricity supply does not meet requirements, it will have to be adapted. (orig.)

  13. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  14. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  15. "Compensatory Legitimation" in Greek Educational Policy: An Explanation for the Abortive Educational Reforms in Greece in Comparison with Those in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persianis, Panayiotis

    1998-01-01

    Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…

  16. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  17. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  18. Learning Organizations and Policy Transfer in the EU: Greece's State Scholarships Foundation in a Reform-Resistant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Rigopoulou, Yiota G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of policy change in the EU, lifelong-learning has acquired a growing significance due to its promise to foster both professional development and personal fulfillment and thus contribute to the enhancement of social inclusion, active citizenship, competitiveness, and employability. The need for developing a smart and sustainable…

  19. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    While continuing previous U.S. Administrations' policies of containing Iran while pursuing limited engagement with it, the Bush Administration is evaluating whether or not to move toward a regime change policy, and how to...

  20. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education…

  1. England Policy in Gifted Education: Current Problems and Promising Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Smith, Carole Portman; Casey, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This article presents and analyzes policies in identification and provisions in England with respect to gifted education. England has developed a national policy to provide services to identified students. Surveys and interviews with teachers illustrate how implementation of both identification and provision policy elements were handled. Although…

  2. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  3. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  4. Some Current Challenges to Nigeria's Foreign Policy Projections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It raises and analyses some of the challenges confronting Nigeria's foreign policy projection, and examines the possible options that are available to guide Nigeria's foreign policy direction in future, in an attempt to overcome these challenges, bearing in mind Nigeria's goal and aspirations to continue to play a global foreign ...

  5. Current alcohol policy in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the state alcohol policy is presented. The dynamics of total alcohol consumption, unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol sales in Belarus were evaluated for the period 1980-2009. It was shown that the implementation of measures within the framework of the state alcohol policy resulted in a significant reduction in unregistered alcohol consumption and a slight reduction in total alcohol consumption.

  6. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  7. The impact of the financial crisis and austerity policies on the service quality of public hospitals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidou, Ioanna; Triantafyllopoulos, Loukas

    2017-12-24

    The influence of the financial crisis on the efficiency of Greek public hospitals has been widely debated. Despite this increasing interest in such research, the question of to what extent the recent reforms in the Greek National health care system were effective in establishing a health care structure and process that provide better results for patients has yet to be fully investigated. As a step in this direction, the paper focuses on patient's experience with public hospital care quality before and during the economic crisis. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1872 patients discharged from 110 out of the total of 124 Greek public hospitals. Patients' perceptions were analysed using a structural equation modelling approach. The findings reveal that public hospital service quality is at a medium level (66.2 on a scale from 1 to 100) over 2007-2014, presenting a decreasing trend during the recession. Policies to address the crisis may have contributed to a reduction in hospital expenditures, but at the same time patients were increasingly dissatisfied with the technical care. Consequently, there is a need for reforms aimed at the achievement of productivity gains, responsibility, and transparency in the management of productive resources, by enabling health organisations to reduce their costs without a deterioration in the quality of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  9. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently leading a process to assess the most important steps for public health genomics...

  10. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.

    2017-10-12

    Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.

  11. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  12. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  13. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  14. Current Status, Challenges, Policies, and Bioethics of Biobanks

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Byunghak; Park, Jaesun; Cho, Sangyun; Lee, Meehee; Kim, Namhee; Min, Haesook; Lee, Sooyoun; Park, Ok; Han, Bokghee

    2013-01-01

    Many biobanks were established as biorepositories for biomedical research, and a number of biobanks were founded in the 1990s. The main aim of the biobank is to store and to maintain biomaterials for studying chronic disease, identifying risk factors of specific diseases, and applying personalized drug therapies. This report provides a review of biobanks, including Korean biobanks and an analysis of sample volumes, regulations, policies, and ethical issues of the biobank. Until now, the top 6...

  15. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  17. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... extension by Obstfeld and Rogoff, (1995) in open economy macroeconomics pave more room for the subject .... the current account deficit and the fiscal deficit for advanced economies, while the data for developing ...... exchange rate: Implication for international risk sharing. Working. Paper, IGIER. Vol.

  18. Health technology assessment of medicines in Greece: pharmaceutical industry executives' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armataki, Eleni; Karampli, Eleftheria; Kyriopoulos, John; Pavi, Elpida

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate originator pharmaceutical companies' practices in relation to health technology assessment (HTA) and the views and perceptions of their executives on the importance of HTA in pricing and reimbursement of medicines in Greece. A qualitative study was performed, using individual semi-structured interviews based on an interview schedule with open-ended questions. The target population was market access departments' executives of originator pharmaceutical companies. Our target sample consisted of sixteen executives, of whom ten agreed to participate. Saturation point was reached after eight interviews. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Participants considered HTA as a very important complementary tool for decision making in health policy, particularly in the field of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. They believed that, in Greece, HTA could be institutionalized for the reimbursement mechanism of medicines under certain conditions relating to current health policy-making attitudes and conditions pertaining in the country. They considered that there are many constraints which must be overcome as well as opportunities to be exploited. Decisions in pharmaceutical policy should be scientifically substantiated and HTA should be institutionalized primarily for reimbursement decisions. Development of guidelines for conducting pharmaco-economic evaluation, change in health policy goals, recording of cost and epidemiological data, and broader participation of all stakeholders in HTA decision-making processes are suggested as prerequisites for a successful implementation of HTA in Greece.

  19. Current Status, Challenges, Policies, and Bioethics of Biobanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghak Kang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many biobanks were established as biorepositories for biomedical research, and a number of biobanks were founded in the 1990s. The main aim of the biobank is to store and to maintain biomaterials for studying chronic disease, identifying risk factors of specific diseases, and applying personalized drug therapies. This report provides a review of biobanks, including Korean biobanks and an analysis of sample volumes, regulations, policies, and ethical issues of the biobank. Until now, the top 6 countries according to the number of large-scale biobanks are the United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, and Italy, and there is one major National Biobank of Korea (NBK and 17 regional biobanks in Korea. Many countries have regulations and guidelines for the biobanks, and the importance of good management of biobanks is increasing. Meanwhile, according to a first survey of 456 biobank managers in the United States, biobankers are concerned with the underuse of the samples in their repositories, which need to be advertised for researchers. Korea Biobank Network (KBN project phase II (2013-2015 was also planned for the promotion to use biospecimens in the KBN. The KBN is continuously introducing for researchers to use biospecimens in the biobank. An accreditation process can also be introduced for biobanks to harmonize collections and encourage use of biospecimens in the biobanks. KBN is preparing an on-line application system for the distribution of biospecimens and a biobank accreditation program and is trying to harmonize the biobanks.

  20. Current Status, Challenges, Policies, and Bioethics of Biobanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaesun; Cho, Sangyun; Lee, Meehee; Kim, Namhee; Min, Haesook; Lee, Sooyoun; Park, Ok; Han, Bokghee

    2013-01-01

    Many biobanks were established as biorepositories for biomedical research, and a number of biobanks were founded in the 1990s. The main aim of the biobank is to store and to maintain biomaterials for studying chronic disease, identifying risk factors of specific diseases, and applying personalized drug therapies. This report provides a review of biobanks, including Korean biobanks and an analysis of sample volumes, regulations, policies, and ethical issues of the biobank. Until now, the top 6 countries according to the number of large-scale biobanks are the United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, and Italy, and there is one major National Biobank of Korea (NBK) and 17 regional biobanks in Korea. Many countries have regulations and guidelines for the biobanks, and the importance of good management of biobanks is increasing. Meanwhile, according to a first survey of 456 biobank managers in the United States, biobankers are concerned with the underuse of the samples in their repositories, which need to be advertised for researchers. Korea Biobank Network (KBN) project phase II (2013-2015) was also planned for the promotion to use biospecimens in the KBN. The KBN is continuously introducing for researchers to use biospecimens in the biobank. An accreditation process can also be introduced for biobanks to harmonize collections and encourage use of biospecimens in the biobanks. KBN is preparing an on-line application system for the distribution of biospecimens and a biobank accreditation program and is trying to harmonize the biobanks. PMID:24465232

  1. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    current Ukrainian government is disbanding the Berkut, and the perceived weakness of the authorities in Kyiv could potentially be exploited by Crimea and...banned imports of Ukrainian chocolates from Roshen, a company owned by a strong supporter of the Association Agreement. Russian officials also briefly...reactor site. The two countries are cooperating on energy issues as well. U.S. officials have repeatedly stressed that Ukraine’s security depends on

  2. Government policy, research and stakeholder confidence - Current Trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    The author addressed the topic of government Policy, research and stakeholder Confidence from the perspective of government policy makers in Canada. The presentation reviewed the question: why carry out more research into methods of long-term management of nuclear fuel waste? In addressing this question, the author provided some perspectives that were expressed by the Canadian public, since reflected in the Final Study of management approaches led by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), an organization set up by the nuclear industry to study options for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Final Study was submitted to the federal Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 as required under the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. The NWMO's Final Study emphasized the important role of continuous learning, a key element in the NWMO's recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management. It was reported that the NWMO work had identified many reasons to carry out further research. Regardless of the management approach adopted, activities to manage radioactive waste will continue for a very long time. Any management program could be expected to apply the best practice available at the time. A program that will evolve over a long period of time will have many opportunities for improvements to increase performance, enhance effectiveness, and address rising societal concerns. It was suggested that, to realize these benefits, there needs to be a vibrant and robust research and development effort during management program development and execution, a period that will last many generations, and enable implementers to adapt to a changing environment. Among the reasons put forward for continuing research were, to: - Embody the principles of continuous learning which encourages standards of excellence and integrity; - Prepare for facility siting, design, licensing, development and operations to improve designs, minimize costs, enhance schedules, and reduce

  3. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-03-29

    Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision. Current anti

  4. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauron Alexandre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA, anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a

  5. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  6. The conundrum of Greece and the Eurozone: Puzzles, paradoxes and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitromilides Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three questions regarding the controversial relationship between Greece and the eurozone during the current crisis. First, why was Greece “bailed-out” in 2010? Second, why the Greek economy collapsed despite the largest “bail-out” in global financial history? Third, was the electoral mandate of the Syriza government for ending austerity while remaining in the eurozone contradictory? There are conflicting answers to all three questions and the paper compares the answers of the so called “dominant narrative” to those provided by the “counter-narrative” of the eurozone crisis. The paper reaches the following conclusions. First, the primary motivation for the “bail-out” of Greece was the maintenance of European and global financial stability. Second, although programme implementation was less successful in Greece than in other “programme” countries the catastrophic collapse of the Greek economy had more to do with the programme itself than its implementation. Third, the meaning of democratic decision-making in the Euro-group needs re-appraisal and must go beyond seeing the Greek demand of a policy reversal in the eurozone as simply a clash of democratic mandates in a 19 member monetary union. Political unity will not only improve efficiency but also democracy and accountability in eurozone policymaking.

  7. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  8. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  9. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  11. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  12. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  13. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  14. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  15. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  16. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  17. Considering departures from current timber harvesting policies: case studies of four communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Paul E. Polzin

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations permit departures from current National Forest timber harvesting policies when "implementation of base harvest schedules.., would cause a substantial adverse impact upon a community .... " This paper describes the kinds of information needed for forest managers to adequately assess the relevance of the departure...

  18. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  19. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  20. Climate policies for road transport revisited (I): Evaluation of the current framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; McGlynn, Emily; Minx, Jan; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    The global rise of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and its potentially devastating consequences require a comprehensive regulatory framework for reducing emissions, including those from the transport sector. Alternative fuels and technologies have been promoted as a means for reducing the carbon intensity of the transport sector. However, the overall transport policy framework in major world economies is geared towards the use of conventional fossil fuels. This paper evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of current climate policies for road transport that (1) target fuel producers and/or car manufacturers, and (2) influence use of alternative fuels and technologies. With diversifying fuel supply chains, carbon intensity of fuels and energy efficiency of vehicles cannot be regulated by a single instrument. We demonstrate that vehicles are best regulated across all fuels in terms of energy per distance. We conclude that price-based policies and a cap on total emissions are essential for alleviating rebound effects and perverse incentives of fuel efficiency standards and low carbon fuel standards. In tandem with existing policy tools, cap and price signal policies incentivize all emissions reduction options. Design and effects of cap and trade in the transport sector are investigated in the companion article (). - Research highlights: → We review how alternative fuels and technologies impact climate policies in the transport sector. → Future fuel efficiency standards are best measured in units of energy intensity (MJ/km). → Fuel efficiency standards should not be attribute-based. → Renewable and low carbon fuel standards are ineffective climate policies. → Cap-and-trade in the transport sector can remedy some flaws of the current framework.

  1. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  2. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  4. CMS Virtual Tour Greece

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    More than 500 high-school students from 7 locations in Greece visit virtually the CMS experiment. Read more about this record-breaking event here: http://home.web.cern.ch/students-educators/updates/2014/02/students-visit-heart-cms-detector

  5. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C

    2017-03-15

    Fertilizers have undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in yields worldwide and therefore to the considerable improvement of quality of life of man and animals. Today, attention is focussed on the risks imposed by agricultural fertilizers. These effects include the dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizer major- and trace-elements to the groundwater that deteriorate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. In this study, a map for the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) was generated for assessing the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking and irrigation water quality. The proposed methodology was applied to one of the most intensively cultivated with tree crops area in Crete (Greece) where potential pollutant loads are derived exclusively from agricultural activities and groundwater is the main water source. In this region of 215 km 2 , groundwater sampling data from 235 wells were collected over a 15-year time period and analyzed for the presence of anionic (ΝΟ -3 , PO -3 4 ) and cationic (K +1 , Fe +2 , Mn +2 , Zn +2 , Cu +2 , B +3 ) fertilizer trace elements. These chemicals are the components of the primary fertilizers used in local tree crop production. Eight factors/maps were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for each fertilizer element. The eight factors combined were used to generate the Fertilizer Water Pollution Index (FWPI) map indicating the areas with drinking/irrigation water pollution due to the high groundwater contamination caused by excessive fertilizer use. Moreover, by taking into consideration the groundwater flow direction and seepage velocity, the pathway through which groundwater supply become polluted can be predicted. The groundwater quality results show that a small part of the study area, about 8 km 2 (3.72%), is polluted or moderately polluted by the excessive use of fertilizers. Considering that in this area drinking water sources

  6. A Proposal of a Mass Appraisal System in Greece with CAMA System: Evaluating GWR and MRA techniques in Thessaloniki Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Moulas, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Property tax in Greece is levied since 1985 not on Market Values but on the "objective value" of the properties as it is defined by the Ministry of Economics. It forms a non-flexible system, with market-irrelevant and unrealistic values, inducing land-policy practices and potential political cost to each periodical update. Furthermore, instead of adjusting taxation levels to the current economic reality, the real estate market is experiencing further burdening through approximately 40 different property taxes and levies, leading to further shrinking and depreciation. The authors believe that a fairer taxation system could significantly assist the property sector in Greece. Thus, through this paper and by studying and analyzing best practices from other countries, they propose models that can be applied with the use of existing data in Greece. This work aims to identify the critical parameters that affecting property values in Thessaloniki to create a Market Value forecasting tool for a fairer taxation system, to highlight the importance of a GIS system for this purpose and to compare the results of MRA with the use of SPSS with those of GWR in ArcGIS environment. For the purposes of this study, the Municipality of Thessaloniki was chosen due to its very well organized portal with significant and well organized geographical data and because authors manage to access some data from the Central Bank of Greece, regarding property valuations.

  7. A Proposal of a Mass Appraisal System in Greece with CAMA System: Evaluating GWR and MRA techniques in Thessaloniki Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Property tax in Greece is levied since 1985 not on Market Values but on the “objective value” of the properties as it is defined by the Ministry of Economics. It forms a non-flexible system, with market-irrelevant and unrealistic values, inducing land-policy practices and potential political cost to each periodical update. Furthermore, instead of adjusting taxation levels to the current economic reality, the real estate market is experiencing further burdening through approximately 40 different property taxes and levies, leading to further shrinking and depreciation. The authors believe that a fairer taxation system could significantly assist the property sector in Greece. Thus, through this paper and by studying and analyzing best practices from other countries, they propose models that can be applied with the use of existing data in Greece. This work aims to identify the critical parameters that affecting property values in Thessaloniki to create a Market Value forecasting tool for a fairer taxation system, to highlight the importance of a GIS system for this purpose and to compare the results of MRA with the use of SPSS with those of GWR in ArcGIS environment. For the purposes of this study, the Municipality of Thessaloniki was chosen due to its very well organized portal with significant and well organized geographical data and because authors manage to access some data from the Central Bank of Greece, regarding property valuations.

  8. Community-School Relations. Current Policies of Parental Involvement and Community Participation. Cases in Brazil and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Eulina Pessoa de; Jeria, Jorge

    Current educational policy in Latin America has been aiming to include community participation in a wider spectrum as part of decentralization reform. Much of the rhetoric of these policies seems to originate from neo-liberal policies of State modernization carried out under the auspices of international organizations. Based on a critical review…

  9. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  10. Realignment under Stress: the July 2015 referendum and the September parliamentary election in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsanis, E.; Teperoglou, E.

    2016-01-01

    The victory of the radical-left SYRIZA in the September 2015 election confounded expectations given the failure of the SYRIZA–ANEL government formed in January either to deliver on its central promise of reversing austerity policies or to capitalise on its major victory in the July referendum. The article examines both the election and the referendum that preceded it, offering an explanation for SYRIZA’s victory. It also attempts to trace the trajectory of the current party system in Greece a...

  11. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A

    2018-01-29

    School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children's eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i) summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii) discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  13. Greece at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Greece, one of CERN*'s founding Member States, inaugurated its first Industrial Exhibition at the Meyrin site on Tuesday, 14 October. After a meeting with CERN's Director General, Professor Christopher Llewellyn Smith, Professor Emmanuel Frangoulis, the General Secretary of the Greek Ministry of Industry, accompanied by Prof Emmanuel Floratos, Greek delegate to CERN council visited the DELPHI experiment on the LEP collider, guided by Andromachi Tsirou, a Greek physicist.

  14. First palaeoseismological results from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pavlides

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief account of our approach to trends in palaeoseismological research that are currently emerging in Greece, with the application of modern investigative methods practised world-wide in active tectonic zones. These techniques include fault stratigraphy in trenches, and dating recent fault reactivations in order to understand and distinguish palaeoseismic events along specific segments of active faults, named Gerakarou (Mygdonia Basin, Thessaloniki area, Palaeochori Fault (Kozani-Grevena, Western Macedonia, Souli (Petousi, Epirus, and Volos-Larissa (Thessaly plain. Four palaeoearthquakes were investigated on the Gerakarou fault segment, with a uniform slip rate and return period around 7000 years. In Western Macedonia "aseismic areas" the Servia-Palaeochori recently activated fault shows a -3500 year quiescence. Three coseismic events on the Souli Fault pre- and post-date to 26000 year deposits.

  15. Virtuous and Vicious Circles: Lessons for Current European Policies from Italian Post-War Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Garofoli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Italian economic development, explaining the main features and the crucial variables in the long-term transformation process. The Italian economy has been analysed taking into account the different and changing international rules in medium and long-term to understand their role on the development strategies and on the changing competitive position of the country. The comparative international analysis on selected crucial variables shows some contradictions between expectations and effective outcomes of changing institutional rules and introduced economic policies. This underlines both the emergence of unexpected trajectories and economic performances and the lasting of structural differences among European countries. The selection of consistent economic policies in Europe, then, should take into account these phenomena. The paper underlines the crucial role of long-term economic analysis to fully understand not only the crucial structural variables but even opportunities and challenges for strategic decisions in the current economic crisis.

  16. Evaluating the need for economic support policies in promoting greenhouse gas emission reduction measures in the building sector: The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Mirasgedis, S.; Balaras, C.A.; Gaglia, A.; Lalas, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade the CO 2 emissions from the residential and tertiary sectors have been rising continuously. This is cause for concern but also an area to be targeted for emission reduction measures in national action plans. This paper proposes a methodological framework, using the Greek building sector (characterized by an aging building stock constructed mostly in the period before 1980) as a case study for the examination of the economic attractiveness of possible measures, which incorporates crucial parameters such as local climate, use of buildings, age of building stock, etc. that affect the energy conservation potential and consequently the economic performance of available measures. Utilizing this framework, the approach is able to classify measures into three categories, namely 'win-win' cases (i.e. where the implementation of emission reduction measures presents a net economic benefit for end-users), measures that require the implementation of appropriate economic support policies in order to make them economically attractive for end-users, and measures that have excessive cost. The results indicate that the emissions reduction potential of 'win-win' cases is significant. They also demonstrate how individual measures can provide significant reductions if carefully targeted economic support policies are applied. Finally, sensitivity analyses performed with respect to the discount rate applied indicate that it has a substantial impact on the economic performance of some measures and consequently on the magnitude of the 'win-win' potential associated to emissions reduction

  17. The electricity consumption and economic growth nexus: Evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.; Dagoumas, Athanasios S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to cast light into the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece in a multivariate framework. For this purpose we used cointegration techniques and the vector error correction model in order to capture short-run and long-run dynamics over the sample period 1970–2011. The empirical results reveal that in the long-run electricity demand appears to be price inelastic and income elastic, while in the short-run the relevant elasticities are below unity. We also argue that the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece is bi-directional. Our results strengthen the notion that Greece is an energy dependent country and well directed energy conservation policies could even boost economic growth. Furthermore, the implementation of renewable energy sources should provide significant benefits ensuring sufficient security of supply in the Greek energy system. This evidence can provide a new basis for discussion on the appropriate design and implementation of environmental and energy policies for Greece and other medium sized economies with similar characteristics. -- Highlights: •We examine the causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. •We used cointegration techniques to capture short-run and long-run dynamics. •The relationship between electricity consumption and GDP is bi-directional. •Residential energy switching in Greece is still limited. •The implementation of renewable energy sources should ensure security of supply

  18. Preliminary lightning observations over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis G.

    2012-02-01

    The first Precision Lightning Network, monitoring the Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning stroke activity over Greece and surrounding waters is operated and maintained by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. This paper studies the regional (land/water interface), seasonal and diurnal variability of the CG strokes as a function of density, polarity and peak current. Additional investigation uniquely links the CG stroke current to sea surface salinity and cloud electrical capacitance. In brief, this study's major findings area as follows: (1) The seasonal maps of thunder days agree well with the regional climatic convective characteristics of the study area, (2) the CG diurnal variability is consistent with the global lightning activity observations over land and ocean, (3) the maxima of monthly averaged CG counts are located over land and water during typical summer and fall months respectively for both polarities, (4) CG peak currents show a distinct seasonality with larger currents during relatively colder months and smaller currents during summer months, and (5) strong linear trends between -CGs and sea surface salinity; (6) this trend is absent for +CGs data analysis of the employed database relate to the thunderstorm's RC constant and agrees with previous numerical modeling studies.

  19. Secondary Education in Greece. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Denis

    Cultural and national history have profoundly modeled Greek society and continue to play a vital role in Greek policy and in cultural and social life. This handbook provides a brief overview of secondary education in Greece. The first part describes the country's societal, historical, and political background; educational history and current…

  20. The current status of local medicare payment policy: how specialty societies can influence local coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bibb; Pennington, Anita; Keysor, Kathryn J

    2008-06-01

    The Medicare Fee-for-Service Program is in the midst of numerous administrative and regulatory changes that may affect the way local Medicare payment policy is implemented. These changes involve redefining the contractors' jurisdictions, competitive bidding for the contractor selection process, combining the administration of Part A and Part B services, and error rate auditing. In addition, the roles of the Contractor Medical Directors and Contractor Advisory Committees are yet to be defined, and the future of the existing advisory process, while currently unchanged, remains uncertain. Most likely, the majority of coverage decisions will continue to be made at the local level; however, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has begun to increase its use of Technology Assessments and National Coverage Determinations for new technology and has developed a new payment category for coverage of new technology: Coverage with Evidence Development. Specialty societies continue to have the ability to exert influence on the coverage process. The American College of Radiology (ACR) monitors the activity of the local contractors and assists local physicians through the ACR Carrier Advisory Committee Network. The ACR has used a combination of clinical and economic experts to develop model Local Coverage Determinations for use by the local contractors, and some of these model policies have been developed in conjunction with other specialty societies, which bolsters their effectiveness. The changing administrative environment presents challenges and opportunities for specialty societies to influence local CMS payment policy.

  1. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  2. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  3. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    institution or organization - such as the government or industry groups - as the primary responsible stakeholder, thus leaving ambiguous the organizations whose leadership was necessary to mitigate air pollution. Conclusion Gaps exist in the current media discourse on air pollution, suggesting the need for strengthening engagement with the media as a means of creating citizen engagement and enabling policy action. Through greater elaboration of the health burdens and evidence-based policy actions, the media can play a critical role in galvanizing India's action on air quality. These data may suggest opportunities for media advocacy and greater public and policy engagement to address issues around air quality in India.

  4. Ways for Accounting Policy Improvement of Non-current Assets at Industrial Enterprises (by Ferroconcrete Structures Plant Example)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Derun

    2013-01-01

    This Article provides the analysis of accounting policy development specifics for domestic industrial enterprises as per fixed assets accounting affecting the quality of the information disclosed in financial statements. The key elements of accounting policies have been highlighted with respect to non-current assets in compliance with the legislation. The extended list of non-current assets accounting methods and procedures has been proposed for cases where the National Accounting Regulations...

  5. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pteroudis, E

    1996-01-01

    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA) excerpt

  6. Small scale turbidity currents in a tectonically active submarine graben, the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): their significance in dispersing mine tailings and their relevance to basin filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth is an intra-plate active graben within the Aegean microplate, which is characterized by high frequency occurrence of gravitative mass movements. A detailed marine survey in Antikyra bay, on the northern margin of the graben, was carried out (i) to study the bathymetry and morphology of the seafloor and (ii) to examine the distribution and dispersion of bauxite “red-mud” tailings and the formation of present-day fine grained, thin bedded turbidites. The examination of high resolution seismic profiles has shown that the northern flank of the gulf of Corinth consists of the shelf, slope and basin floor. The shelf has an average width of 10 km and dips very gently at a gradient less than 1.2o to a depth of 300m. The slope extends from the 300m to the 700m isobath with a gradient ranging from 5o to 7.5o. The basin floor deeper than the 700m isobath is flat with a gradient less than 0.1o. The shelf break and upper slope are affected by mass-movements. The seafloor on slope is incised by numerous channels trending in a NNE-SSW direction. The floor of the plain is covered by ponded turbidites. The analysis of cores based on (i) the texture and the structure of the individual layers of the surficial sedimentary cover and (ii) the tracing of bauxite red-mud tailing which have been discharged since 1970 on the upper shelf of the Antikyra Bay, have shown that: (i) Shelf and upper slope sediments are transported to the basin floor by turbidity flows. (ii) The slope surface is affected by the erosional action of the turbidity currents. (iii) The basin floor is covered by thin-bedded fine-grained turbidites whose thickness ranges from 0.8-4 cm. (iv) The individual turbidite beds, which consist of silt and clay, are structureless and are separated by sharp, planar or erosional contacts. (v) Hemipelagic intercalations are absent. The number of turbiditic events recorded in the surveyed area is from 2-5 events over a period of 15 years or 122 to 333 events

  7. Spatial analysis of the electrical energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2017-01-01

    The Electrical Energy Demand (EED) of the agricultural, commercial and industrial sector in Greece, as well as its use for domestic activities, public and municipal authorities and street lighting are analysed spatially using Geographical Information System and spatial statistical methods. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level 3. The aim is to identify spatial patterns of the EED and its transformations such as the ratios of the EED to socioeconomic variables, i.e. the population, the total area, the population density and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Based on the analysis, Greece is divided in five regions, each one with a different development model, i.e. Attica and Thessaloniki which are two heavily populated major poles, Thessaly and Central Greece which form a connected geographical region with important agricultural and industrial sector, the islands and some coastal areas which are characterized by an important commercial sector and the rest Greek areas. The spatial patterns can provide additional information for policy decision about the electrical energy management and better representation of the regional socioeconomic conditions. - Highlights: • We visualize spatially the Electrical Energy Demand (EED) in Greece. • We apply spatial analysis methods to the EED data. • Spatial patterns of the EED are identified. • Greece is classified in five distinct groups, based on the analysis. • The results can be used for optimal planning of the electric system.

  8. The impact of current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zengeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the impact of the current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe. The focus was on finding out how the visa regime could impact on efforts to bring into the country more visitors following the decline in visitor inflows from 2000 to 2008. Data was collected from selected visitors from different member states which require visas to enter into the county in the period between January 2010 and July 2010.The findings shows that visa restrictions play a small part in discouraging visitors to visit Zimbabwe. The visa regime policy was designed in such a way that it was easy for passport holders from traditional markets to have relatively easy passage into Zimbabwe. It was also discovered that visa restrictions were part of international travel conditions but how to get the visa became the competitive advantage or disadvantage a destination can have compared with its competitors. Zimbabwe’s traditional markets believed that the visa was not difficult to get nor was it too expensive as to scare away visitors. However, the emerging markets such as China who are in Group C had problems getting the visa as they were required to apply for the visa before traveling to Zimbabwe.

  9. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  10. Health Self-management Among Older Prisoners: Current Understandings and Directions for Policy, Practice, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiano, Nicole; Lukic, Andreja; Blowers, Anita; Doerner, Jill

    The population of aging prisoners has increased significantly over the past several decades, resulting in concerns about the criminal justice system's ability to address the needs of prisoners and parolees with chronic health conditions. This is troubling, given the health disparities among incarcerated populations. Health self-management has become a strategy within the community-based health care industry to improve health services and outcomes while reducing health care costs for nonincarcerated individuals with chronic conditions. However, to date little research has focused on the practice or promotion of health self-management among current and former incarcerated populations. This article highlights current understandings about chronic health self-management among older prisoners and parolees, with an emphasis on the potential benefits and current challenges in promoting their health self-management practices. Finally, specific recommendations are made for promoting health self-management for these populations through social work practice, policy advocacy, and research to achieve goals in improving health outcomes and reducing healthcare costs.

  11. Sugars and health: a review of current evidence and future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise

    2017-08-01

    The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence. In the UK the recommended amount of free sugars is currently 5 % of energy (reduced from 10 %), which is difficult to meet and very different from current British dietary patterns. Reducing intakes of free sugars is a challenge and will necessitate a range of different actions and policies. Public Health England has put forward eight suggestions but the four most likely to improve dietary behaviour based on available evidence are social marketing, reduction of marketing of high sugar foods and drinks to children, reformulation and reductions in portion size and a sugar excise tax. Any action taken needs to be evaluated to check inequalities are not widened. The new childhood obesity strategy has incorporated some but not all of these strategies and may not go far enough. It is likely that government policies alone will not be sufficient and a change in the food culture is necessary to see real progress.

  12. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  13. Urban clean air policy in France and Greece problem definition and policy change; La lutte contre la pollution atmospherique urbaine en France et en Grece definition des problemes publics et changement de politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlassopoulou, Ch.A.

    1999-07-01

    Taking into account that the public problems definition is different from the social problems definition, this thesis proposes an analysis base to study the change of the clean air policy. The attitude of the administration and the government are commented to explain the management evolution. (A.L.B.)

  14. An evaluation of the quality of evidence available to inform current bone conducting hearing device national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, R; Carter, A W; Haram, N; Mossialos, E; Schilder, A G M

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, NHS England published the commissioning policy on Bone Conducting Hearing Devices (BCHDs). This policy was informed by updated evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of BCHDs as well as by the 2013 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) policy. Commissioning policies set the criteria for service delivery and therefore have a major impact on the care received by patients. It is important that stakeholders have a good appreciation of the available evidence informing policy, as this will promote engagement both with the policy and with future research leading on from the policy. In this article, we provide stakeholders with a transparent and pragmatic assessment of the quality of the body of evidence available to inform current BCHD national policy. (i) A systematic review of the literature on BCHDs published since the development of the 2013 policy was performed in September 2016, adhering to PRISMA recommendations. The search terms used were as follows bone conduction; bone conducting; bone anchor; BAHA; Bone Anchored Hearing Aid; Bone Conducting Hearing Device; BCHD; Bone Conducting Hearing Implant; BCHI; Sophono; Bonebridge; Soundbite; Ponto; Hearing aid; implant; device; hearing device. Publications that could inform current BCHD policy were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (ii) The quality of evidence referenced by the 2013 BAHA policy was assessed using the GRADE system. (i) Of the 2576 publications on BCHDs identified by the systematic search, 39 met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Using the GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence was classified as of 'very low quality'. (ii) The 2013 BAHA policy was informed by 14 references. The GRADE system classifies the quality of evidence that informed the policy as of 'very low quality'. The GRADE system defines the body of evidence available to inform current national BCHD policy

  15. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year), as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes. Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with producers and

  16. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    areas at risk of radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9% were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9% were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year, as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes.Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with

  17. Characteristics of low-enthalpy geothermal applications in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andritsos, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece); Dalabakis, P. [Land Reclamation Institute, NAGREF, 574 00 Sindos, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karydakis, G. [IGME, Geothermal Energy Section, Sp. Loui 1, 136 77 Acharnes (Greece); Kolios, N. [IGME, Branch of Central Macedonia, Frangon 1, 546 26 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fytikas, M. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 540 06 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    The paper offers a brief overview of the current direct geothermal uses in Greece and discusses their characteristics, with emphasis to the economical and technical problems encountered. Greece holds a prominent place in Europe regarding the existence of promising geothermal resources (both high and low-enthalpy), which can be economically exploited. Currently, no geothermal electricity is produced in Greece. The installed capacity of direct uses at the end of 2009 is estimated at about 155 MW{sub t}, exhibiting an increase of more than 100% compared to the figures reported at the World Geothermal Congress 2005. The main uses, in decreasing share, are geothermal heat pumps, swimming and balneology, greenhouse heating and soil warming. Earth-coupled and groundwater (or seawater) heat pumps have shown a drastic expansion during the past 2-3 years, mainly due to high oil prices two years ago and easing of the license requirements for drilling shallow wells. (author)

  18. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employees, work-life balance, non-discrimination, dismissal, work discipline, complains, substance abuse, smoking at work, employment and relations with employees infected with HIV and other fields mentioned in the paper. Throughout the study, the attention was given preponderantly on three categories of policies: discipline policy, equal opportunities policy and work-life balance policy, the last two also being promoted by European institutions. Therefore, these policies were analysed in practical terms within Romanian organizations. We found that discipline policies are widely used at work, while the other two types of policies exist at a lower percentage within the analysed establishments. Most units having such policies concerning non-discrimination and work-life balance are oversized. This situation requires action from the management of small and medium-sized units in order to draw up and respect the non-discrimination policy and the balance between work and family life.

  20. [Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Romo Orozco, Denisse Aracely; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Garicano Vilar, Elena; Valente, Ana; Betancor, Fabiana; Morales Hurtado, Alexis Daniel; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-07-19

    Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay) and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1600 mL/day (female) and 2000 mL/day (male). The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females). Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day). Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37%) in all countries (mean of 1365 mL/day). Hot beverages (18%) and milk and derivates (17%) follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although majority they didn´t know it. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  1. Polychaetes of Greece: an updated and annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboura, Nomiki; Katsiaras, Nikolaos; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The last annotated checklist of marine polychaetes in Greece was published in 2001. Since then, global taxonomic progress, combined with many new species records for Greece, required a thorough review of the taxonomic, nomenclatural and biogeographic status of the national species list. This checklist revises the status of all extant polychaete species reported from the Greek Exclusive Economic Zone since 1832. The work was undertaken as part of the efforts on compiling a national species inventory (Greek Taxon Information System initiative) in the framework of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure. New information This checklist comprises an updated and annotated inventory of polychaete species in Greek waters, compiled from literature reports, online databases, museum collections and unpublished datasets. The list provides information on 836 species-level taxa from Greece, of which 142 are considered questionable. An additional 84 species reported in the past are currently considered absent from Greece; reasons for the exclusion of each species are given. Fourteen species are reported here for the first time from Greek waters. At least 52 species in the present list constitute in fact a complex of cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. Forty-seven species are considered non-native to the area. In addition to the species-level taxa reported in this checklist, eleven genera have been recorded from Greece with no representatives identified to species level. One replacement name is introduced. For each species, a comprehensive bibliographic list of occurrence records in Greece and the synonyms used in these publications are provided as supplementary material. Where necessary, the taxonomic, nomenclatural or biogeographic status is discussed. Finally, the findings are discussed in the wider context of Mediterranean polychaete biogeography, taxonomic practice and worldwide research progress. PMID:29362552

  2. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  3. Alternatives to current HIV/AIDS policies and practices in South African prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, K C; Gow, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Prisoners in South Africa face problems of overcrowding, violence and poor nutrition. Added to this burden in recent times is the increased threat from HIV. The HIV epidemic has been relatively late in coming to South Africa but infection rates are now 20% in the adult population. However, there is no data available on the level of HIV infection in the prison population. Overseas studies suggest that the characteristics of prisoners place them at much greater risk of HIV infection. Factors which contribute to increased levels of HIV infection include poor health care facilities, lack of condoms and lack of disinfectants. Current policies and practices on HIV in prison attempt to balance the constraints of limited resources with the need to preserve prisoner human rights. The outcomes include: mass testing not freely available, HIV education is limited, and early release of prisoners with advanced AIDS is not allowed. Constraints on the implementation of effective HIV prevention strategies include: bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of resources, and a reluctance by prison authorities to address the issue of HIV in prison. These problems can possibly be overcome by addressing the issue from both management and prisoner perspectives. On the management side, increased resources, increased training of prison officials, and increased political commitment to address the issue are required. Outside partnerships are probably required for an effective response. Prisoners require better nutrition, better living conditions, better health care, freely available condoms and disinfectants.

  4. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  5. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  6. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  7. Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area-The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasara, Eleni; Marakis, Georgios; Breda, Joao; Skepastianos, Petros; Hassapidou, Maria; Kafatos, Anthony; Rodopaios, Nikolaos; Koulouri, Alexandra A; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2017-04-22

    A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) ( n = 252, aged 18-75 years, 45.2% males). Participants' dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0-55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger, nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece.

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  9. Greece: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    financing and equity in access to health care services. Efficiency is in question due to the lack of incentives to improve performance in the public sector. Mechanisms for needs assessment and priority-setting are underdeveloped and, as a consequence, the regional distribution of health resources is unequal. Centralization of the system is coupled with a lack of planning and coordination, and limited managerial and administrative capacity. In addition, the oversupply of physicians, the absence of a referral system, and irrational pricing and reimbursement policies are factors encouraging under-the-table payments and the black economy. These shortcomings result in low satisfaction with the health care system expressed by citizens. The landmark in the development of the Greek health care system was the creation of the national health system (ESY) in 1983. This report describes the development of the ESY at the structural level and generally, the process of implementing reforms. The strategic targets of health reform initiatives have been to structure a unified health care sector along the lines of the original ESY proposal and to cope with current inefficiencies. However, the three reforms attempted in the 1990s were never fully implemented, while the ambitious reform project of the period 2000–2004, which provided for the regionalization of the system, new management structures, prospective reimbursement, new employment conditions for hospital doctors, modernization of public health services and reorganization of primary health care, was abolished after the elections of 2004 and a change in government. While the new strategy, launched in 2005 with the stated aims of securing the financial viability of the health care system in the short term and its sustainability in the long term, addressed specific weaknesses, it has been rather controversial: the introduction of a centralized administrative public procurement system, the development of public–private partnerships

  10. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  11. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  12. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sambotin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  13. Current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Thomas, Roxanne; Porter, Read D; Hellmann, Jessica J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lodge, David M; Chavarria, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. The development of such policies should be based on (1) characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, (2) identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and (3) identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

  14. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis an...

  15. An Examination of Current and Proposed Drug-Testing Policies at U.S. Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala, Paul J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Administrators at 332 colleges and universities completed surveys about their schools' current or proposed policies for urine drug testing of employees, applicants, and students. Fewer than 7% of schools reported urine drug testing of employees and applicants, and only 2% tested students. Few additional institutions were planning to adopt testing…

  16. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  17. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... policy makers appear to be adopting tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential diplomacy in the international...

  18. An econometric analysis of residential consumption of fuelwood in a mountainous prefecture of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabatzis, G.; Malesios, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy source of increasing importance, especially since the energy policies of countries today are largely focused on renewable energy. It is a renewable energy source with significant potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society, both for developing and developed countries around the world. One very important source of biomass is wood and fuelwood in particular. This article aims at providing an empirical analysis of household fuelwood consumption and the determinants of the choice to use the specific energy for heating and cooking in a district of Northern Greece. In the current empirical analysis several household fuelwood consumption models are employed, such as GLM, Tobit and Heckman regression-based techniques. The results show that household sociological and economical characteristics as well as more general environmental issues are suitable to explain differences towards fuelwood consumption for space heating and cooking. We additionally evaluate the household fuelwood consumption for heating through the statistical analyses conducted. - Highlights: ► In this study we provide an empirical analysis of household fuel wood consumption. ► Determinants of the choice of specific energy for heating/cooking in Northern Greece are examined. ► Several household fuelwood consumption models are employed (GLM, Tobit and Heckman). ► Household's sociological/economical characteristics are suitable to explain fuel wood consumption. ► Also more general environmental issues explain differences towards fuel wood consumption.

  19. Interactions between electricity generation sources and economic activity in Greece: A VECM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjustment dynamics in electricity sources and industrial production are examined. • The Johansen’s method with a conditional VEC model was pursued. • Results confirm endogeneity among variables. • Cointegration relationships for fossil and for renewables sources were founded. • Renewables are less affected by disturbance in economic activity. - Abstract: The interactions between electricity generation sources and industrial production in Greece were analysed from August 2004 to October 2013. Greece has been subject to a tough economic adjustment under external financial assistance guidelines. In the meantime, the country has remained committed to international agreements concerning the use of renewables. The variables interact with each other, and this endogeneity has been analysed using a VECM model. A short-run, causal relationship from conventional fossil sources to economic growth, was proved. However, there is no evidence of causal relationships from renewable electricity to economic growth, either in the short- or long-run. Only economic growth gives rise to renewable electricity, whether in the short- or long-run. A fresh insight on the current state of dynamics between electricity sources within an electricity generation system, is thus added to the literature. These findings will inform energy policymakers in designing policies both to encourage the incorporation of national technology into renewables and to reduce electricity consumption without hampering economic growth

  20. Corporate social responsibility and small-medium sized enterprises: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Electra Pitoska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative empirical research of Greek Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs and examines their dominant perceptions and attitudes towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. The research was conducted in the Region of Western Macedonia, North Greece, via personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire, which was completed by 420 enterprises, with different business functions, and were randomly chosen from local Chamber registers. The results demonstrated that, as Greek SMEs in the periphery have not decided on a particular strategy for Social Responsibility practices, CSR is frequently defined as sponsorship or charity programmes. The research also revealed the restraining factors for SMEs in implementing CSR policies: financial cost, small size of enterprises, absence of specialized partners, and poor supporting role of public authorities. Whereas, the most significant non-financial goals for the enterprises attempting to implement CSR in Greece are: responsibility and respect to customers, promotion of sustainability, environmentally-friendly practices; human resources and protection of rights are less emphasized. Interestingly, more than 80% of the subjects hold that engaging in CSR practices in the current financial context is vital. With regard to the benefits resulting from CSR, the research demonstrated that: Enhancing ‘corporate image’, ‘business performance’, and ‘customer satisfaction’ are significant. Nevertheless, the research highlighted that implementing CSR strategies are rather positively than strongly correlated with the benefits deriving from CSR.

  1. The Effect of Different Types of Diet on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstadinos Abeliotis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diet modifications are explored for the mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. The current paper aims at estimating the carbon footprint of the diet of the Greek consumers in 2011. Based on food items consumption data, equivalent CO2 emission factors, the total carbon footprint associated with the per capita Greek diet patterns is calculated. Data for this task are retrieved from readily available resources of existent literature. The per capita carbon footprint resulting from the consumption of food items in Greece in 2011 for the reference scenario is calculated to be 1,827.4 kg CO2/y. In addition, alternative diet scenarios are proposed, their carbon footprint is calculated and suggestions are made for possible sustainable dietary changes. The results indicate that transition to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet constitutes a very drastic change towards mitigating greenhouse gases. However its acceptance by the public is very questionable. Thus, the second alternative scenario, which anticipates the substitution of beef by mainly pork and chicken, becomes more relevant. These results could serve as a yardstick for policy interventions aiming at reducing GHG emissions via diet modifications in Greece.

  2. Corruption in Greece or Corruption of Greece? The "Modern" Triumphalism

    OpenAIRE

    Lambropoulou, Effi; Iosifidis, Theodoros; Papapamanolis, Nikos; Bakali, Eleftheria; Ageli, Stella; Bakirli, Erifyli; Massouri, Garyfalia

    2008-01-01

    Crime as a Cultural Problem. The Relevance of Perceptions of Corruption to Crime Prevention. A Comparative Cultural Study in the EU-Accession States Bulgaria and Romania, the EU-Candidate States Turkey and Croatia and the EU-States Germany, Greece and United Kingdom

  3. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  4. Graduated driver licensing policy in the Great Lakes states: current benefits and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Timothy E; Tonellato, Daniel J; Frisch, Keri B; Laud, Purushottam W

    2009-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of teenage deaths in the United States. Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies effectively decrease teenage crash deaths. Emerging research is identifying the most effective components of GDL. This study examines GDL policies across 6 Great Lakes states, describing the beneficial impact, and investigating how evidence-based policy modifications could further reduce teenage driving deaths and injuries. GDL policies were reviewed in 6 Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). Incidence rate ratios for fatal and injury crashes for 16-year-old drivers were obtained from the Nationwide Review of GDL Study. Ratios were applied to the fatal and injury crashes reported from each state between 2002 and 2006 for 16-year-old drivers. The potential impact (crashes avoided) for each state was determined based on the state using a 3-phase GDL policy (a learner and intermediate stage prior to full licensure). In addition, the impact on crash reductions for each state if they had employed 5 of the recommended GDL components was determined. All 6 states had a 3-phase GDL policy, resulting in potential avoidance of 124 fatal and more than 21,000 injury crashes. The 6 states had 1 to 3 of the qualifying GDL components. If these states had adopted 5 of the qualifying components, an additional 309 fatal and more than 27,000 injury crashes could have been avoided. Three-phase GDL policy is effective at saving the lives of teenage drivers and vehicle occupants; evidence-based modification of GDL has the potential to further reduce teenage motor vehicle crash deaths and injuries.

  5. Physician payment 2008 for interventionalists: current state of health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James

    2007-09-01

    Physicians in the United States have been affected by significant changes in the pattern(s) of medical practice evolving over the last several decades. These changes include new measures to 1) curb increasing costs, 2) increase access to patient care, 3) improve quality of healthcare, and 4) pay for prescription drugs. Escalating healthcare costs have focused concerns about the financial solvency of Medicare and this in turn has fostered a renewed interest in the economic basis of interventional pain management practices. The provision and systemization of healthcare in North America and several European countries are difficult enterprises to manage irrespective of whether these provisions and systems are privatized (as in the United States) or nationalized or seminationalized (as in Great Britain, Canada, Australia and France). Consequently, while many management options have been put forth, none seem to be optimally geared toward affording healthcare as a maximized individual and social good, and none have been completely enacted. The current physician fee schedule (released on July 12, 2007) includes a 9.9% cut in payment rate. Since the Medicare program was created in 1965, several methods have been used to determine physicians' rate(s) for each covered service. The sustained growth rate (SGR) system, established in 1998, has evoked negative consequences on physician payment(s). Based on the current Medicare expenditure index, practice expenses are projected to increase by 34.5% from 2002 to 2016, whereas, if actual practice inflation is considered, this increase will be 90%. This is in contrast to projected physician payment cuts that are depicted to be 51%. No doubt, this scenario will be devastating to many practices and the US medical community at large. Resolutions to this problem have been offered by MedPAC, the Government Accountability Office, physician organizations, economists, and various other interested groups. In the past, temporary measures have

  6. Plastic debris and policy: Using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Cook, Anna-Marie; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Captain Charles Moore introduced the world to the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" in the mid-1990s, and images of plastic debris in the oceans began to sweep the media. Since then, there has been increasing interest from scientists, the public, and policy makers regarding plastic debris in the environment. Today, there remains no doubt that plastic debris contaminates aquatic (marine and freshwater) habitats and animals globally. The growing scientific evidence demonstrates widespread contamination from plastic debris, and researchers are beginning to understand the sources, fate, and effects of the material. As new scientific understanding breeds new questions, scientists are working to fill data gaps regarding the fate and effects of plastic debris and the mechanisms that drive these processes. In parallel, policy makers are working to mitigate this contamination. The authors focus on what is known about plastic debris that is relevant to policy by reviewing some of the weight of evidence regarding contamination, fate, and effects of the material. Moreover, they highlight some examples of how science has already been used to inform policy change and mitigation and discuss opportunities for future linkages between science and policy to continue the relationship and contribute to effective solutions for plastic debris. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1617-1626. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  8. Physicians' brain drain in Greece: a perspective on the reasons why and how to address it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2014-08-01

    This review study explores the "brain drain" currently evident amongst physicians in Greece, which is closely linked to the country's severe financial woes. In particular, it shows that the Greek healthcare labour market offers few opportunities and thus physicians are forsaking their homeland to seek jobs abroad. The main causes generating or greatly inflating the brain drain of Greek physicians are unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, over-taxation, together with limited budgets for research institutes. It is argued that, to stop the evolving mass exodus of skilled medical staff, policy-makers should implement fiscal and human-centred approaches, thoroughly safeguarding both the right of skilled Greek physicians to work in their homeland with motivation and dignity, but also of Greek citizens to continue receiving high-quality healthcare by skilled physicians at times when this is mostly needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  10. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  11. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.

  12. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  13. The global momentum for smokefree public places: best practice in current and forthcoming smokefree policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA G Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Smokefree Partnership has recently prepared a map of smokefree campaigns and policies around the world. It focuses primarily on countries that are parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but other countries were included. The smokefree status of 172 countries was mapped. Of these countries, 31 (18.0% have established comprehensive smokefree policies, either nationally or at state or city level - best practice; 25 (14.6% are planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009; and 51(29.6% are making significant progress with smokefree policies. Only 65 countries (37.8% have limited or no smokefree polices. A selection of countries representing best practices in smokefree policies or planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009 is highlighted. They illustrate the significant global momentum for smokefree policies, the success of established policies, the importance of civil society and the sharing of experience between countries.El Global Smokefree Partnership recién completó un mapa de las campañas para promover políticas de ambientes libres de humo (ALH a nivel mundial. El mapa se centra en los países Partes al Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la OMS, aunque otros países también se incluyen, y documenta el estatus de 172 países en el tema de los ALH. De estos países, 31 (18.0% tienen políticas comprehensivas de ALH, a nivel nacional, provincial, y/o estatal - mejores prácticas; 25 (14.6% prevén la implementación de políticas de ALH en 2008 o 2009; y 51 (29.6% han progresado significativamente con estas políticas. Sólo 65 países (37.8% no tienen políticas de ALH, o sólo políticas limitadas en este ámbito. Este ensayo destaca una selección de países que representan las mejores prácticas en las políticas de ALH o que prevén la implementación de estas políticas en 2008 o 2009, con tal de ilustrar el movimiento global hacia los ambientes libres de humo; el

  14. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  15. Tobacco use among students aged 13–15 years in Greece: the GYTS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastergiou Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes, randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Results About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0 reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4 reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1 of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9 in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7 reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. Conclusion The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age.

  16. Plastic debris and policy: Using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Cook, A.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Captain Charles Moore introduced the world to the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" in the mid-1990s. Since then, there has been increasing interest from scientists, the public and policy makers regarding plastic debris in the environment. A focus article in the July issue of the Society of

  17. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  18. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  19. Teacher Quality, Teacher Effectiveness and the Diminishing Returns of Current Education Policy Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper engages with an overt policy storyline, namely that the effective classroom teaching practice(s) of quality teachers not only corrects for but overcomes post-Fordist capital insecurities. Increasingly considered the sole and only solid foundations needed to enhance student achievement as preparation for twenty-first century economic…

  20. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  1. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity in Europe: Current state of surveillance, policy development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Rathmes, Giulia; Mendes, Romeu; Fontaine, Olivier; Hollmann, Susanne; Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Galea, Gauden

    2018-02-03

    This study aims to present information on the surveillance, policy developments, and implementation of physical activity policies in the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Data was collected on the implementation of the EU Recommendation on health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) across sectors. In line with the monitoring framework proposed in the Recommendation, a questionnaire was designed to capture information on 23 physical activity indicators. Of the 27 EU countries that responded to the survey, 22 have implemented actions on more than 10 indicators, four countries have implemented more than 20 indicators, and one country has fully addressed and implemented all of the 23 indicators of the monitoring framework. The data collected under this HEPA monitoring framework provided, for the first time, an overview of the implementation of HEPA-related policies and actions at the national level throughout the EU. Areas that need more investment are the "Senior Citizens" sector followed by the "Work Environment", and the "Environment, Urban Planning, and Public Safety" sectors. This information also enabled comparison of the state of play of HEPA policy implementation between EU Member States and facilitated the exchange of good practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Current Developments and Prospects for the Future: French Security Policy in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Kentucky, 1981 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL...PERESTROIKA, AND GORBACHEVS NEW POLITICAL THINKING ON FRENCH SECURTrY POLICY .......... ................................................... 33 A. THE HSTORY ...a new equilibrium of our continent. Europe, the mother of modern civilization, must be established from the Atlantic to the Urals in concord and

  3. Contested Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: Current Tensions between Education Policy and Teachers' Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausethagen, Solvi; Granlund, Lise

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses constructions and redefinitions of teacher professionalism by focusing on the discursive negotiations between the government and the teachers' union in Norway. Based on an examination of three white papers on teacher education from the past 15 years and policy documents put forth by the Union of Education Norway during the…

  4. Multicultural Education Policy in South Korea: Current Struggles and Hopeful Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Ham, Sejung

    2013-01-01

    The global immigration of people has increased the call by governments for multicultural education. Across the globe, in country after country, multicultural education have come to represent the theory and practice to teach majority and minority citizens and immigrants and to explore issues of policy and practice as it relates to: ethnicity,…

  5. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended and current (unhealthy diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. Results The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended diets, with the majority (53–64 % of the food budget being spent on ‘discretionary’ choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20–31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Conclusions Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  6. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy) diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kane, Sarah; Ramsey, Rebecca; Good, Elizabeth; Dick, Mathew

    2016-04-12

    Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy) diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy) diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended) diets, with the majority (53-64 %) of the food budget being spent on 'discretionary' choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20-31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy) diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  7. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  8. Access to health for refugees in Greece: lessons in inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-02

    Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access.

  9. Supporting sustainable electricity technologies in Greece using MCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doukas, H.; Patlitzianas, K.D.; Psarras, J. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2006-06-15

    The penetration of sustainable technologies in electricity generation is low until now in Greece. However, the recent adoption of legislative rules towards the effective operation of liberalized markets, as well as the increased impact of climate change on the electricity sector towards the period 2008-2012, bring out these technologies as key means for establishing conditions of security, stability and environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to put on the map the sustainable technologies for electricity generation in Greece through the formulation of a collective interactive supportive framework, using an existing multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to elaborate more realistic and transparent outcomes. The approach was implemented under the umbrella of the national Foresight Programme, to assist policy making for sustainable electricity generation technologies. [Author].

  10. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  11. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; King, Romaine; Mohan, Helen M; Gavin, Blanaid; McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking. Our aim was to examine REC policies, experiences and concerns with respect to the payment of participants in research projects in Ireland. Postal survey of all RECs in Ireland. Response rate was 62.5% (n=50). 80% of RECs reported not to have any established policy on the payment of research subjects while 20% had refused ethics approval to studies because the investigators proposed to pay research participants. The most commonly cited concerns were the potential for inducement and undermining of voluntary consent. There is considerable variability among RECs on the payment of research participants and a lack of clear consensus guidelines on the subject. The development of standardised guidelines on the payment of research subjects may enhance recruitment of research participants.

  12. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  13. Transfrontier consequences to the population of Greece of large scale nuclear accidents: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1985-06-01

    In this report the consequences to the population of Greece from hypothetical large scale nuclear accidents at the Kozlodui (Bulgaria) nuclear power station are estimated under some simplifying assumptions. Three different hypothetical accident scenarios - the most serious for pressurized water reactors - are examined. The analysis is performed by the current Greek version of code CRAC2 and includes health and economic consequences to the population of Greece. (author)

  14. Smoke-free hospitals in Greece: Personnel perceptions, compliance and smoking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilepi Penelope

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoke-free environments in Greece are scarce. Despite existent legislation that forbids smoking in all health care service centers, smoking is still evident. Using a random sample of hospital personnel from a large university hospital in Greece, we evaluated their smoking habits, perceptions and compliance towards hospital smoking regulations. 57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p

  15. Current policy and research on radioactive waste management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.; Taylor, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Each Member State of the European Union is responsible for the safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste produced on its own territory. This includes setting the policy and taking the necessary steps to ensure that the radioactive waste does not constitute a threat to the health of workers and to the general public. For the practical implementation of the policy, specific waste management organizations have been established. Extensive cooperation, not least in the area of research, is taking place between these organizations and between the regulatory authorities, both bilaterally and through the European Commission. Cooperation takes place through the European Commission by two different mechanisms, the Community Plan of Action in the field of radioactive waste and the EURATOM framework programme on research and training. In view of the future enlargement of the European Union, the Commission is also actively involved in the development of waste management practices in the Central and Eastern European countries. Waste management is also an important aspect of the Tacis and other nuclear safety support programmes to the States of the former Soviet Union. The general policies for waste management in all Member States are in harmony with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The specific policies are, however, dependent on the specific conditions of that State, e.g. the existence, size and time perspective of the nuclear power programme, the geological formations available for disposal (clay, salt, crystalline rock), etc. The management of short lived waste is an established practice in many Member States and the research needs are consequently low. Most of the policy efforts and research are thus dedicated to the management, treatment, conditioning and geological disposal of long lived waste and spent fuel. Each Member State with a nuclear power programme also has an important

  16. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece from 2008 to 2013: a longitudinal study before and during the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drydakis, Nick

    2015-03-01

    The current study uses six annual waves of the Longitudinal Labor Market Study (LLMS) covering the 2008-2013 period to obtain longitudinal estimations suggesting statistically significant negative effects from unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece. The specifications suggest that unemployment results in lower health and the deterioration of mental health during the 2008-2009 period compared with the 2010-2013 period, i.e., a period in which the country's unemployment doubled as a consequence of the financial crisis. Unemployment seems to be more detrimental to health/mental health in periods of high unemployment, suggesting that the unemployment crisis in Greece is more devastating as it concerns more people. Importantly, in all specifications, comparable qualitative patterns are found by controlling for unemployment due to firm closure, which allows us to minimize potential bias due to unemployment-health related reverse causality. Moreover, in all cases, women are more negatively affected by unemployment in relation to their health and mental health statuses than are men. Greece has been more deeply affected by the financial crisis than any other EU country, and this study contributes by offering estimates for before and during the financial crisis and considering causality issues. Because health and mental health indicators increase more rapidly in a context of higher surrounding unemployment, policy action must place greater emphasis on unemployment reduction and supporting women's employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  19. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  20. APA guidelines: their importance and a plan to keep them current: 2013 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When guidelines are approved by APA, they become association policy, and it is imperative that they remain current. The revision of guidelines poses several challenges to the association. These challenges range from the availability and allocation of resources to support the complicated processes involved in developing and updating these policies to the lack of a clearly defined process that includes identification of tasks, assignments of responsibilities, and so forth. For this reason, the APA Board of Directors asked the Policy and Planning Board (P&P) to work with the boards of the four directorates (i.e., the Education Directorate, the Practice Directorate, the Public Interest Directorate, and the Science Directorate) to create a proposal that would (a) make recommendations with regard to how the review and revision of guidelines documents might best be accomplished in accordance with the APA Strategic Plan and existing policies and procedures and (b) make suggestions regarding the association resources that might be required. The Board of Directors approved the proposed review process in December 2013. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  2. The Value of CCS under Current Policy Scenarios: NDCs and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Iyer, Gokul C.; Muratori, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results of analysis using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to evaluate the potential role of CCS in addressing emissions reduction targets. Scenarios are modelled using the Paris-Increased Ambition (PIA) case developed by Fawcett et al. (2015), and a more aggressive Paris Two-Degree Ambition (P2A) case. Both cases are based upon nationally determined contributions (NDCs) agreed to at the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP-21) in December 2015, coupled with additional mitigation effort beyond the 2030 Paris timeframe, through the end of the century. Analysis of CCS deployment and abatement costs under both policy scenarios suggests that, as modelled, having CCS in the technological portfolio could reduce the global cost of addressing emissions reduction targets specified under the policy scenario by trillions of dollars, primarily by enabling a smoother and lower-cost transition to next-generation technologies. Through the end of the century, total global abatement costs associated with the PIA case – with five percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 2.2 degrees by 2100 – are reduced by $15 trillion USD in the scenario where CCS is available to deploy by 2025 and remains available through 2100, reflecting a 47 percent savings in the cost of climate change abatement. Under the more ambitious P2A case, with 8 percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 1.9 degrees by 2100, the availability of CCS reduces global abatement costs by $22 trillion USD through the end of the century, again nearly halving the costs of addressing the policy, relative to achieving the same target using an energy portfolio that does not include CCS. PIA and P2A scenarios with CCS result in 1,250 and 1,580 GtCO2 of global geologic storage by the end of the century, respectively.

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    Although China alone has been the source of 40% of the world’s oil demand growth since 2000,66 its continued heavy dependence on soft coal in recent...international and multilateral family planning programs, such as the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA), that have programs in China . Section 660(c) of the...abuses of China’s population - growth policy,” Washington Post, August 27, 2005, p. A1. 79 Reported in Tung Fang Jih Pao, May 21, 2007, translated in

  4. The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania continues to be affected by the global recession. It has suffered a significant reduction in foreign investment since the start of the recession, as investors have moved away from emerging markets in search for security. Developing an appropriate, focused strategy for the allocation of EU funds is only the first, though perhaps the most important step in implementing the EU cohesion policy. The successful implementation of EU co-funded projects is contingent not only upon the effectiveness of these countries’ administrative systems, but also on the activity of the potential beneficiaries.

  5. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  6. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  8. Rapid dissemination of colistin and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance, molecular identification and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomou, O.; Sarrou, S.; Papagiannitsis, C. C.; Georgiadou, S.; Mantzarlis, K.; Zakynthinos, E.; Dalekos, G. N.; Petinaki, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant challenge for antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. Since 2012, in Central Greece an increase of colistin/pan- resistant A. baumannii has occurred, indicating the need for further analysis. Methods A total of 86 colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant out of 1228 A. baumannii clinical isolates, consecutively collected between 2012 and 2014 in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece, ...

  9. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  10. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  11. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinagi, C., E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Trivellas, P., E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Reklitis, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com [Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Department of Logistics Management, 1st km of Old National Roal Thiva-Elefsis-32200, Thiva (Greece); Skourlas, C., E-mail: cskourlas@teiath.gr [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Informatics, Ag. Spyridonos, Aigaleo-12210, Athens (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  12. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support

  13. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  14. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  16. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  17. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  18. Did Brisbane Grow Smartly? Drivers of City Growth 1991-2001 and Lessons for Current Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Mostafiz Shatu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are growing unsustainably around the world; however, the growth patterns and their associated drivers vary between contexts. As a result, research has highlighted the need to adopt case study based approaches to stimulate the development of new theoretic understandings. Using land-cover data sets derived from Landsat images (30 m × 30 m, this research identifies both patterns and drivers of urban growth in a period (1991-2001 when a number of policy acts were enacted aimed at fostering smart growth in Brisbane, Australia. A linear multiple regression model was estimated using the proportion of lands that were converted from non-built-up (1991 to built-up usage (2001 within a suburb as a dependent variable to identify significant drivers of land-cover changes. In addition, the hot spot analysis was conducted to identify spatial biases of land-cover changes, if any. Results show that the built-up areas increased by 1.34% every year. About 19.56% of the non-built-up lands in 1991 were converted into built-up lands in 2001. This conversion pattern was significantly biased in the northernmost and southernmost suburbs in the city. This is due to the fact that, as evident from the regression analysis, these suburbs experienced a higher rate of population growth, and had the availability of habitable green field sites in relatively flat lands. The above findings suggest that the policy interventions undertaken between the periods were not as effective in promoting sustainable changes in the environment as they were aimed for.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  20. Current account imbalances in the monetary union and the great recession: Causes and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uxó Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current account imbalances within the eurozone are at the roots of its economic crisis. We argue that, though relevant, emphasis should shift from competitiveness to differential rates of growth of domestic demand as its chief explanatory factor. Euro core countries have experienced a shortage of domestic demand, with wage restraint playing a key role. This has led them to experience a current account surplus, which could not be understood independently of a buoyant domestic demand in the peripheral countries, funded with private debt. As a byproduct of that strong demand, the periphery suffered from wage inflation and a loss of competitiveness. This dual growth pattern is unsustainable as indebtedness cannot go on without any limit. Neither wage cuts nor fiscal austerity in the periphery will help to solve this mess: although trade balance would be restored, it would lead to a negative shock in aggregate demand, threatening their ability to settle debts at due dates.

  1. Indoor radon measurements in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, C.; Molfetas, M.; Ntalles, K.; Georgiou, E.; Serefoglou, A.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out in order to measure air concentrations of radon 222 and 220 isotopes in Athenian houses, as a first step of a national survey in Greece. In this paper the authors deal with radon concentration in air and water and will rely on measurements conducted in Greece. (author)

  2. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  3. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  4. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  5. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  7. Current status of wind energy and wind energy policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniktepe, B.; Savrun, M.M.; Koroglu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present installations of wind power in the world. • Focus on the current state, potential, and development of Turkey’s wind energy. • Explain the institutional framework and support/incentive mechanisms in Turkey. • Investigate and give information about the new Turkish Renewable Energy Law. - Abstract: Over the past decades, the importance of renewable and sustainable energy resources has increased in the world due to both the rapid increase in energy demand and disadvantages of the fossil fuels. Many countries, such as Turkey, aim to increase the use of renewable and sustainable energy sources with different incentive mechanisms. In parallel with these incentive methods being implemented, wind energy capacity in Turkey has a remarkable increase in the growing rates of renewable energy sources according to installed wind power. Up to now, several wind power projects have been developed at different regions of Turkey. This paper aims to analyze the potential and development of wind energy systems in Turkey. Besides, the current usage and development of wind power installations have been explored for the World and Turkey in detail at the end of the 2011. Furthermore, this study also presents tax exemption, support, and incentive mechanisms to develop new wind energy investments in Turkey

  8. Black Truffle Harvesting in Spanish Forests: Trends, Current Policies and Practices, and Implications on its Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín-Santafé, María; Marco, Pedro; Camarero, J. Julio; Reyna, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century. Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the 1970s and 1980s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle-producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource. Trends in harvest from 1969 to 2013 and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mid-1990s, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency. Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest (rents from truffle leases in public forests) to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining. The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.

  9. Current State and Development Trends of Education Policy Research in China in the Last Decade (2004-2013): A Statistical Analysis of Papers from Eight Core Chinese Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guo

    2017-01-01

    The author conducted sampling and statistical analysis of papers on education policy research collected by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure in the period from the years 2004--2013. Under the current state of education policy research in China, the number of papers correlates positively with the year; the papers are concentrated in…

  10. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  11. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  12. The medical social centres in support of Roma in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Kotrotsou, Christina; Tsakatara, Vanta

    2013-01-01

    Roma people form the largest ethnic-minority group in Europe. They account for around 10 to 12 million people, and they face racism, discrimination and social exclusion in most countries. The Roma population of Greece currently numbers around 250 000 individuals. They have Greek nationality...... and enjoy the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as any other Greek citizens. Nevertheless, Roma in Greece face multiple inequalities and social exclusion in terms of housing, employment, education, and health and social services. In this report we present the outcome of a bestpractice initiative....... Medical social centres operate in 33 Roma settlements all over the country. These centres provide vaccination, health promotion, disease prevention and health education services, as well as support in issuing documents and making appointments with health and social services. We recommend that the National...

  13. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samolada, M.C. [Dept. Secretariat of Environmental and Urban Planning – Decentralized Area Macedonian Thrace, Taki Oikonomidi 1, 54008 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zabaniotou, A.A., E-mail: azampani@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University Box 455, University Campus, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  14. Nursing education and beliefs towards tobacco cessation and control: a cross- sectional national survey (GHPSS among nursing students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the healthcare system, nurses have the ability to influence their patients' smoking habits through counselling. Therefore, it is of great importance to appropriately train health professionals on smoking cessation strategies with the aim to help them provide advice to their patients. In light of the above, the objective of this study was to assess the association between Greek nursing students' beliefs towards tobacco control/smoking cessation and the professional training received. Methods During February 2009, we conducted a cross sectional national survey among all 3rd year nursing students of the two university based nursing departments in Greece (University of Athens, University of the Peloponnese. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was applied and following written informed consent 73% provided a completed questionnaire (n = 192/263 enrolled students. Results Overall, 33% were current active smokers, while 74% reported ever to experiment smoking. In regards to their beliefs towards tobacco control policies, non smokers were more positive in regards to banning smoking in restaurants (94% vs. 61%, p Conclusions Resources should be invested in improving the quality of undergraduate education in nursing departments in Greece with respect to tobacco control and smoking cessation.

  15. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samolada, M.C.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated

  16. The effect of current and prospective policies on photovoltaic system economics: An application to the US Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesmero, Juan; Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    This study models fundamental features of current and prospective policies encouraging adoption of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. A key finding is that time-of-day (ToD) pricing can enhance or worsen the economics of PV systems. Moreover, increased responsiveness of electricity demand to its price diminishes the effectiveness of ToD pricing in the absence of net metering, but does not affect it otherwise. An application to plausible conditions in the State of Indiana, USA, shows that current policies are unlikely to trigger adoption by a risk-neutral forward-looking residential customer. However, adoption of PV systems can be induced if the Federal Tax Credit is increased to cover 48% of capital cost (instead of the current 30%), which could imply a cost to the Federal Government of about $0.95/kW of installed capacity depending on the panel’s size. We demonstrate that implementation of ToD pricing can trigger adoption under a range of on- and off-peak price combinations. But our analysis also shows that the cost-effectiveness of ToD pricing is enhanced at higher ratios of on-peak to off-peak prices. - Highlights: •Time-of-day (ToD) pricing can enhance or worsen the economics of PV systems. •Effect of ToD is independent of demand elasticity if combined with net metering. •Adoption of PV system requires that Federal Tax Credit cover half of capital cost. •To induce adoption, ToD must act as a tax on grid electricity. •Cost-effectiveness of ToD enhanced at higher ratios of on-peak to off-peak prices.

  17. Have health trends worsened in Greece as a result of the financial crisis? A quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Hessel, Philipp; Leone, Tiziana; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Health in Greece deteriorated after the recent financial crisis, but whether this decline was caused by the recent financial crisis has not been established. This article uses a quasi-experimental approach to examine the impact of the recent financial crisis on health in Greece. Data came from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey for the years 2006-09. We applied a difference-in-differences approach that compares health trends before and after the financial crisis in Greece with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable with Greece before the crisis. We used logistic regression to model the impact of the financial crisis on poor self-rated health, controlling for demographic confounders. Results provide strong evidence of a statistically significant negative effect of the financial crisis on health trends. Relative to the control population, Greece experienced a significantly larger increase in the odds of reporting poor health after the crisis (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). There was no difference in health trends between Poland and Greece before the financial crisis, supporting a causal interpretation of health declines in Greece as a result of the financial crisis. Results provide evidence that trends in self-rated health in Greece worsened as a result of the recent financial crisis. Findings stress the need for urgent health policy responses to the recent economic collapse in Greece as the full impact of austerity measures unfolds in the coming years.

  18. Government Debt Reduction in the USA and Greece: A Comparative VECM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele MAH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate comparative debt reduction models for the USA and Greece using Vector Error Correction Model analysis and Granger causality test. The study provides an empirical framework that could assist in policy formulation for countries with high debt rates as well as those experiencing debt crises. The US model revealed a negative and significant relationship between general government debt and inflation as well as negative significance with primary balance. In Greece, the relationship between general government debts with primary balance is found to be positive and significant while negative and significant with net transfer from abroad. Granger causality is from general government debts to inflation in the USA and from primary balance to general government debts in Greece.

  19. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  20. Biogas technology dissemination in Ghana: history, current status, future prospects, and policy significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku [Faculty of Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Despite numerous benefits derived from biogas technology, Ghana is yet to develop a major programme that will promote the dissemination of biogas plants on a larger scale. This paper reviews biogas installations in Ghana and investigates challenges facing the design, construction, and operation of biogas plants. It further captures the current status and functions of biogas plants as well as the impact of these plants on the people who use them. The study was done by surveying fifty (50) biogas installations, and conducting interviews with both plant users and service providers. From the survey, twenty-nine (58 %) installations were institutional, fourteen (28 %) were household units, and the remaining seven (14 %) were community plants. Fixed-dome and water-jacket floating-drum digesters represented 82 % and 8 % of installations surveyed, respectively. It was revealed that sanitation was the main motivational reason for people using biogas plants. Of the 50 plants, 22 (44 %) were functioning satisfactorily, 10 (20 %) were functioning partially, 14 (28 %) were not functioning, 2 (4 %) were abandoned, and the remaining 2 (4 %) were under construction. Reasons for non-functioning include non-availability of dung, breakdown of balloon gasholders, absence of maintenance services, lack of operational knowledge, and gas leakages and bad odour in toilet chambers of biolatrines. This paper recommends the development of a national biogas programme focussing on three major areas -- sanitation, energy, and agricultural fertilizer production; it further supports the development of standardized digester models. The founding of a national body or the establishment of a dedicated unit within an existing organization with the sole aim of coordinating and managing biogas dissemination in Ghana is proposed.

  1. Polio immunization policy in Mexico: economic assessment of current practice and future alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, A; Salinas, J; Tasset-Tisseau, A; Mascareñas, C; Khan, M M

    2005-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that all children aged less than 5 years should be vaccinated against polio through intensive immunization programmes as well as routine immunization. A national immunization week (NIW) was held in February 2002 in the Monterrey district of Mexico. A prospective micro-costing study was conducted to measure the total cost to the state of the NIW, the cost profile, and the ratio of cost per immunization contact to cost per dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV), and to compare OPV and inactive polio vaccine (IPV) in economic terms. Two scenarios were used as the basis for calculation. The cost of volunteers was excluded from the "lower-cost scenario" and included in the "upper-cost scenario". The total cost of the NIW was USD 100,454 for the lower-cost scenario and USD 156,614 for the upper-cost scenario. The major part of the costs was personnel costs (67.30 and 77.53% of the total costs in the lower- and upper-cost scenario, respectively). The ratio of cost per immunization contact to cost per dose of OPV was 6.45 for the lower-cost scenario and 10.05 for the upper-cost scenario. Changing from the current OPV-based intensive and routine schedule to a sequential IPV-OPV routine schedule would save USD 14.52 per vaccinated child, and changing to a full IPV routine schedule would save USD 9.41 per vaccinated child.

  2. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The market for reproductive tourism: an analysis with special reference to Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskou, Anastasia; George, Babu P

    2017-01-01

    For many people, the need for parenthood remains unfulfilled due to biological reasons and a remedy for these individuals is assisted reproduction (AR). Because of widely differing and sometimes incompatible legislations around the world related to AR, there is considerable confusion across national borders. Within Europe, Greece seems to be in a comparatively favorable position because of lower restrictions and the availability of decent quality specialized medical facilities. This research is a market study with a business perspective and explores the emerging landscape of reproductive tourism (RT) in Greece. The research adopted mixed methods. First, open-ended questions were used to interview foreign medical tourists and staff in various AR clinics. Based on the insights from these interviews and guided by the extent literature, a survey instrument was prepared and administered among 130 patients. Findings indicate that Greece still lack policies that nurture transparency and dynamic response to technological changes in AR. Also, the travel industry lack specialists who can effectively liaison with clinics, who understand the availability of AR technologies, regulations, and the unique needs of AR tourists. Globally, the need for assisted reproduction has tremendously increased; yet, the supply of facilities is lagging far behind. There is a unique advantage for clinics located in touristic locations in countries that offer cheaper treatment options. Given the shape of its debt-ridden economy, Greece needs foreign exchange inflows and gaining first mover advantage in reproductive tourism is probably an important way to achieve this. This research draws up a reproductive tourism strategy for Greece.

  4. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  5. Cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants: The current migrant crisis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prnjat Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of mankind, as a result of migration, different cultures came in contact and influenced each other, with different outcomes. In recent years, as a result of more frequent armed conflicts in the world, the influx of migrants to Europe has increased significantly. Even the European Union countries that had traditionally been considered as emigrant, Italy, for example, are becoming immigrant. New situation has influenced the change in attitude of many governments of countries wherein the migrants arrived, and while some still prefer multiculturalism, there is a growing number of those who do not share this position. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants which evolved as a result of the current migrant crisis.

  6. Oil consumption and CO2 emissions in China's road transport: current status, future trends, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kebin; Huo Hong; Zhang Qiang; He Dongquan; An Feng; Wang, Michael; Walsh, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth in China, the Chinese road transport system is becoming one of the largest and most rapidly growing oil consumers in China. This paper attempts to present the current status and forecast the future trends of oil demand and CO 2 emissions from the Chinese road transport sector and to explore possible policy measures to contain the explosive growth of Chinese transport oil consumption. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate the historical oil consumption and CO 2 emissions from China's road transport sector between 1997 and 2002 and to forecast future trends in oil consumption and CO 2 emissions up to 2030. To explore the importance of policy options of containing the dramatic growth in Chinese transport oil demand, three scenarios regarding motor vehicle fuel economy improvements were designed in predicting future oil use and CO 2 emissions. We conclude that China's road transportation will gradually become the largest oil consumer in China in the next two decades but that improvements in vehicle fuel economy have potentially large oil-saving benefits. In particular, if no control measures are implemented, the annual oil demand by China's road vehicles will reach 363 million tons by 2030. On the other hand, under the low- and high-fuel economy improvement scenarios, 55 and 85 million tons of oil will be saved in 2030, respectively. The scenario analysis suggests that China needs to implement vehicle fuel economy improvement measures immediately in order to contain the dramatic growth in transport oil consumption. The imminent implementation is required because (1) China is now in a period of very rapid growth in motor vehicle sales; (2) Chinese vehicles currently in the market are relatively inefficient; and (3) the turnover of a fleet of inefficient motor vehicles will take a long time

  7. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  8. Wastewater Recycling in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ilias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, and particularly in many southeastern and island areas, there is severe pressure on water resources, further exacerbated by the high demand of water for tourism and irrigation in summertime. The integration of treated wastewater into water resources management is of paramount importance to meet future demands. Despite this need, only a few projects of effluent reuse have been implemented, most of them being pilot projects of crop or landscape irrigation. The most important projects which are currently in practice are those of Thessaloniki, Chalkida, Malia, Livadia, Amfisa, Kalikratia, and Chersonissos. In Thessaloniki, at the most important wastewater reuse site, the secondary effluent of the city’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP (165,000 m3/day is used for agricultural irrigation after mixing with freshwater at a 1:5 ratio. The main crops irrigated are rice, corn, alfalfa and cotton. A few other projects are under planning, such as that at Iraklion, Agios Nikolaos and several island regions. Finally, it should be mentioned that there are several cases of indirect reuse, especially in central Greece. However, the reuse potential in Greece is limited, since effluent from Athens’s WWTP, serving approximately half of the country’s population, is not economically feasible due to the location of the plant.

  9. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  10. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brianas, Jason

    2004-01-01

    .... For the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and subsequent 11 March 2004 Madrid bombings in Spain complicated an already robust Greek security plan...

  11. The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Katsios

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights the interaction between the underground economy and corruption, focussing on the regional dimensions of the problem in south-eastern Europe. It discusses the theoretical approach to underground economic activities and focuses on the determinants of the Greek economy, the tax and national insurance burdens and the intensity of the relevant regulations in Greece, concluding that Greece shows profound signs of a transition country in terms of the high level of regulation lea...

  12. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  13. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  14. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  15. Making Football Safer: Assessing the Current National Football League Policy on the Type of Helmets Allowed on the Playing Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colello, Raymond J; Colello, Ian A; Abdelhameid, Duaa; Cresswell, Kellen G; Merchant, Randall; Beckett, Ethan

    2018-03-23

    In an effort to reduce concussions in football, a helmet safety-rating system was developed in 2011 that rated helmets based on their ability to reduce g-forces experienced by the head across a range of impact forces measured on the playing field. Although this was considered a major step in making the game safer, the National Football League (NFL) continues to allow players the right to choose what helmet to wear during play. This prompted us to ask: What helmets do NFL players wear and does this helmet policy make the game safer? Accordingly, we identified the helmets worn by nearly 1000 players on Week 13 of the 2015-2016 season and Week 1 of the 2016-2017 season. Using stop-motion footage, we found that players wore a wide range of helmets with varying safety ratings influenced in part by the player's position and age. Moreover, players wearing lower safety-rated helmets were more likely to receive a concussion than those wearing higher safety-rated helmets. Interestingly, many players suffering a concussion in 2015 did not switch to a higher safety-rated helmet in 2016. Using a helmet-to-helmet impactor, we found that the g-forces experienced in the highest safety-rated helmets were roughly 30% less than that for the lowest safety-rated helmets. These results suggest that the current NFL helmet policy puts players at increased risk of receiving a concussion as many players are wearing low safety-rated helmets, which transmits more energy to the brain than higher safety-rated helmets, following collision. Thus, to reduce concussions, the NFL should mandate that players only wear helmets that receive the highest safety rating.

  16. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, pGreek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. PMID:25643700

  17. Estimating a corporate governance index for companies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available European countries have gone through serious efforts to overcome the financial crisis and special measures had to be taken in order to limit the negative impact on businesses and stabilize a healthy economic environment for the single market. The specific governmental policies aimed to keep under control the effects of the crisis and relaunch the economic growth, but they were unpopular among a part of the European citizens. The economic situation forced most managers of private companies to rethink the business strategy and restructure the activity. Lately, Greece has been going through a difficult period, as the crisis worsened the economic situation of the country. The population did not welcome the drastic economic measures which were proposed by IMF and institutional creditors and this conflict almost lead to national insolvency. The problems of Greece are deeply rooted in the business models and economic philosophy. This paper has the purpose of analyzing the corporate governance regulation and practices in Greece and to determine whether it is possible to enhance business profitability and stability by enforcing a better legal framework in the area of corporate governance. The research focuses on the calculation of a corporate governance index for a selection of Greek companies form different sectors of activity (oil &gas, telecommunications, beverages and the analysis of the results may lead to the identification of weaknesses in this domain. Improvements in the corporate governance practices are considered to lead to enhancing business stability and sustainability. The methodology for calculating the corporate governance index is adapted for Greek companies and is in accordance with the provisions of the Hellenic Corporate Governance Code.

  18. Landscape and Early Farming Settlement Dynamics in Central Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi; Bintliff, John; Farinetti, Emeri

    2006-01-01

    also small, short-lived farms; both were associated withwetland hand cultivation. In later Neolithic and Early Bronze Age times, these locationsremained, but vestigial traces discovered by hyperintensive survey methods have identified anexplosion of small, short-lived, and horizontally migrating farms......Current hyperintensive surface survey in the Tanagra district of Boeotia, central Greece (J. L.Bintliff et al., 2002), together with a recent reanalysis of survey results from the Thespiae dis-trict (J. L. Bintliff et al., 1999), have led to a radical rethinking of how and where early farm...

  19. Should the strategic trade policy be considered obsolete or should it be redefined based on the current circumstances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Salinas Ventura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relevance of the strategic trade policy in the economies in Latin American countries, who have signed several trade agreements bilaterally and multilaterally. These agreements limit the policies that can be implemented and mostly do not consider the countries’ specific circumstances. However, it is important to discuss the problem of dependency and its specific manifestations, especially when talking about the Latin American countries’ integration into international trade.The strategic trade policy really needs to be redefined to take global context into consideration and to implement policies that have trade impact on strategic economic sectors, based on a deliberate development strategy. 

  20. The solar thermal market in Greece - review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiriou, A.A.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Hellenic solar thermal market is actually one of the most developed worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of this market since its start in the mid-1970s until today. The reasons for its success are discussed in detail: the role of the manufacturers, the quality assurance practices applied and the incentives on the demand and supply sides. The role of economic instruments towards the development of the Hellenic solar thermal market is investigated using a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Although commercially successful, solar thermal applications today in Greece still cover a very limited percentage of their potential applications. The perspectives and potential barriers for their future development are presented, analysed by a CBA and discussed. This information is useful for all parties related to this market, manufacturers, potential users, policy makers, etc. Countries having a solar energy potential similar to that of Greece but a less developed solar market may also identify in this work parameters that will contribute to the development of their national market. (author)

  1. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  2. Genome size and chromosome number of Micromeria acropolitana (Lamiaceae), a steno-endemic of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonia; Tan, Kit; Tsounis, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome number 2n = 30, and nuclear DNA amount 2C = 0.79 pg, are determined for the first time for Micromeria acropolitana, a rare and endangered species from the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. The plant was considered extinct but rediscovered in 2006, a hundred years later. Its current status...

  3. The Development and Reform of School Administration in Greece: A Primary School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present and investigate the current situation in Greece regarding the management of primary schools and to underline the need for reforms in the field of school administration. The coordination of the relationship between the state and schools is an issue vital for both: primarily for schools, as they require a…

  4. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  5. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  6. Current Status of Twice-Exceptional Students: A Look at Legislation and Policy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nielsen; Knotts, J. Dusteen; Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    Educational legislation and policy can lead to effective educational practices, especially for student populations that have had equal access to education addressing their needs, such as students with disabilities and gifted students. This study was an examination of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional learners in the United…

  7. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  8. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  9. Photovoltaic energy production map of Greece based on simulated and measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokas, Georgios A.; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos V.; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Takla

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is in one hand to reveal the real energy production of a medium scale Photovoltaic (PV) plant located at different sites in Greece and on the other to compare measured data to the predicted ones resulted from one well-known, PV simulation software. During the last ten years a capacity of more than 2,5 GWp of PV systems has been installed in Greece. Almost 37% of the installations are ranged from 10 to 100 kWp due to favorable Feed-in-Tariff policy pricing, according to the Greek regulation. Previous investigations proved a remarkable difference between measured and predicted energy production in Greece regarding all PV systems technologies. For the purposes of this study more than 250 medium scale PV plants have been measured and more than 850 annually energy production data series for those parks have been collected. Those data constitute a great sample that has been compared to more than 225 simulations data resulted by a well-known web software for PV systems energy yield calculations with improved solar radiation database. Additionally, in order to have a visual feeling concerning the real PV energy yield footprint in Greece, an updated map has been developed and illustrated, providing a useful tool for both business and academic purposes.

  10. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    . Besides this, an additional set of measures has been defined, which will result in an extra 10 Mton emission reduction. The Dutch government wants to realise a reduction of 25 Mton in other countries. Without additional policy the emission of greenhouse gases in 2030 will, from a policy point of view, be about twice that preferred; Up to 2010 emissions of pollutants causing acidification will decrease, thanks to partly already implemented policies. The 2010 targets of the National Environmental Policy Plan will not be met: emission levels will be about 30% higher. The UN-ECE targets are less stringent, except for SO2. Neither will these targets be met. After 2010 emissions will stabilise or increase unless additional policies are implemented. Costs to avoid emissions of NH3, NOx, and SO2 will increase: the cheap measures have already been introduced, while the more expensive ones have not. In almost all sectors, measures additional to those introduced as a result of current policies are available. These are cheaper than the relatively expensive transport measures that will be taken in response to current policy. Emissions of pollutants causing local air quality problems will show a strong decrease, PM10 being the most important exception. In the next decade emissions of PM10 will stabilise. PM10 is one of the most important pollutants expected to cause health impacts. In the period up to 2030 total noise emissions from road, rail and air transport will increase. Noise emissions from passenger cars will either not or hardly decrease. Emissions from lorries will decrease marginally. This decrease is not enough to compensate for the increase in road transport. refs

  11. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  12. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  13. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  14. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  15. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  16. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-03-18

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy.

  17. Current state of genomic policies in healthcare among EU member states: results of a survey of chief medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, W; Pastorino, R; Lagerberg, T; Colotto, M; d'Andrea, E; Marotta, C; Marzuillo, C; Villari, P; Federici, A; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2017-10-01

    A need for a governance of genomics in healthcare among European Union (EU) countries arose during an international meeting of experts on public health genomics (PHG). We have conducted a survey on existing national genomic policies in healthcare among Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) of the 28 EU member states, plus Norway. A questionnaire was sent to CMOs after a meeting on the policy implications of PHG held during the Italian presidency of the Council of EU in 2014. The survey was closed in November 2015. CMOs response rate was 65.5% (19/29). Twelve (63.2%) reported that their countries had a policy for genomics in healthcare in place, and 15 (78.9%) reported that public funding existed. Public research facilities for the development of such policies were documented in 13 (68.4%) countries, and 15 (83.3%) had working groups devoted to policy development. National agencies carrying out Health Technology Assessment of genomic-based technologies were present in nine countries (50%). Sixteen (88.9%) countries reported having agencies dealing with ethical issues related to genomic technologies. About 55% of countries disclosed the lack of information campaigns aimed at citizens, and 44.4% reported they had a legal framework for direct-to-consumer genetic tests. Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and UK documented the presence of a policy on genomics in healthcare. While many caveats are necessary because of the methodology, results suggest a need for a co-ordinated effort to foster development and harmonization of dedicated policies across EU to responsibly integrate genomics policies into existing health systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  19. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  20. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moncayo

    2009-07-01

    worldwide network of laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  1. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro; Silveira, Antonio Carlos

    2009-07-01

    laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  2. Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Greece's household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece's household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for approximately 60% throughout the 16-year period, increasing by 56% overall, whereas direct fossil fuel demand grew by 80%. The results also show that associated CO 2 emissions increased by 60%, resulting in a 'relative decoupling' from energy demand. This relative decoupling is shown to be due to fossil fuel mix changes from the supply side rather than action from consumers. These insights highlight the opportunities for demand-side policies to further reduce fossil fuel demand and CO 2 emissions, allowing Greece to set more proactive and ambitious post-Kyoto targets.

  3. A qualitative study on discrimination and ethical implications in stroke care in contemporary Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanidis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary stroke care is diverse, contributing to complex ethical dilemmas and controversies. In Greece, continuing austerity measures and an ageing population are expected to increase the burden of stroke on health care delivery. We sought to explore ethical views and stances of health care professionals caring for stroke patients in Greece. Forms of discrimination against elderly hospitalized patients were also addressed. A qualitative design was adopted whereby an informal focus group interview and follow-up, face-to-face individual interviews were undertaken. The sample consisted of 12 nurses working in clinical areas with stroke patients. Their mean age was 31 years with a mean work experience of 10 years. Individual discussions were audio taped after subject consent and were transcribed verbatim subsequently for keywords-in-context analysis. Analysis of the focus interview revealed several recurring themes, namely, ward destination, admission policies, the concepts of age as related to stroke. Individual interviews highlighted several other topics, such as preferences for specific types of patients, communication capacity of the patient's condition, and his or her individual characteristics as a favoring or limiting factors, and challenges to age-related criteria for treatment. There is an age-related criteria of 65 years for ward destination after stroke as set by a ministerial decree, which is still practiced. Moreover, younger stroke patients may be offered more thorough assessments and clinical tests and therapies. Discrepancies in the level of care pose an ethical concern regarding levels of care for older stroke patients in Greece. A longstanding, age-related national policy in Greece regarding hospital admission criteria is shown to be a detrimental influence on ward admission for stroke patients. This policy, coupled with prehospital care protocols, was shown to promote ageism against this patient group. The age-related agenda in the Greek health

  4. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jorgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation...... and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental...... schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly...

  5. 'Allowing the right' and its currency in managing drug stigma in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Maria; Munro, Alison; Taylor, Avril

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that problem drug users are still subject to high levels of stigmatization. In countries, like Greece, where families occupy a central position and honour is collectively attained, secondary drug stigma is also highly prevalent. However, little is known about how drug users and their families manage drug stigma in the specific cultural milieu that makes up Greece. This article presents findings from a qualitative study exploring how drug stigma both manifests itself and is managed by drug users and parents in the context of Greek familial culture. The study was conducted in two state drug agencies in Thessaloniki - Greece and involved the participation of 40 problem drug users (PDU) (23 male/17 female) and 8 parents of PDU. Qualitative, in-depth, interviews were used to collect narrative accounts about experiences of managing addiction, drug stigma and secondary stigma in the Greek parental home. 'Allowing the right' - broadly understood as referring to passing to others information which might devalue a person and consequently that person's family - is discussed in terms of drug stigma management in Greece. We highlight how this culturally specific notion can be viewed as an active strategy adopted by both individual drug users and parents of PDU to manage stigmatization by illustrating the various way in which not 'allowing the right' was described by participants, including drug problem discovery or disclosure and subsequent management of drug using careers and drug stigma within the Greek family context. Given the significance of the cultural notion of 'allowing the right' in the trajectory of drug use amongst PDU and more particularly in stigma management and secondary stigma management, the paper highlights the need for further research into the field in Greece. The need for targeted culturally specific and culturally relevant interventions aimed at reducing drug stigma is also highlighted in relation to both policy and practice. Copyright

  6. Vegetation ecology of Kalodiki Fen (NW Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimopoulos, P.; Sykora, K.V.; Gilissen, C.; Wiecherink, D.; Georgiadis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands around the Mediterranean Sea have decreased considerably in number and quality. Greece has lost two thirds of its wetlands during the last seventy-five years; however, many wetlands with considerable conservation value remain. Kalodiki Fen is an inland, freshwater wetland

  7. Intrafamily Acculturation of Values in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, James

    1991-01-01

    Responses to a family-values questionnaire administered to 678 members of 226 3-person families (2 parents and 1 child) from rural and urban Greece indicate that acculturation of traditional family values differs for urban and rural environment, gender, and generation. Analysis suggests a trend toward individual not traditional collectivist…

  8. Metamorphism of bauxites on Naxos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-mineralogical and geochemical study of the metamorphosed karstbauxites on the island of Naxos, Greece. The bauxites have been subject to an Eocene highpressure metamorphism (M1), followed by a Late Oligocene-Miocene medium-pressure metamorphism

  9. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  10. Additional records of Actiniaria (Anthozoa) from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A small collection of four species of Actiniaria, partly representing new records for Greece and the eastern Mediterranean, is described and discussed. These four species are: Bunodeopsis strumosa Andres, 1881, Edwardsia claparedii (Panceri, 1869), Actinia cari delle Chiaje, 1825, and Phymanthus

  11. The differential impact of the financial crisis on health in Ireland and Greece: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2014-10-01

    Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey a (DID) approach was implemented that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a 'control' population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Logistic regression using a (DID) approach. A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Greece (OR = 1.216; CI = 1.11-1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis on the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Ireland (OR = 0.97; CI = 0.81-1.16). DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis led to higher prevalence of reporting poor health in Greece but not in Ireland. Although the research design does not allow the authors to directly assess the role of specific policies, contextual factors including policy responses may have contributed to the different effect of the crisis on the health of the two countries.

  12. Policy and Financing – Why is Sea Transport Currently Invisible in the Search for a Low Carbon Future for Pacific Island Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roger Nuttall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of financing and policy in research, development, trialling and introduction of renewable energy technologies in the Pacific maritime sector is considered. Key research and trials of renewable energy technologies for sea transport in the Pacific from the 1980s and the critical role played by agencies such as the United Nations in leveraging support from funders such as the Asian Development Bank and European Union are reviewed. The lack of current policy on potential renewable energy technology use in sea transport at national, regional and development agency levels is discussed with the Asian Development Bank used as a case study. The urgent need for such technology to be commercially trialled as a means of reducing the region’s dependency on fossil fuels given the importance of sea transport to socio-economic development in the Pacific is outlined in light of the proportion of fossil fuel currently used by the maritime sector. The paper concludes that review of current funding strategies and policies to include both sea transport and the potential for use of renewable energy technologies in the maritime sector in the Pacific is a priority and current reliance on the private sector acting alone needs review.

  13. Renewable energies in the EU's current energy policy; Erneuerbare Energien in der aktuellen EU-Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, Achim-Ruediger

    2011-10-15

    The EU's energy policy is under constant observation. This also holds for its policy on renewables, where it is under an obligation to create a legal framework for a well-coordinated expansion and restructuring of the energy supply system in a manner that ensures more sustainability and environmental protection while at the same time safeguarding security of supply and economic efficiency and also fending off threats to the liberalisation of the energy market. But how successful is the present regime in actual fact? This is put to a systematic, critical analysis in the following.

  14. Call for revision of policy and regulatory concepts and return to the early, major goals. A rational appraisal of current national energy policy; Konzeptionelle Neuorientierung und ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung gefordert. Rationale Bestandsaufnahme nationaler Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft, Univ. Essen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Times of serious changes such as the present time always have been a challenge with two faces to dynamic enterprise and personalities with entrepreneurial spirit, confronting them with increasing uncertainties on the one hand, and with growing need to open up and try innovative action. Success of the latter is decisively influenced by the approach chosen by policy, in this case energy and environmental policy, and whether policy tends towards cutting back regulatory intervention in the energy sector not specifically targeting energy aspects, thus supporting innovative action, or rather towards putting up additional burdens and barriers, thus fostering hesitation to invest in innovative action. This is the background and the starting point of the article, presenting an appraisal of the current situation and achievements of energy policy so far in some of the relevant sectors and branches, supplemented by a look back on initial goals of regulatory policy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zeiten gravierender Veraenderungen wie diese bedeuten trotz des eher zunehmenden Ausmasses an Ungewissheiten fuer dynamische Unternehmen und Unternehmerpersoenlichkeiten immer auch die Eroeffnung neuer Chancen. Entscheidend hierfuer ist jedoch, ob die Energie- und Umweltpolitik in dieser Phase nichtenergiespezifische Eingriffe im Energiesektor ebenfalls abbaut und den Anpassungsprozess flankierend unterstuetzt oder die Energiewirtschaft mit neuen Belastungen konfrontiert und die ohnehin wachsenden Ungewissheiten und damit einen moeglicherweise nicht auszuschliessenden Investitionsattentismus noch verstaerkt. Vor diesem Hintergrund soll im folgenden anhand einiger als besonders relevant erachteter Bereiche der Versuch einer energiepolitischen Bestandsaufnahme vorgelegt werden, bevor abschliessend eine ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung erfolgt. (orig.)

  15. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  16. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES AND TARIFF POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the condition of housing and communal services in the Republic of Daghestan is considered, the main problems, characteristic for the present stage of development of this sphere are revealed, the priority directions of improvement of tariff policy and management of development of housing and communal services are defined. 

  18. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  19. Current and future groundwater withdrawals: Effects, management and energy policy options for a semi-arid Indian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, Rajendra P.; Shukla, Sanjay; Graham, Wendy D.; Wani, Suhas P.; Jones, James W.; Heaney, James

    2017-12-01

    Effects of future expansion/intensification of irrigated agriculture on groundwater and surface water levels and availability in a semi-arid watershed were evaluated using an integrated hydrologic model (MIKE SHE/MIKE 11) in conjunction with biophysical measurements. Improved water use efficiency, water storage, and energy policy options were evaluated for their ability to sustain the future (2035) increased groundwater withdrawals. Three future withdrawal scenarios (low = 20, medium = 30, high = 50 wells/100 km2/year) based on the historical rate of growth of irrigation wells were formulated. While well drying from falling groundwater levels was limited to drought and consecutive below average rainfall years, under the current (2015) withdrawals, significant increases in frequency and duration (17-97 days/year) of well drying along with 13-26% (19-37 mm) reductions in surface flows were predicted under the future withdrawals. Higher (27-108%) energy demands of existing irrigation pumps due to declining groundwater levels and reduced hydroelectric generation due to decreased surface flows would create a vicious water-food-energy nexus in the future. Crop failure, one of the main causes of farmers' emotional distress and death in the region, is predicted to exacerbate under the future withdrawal scenarios. Shift to negative net recharge (-63 mm) and early and prolonged drying of wells under the high scenario will reduce the groundwater availability and negatively affect crop production in more than 60% and 90% of cropped areas in the Rabi (November-February) and summer (March-May) seasons, respectively during a drought year. Individual and combined demand (drip irrigation and reduced farm electricity subsidy) and supply (water storage) management options improved groundwater levels and reduced well drying by 55-97 days/year compared to business-as-usual management under the high scenario. The combined management (50% drip conversion, 50% reduction in subsidy, and

  20. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.

  1. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  2. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae): first report in Greece and a case of canine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Tzimoulia, Stavroula; Tzimoulias, Ioannis; Traversa, Donato

    2015-07-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in different European countries, i.e. Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Romania. The present article describes the first autochthonous case of ocular thelaziosis in a dog from Greece, thus revealing a new spot of infection in Europe. The dog in this case report, most likely infected at the northern borders of Greece, was referred to a private veterinary practice with conjunctivitis, oedema, keratitis, epiphora and mucoid discharge in both eyes. Seventy-seven nematodes were removed from both eyes, and the dog was treated with two subcutaneous injections of ivermectin 14 days apart, in combination with a topical antimicrobial medication. The parasites were morphologically and molecularly identified as T. callipaeda. Although in Greece there is no information about the presence and distribution of the fruit fly Phortica variegata, i.e. the intermediate host of T. callipaeda, the location where the dog was infected is environmentally suitable for its development. The present report of this zoonotic parasitosis indicates that in Greece, along with endemic areas in Spain and Italy, T. callipaeda is currently reaching its southernmost distribution limit in Europe.

  3. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of current priorities for research in humanitarian action: proceedings of the First Annual UN OCHA Policy and Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Mark P; Greenough, Paul G; Thow, Andrew; Gilman, Daniel; Schütz, Andreas; Chandran, Rahul; Baiocchi, Allegra

    2012-06-01

    On December 12-13, 2011, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) hosted a humanitarian policy and research conference on the theme of "Risk, Adaptation and Innovation in Humanitarian Action." The four sessions of the conference covered humanitarian action in a changing world, adaptation and innovation in humanitarian action, humanitarian action in protracted and violent conflict, and effective humanitarian action. This special report contains summaries of presentations in each session and the conclusions resulting from the discussions throughout. Through a process of open discussion, debate, and a closing survey, the conference participants identified four top priorities in humanitarian research for the coming years: evidence-driven humanitarian decision-making; accountability and transparency; risk and agility; and partnership. In addition to plans for a 2nd Annual Research and Policy conference in December of 2012, specific outcomes of the conference include a series of regional workshops in 2012 and 2013, launching with Asia, Africa and the Middle East; creation of Policy Working Groups (PWG) for each research priority identified; and a new flagship OCHA publication, to be launched in late 2012 or early 2013, which will share the progress made on the research priorities identified.

  5. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  7. Mountainous areas and decentralized energy planning: Insights from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas have particular characteristics, whose influence on energy planning is explored in this paper, through a suitably tailored methodology applied to the case of Greece. The core element of the methodology is a linear optimization model with a “total cost” objective function, which includes financial, as well as external costs and benefits. Altitude proves to have decisive influence on energy optimization results, because it affects energy demand. The improvement of local energy systems provides greater socioeconomic benefits in mountainous settlements, due to the high shares of renewables and energy efficiency interventions in the optimal solutions. Energy poverty can be alleviated by redesigning local energy systems and the structure of the energy market. However, spatial and aesthetic restrictions, presented often in mountainous settlements, may affect the operational costs of energy systems, which is a crucial parameter for confronting energy poverty. Furthermore, the study indicates that it could be better to electrify remote areas, far from electricity grids, by decentralized systems than by grid expansion. The results of this study and the assumptions made about the way in which energy market should function, could be utilized for reconsidering energy policy measures, aiming at supporting sensitive societies to improve their development perspectives. - Highlights: •The influence of mountains' characteristics on energy planning was analyzed. •Optimal energy solutions present differentiations with respect to altitude. •Greater socioeconomic benefits by energy optimization in mountainous areas. •Remoteness favors the development of decentralized energy systems. •The study is based on data from Greece.

  8. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Xydis, George A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an analysis is being done on the concept of energy and exergy utilization and an application to the residential and industrial sector of Greece. The energy and exergy flows over the period from 1990 to 2004 were taken into consideration. This period was chosen based on the data reliability. The energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for the residential and industrial sectors and compared to the findings of a previous study concerning the exergy efficiency of the Greek transport sector. The residential energy and exergy efficiencies for the year 2003 were 22.36% and 20.92%, respectively, whereas the industrial energy and exergy efficiencies for the same year were 53.72% and 51.34%, respectively. The analysis of energy and exergy utilization determines the efficiency of the economy as a whole. The results can play an important role in the establishment of efficiency standards of the energy use in various economy sectors. These standards could be utilized by energy policy makers. - Research highlights: → This work analyzes energy and exergy utilization in the energy sector of Greece by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2004. → Energy and exergy analyses and hence efficiencies for the residential and industrial sector are then obtained and compared to transport energy and exergy efficiencies. → The industrial sector appears to be the most energy and exergy efficient one. → It should be noted that due to non-availability of data concerning the fuel energy consumption of the appliances as well as of industrial processes, a general methodology was employed in order to calculate the energy and exergy efficiencies. → It may also be concluded that the exergy analysis offers constructive suggestions for the optimization and improvement of the energy utilization effectiveness of the sectors under study.

  9. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  10. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: review of current situation, prevention and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-02-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  11. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasi...

  12. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  13. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  14. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  15. The development of the Ptolemais lignite deposit, present situation and future perspective of the electrical energy market (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavourides, Kostas

    1997-01-01

    PPC is by far the major producer of solid fuels in Greece. Currently the known exploitable reserves of solid fuels, are 4,0 billions tones of lignite and 4 billion cubic meters of peat. Mining of Lignite in Greece started in 1951 at the Aliveri underground mine and was continued at the open cast mines at Ptolemais (1955) and Megalopolis (1919). For more than 45 years. PPC has successfully exploited the Greece Lignite deposit for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the demand in Greece. Today PPC produces 60 million tons of lignite and handles approximately 275 million cubic meters of masses (overburden, lignite and interculated) per year. Lignite is the main energy resource in Greece and its combustion provides 75-80% of the electrical energy consumed in Greece.The Lignite Center of Ptolemais - Amyndeon (LCP-A) operated by the Greece PPC is located in northern Greece, about 110 km west of the city of Thessaloniki. The lignite deposits under exploitation cover an area. of 120 km 2 including 4000 Mt of proven geological reserves and 2700 Mt of exploitable lignite under current economic and technological criteria. Today LCP-A manages six active mines which in 1997 have a rate of handling 245 mil cubic meter of material and producing approx. 48 mil for of lignite. The continuous mining method which employs BWES, conveyors and strackers is the principal mining method used in all the lignite mines at the Ptolemais-Amyndeon Lignite Center. The implementation of selective mining procedures as well as discontinuous and /or combined mining methods differentiates the mining technology at the LCP-A from the respective technology applied in Germany lignite mines. The quality properties suggest that the lignite deposits in Greece are among the world's worst quality deposits exploited for energy production, where approximately 2 kg of lignite are consumed per I kWh of generated power. The main advantages of PPC'S coal orientated development program are the following

  16. Aligning European OA policies with Horizon 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Picarra, Mafalda; Angelaki, Marina; Dogan, Guleda; Guy, Marieke; Artusio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This article considers that the Horizon 2020 (H2020) Open Access (OA) policy can be adopted as a policy model in European Research Area (ERA) countries for the development and increasing alignment of OA policies. Accordingly, the OA policy landscape in five ERA countries – Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK – is assessed and the extent of alignment or divergence of those policies with the H2020 OA policy is examined. The article concludes by considering some of the impacts that...

  17. Youth unemployment in Greece: Measuring the challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N. F.; Blanchflower, David G.

    2015-01-01

    A historically high level of youth unemployment presents Greece with a huge social and economic challenge. This paper analyses various dimensions of this challenge. We argue that though the conventional definition of "youth" is the 16-24 age group, there is a strong case for considering 25 to 29-year-olds as sharing common problems with conventionally defined youth. There are also grounds for examining why females seem to fare worse than males in the Greek labour market. The negative effects ...

  18. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  19. Sahana4Greece (brochure A5)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris V Georgiou (MSc,PhD)

    2016-01-01

    Sahana platform is an internationally recognized and award-winning free software (FOSS) for logistical support of volunteering/rescue teams, relief organizations and NGOs in emergency response situations and disaster relief missions. The operational deployment of Sahana in Greece provides a substantial boost to the logistics of teams, organizations and even individual volunteers that engage actively in the islands of eastern Aegean sea, as well as improved collaboration and coordination with ...

  20. The precursory earthquake swarm in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hellenic subduction region displays the same precursory swarm phenomenon as has been found in comparable regions of New Zealand and Japan. In the earthquake catalogue of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 10 past sequences of precursory swarms and related major mainshock events have been identified. These correlate, in respect of location, magnitude and time, with the 9 sequences previously identified in New Zealand, and 9 in Japan, bringing the total of sequences to 28, and the totals of related events (allowing for clustering to 56 precursory swarms and 42 mainshock events. The results add strength to the hypothesis that swarms are long-range predictors of mainshock events. A close similarity between the swarm and aftershock magnitudes in a given sequence is also confirmed in Greece, supporting the proposal that swarms are an integral part of the seismogenic process in subduction regions. Further, the modelling of swarms as part of an overall increase in seismicity, the onset of which marks the onset of seismogenesis, is well illustrated from past sequences in Greece. Formal tests are being carried out in Greece, in parallel with New Zealand and Japan, to ascertain the performance of the hypothesis as a basis for long-range synoptic forecasting.

  1. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  2. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  3. Social policy and costs of social protection and health

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoufilippou, Ioannis; Papavasileiou, Evanthia; Koinis, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The understanding of theoretical models and typologies of social systems is a prerequisite for the study and policy formulation in the health sector. The analysis of health expenditure in Greece in relation to the European Union-15 (EU-15) countries, is the first step for policymakers. Through literature review and Eurostat databases (ESSPROS) and the OECD (OECD), compiled and presented the necessary statistical and theoretical data reveal deviations of Greece from the average of...

  4. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  5. The Rhode Island Labor Market in Recovery: Where Is the Skills Gap? Current Policy Perspectives. No. 15-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which Rhode Island's workforce lacks skills that are in demand among the state's current and potential employers and, if so, whether such a skills gap or labor market "mismatch" significantly restrains employment growth in the state. Using an index developed by Sahin et al. (2014), we find that…

  6. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  7. Deaf Clubs Today: Do They Still Have a Role to Play? The Cases of Cyprus and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Nikolaraizi, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the current functions of Deaf clubs in Cyprus and in Greece. The researchers conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 24 Cypriot and 22 Greek deaf individuals ages 19-54 years. The researchers found that the Deaf clubs in both countries provide a gathering place for deaf people, organize social and sport…

  8. Genome size and chromosome number of Micromeria acropolitana (Lamiaceae), a steno-endemic of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonia; Tan, Kit; Tsounis, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome number 2n = 30, and nuclear DNA amount 2C = 0.79 pg, are determined for the first time for Micromeria acropolitana, a rare and endangered species from the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. The plant was considered extinct but rediscovered in 2006, a hundred years later. Its current status...

  9. Impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden: Greece as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania S. Kotsiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and low socioeconomic status have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The current financial crisis has forced millions back into poverty. Greece is one of the countries hit the hardest, and is in the middle of a deep ongoing collapse. There have been early reports stating the apparent effects of the Greek downturn on respiratory health. This review summarises the overall impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden throughout the period of economic downturn by analysing the case study of Greece. In all levels of the healthcare system, current economic restrictions have reduced the capacity to prevent, diagnose and treat COPD in parallel with current higher detection rates of COPD. Remarkably, expenditure on healthcare has been reduced by >25%, resulting in major healthcare equipment shortages. Lower wages (by up to 20% and higher co-payments of up to 25% of a drug's purchase price have led to patients struggling to afford inhaled medications. Treatment nonadherence has been reported, resulting in 11.5% more exacerbations and 14.1% more hospitalisations annually, while the mean cost per severe COPD exacerbation has been approximated as €2600. Greece is a noteworthy example illustrating how COPD burden, quality of care and patients' outcome can be affected by economic crisis.

  10. Sharing our data—An overview of current (2016) USGS policies and practices for publishing data on ScienceBase and an example interactive mapping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Bock, Andrew R.; Sando, Roy

    2017-01-05

    This report provides an overview of current (2016) U.S. Geological Survey policies and practices related to publishing data on ScienceBase, and an example interactive mapping application to display those data. ScienceBase is an integrated data sharing platform managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes resources that U.S. Geological Survey Scientists can use for writing data management plans, formatting data, and creating metadata, as well as for data and metadata review, uploading data and metadata to ScienceBase, and sharing metadata through the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Catalog. Because data publishing policies and practices are evolving, scientists should consult the resources cited in this paper for definitive policy information.An example is provided where, using the content of a published ScienceBase data release that is associated with an interpretive product, a simple user interface is constructed to demonstrate how the open source capabilities of the R programming language and environment can interact with the properties and objects of the ScienceBase item and be used to generate interactive maps.

  11. Preparing for the introduction of hospital autonomy in Laos: an assessment of current situation and suggestions for policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jinsong; Yu, Hao; Chen, Yingyao

    2016-04-01

    The National Assembly of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) approved the Health Sector Reform Strategy in 2012, which called for an assessment as to whether Laos should introduce hospital autonomy, and if so, in which ways. The purpose of this study is to assess the status quo of hospital governance in Laos and propose policy suggestions for hospital autonomy in the country. We formulated an analytic framework for hospital autonomy based on previous work by other researchers, collected qualitative data through key informant interviews and focus group discussions, and also performed secondary data analysis. Public hospitals in Laos enjoyed some informal autonomy with little accountability and Laos is facing key challenges of hospital governance. As a result, introducing hospital autonomy in Laos could bring risks, benefits and debates. Before Laos decides on granting autonomy to its public hospitals, we strongly suggest that the government do pilot in selected public hospitals with well-regulated governance framework first and conduct rigorous evaluations to examine whether the granted autonomy leads to the intended social goals of equity, quality, efficiency and sustainability. We recommend residual claimants should be monitored by the government and by the society with open and transparent approach, and active measures should be taken to improve performance and ensure social functions. The study findings may also provide some suggestions for low- and middle-income countries, which are contemplating the introduction of hospital autonomy in the public sector. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  13. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): A daunting challenge to the current End TB Strategy and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-07-01

    Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses. A few new drugs including bedaquiline and delamanid, have the potential to improve the efficiency of XDR-TB treatment, but the drugs have been included in 39 countries only. The costs of XDR-TB treatment are several folds higher than that of the MDR-TB. Despite the financing from the donors, there is an urgent need to fill the current funding gap of US$ 2 billion to ensure effective treatment and robust surveillance. In the review article we have addressed current update on XDR-TB, including surveillance, diagnosis and the interventions needed to treat and limit its spread, emphasis on extensive financial support for implementing of current recommendations to meet the goals of End TB Strategy. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Technical Assessment Of The Current Water Policy Boundary At U.S. Department Of Energy, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2012-01-01

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  15. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  16. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania... comments on this transaction by email to economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW...

  17. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  18. Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Panetsos, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

  19. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  1. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  2. Establishing a regional contact & service centre for public health care: the case in central macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartzopoulos, Dimitrios; Spyrou, Stergiani; Minaoglou, Eirini; Karolidou, Viktoria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2005-01-01

    Regional Healthcare System Authorities (RHSAs) run under the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Greece, aim is to improve the level of quality that health care organizations offer as well as to control the expenditure of health care services provided by the health care organizations. In this article we present the considerations taken during the establishment of the first Regional Contact & Service Center for Public Health in Greece in two of the RHSAs. In this respect, the current piece of work provides an up-to-date experience in establishing and setting the RCSC in its organizational context, an outline of its conceptual model and design, an outlook of the first quarterly results of its use, and a discussion of its potential impact.

  3. Intensive Survey Data from Antikythera, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bevan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Antikythera Survey Project was an interdisciplinary programme of fieldwork, artefact study and laboratory analysis that considered the long-term history and human ecology of the small Greek island of Antikythera. It was co-directed by Andrew Bevan (UCL and James Conolly (Trent, in collaboration with Aris Tsaravopoulos (Greek Archaeological Service, and under the aegis of the Canadian Institute in Greece and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Its various primary datasets are unusual, both in the Mediterranean and beyond, for providing intensive survey coverage of an entire island’s surface archaeology.

  4. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  5. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    the name "Meligalas" translates to the serenely beautiful meaning: "the village of milk and honey." 27. McNeill, 170. 28. Averoff-Tossizza, 118. 29...only encourage the rebels, and undermine the morale of the Greek army. To this charge MacVeagh replied to the State Department, " childish and petulant...to the communist belligerents in the Civil War, and thus loss of Greece would symbolize a loss for the United States in the Cold War contest

  6. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  7. Analysing policy interactions for promoting energy efficiency in the Hellenic sectors of buildings and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Popi KONIDARI; Mrs. Anna FLESSA; Ms. Aliki-Nefeli MAVRAKI; Ms. Eleni-Danai MAVRAKI

    2016-01-01

    Policy interactions are important parameters for the successful implementation of policies, measures and policy instruments. The parallel implementation of a number of policy instruments has the potential to create synergies or conflicts that maximize or prevent the achievement of their anticipated outcomes. This paper analyses three cases of policy interactions between two policy instruments for promoting even more the energy efficiency outcomes in Greece for two sectors, buildings and trans...

  8. Evaluation of atmospheric instability indices in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of instability indices in assessing atmospheric instability is examined for the areas of Attica, Thessaly and Central Aegean and Crete, Greece. Generally, many indices have been developed to estimate the troposphere's stability for forecasting purposes. At this study several instability indices, commonly used in Meteorology, are computed based on radiosonde data. Firstly, the indices are computed for several months based on the 00:00 and 12:00 UTC radiosonde data during the period 1981–2003. Statistical methods were used to compare and test the effectiveness of these indices in the described area using meteorological data from seventeen meteorological stations of Greece. Thus, the potential of monitoring the atmospheric instability conditions is examined. The next stage of this study is an effort to test the thresholds of the existing indices in order to improve the results of these indices. It seems that this effort can make a good simulation to the assessment of instability, contributing to local level weather forecasting.

  9. Microphysical Characterization of Aerosol Signatures over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshath Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed microphysical characterization is presented for aerosol spectra over three major areas over Greece, namely- the Area West of Crete (AWC, the Greater Thessaloniki area (GTA and the Greater Athens Area (GAA based on measurements made by Varotsos (2005. Aerosol size distributions along with cloud droplet concentrations were gathered from data collected from the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-300 and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X flown on a Falcon aircraft over Greece (Varotsos, 2005. However, the microphysical and dynamical characterisation of the observations were left largely unexplored (for this later paper, particularly with regard to their growth and activation into cloud condensation nuclei. A suite of models involving Large Eddy Simulations and an Adiabatic Parcel Model were used to achieve this. The UK Met Office large eddy model (LEM reveals that mild to moderate updraughts in the range of 0.5 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 were present over Athens during June 1997, over the regions containing the aerosol bands. The sophisticated parcel model was then been applied to this data to study the growth of aerosol in the updraughts present and further, to explore the possibility of rainfall. It is found that the grown droplets have radii spanning a range of 6 μm to 100 μm indicating a hundredfold increase over initial size and the region spanning height from 2700 to 3000 meters contains precipitable water.

  10. Social work, general practice and evidence-based policy in the collaborative care of older people: current problems and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharicha, Kalpa; Levin, Enid; Iliffe, Steve; Davey, Barbara

    2004-03-01

    While collaborative (or joint) working between social services and primary healthcare continues to rise up the policy agenda, current policy is not based on sound evidence of benefit to either patients or the wider community. Both sets of practitioners report benefits for their own work from adopting new arrangements for collaboration. The underlying assumption behind much of this activity is that a greater degree of integration provides benefits to both users and their carers, a perspective that at times obscures the issue of resource availability, especially in the form of practical community services such as district nursing and home help. At the present time there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that formal arrangements for collaborative working (CW) are better than those forged informally between committed individuals or teams. Furthermore, arrangements for CW have not hitherto been widely evaluated in systematic studies with a comparative design and focus on outcomes for users and carers rather than on processes. In this paper we propose a number of process measures for future evaluation of CW: (1) study populations must be comparable; (2) details of how services are actually delivered must be obtained and colocation should not be assumed to mean collaboration; (3) care packages in areas of comparable resources should be examined; (4) both destinational outcomes and user-defined evaluations of benefit should be considered; (5) possible disadvantages of integrated care also need to be actively considered; (6) evaluations should include an economic analysis. Those implementing new policies in Primary Care Trusts have, at present, little sound evidence to guide them in their innovative work. However, they should take the opportunity to rigorously test the advantages and disadvantages of collaboration.

  11. Psychiatric reform in Greece: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-12-01

    Leros became infamous worldwide in the 1980s because of a scandal in its mental institution, the Leros asylum. The scandal provoked universal outrage and the international pressure triggered the Greek mental health reform. Under the reform projects Leros I and Leros II (1990-1994), numerous interventions took place in the Leros asylum as part of deinstitutionalisation. Following that, the Psychargos programme advanced developments for community-based services. Deinstitutionalisation and development of community mental health services have advanced significantly since the 1980s. However, this reform is still incomplete, given that sectorisation, adequate primary care policies, inter-sectoral coordination and specialised services are under-developed. This problematic situation is further complicated by the severe impact of the current financial crisis.

  12. Dynamics in national agri-environmental policy implementation under changing EU policy priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, P.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    decision structures in the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which various factors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies development based on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we...

  13. Imparting carrier status results detected by universal newborn screening for sickle cell and cystic fibrosis in England: a qualitative study of current practice and policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulph Fiona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal newborn screening for early detection of children affected by sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis is currently being implemented across England. Parents of infants identified as carriers of these disorders must also be informed of their baby's result. However there is a lack of evidence for most effective practice internationally when doing so. This study describes current or proposed models for imparting this information in practice and explores associated challenges for policy. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with Child Health Coordinators from all English Health Regions. Results Diverse methods for imparting carrier results, both within and between regions, and within and between conditions, were being implemented or planned. Models ranged from result by letter to in-person communication during a home visit. Non-specialists were considered the best placed professionals to give results and a similar approach for both conditions was emphasised. While national guidance has influenced choice of models, other factors contributed such as existing service structures and lack of funding. Challenges included uncertainty about guidance specifying face to face notification; how best to balance allaying parental anxiety by using familiar non-specialist health professionals with concerns about practitioner competence; and extent of information parents should be given. Inadequate consideration of resource and service workload was seen as the main policy obstacle. Clarification of existing guidance; more specific protocols to ensure consistent countrywide practice; integration of the two programmes; and 'normalising' carrier status were suggested as improvements. Conclusion Differing models for communicating carrier results raise concerns about equity and clinical governance. However, this variation provides opportunity for evaluation. Timely and more detailed guidance on protocols with

  14. What incentives to climate change mitigation through harvested wood products in the current french policy framework? (Summary). Climate Report no. 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deheza, Mariana; N'Goran, Carmen; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-09-01

    Beyond the important role that forests play in the fight against climate change through the sequestration of carbon in their biomass, wood products also contribute to climate change through three channels: - Material substitution: the manufacturing of wood products being less energy intensive allows to avoid carbon emissions from the processing of other alternative materials (eg. concrete, steel, etc); - Energy substitution: achieved by the generation of energy from wood combustion replacing other fossil fuels. - Carbon sequestration in the wood products: wood products sequester carbon during their whole life span until their decomposition. This Climate Report identifies French policies that have an impact on climate change mitigation by wood products through these three mitigation channels. Our analysis asserts that similarly to the context at the EU level, the current national policy framework incentives are mostly directed to the 'energy wood' sector. These incentives include fiscal and financial instruments such as: - The heat fund ('fonds chaleur'), which subsidizes the production of renewable heat particularly from biomass; - The zero interest rate eco-loans ('eco-pret a taux zero') and the Sustainable development tax credit ('credit d'impot developpement durable (CIDD)') which partly subsidize wood heating; - Reduced VAT on renewable heat purchases. The use of wood as a material is currently less encouraged, at least on the financial side: the few devices that support it are rarely binding and mobilize limited resources. Future measures planned under the National Action Plan for the forest-based sector and the upcoming law for the future of agriculture and forestry ('Loi d'avenir pour l'agriculture et la foret') could slightly re-balance this situation. (authors)

  15. The genus Eustigmaeus Berlese (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2016-11-13

    The present study summarizes the previous limited knowledge on the genus Eustigmaeus from Greece. Based on material collected from many localities, nine species are recorded from Greece for the first time and four species, Eustigmaeus irregularis sp. nov., E. fantinoui sp. nov., E. microvacuolatus sp. nov., and E. capitatus sp. nov. are described as new to science. Additionally, males of five known species of Eustigmaeus are described for the first time. A list of the world species of the genus Eustigmaeus and a key to species of this genus recorded in Greece are provided.

  16. Economic Sustainability of Organic Aloe Vera Farming in Greece under Risk and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, an encouraging environment for the restructuring and modernization of the agricultural sector has formed in Greece. The diversification into higher-value crops can be a promising option for small and average-sized farms, particularly during the current economic crisis. One of the most promising alternative crops that have been recently established in Greece is the organic Aloe vera crop. The main advantage of this crop is that it can utilize poor farmlands and, therefore, can facilitate rural development in marginal areas. This study explores the economic sustainability of the Aloe vera crop, considering the embedded risk and uncertainty. The results indicate that organic aloe farming is a promising alternative to “traditional” crops in Greece, particularly for family farms in rural areas. In contrast, this activity is not advisable to the most entrepreneurial type of farmers, unless their crop size allows economies of scales. Finally, the Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF analysis associates farmers’ risk attitude with their willingness to be involved in organic Aloe vera farming. SERF analysis highlights the crucial role of farmers’ risk aversion and concludes that, above a certain level of risk aversion, farmers have no incentive to adopt this economic activity.

  17. Home health nursing care services in Greece during an economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakidou, T; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe public home healthcare nursing services in Greece. The effectiveness and the efficiency of home healthcare nursing are well documented in the international literature. In Greece, during the current financial crisis, the development of home healthcare nursing services is the focus and interest of policymakers and academics because of its contribution to the viability of the healthcare system. A review was conducted of the existing legislation, the printed and electronic bibliography related to the legal framework, the structures that provide home health care, the funding of the services, the human resources and the services provided. The review of the literature revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the existing system of home health care and its opportunities and threats, which are summarized in a SWOT analysis. There is no Greek nursing literature on this topic. The development of home health nursing care requires multidimensional concurrent and combined changes and adjustments that would support and strengthen healthcare professionals in their practices. Academic and nursing professionals should provide guidelines and regulations and develop special competencies for the best nursing practice in home health care. At present, in Greece, which is in an economic crisis and undergoing reforms in public administration, there is an undeniable effort being made to give primary health care the position it deserves within the health system. There is an urgent need at central and academic levels to develop home healthcare services to improve the quality and efficiency of the services provided. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  18. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Eating habits, health attitudes and obesity indices among medical students in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Papazisis, Georgios; Toulis, Konstantinos; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2010-12-01

    Medical students represent not only the final but also the most crucial opportunity for education in the field of healthy lifestyles and nutritional habits. Eating habits and obesity indices among medical students in southern Greece were described almost a decade ago. However, there is a lack of current, relevant data concerning students living in northern Greece. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the body mass index distribution and nutritional and health-related behavior among medical students in northern Greece. The participants, 187 males (21.5 ± 1.9 years) and 203 females (21.3 ± 2.2 years), filled out a self-report questionnaire. Height and weight measurements were obtained. Dietary practices of fast food consumption (more frequent for males) and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (more frequent for females) were reported. Females seemed to adopt different practices than males when trying to lose weight and were significantly better informed about the nutrient value of the food consumed. Although the prevalence of overweight (males: 32.1%, females: 8.4%) and obesity (males: 5.9%, females: 1.5%) in the present sample is lower compared to previous data, it remains high according to what would be health promoting. The above findings suggest a need for further improvement in strategies promoting healthier nutrition habits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary

  1. When do national administrations adapt to EU policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    This article joins the Europeanization studies and examines the administrative adaptation to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a highly institutionalized and regulated policy, in two small older member states, Denmark and Greece. The findings demonstrate variation in administrative adaptation....... In Denmark, both formal and informal administrative structures adapt to CAP, while in Greece administrative adaptation is limited to formal structures. This variation is attributed to two dimensions of the domestic institutional and organizational settings, namely “centralization” and “professionalism.......” The comparative analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the administrative differences between North and South—a cleavage that became prominent during the Eurozone crisis....

  2. Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Analysis and Forecasts using VAR/VEC Approach for Greece with Capital Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Georgantopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between electricity consumption and real gross domestic product for Greece. The study examines a trivariate system with capital formation for the period 1980-2010. Robust empirical results indicate that all variables are integrated of order one and cointegration analysis reports that cointegrating relationship exists between the variables. VAR/VEC approach suggests that all variables return to the long-run equilibrium whenever there is a deviation from the cointegrating relationship and that unidirectional causal links exists running from capital formation and electricity consumption to RGDP in the short-run implying that the economy of Greece is strongly energy dependent. Forecasts for the period 2011-2020 indicate increasing consumption of electricity and positive growth rates from 2013. Policy makers will need to liberalise the electricity sector and to turn the economy towards renewable and natural gas sources in order to reduce imports of oil and coal dependency.

  3. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  4. European Patient Summary Guideline: Focus on Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berler, Alexander; Tagaris, Anastassios; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The European Patient Summary (PS) guideline specifies a minimal dataset of essential and important information for unplanned or emergency care initially defined in the epSOS project with aim to improve patients' safety and quality of Care. The eHealth Network of European Union (EU) Member State (MS) representatives established under Article 14 of the EU directive 2011/24 on patient rights to cross-border healthcare adopted PS guideline in November 2013 and since then the guideline has been part of MS strategic eHealth implementation plans, standardization efforts, and concrete regional, national, European and international projects. This paper reviews implementation efforts for the implementation of an operational patient summary service in Greece drawing on challenges and lessons learned for sustainable standards-based large scale eHealth deployment in Europe and abroad, as well as the reuse of best practices from international standards and integration profiles.

  5. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  6. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Education: A Critical Perspective on Current Policies and Practices in Germany and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Faas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect international reform movements in a system- and culture-comparative perspective, the following article investigates the early childhood education systems in Germany and in Hong Kong, with reference to the respective social and educational roots, pedagogical development lines, and basic educational approaches. In addition, current developments, policies, and practices are described. The basic structural requirements of the respective systems will be presented, and the different reviews and implementation of international developments in Germany and Hong Kong will be explained. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of play in early childhood education. In this context, a current qualitative study of the authors is presented, which examines different perspectives on learning at play. The results of this exploratory study show that the interpretations and discussions of international reform approaches in different cultural settings are sometimes very different. The statements of the German and Chinese participants indicate that international developments are assessed primarily in the context of national educational traditions and structures. Against this backdrop, it is assumed that international reform movements—despite some assimilations—will have different effects in national education systems.

  7. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  8. First confirmed record of Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulis Georgios

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms the presence of Elodea canadensis Michx. in Greece and outlines the history of contradictory relevant reports. This is also the first report of the species′ presence in the transboundary lake Great Prespa.

  9. Control of antibiotic resistance in China must not be delayed: The current state of resistance and policy suggestions for the government, medical facilities, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Li, Jiajia; Kong, Fanlei; Sun, Long; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world, leading to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality. In the European Union alone, drug-resistant bacteria are estimated to cause 25,000 deaths and cost more than US$1.5 billion every year in healthcare expenses and productivity losses. The problems of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance are quite serious in China. In 2015, results of a study by the State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences indicated that the total antibiotic usage in China in 2013 was approximately 162,000 tons, including human use (48%) and use in animals (52%). This amount accounted for about half of the antibiotic usage worldwide. The per-capita use of antibiotics in China is more than 5 times that in Europe and the United States. These data mean that China is one of the world's leading countries with serious problems in terms of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance. The current article analyzes the current state and harms of antibiotic misuse and causes of antibiotic resistance in China. The Government needs to pay close attention to the issue of antibiotic resistance in China and formulate a strategy at the national level. Thus, the following suggestions are offered: i) The Chinese Government should implement policies that promote antibiotic research and development; ii) Medical facilities in China should create multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) and encourage early action by MDTs to control the spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDRB); iii) An intervention in the form of health education should target patients and accompanying family members (AFM) in China. In other words, antibiotic resistance is not a personal problem but an

  10. Obstacles to the Growth of Alternative Tourism in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the recent economic melt-down in Greece, economists are discussing the potential of tourism to pull the country out of its current woes. More than 16 million tourists visit the country annually whereas the sector contributes 15% to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and offers employment to 16% of the work force (Hellenic Statistical Authority, 2010. Concurrently, mass tourism has also caused a rise in pollution, a depletion of water supplies, desertification, rural emigration to urban centers, erosion of coastal areas and a drop in hygienic standards, all of which have had serious economic costs and caused residents to protest the industry’s mode of expansion. To that purpose, alternative types of tourism such as agrotourism and ecotourism have been defined as overarching objectives that complement the strategy for growth and employment. However, a closer look at the spots mostly known for alternative tourism activities shows the parallel emergence of other socio-economic developments that have slowly eroded Greek rural life and intensified the economic disparities between the local social classes. A closer evaluation of the damaging side effects casts doubt on the potential of alternative tourism as practiced today to inject growth into a stagnating economy.

  11. Anthelmintic resistance and multidrug resistance in sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes in France, Greece and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Hoste, Herve; Jacquiet, Philippe; Traversa, Donato; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Gaillac, Christie; Privat, Simon; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Zanardello, Claudia; Noé, Laura; Vanimisetti, Bindu; Bartram, David

    2014-03-17

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ovine gastro-intestinal nematodes has been reported to affect the health and productivity of sheep globally. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used oral drenches in sheep in France, Greece and Italy. In each country, 10 farms were selected. On each farm, 50 animals were blocked based on the pre-treatment faecal egg count (FEC). Within each block, animals were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatment groups. In addition to an untreated control group, there were 4 groups treated per oral route: moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM), both at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, levamisole (LEV; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight) and a benzimidazole (BZ; at 3.75-5mg/kg bodyweight). In France, animals were not treated with LEV, but with netobimin (NET; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight). The FEC was monitored using a modified McMaster technique. Two weeks after treatment, individual faecal samples were taken from all animals and efficacy was calculated as the difference between arithmetic mean FEC of the control group versus each respective treatment group. The results of the present study indicate the high efficacy of treatment with oral formulations of MOX (99-100%) and IVM (98-100%) on all farms, except on 1 farm in Greece. On this farm, multi drug resistance (MDR) was identified involving 4 anthelmintics (efficacy MOX: 91%; IVM: 0%; BZ: 58% and LEV: 87%). In Greece and Italy, AR against LEV and BZ was observed on some farms, with MDR involving both anthelmintics on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. In France, AR against BZ and NET was observed on all 10 farms included. In all countries, Teladorsagia sp. was the most common nematode larva identified after treatment, followed by Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp., with differences among farms and treatments. The current study confirms the high efficacy of oral treatments with MOX and IVM, even on farms with worm populations resistant to BZ, LEV or NET. This study also

  12. Evaluation of energy efficient design competition of a public office building in North Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimanoli, Asimina

    Over the past few years in Greece there have been changes in the National Environmental and Energy Policy related to sustainability and energy conservation-saving, concerning the built environment as well. In this context, in 1999, the Hellenic Public Real Estate Corporation announced a Public Open Competition for the "Design and Construction" of a Police Station in the city of Kilkis, in North Greece. The energy efficiency and bioclimatic design was part of the General Design Principles of the brief. The following Report aims at evaluating the energy performance of the building and the comfort levels in the internal environment and determining the benefits of incorporating environmental design in a Public Office Building, in terms of savings in the energy consumption for heating. The Methodology included a description of the features of the design, analysis of the differences between the initial design and the constructed building, investigation of the operation of the constructed building (monitoring, questionnaire survey, energy consumption) and evaluation of the effect of the differences mentioned, using computer simulation (TAS software). Internal Temperatures fluctuated less than the external but for most of the monitoring period (end of mid-season-beginning of summer) Maximum Temperatures were higher than the external. The occupants gave positive comments and evaluated the general working conditions in the building as good, but the majority were not aware of the Passive Solar Systems installed in the building. The actual energy consumption for heating (150.85kWh/m2) is approximately 85% of the average consumption of Public Office Buildings in North Greece but 50% higher than that of recently built Public Office Buildings. However, the figure from the simulation analysis (corresponding to Office and Common spaces) is approximately 1/3 of the actual (55.14 kWh/m2), suggesting that proper operation of the building could result in significant reduction in energy

  13. Occupational, dietary, and other risk factors for myelodysplastic syndromes in Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinou, Christina; Giannezi, Ioanna; Theodoropoulou, Stela; Lazaris, Vasileios; Kolliopoulou, Georgia; Zikos, Panagiotis; Alamanos, Yannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis; Symeonidis, Argiris

    2017-08-01

    We have observed an increasing incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in the geographic area of Western Greece during the past two decades. The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for the manifestation of MDS in this area of Greece. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the public hospitals of the region. Participants were interviewed based on a questionnaire regarding demographics, occupational exposures, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary, and domestic factors. A total of 228 individuals (126 cases, 102 controls) were recruited in this study. Univariate analysis showed that risk of MDS was associated with a family history of hematologic malignancy or solid tumor, exposure to pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, increased weekly intake of meat and eggs, and increased alcohol intake, whereas fruit intake had a protective effect. Analysis by pesticide ingredient showed a weak association of exposure to paraquat and glyphosate with the occurrence of MDS. Multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for the manifestation of MDS were family history of solid tumor (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.32-4.65), meat intake for ≥5 days/week (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.05-6.80) and exposure to pesticides (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.73-6.11). Exposure to pesticides is a major risk factor of MDS in Western Greece. Family history of solid tumor and increased meat intake also appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of MDS. Public health authorities should implement policies to advise and protect farmers from the harmful effects of agrochemicals. Emphasis should also be given to health promotion advice including healthy eating.

  14. IAEA Team Concludes Peer Review of Greece's Regulatory Framework for Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts yesterday concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Greece. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, which was conducted at the request of the Government of the Hellenic Republic, noted good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system and also identified issues for improvement for the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and the Greek competent authorities. These are aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''The IRRS team enjoyed excellent cooperation from the GAEC throughout its mission,'' said Tom Ryan, mission leader and Director of Regulations and Information Management at the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. ''The GAEC staff were very open and candid in their discussions and provided the fullest practicable assistance.'' The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: While the Greek Government's commitment to safety is being demonstrated through its actions, the development of a comprehensive national policy and strategy expressed in a consolidated statement would provide a valuable framework and guidance for future actions in terms of safety; and GAEC has effective independence. The Greek government has ensured that GAEC is effectively independent in its safety-related decision-making and that it has functional separation from entities having responsibility or interests that could unduly influence its decision making. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team included: Greece actively participates in the global safety regime including all relevant safety conventions; The nation's radiation monitoring system for the detection of illicit trafficking contributes significantly to identifying potential radiation emergencies due to events within or outside the country

  15. How to use current practice, risk analysis and standards to define hospital-wide policies on the safe use of infusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Annemoon M; Oliveira-Martens, Suzanne M; Snijder, Roland A; Nieman, Anders K; Egberts, Toine C

    2015-08-01

    Infusion therapy is widely used in hospitals. It is well known that medication errors constitute one of the highest risks to patient safety, leading to numerous adverse events concerning incorrect application of infusion technology. Both clinical practice and in vitro studies show that infusion of multiple medications via one access point induces unwanted phenomena such as backflow and an incorrect system response to interventions. Within the Metrology for Drug Delivery project, we addressed the role of infusion devices in drug delivery. We surveyed current practices for application in hospitals to provide input to standards and quality norms for the materials used in infusion technology. Furthermore, we organized meetings with clinicians and other relevant stakeholders to set up a risk analysis-based infusion policy, accompanied by easy to access operating procedures on infusion technology. It was found difficult to establish clear-cut infusion safety guidelines based on quantitative data because of the many different application areas and stakeholders. However, both the expert team and the survey indicated the value of multidisciplinary qualitative discussion for defining best practices. We advise to incorporate specific requirements on infusion devices in protocols and standards, adjusted to specific applications, to ensure safe use of infusion technology.

  16. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Moldovan Perception of Greece as a Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Cazacu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research study analyzes Moldovans' intentions to visit Greece, and their perceptions of Greece's image as a tourism destination, according to the following dimensions: (1 environmental beauty and convenience, (2 country's citizens, (3 place and architectural structure, (4 shopping and tourist accommodation and (5 similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. The goal is split into four objectives. Design/methodology/approach: For attaining the goal, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered. The empirical study was conducted in the capital of Moldova. The findings are based upon a sample of 139 respondents. Findings: The findings reveal that, overall, Greece's image as a tourist destination among Moldovan consumers is partially positive. The perceptions of the tourism dimensions were evaluated in the descending order as follows: place and architectural structure, shopping and tourist accommodation, environmental beauty and convenience, country's citizens and similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. Research limitations/implications: As it was undertaken only in the capital of Republic of Moldova and because most respondents are young people and females, the findings of this investigation do not absolutely reflect the perceptions of all Moldovans. Also, because the number of respondents is small, it is not representative of the whole Moldovan population. Hence, the results might not be very realistic and accurate. Originality/value: This study provides insightful theoretical implications and practical recommendations in creating marketing strategies that would help in managing and improving Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan tourists. Also, no study, at least to the researcher's knowledge, has evaluated Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan consumers. Finally, due to the increasing number of Moldovan tourists in Greece, it is important that Greece grasps this

  18. The role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschminder - de Guerre, Katie; Koser, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making factors for onwards migration or stay in Greece and Turkey. In this paper we distinguish migration-specific policies from migration-relevant policies in transit and destination countries,

  19. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Pavloudi; Magdalini Christodoulou; Michalis Mavidis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). New information This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current...

  20. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...

  1. Economic crisis, austerity and unmet healthcare needs: the case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Dimitris; Zavras, Athanasios I; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-07-27

    The programme for fiscal consolidation in Greece has led to income decrease and several changes in health policy. In this context, this study aims to assess how economic crisis affected unmet healthcare needs in Greece. Time series analysis was performed for the years 2004 through 2011 using the EU-SILC database. The dependent variable was the percentage of people who had medical needs but did not use healthcare services. Median income, unemployment and time period were used as independent variables. We also compared self-reported unmet healthcare needs drawn from a national survey conducted in pre-crisis 2006 with a similar survey from 2011 (after the onset of the crisis). A common questionnaire was used in both years to assess unmet healthcare needs, including year of survey, gender, age, health status, chronic disease, educational level, income, employment, health insurance status, and prefecture. The outcome of interest was unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. Ordinary least squares, as well as logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze the results. Unmet healthcare needs increased after the enactment of austerity measures, while the year of participation in the survey was significantly associated with unmet healthcare needs. Income, educational level, employment status, and having insurance, private or public, were also significant determinants of unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. The adverse economic environment has significantly affected unmet health needs. Therefore health policy actions and social policy measures are essential in order to mitigate the negative impact on access to healthcare services and health status.

  2. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crutcher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign...

  3. Risk factors for elevated blood lead levels among children aged 6-36 months living in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitsinou, A; Soldatou, A; Tsitsika, A; Kossiva, L; Tsentidis, Ch; Nisianakis, P; Theocharis, S; Garoufi, A

    2015-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning remains a critical environmental health concern because even low blood lead levels (BLLs) can result in permanent adverse health effects. Social factors and living conditions have been correlated with BLLs. There is no recent survey about the prevalence of elevated BLLs among children in Greece. The purpose of this study was to assess BLLs among children aged 6-36 months born and living in Greece and to evaluate their association with demographic, socio-economic and housing conditions. In a cross-sectional hospital-based study including 814 randomly selected children aged 6-36 months, BLLs and haematological parameters were evaluated. A questionnaire investigating demographic and socio-economic conditions was completed in all children. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA for Windows v.8.5, and P herbs and/or spices and having a mother with a manual occupation were independent risk factors for elevated BLLs. Lead exposure remains a threat for optimal health especially for toddlers and children of socio-economically disadvantaged families living in Greece. A nationwide survey to assess lead exposure in children is necessary to guide prevention governmental policies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. ELNAIS meets EASIN: distribution of marine alien species in Greece using EASIN mapping services and ELNAIS spatial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN was created with the aim to provide easy access to accurate information on alien species in Europe. EASIN allows the retrieval of spatial information from existing online data providers in order to produce integrated georeferenced distribution maps of alien species in Europe. In November 2012, a new data provider, the Ellenic Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ELNAIS, joined EASIN; this has significantly increased the available georeferenced information on marine/estuarine alien species in Greek waters. Here, we use maps created by EASIN to show differences in patterns of distribution in Greece for the most abundant Phyla of marine alien species - Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata and Annelida. We also show that the two main pathways of introduction of marine alien species (Lessepsian migration and Shipping are related to different patterns of species spatial distribution in Greece. Overall, the tools provided by EASIN can greatly aid scientists and policy makers in obtaining high quality information on marine alien species in Greece, especially after the association with ELNAIS.

  5. The exploitation of biomass for building space heating in Greece: Energy, environmental and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michopoulos, A.; Skoulou, V.; Voulgari, V.; Tsikaloudaki, A.; Kyriakis, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil substitution with biomass residues for heating buildings is examined. • Primary energy consumption from biomass results increased by 3–4% as compared to diesel oil. • CO 2 and SO 2 emissions are significantly higher with biomass than with diesel oil. • The examined substitution is economically attractive for the final consumers. - Abstract: The exploitation of forest and agricultural biomass residues for energy production may offer significant advantages to the energy policy of the relevant country, but it strongly depends on a number of financial, technological and political factors. The work in hand focuses on the investigation of the energy, environmental and financial benefits, resulting from the exploitation of forest and agricultural biomass residues, fully substituting the conventional fuel (diesel oil) for building space heating in Greece. For this investigation, the energy needs of a representative building are determined using the EnergyPlus software, assuming that the building is located across the various climate zones of Greece. Based on the resulting thermal energy needs, the primary energy consumption and the corresponding emissions are determined, while an elementary fiscal analysis is also performed. The results show that significant financial benefits for the end-user are associated with the substitution examined, even though increased emissions and primary energy consumption have been derived

  6. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  7. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordas, Konstantinos; Papastergios, Georgios; Tziantziou, Lamprini; Neofitou, Nikolaos; Neofitou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca(2+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO(3)(-) values which may pose a risk to human health.

  8. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  9. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  10. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. ► We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). ► Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. ► Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. ► Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator’99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  12. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  14. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  15. Life cycle analysis of pistachio production in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzas, Georgios; Komnitsas, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study regarding pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivation in Aegina island, Greece, was performed to evaluate the energy use footprint and the associated environmental impacts. In this context, a detailed life cycle inventory was created based on site-survey data and used for a holistic cradle-to-farm gate LCA analysis using the GaBi 6.5 software. The main impact categories assessed were acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) and cumulative energy demand (CED). In order to reveal the main environmental concerns pertinent to pistachio production and in turn propose measures for the reduction of environmental and energetic impacts, three scenarios were compared, namely the Baseline scenario (BS) that involves current cultivation practices, the Green Energy (GE) scenario that involves the use of biological fertilizers i.e. compost, and the Waste Utilization (WU) scenario that involves the production of biochar from pistachio and other agricultural wastes and its subsequent soil application to promote carbon sequestration and improve soil quality. Based on the results of this study, the use of compost for fertilization (GE scenario), which results in approximately 9% savings in terms of energy consumption and the five environmental impact categories studied compared to BS scenario, is considered a promising alternative cultivation strategy. Slightly higher savings (10% on average) in terms of the five calculated environmental impact categories, compared to the BS scenario, were indicated when the WU scenario was considered. Regarding energy consumption, the WU scenario results in minor increase, 3%, compared to the BS scenario. Results of uncertainty analysis performed using the Monte Carlo technique and contribution analysis showed that GE and WU scenarios offer reliable and significant

  16. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  17. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  18. Essays on globalization, monetary policy and financial crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on three interlinked topics. Chapter 2 studies the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain during the recent global financial crisis and European debt crisis. Chapter 3 introduces a model on the interactions between monetary policy

  19. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  20. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  1. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizum....... macrorrhizum are presented here for the first time. The nuclear DNA content (2C values) of 2.84 pg for G. kikianum and 2.83 and 2.87 pg for two G. macrorrhizum populations from Greece probably corresponds to a 2n=92 cytotype while the smaller genome size of 1.45 pg in a population of G. macrorrhizum from Mt...... Smolikas, Greece may correspond to a 2n=46 cytotype...

  2. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  4. Malaria in Greece, 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakali, A; Patsoula, E; Spanakos, G; Danis, K; Vassalou, E; Tegos, N; Economopoulou, A; Baka, A; Pavli, A; Koutis, C; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kremastinou, T

    2012-11-22

    Malaria, which was endemic in Greece in the past, was officially eliminated in 1974. Since that time and up to 2010, a number of imported cases (ranging from 19 to 76) have been annually reported. The total number of reported laboratory-confirmed cases between 1975 and 2010 was 1,419. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 628 (44%) of these cases, while P. vivax was found in 524 (37%). Of the total cases, 1,123 (79%) were male (ratio males vs. females: 3.78). Age was only available for 490 cases, of which 352 (72%) belonged to the 18-40 year-age group. Of the 382 malaria cases reported from 1999 to 2010 for which the region/country of acquisition was known, 210 (55%) were from Africa and 142 (37%) from Asia. The massive introduction of economic migrants, in the period from 1990 to 1991 and from 2006 onwards, mainly from countries where malaria is endemic, resulted in the appearance of introduced sporadic cases. In Peloponnese, Central and East Macedonia, Thrace and East Attica, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (e.g. Anopheles sacharovi, A. superpictus and A. maculipenis) that can act as plasmodia vectors are abundant and during the summer of 2011, 27 P. vivax cases were reported in Greek citizens residing in the agricultural area of Evrotas in Lakonia and without travel history. As further P. vivax malaria cases occurred in the Lakonia and East Attica areas in 2012, it is becoming urgent to strengthen surveillance and perform integrated mosquito control that will help eliminate the potential risk of malaria reintroduction and reestablishment.

  5. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  6. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.

    1984-10-01

    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  7. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Ministry of Education and Relegious Affairs.

  8. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Magdalini; Mavidis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). New information This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. This is the first paper, to our knowledge, where the macrofauna associated with S. foetidus from the Levantine Basin is being recorded. In total, 90 taxa were recorded, from which 83 were identified to the species level. Eight of these species are new records for the Levantine Basin. The dataset contains 213 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. It is accessible at http://lifewww-00.her.hcmr.gr:8080/medobis/resource.do?r=organismic_assemblages_sarcotragus_foetidus_cyprus_greece PMID:27932905

  9. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  10. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  11. The structure of residential energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries

  12. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L; Patsoula, Eleni; Tegos, Nicholas; Hansson, Helle H; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Vakalis, Nicholas C; Tseroni, Maria; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-12-27

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However, in 2009 and 2010 six and one autochthonous cases were reported culminating with a total of 40 autochthonous cases reported in 2011, of which 34 originated from a single region: Laconia of Southern Peloponnese. In this study the genotypic complexity of the P. vivax infections from the outbreak in Greece during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease. Three polymorphic markers of P. vivax were used; Pvmsp-3α and the microsatellites m1501 and m3502 on P. vivax isolates sampled from individuals diagnosed in Greece. Thirty-nine isolates were available for this study (20 autochthonous and 19 imported), mostly from Evrotas municipality in Laconia region, in southern Greece, (n = 29), with the remaining representing sporadic cases originating from other areas of Greece. Genotyping the Evrotas samples revealed seven different haplotypes where the majority of the P. vivax infections expressed two particular Pvmsp-3α-m1501-m3502 haplotypes, A10-128-151 (n = 14) and A10-121-142 (n = 7). These haplotypes appeared throughout the period in autochthonous and imported cases, indicating continuous transmission. In contrast, the P. vivax autochthonous cases from other parts of Greece were largely comprised of unique haplotypes, indicating limited transmission in these other areas. The results indicate that several P. vivax strains were imported into various areas of Greece in 2011, thereby increasing the risk of re-introduction of malaria. In the region of Evrotas ongoing transmission occurred exemplifying that further control measures are urgently needed in this region of southern Europe. In circumstances where medical or travel history

  13. Foreign Direct Investment and its Role in the Development of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki DELITHEOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI globally. Due to the potential role that foreign direct investment may play in accelerating the growth rate and re-shaping the economy, many developing countries are seeking such types of investment that can multiply efforts being made towards the growth of their economy. Consequently, foreign direct investment has become an important source of private external finance for developing countries. For this reason, countries like Greece are attempting to focus on the implementation of policies that can attract specific FDI and thus achieve high rates of growth. Attracting FDI and the subsequent creation of sustainable enterprises that will provide an increase in jobs and will reinforce the productivity of the country, is today a national target.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Football Efficiency Among Two Small European Countries: Portugal and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis(DEA applied to a representative sample of football clubs operating in the two small European countries: Portugal and Greece. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the football clubs according to their change in total productivity for the period 1999/2000 to 2002/2003,concluding that some clubs experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.

  15. General Practice as a career choice among undergraduate medical students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanadis Christodoulos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although General Practice (GP was recognized as a medical specialty in Greece in 1986, the number of GPs is insufficient to cover needs and only few medical graduates choose GP as a career option. In the present study we investigated the profile of medical students in terms of their decisions regarding specialization and the possible association of career choices different from GP with the status of undergraduate training regarding GP. Methods The sample consisted of final year students in the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece. Students filled in a self-reported questionnaire focusing on medical specialization, and GP in particular. Results Response rate was 82.5% with 1021 questionnaires collected, out of 1237 eligible medical students. Only 44 out of the 1021 (4.3% respondents stated that GP is -or could be- among their choices for specialty. The most popular medical specialty was General Surgery (10.9%, followed by Cardiology (9.6%, Endocrinology (8.7% and Obstetrics-Gynaecology (8.3%. The most common criterion for choosing GP was the guaranteed employment on completion of the residency (54.6% while a 56.6% of total respondents were positive to the introduction of GP/FM as a curriculum course during University studies. Conclusion Despite the great needs, GP specialty is currently not a career option among undergraduate students of the greater Medical University in Greece and is still held in low esteem. A university department responsible for undergraduate teaching, promotion and research in GP (where not available is essential; the status of undergraduate training in general practice/family medicine seems to be one of the most important factors that influence physician career choices regarding primary care specialties.

  16. Outbreak of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece involving an ST11 clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Evangelia; Zarkotou, Olympia; Ranellou, Kyriaki; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Vrioni, Georgia; Mamali, Vasiliki; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    First detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Turkey, the OXA-48 carbapenemase has gradually disseminated in the wider Mediterranean area and Europe. Despite reports from other European regions, until now no such isolates have been detected in Greece. We describe the characteristics of the first outbreak caused by OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece. From December 2011 to March 2012, 13 ertapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, which were positive by the modified Hodge test while remaining negative by phenotypic screening for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and KPC production, were recovered from nine patients. Patient records were retrieved to access patterns of acquisition. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. ompK35, ompK36 and the genetic environment of the bla(OXA-48) gene were investigated. Plasmid profiling, conjugation experiments, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. All isolates harboured the bla(OXA-48) gene along with the bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(OXA-1) genes. The bla(OXA-48) gene was located on a self-transferable IncL/M-type plasmid of ~62 kb, which harboured no other resistance genes. IS1999 was located upstream of the bla(OXA-48) gene. Genetic disruptions of the ompK35 and ompK36 genes were not detected. The isolates belonged to a unique PFGE clone and MLST assigned them to sequence type ST11. All cases were characterized as hospital acquired and none of them was linked to immigration or history of travel in endemic areas. Carbapenem resistance due to MBL and KPC carbapenemases is currently on an endemic scale in Greece and this report highlights the wider undetected dissemination of yet another carbapenemase in this region.

  17. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  18. COPD patients' medical care and support in Greece during financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitonas G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available George Mitonas,1 Alexia Juvana,2 Zoe Daniil,3 Chryssa Hatzoglou,4 Konstantinos Gourgoulianis3 1Diavata Health Center, Gennimatas General Hospital, 2Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, 3Pulmonary Medicine Department, University Hospital of Larissa, 4Physiology Department, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece Background: The need to follow a multidisciplinary strategy in chronic obstructive ­pulmonary disease (COPD management and rehabilitation in community settings in Greece raises significant questions, given the severe austerity measures being imposed at present. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical profile of patients with COPD along with the care provided in rural community settings in Greece.Methods: Two primary health care centers and 200 newly diagnosed patients over a 12-month period were involved in the study. A self-assessment questionnaire, including questions about smoking habits, the presence of comorbidities and chronic respiratory symptoms, as well as the COPD Assessment Test were used. Spirometry was performed with a dry spirometer. Obstructive spirometry was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7, according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.Results: Males comprised 70% of the sample, with cough and sputum being the prominent signs. Regarding COPD staging, 68.5% were classified in stages I/II. Arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease were the most common comorbidities. Current smokers accounted for 88.5%, while 88% were heavy drinkers. A general practitioner made the diagnosis in 68.5% of the cases, among which offspring and spouses provided home care in 38% and 8% of the cases, respectively, while an informal caregiver other than a relative was reported in 34% of the cases. No caregiver (self-care was reported in 20% of the cases. All patients of stage III and IV had a COPD Assessment Test score >10

  19. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  20. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  1. Barriers to participation in the social economy in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsobanoglou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis in Greece, an EU member for over 30 years, has brought to the surface the character of the Greek politico-administrative system as it handles employment, migration and associated forms of social protection. Similarly, recent attempts at legislative reforms of the operation of social economy enterprises have yet to be implemented, while the current legislation governing them, i.e. as Foundations, dates back to ...1939. The difficulties in recognising and regulating the social economy sector seem to emanate from the organisation of the overall employment security system in place. The employment relationship seems to be embedded within a bifurcated system of labour whereby the employment relationship is secure only in the public sector while the private sector is controlled by a precarious system of labour security, a separate health system and with its own political organisation. The lack of a unified national labour system does not allow the formation of a national system of employment (qualifications and, hence, a way to overcome nepotism and the political (party patronage system which defines, in a determining way, labour relations. This division is maintained by the politico-administrative labour regime put in place, under the extra-ordinary political situation that emerged after World War II (WWII. The paper explores this hidden reality defining the organisation of the employment system in Greece, its politico-administrative controls that seem to aim at ‘arresting’ the emergence of a social economy. This leads to a hidden social economy of a fragmented private labour market, which is regulated separately from the secure “public” employment sector. This rather anachronistic and discriminatory system of political order of labour divides workers in Greece. La actual crisis en Grecia, miembro de la UE desde hace más de 30 años, ha revelado el verdadero carácter del sistema político-administrativo griego, de la forma

  2. Utopian Left-Wing Expectations and the Social Consequences of the 3rd Memorandum in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotroyannos, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015 the radical left SYRIZA has won the Greek national elections and formed a coalition government with Independent Greeks (ANEL, a right-wing populist party. After a seven-month negotiation with Greece’s creditors and the agreement for the implementation of a third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA announced the conduction of a second round of national elections in September 2015. After a second electoral victory, SYRIZA formed again a coalition government with ANEL. The main characteristic of SYRIZA’s pre-electoral campaign was that it has primarily focused on the commitment for austerity measures termination and on the implementation of tax alleviation. Even during the second electoral campaign in September 2015, after the agreement for the implementation of the third memorandum of fiscal adjustment, SYRIZA was promising that its implementation will be socially endued in order to reduce negative social consequences, such as those created by the previous memoranda. Practically though, after the first months of the new memorandum implementation, it is obvious that the government has introduced an unprecedented tax policy. Interestingly, this policy is not different from a traditional left logic of tax enforcement but actually leads to the implementation of horizontal austerity policies which firstly affect the socially vulnerable groups. From this point of view, while SYRIZA emphatically declare that it aims at resolving the crisis, its policies seem to deepen the depression. For instance, its inability to find alternative options to finance the social security system, leads to the implementation of restrictive policies which dismantle the welfare state. This paper aims at analyzing the policies of the first left government in Greece by focusing on the tentative social consequences of the third memorandum and at the same time, studying some of the basic factors for its electoral victory, such as populism.

  3. Public investment and regional growth and convergence : Evidence from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Psycharis, Yannis; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper estimates the impact of public investment on regional economic growth and convergence at the NUTS 3 level in Greece. Using a new database of public expenditure per region for the period 19782007, it proposes a model which captures not just the impact of public investment in Greek

  4. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: oikonomi@geo.auth.gr. A catastrophic volcanic explosion took ... (Kirk 1977; Hequette and Barnes 1990; Jibson et al. 1994; Amin and Davidson-Arnott 1997; Sallenger et al. 2002; Gulyaev and Buckeridge ...

  5. Inmates' Adult Education in Greece--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Vasiliki; Anagnou, Evaggelos; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Correctional education in Greece has been implemented since 1980's. Second Chance Schools (SCS) in prisons were established in 2004, aiming at combating social exclusion. This study's aim is to look into the reasons of school dropout and to interpret why inmates take part in the educational program provided by SCS, registering the motives,…

  6. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  7. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  8. Bullying among Primary School Children in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Lena; Houndoumadi, Anastasia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates bullying behavior in 8-12 year old children in Athens (Greece), using a self-report bullying inventory. Reports that 14.7 percent of children reported being victims of bullying, 6.25 percent stated that they were bullies, while 4.8 percent saw themselves as both. States that boys were usually in the latter categories. (CMK)

  9. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  11. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  12. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  13. School Psychology in Greece: A System of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Dioguardi, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses origin of school psychology in Greece which emerged with services for mentally disabled in 1937. Explains how laws were instituted with the growing demand for educational services for students with social and emotional needs. Includes discussions on diverse roles of school psychologists, present status of special education, and influence…

  14. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 1. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece), after the 1613 BC volcanic eruption: A GIS-based quantitative methodology. Dimitrios Oikonomidis Konstantinos Albanakis Spyridon Pavlides Michael Fytikas. Volume 125 Issue 1 ...

  15. The first description of snow algae on Mount Olympus (Greece).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Kvíderová, Jana; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, 3-4 (2016), s. 457-473 ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cryoseston * Olymp Mt. * Greece Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2016

  16. Gender Equality in Employment Utilizing Female Social Entrepreneurship in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.; Charitakis, Stelios

    2017-01-01

    Greek women are severely affected by the on-going financial crisis. They deal with the effects of unemployment and they experience a marginalised position in the Greek labour market due to deep-rooted stereotypes which result in inequality of employment opportunities. Greece has ratified the CEDAW

  17. Scanning the Business External Environment for Information: Evidence from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourteli, Liana

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment,…

  18. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  19. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumelis, Constantin

    The report examines trends and issues concerned with the financing of higher education in Greece from 1974 to 1988. Greek higher education, which is almost all public, has expanded at an average annual rate of 3% during the period with the non-university technical component growing at an annual rate of 17.8%. Though the expansion was facilitated…

  20. Government-opposition dynamics during the economic crisis in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemenis, Konstantinos; Nezi, Roula

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the turbulent period of 2010-2012 when Greece became the first EU member-state to accept the IMF/EU bailout package. Unarguably, accepting the bailout package did not have only economic but also electoral consequences as the established party system has been steadily

  1. Crowdsourcing and mobile services for a fit-for-purpose Cadastre in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkeli, Maria; Apostolopoulos, Konstantinos; Mourafetis, George; Ioannidis, Charalabos; Potsiou, Chryssy

    2016-08-01

    A `fit-for-purpose' approach is suggested by FIG, the UN and the World Bank as the appropriate methodology for implementing a land administration system depending on a country's urgent priorities. In this paper, the current official process for the implementation of the Hellenic Cadastre is analyzed and compared to the "fit-for-purpose" model. Some amendments are proposed to replace the initial stage of the data collection official procedure, to make it more fast, efficient and complete. These amendments are tested by a team of researchers of NTUA and the achieved results are presented. The methodology aims to save time, avoid gross errors and additional funds, and provide fast solutions for the completion of the National Cadastral reliably and affordably, during the period of the economic crisis in Greece, with increased citizens' participation and the use of modern IT tools for the adjudication of the owners, the property rights and the other cadastral data acquisition. New m-services are proposed for the compilation of the cadastral surveys, supported by crowdsourcing techniques. A case study for a suburban area is reported. For the new procedure an open source, self-developed application named BoundGeometry, is used. The new procedure is compared to the official one in terms of time, quality, accuracy and gross errors avoidance. Legal matters related to the adoption of the proposed amendments by the National Cadastral Agency of Greece are also taken into account.

  2. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between water from the western part of the Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  3. “Austerity Surveillance” in Greece under the Austerity Regime (2010−2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Samatas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have tried to analyze “austerity surveillance” (AS, its features, and its functions under the extreme austerity regime in Greece during 2010−2014, before the election of the leftist government. AS is a specific kind of coercive neoliberal surveillance, which in the name of fighting tax evasion and corruption is targeting the middle and lower economic strata and not the rich upper classes. It is based mainly on “coveillance,” i.e. citizen-informers’ grassing, public naming, and shaming. Functioning as a domination and disciplinary control mechanism of the entire population, it works within a post-democratic setting without accountability or democratic control. We provide empirical evidence of these features and functions, including some indicative personal testimonies of austerity surveillance subjects. After presenting some cases of electronic surveillance as an indispensable supplement to AS, we then briefly underline the negative personal, and socio-political impact of this surveillance. In conclusion, a tentative assessment is made of AS’ efficiency in the Greek case, comparing it with other types of past and present authoritarian surveillance in Greece and in other current surveillance societies, considering also the prospects for its abolition or its reproduction by the new leftist government.

  4. The Emergency Medical System in Greece: Opening Aeolus' Bag of Winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Ourania S; Srivastava, David S; Kotsios, Panagiotis; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2018-04-13

    An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system must encompass a spectrum of care, with dedicated pre-hospital and in-hospital medical facilities. It has to be organised in such a way as to include all necessary services—such as triage accurate initial assessment, prompt resuscitation, efficient management of emergency cases, and transport to definitive care. The global economic downturn has had a direct effect on the health sector and poses additional threats to the healthcare system. Greece is one of the hardest-hit countries. This manuscript aims to present the structure of the Greek EMS system and the impact of the current economic recession on it. Nowadays, primary care suffers major shortages in crucial equipment, unmet health needs, and ineffective central coordination. Patients are also facing economic limitations that lead to difficulties in using healthcare services. The multi-factorial problem of in-hospital EMS overcrowding is also evident and has been linked with potentially poorer clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the ongoing refugee crisis challenges the national EMS. Adoption of a triage scale, expansion of the primary care network, and an effective primary–hospital continuum of care are urgently needed in Greece to provide comprehensive, culturally competent, and high-quality health care.

  5. The Emergency Medical System in Greece: Opening Aeolus’ Bag of Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania S. Kotsiou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An Emergency Medical Service (EMS system must encompass a spectrum of care, with dedicated pre-hospital and in-hospital medical facilities. It has to be organised in such a way as to include all necessary services—such as triage accurate initial assessment, prompt resuscitation, efficient management of emergency cases, and transport to definitive care. The global economic downturn has had a direct effect on the health sector and poses additional threats to the healthcare system. Greece is one of the hardest-hit countries. This manuscript aims to present the structure of the Greek EMS system and the impact of the current economic recession on it. Nowadays, primary care suffers major shortages in crucial equipment, unmet health needs, and ineffective central coordination. Patients are also facing economic limitations that lead to difficulties in using healthcare services. The multi-factorial problem of in-hospital EMS overcrowding is also evident and has been linked with potentially poorer clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the ongoing refugee crisis challenges the national EMS. Adoption of a triage scale, expansion of the primary care network, and an effective primary–hospital continuum of care are urgently needed in Greece to provide comprehensive, culturally competent, and high-quality health care.

  6. Investigation of breast dose in five screening mammography centres in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V; Tsalafoutas, I A; Poga, V; Louizi, A; Kottou, S; Koulentianos, E

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the techniques currently used for screening mammography in Greece, to estimate the mean glandular dose (MGD) for establishing a baseline radiation dose database, to analyse the effects of various factors on MGD, and to compare the results with others in the literature. Five mammographic facilities and 250 women having as a routine screening mammogram one craniocaudal (CC) and one mediolateral oblique (MLO) projection in each breast were included in the study. The parameters recorded were age, weight, compressed breast thickness (CBT), tube potential (kV), tube loading (mA s) and MLO projection angle. Large differences were observed among the different mammography facilities, mainly in terms of the tube potential setting and the MLO angle used. The average MGD per exposure was 1.4 ± 0.6 mGy while the respective averages separately for the CC and MLO projections were 1.2 ± 0.5 and 1.5 ± 0.7 mGy, respectively. The average MGD values recorded in this study were below the limit of 2 mGy established for the reference medium-sized breast of 4.5 cm CBT. However, the variety of techniques observed revealed the need for a nationwide survey concerning screening mammography in Greece

  7. Investigation of breast dose in five screening mammography centres in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapaki, V [Medical Physics Department, Konstantopoulio Hospital, Nea Ionia, 142 33, Athens (Greece); Tsalafoutas, I A [Medical Physics Department, Agios Savvas Hospital, 171 Alexandras Avenue, 115 22, Athens (Greece); Poga, V; Louizi, A; Kottou, S [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, Athens University, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27, Athens (Greece); Koulentianos, E [Radiology Department, Konstantopoulio Hospital, Nea Ionia, 142 33, Athens (Greece)

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the techniques currently used for screening mammography in Greece, to estimate the mean glandular dose (MGD) for establishing a baseline radiation dose database, to analyse the effects of various factors on MGD, and to compare the results with others in the literature. Five mammographic facilities and 250 women having as a routine screening mammogram one craniocaudal (CC) and one mediolateral oblique (MLO) projection in each breast were included in the study. The parameters recorded were age, weight, compressed breast thickness (CBT), tube potential (kV), tube loading (mA s) and MLO projection angle. Large differences were observed among the different mammography facilities, mainly in terms of the tube potential setting and the MLO angle used. The average MGD per exposure was 1.4 {+-} 0.6 mGy while the respective averages separately for the CC and MLO projections were 1.2 {+-} 0.5 and 1.5 {+-} 0.7 mGy, respectively. The average MGD values recorded in this study were below the limit of 2 mGy established for the reference medium-sized breast of 4.5 cm CBT. However, the variety of techniques observed revealed the need for a nationwide survey concerning screening mammography in Greece.

  8. You have no right to make me think about this--the de-legitimation of current nuclear policies among key American elites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.G.

    1982-11-16

    Until fairly recently, most segments of the American public, particularly our various elites, supported American nuclear policy, namely the maintenance of large and expanding nuclear stockpiles, the official foreswearing of the use of these weapons in a strategic first-strike, and the policy of threatening retaliation for Soviet nuclear attacks in war, by nuclear attacks on enemy cities and military centers. There is increasing evidence that this support is rapidly eroding; especially among key American elites. This is shown through increasingly vocal dissatisfaction with the continued growth and modernization of the nuclear stockpile; and second, in the dawning awareness of a discrepancy between our official policy of no first-strike and contingency plans to employ first-strike tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a Warsaw Pact attack upon Western Europe. Concerns have surfaced here due both to distaste at the growing size of our nuclear arsenal and the perception that we have not been altogether honest in our official stance of a no first-strike with nuclear weapons. Increasing numbers of Americans are coming to see our nuclear policy as inconsistent, senseless, and, most significantly, immoral, and therefore support a nuclear freeze.

  9. Family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures: physicians' and nurses' attitudes working in pediatric departments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavarouta, Antigone; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papadimitriou, Lila; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    Family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures (FPDRAIP) has been a frequent topic of debate among healthcare personnel worldwide. This paper determines the knowledge, experiences and views of Greek physicians and nurses on FPDRAIP and examines possible correlations and factors promoting or limiting the implementation of the issue. The data for this descriptive questionnaire study were collected between March and June 2009. The study population consisted of 44 physicians and 77 nurses working in neonatal-pediatric departments and intensive care units in Patras, Greece, who answered an anonymous questionnaire. The majority of the participants (73.6%) were not familiar with FPDRAIP, were neither educated (72.7%) nor did they agree with the issue (71.9%). No written policy on FPDRAIP existed in the hospitals surveyed. Participants who were familiar with existing guidelines on the issue, or those who had relevant personal experience (76.9%), were positive for practising it as well. The degree of invasiveness of the medical intervention was the major determinant for healthcare personnel to consent for FPDRAIP. Finally, 43.2% of physicians believed that the decision of allowing FPDRAIP should be made only by them, whereas, 40.3% of nurses thought it should be a joint one. This study reveals that healthcare personnel in Greece are not familiar with the issue of FPDRAIP. In view of the increasing evidence on the advantages of this practice, we recommend implementation of relevant educational programs and institutional guidelines and policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Parental Involvement, Classified By Parent’s Demographic Factors, and Current Education Policy on Student Achievement in High School in NongChok District, Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yosai, Saralee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence parental involvement on student achievement in high schools in NongChok District, Bangkok, Thailand. To compare the level of parental involvement on the student achievement and to analyze the influence of parental involvement and education policy on the student achievement, it is classified by demographic factors. The population in this study are parents whose the children are currently studying in the public high schools in NongChok ...

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  12. Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.

  13. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  14. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  15. Harm minimization or abstinence: an evaluation of current policies and practices in the treatment and control of intravenous drug using groups in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennings, C J

    The past decade has seen Australia cited as a significant leader in the development of harm-minimization policies towards illicit drug use. Such policies have been developed on the premise that harm minimization would lead to substantial long-term gains to society in the areas of: (1) decreased health costs for intravenous drug users (IDU); (2) decreased mortality rates for IDU groups; (3) increases in social productivity of IDU (through such things as gaining and retaining employment); and (4) decreased criminal activity leading to substantial gains in law enforcement budgets, and reduced community crime costs (theft and burglaries, etc. Evaluation of the success of harm minimization is notoriously difficult. By its nature success often means there are no ways of comparing potential losses against potential gains. An alternative to harm minimization, abstinence models, exist. In Australia the harm minimization policy has come under review in some States, and has never been fully implemented in the Northern Territory. This paper reviews the merits and demerits of both approaches, and initiates discussion regarding the development of future services for IDU groups in Australian society.

  16. Policy implications of the widespread practice of 'pre-drinking' or 'pre-gaming' before going to public drinking establishments: are current prevention strategies backfiring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    To describe the research, policy and prevention implications of pre-drinking or pre-gaming; that is, planned heavy drinking prior to going to a public drinking establishment. The authors describe the phenomenon of pre-drinking, motivations for pre-drinking and its associated risks using available research literature, media and popular internet vehicles. Heavy drinking prior to going out has emerged as a common and celebrated practice among young adults around the world. Apparent motivations are: (i) to avoid paying for high priced drinks at commercial drinking establishments; (ii) to achieve drunkenness and enhance and extend the night out; and (iii) to socialize with friends, reduce social anxiety or enhance male group bonding before going out. Limited existing research on pre-drinking suggests that it is associated with heavy drinking and harmful consequences. We argue that policies focused upon reducing drinking in licensed premises may have the unintended consequence of displacing drinking to pre-drinking environments, possibly resulting in greater harms. Effective policy and prevention for drinking in licensed premises requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the entire drinking occasion (not just drinking that occurs in the licensed environment), as well as the 'determined drunkenness' goal of some young people.

  17. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    The radon content of drinking water samples was determined with Alpha Guard Pro equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua Kit). The samples were collected from water taps in dwellings located at various cities in Greece and Cyprus. In addition, surface water samples from rivers, lakes and seas as well as potable underground and hot spring water samples from Greece and Cyprus were also collected. For a precise determination of radon concentration in water samples, special procedures were followed both for sampling and transportation, as well as for measurement. Intercomparison experiments were designed and implemented before and during the study. Radon concentrations in drinking water samples in Greece ranged between 1.1 ± 0.5 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in Cyprus ranged between 1.3 ± 0.8 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L. Three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidikis (Northern Greece) exhibited high concentrations of 120±20 Bq/L, 320±40 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. This city is identified as a high radon potential area. One water sample located in Lesvos Island (North-East part of Greece) exhibited radon concentration 140±20 Bq/L. Additional six samples displayed high concentrations in potable hot spring water samples. These samples which were collected from the city of Loutraki (Peloponnesus) ranged between 220-230 Bq/L. In addition, two samples characterized as 'medicinal drinking water' gave concentrations between 320 Bq/L and 340 Bq/L. For underground water samples the radon concentrations ranged between 1.2±0.7 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L, while for surface water samples the range was 2.7±0.8 Bq/L to 24±6 Bq/L. The observed concentrations of radon gas in potable water samples in Greece were found to be largely low. In Cyprus, they were all well below 15 Bq/L

  18. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Social capital at the outburst of the economic crisis in Greece, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Daskalopoulou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Social capital and its core components of social trust and associational activity are widely acknowledged as a core feature of strong and active civil societies that promote effective democratic governance and economic prosperity. Within this context the present study sets out to explore two important research questions. The first one relates to the stock of social capital characterizing Greece and its change during a highly sensitive era, that of the outburst of the economic crisis. The second research question relates to analyzing the group of civil servants as carriers of higher or lower levels of social capital compared to the other citizens. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the available knowledge in the field social capital is measured via the measurement of six main constructs comprising the soft and hard attributes of the concept, namely social trust, social altruism, equality, tolerance, humanitarianism and civic participation. Data are drawn from the European Social Value round 4 (2008 and round 5 (2010 surveys for Greece. Findings – Overall, empirical analysis indicates that the country experiences a statistically significant decline in its social capital level while public servants hold higher levels of social capital albeit also declining as for the rest of the country's citizens. Research limitations/implications – Important policy implications arise as a result of these findings related to issues of democratic legitimation and social participation. Originality/value –the research questions analysed here are important as they can help us sketch the country’s profile with regard to the important concept of social capital that is highly associated with civil empowerment, democratization and increased civil participation levels.

  20. It isn't just about Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James; Lassen, David Dreyer; Wehner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the political origins of differences in adherence to the fiscal framework of the European Union (EU). It shows how incentives to use fiscal policy for electoral purposes and limited budget transparency at the national level, combined with the need to respond to fiscal rules...... at the supranational level, interact to systematically undermine the Economic and Monetary Union through the employment of fiscal gimmicks or creative accounting. It also explains in detail how national accounts were manipulated to produce electoral cycles that were under the radar of the EU budget surveillance system...

  1. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities

  2. Economic evaluation of therapies for patients suffering from relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragoulakis V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available V Fragoulakis,1 E Kastritis,2 T Psaltopoulou,3 N Maniadakis1 1National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece Background: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy that incurs a substantial economic burden in care management. Since most patients with multiple myeloma eventually relapse or become refractory to current therapies (rrMM, the aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the combination of lenalidomide–dexamethasone, relative to bortezomib alone, in patients suffering from rrMM in Greece. Methods: An international discrete event simulation model was locally adapted to estimate differences in overall survival and treatment costs associated with the two alternative treatment options. The efficacy data utilized came from three international trials (MM-009, MM-010, APEX. Quality of life data were extracted from the published literature. Data on resource use and prices came from relevant local sources and referred to 2012. The perspective of the analysis was that of public providers. Total costs for monitoring and administration of therapy to patients, management of adverse events, and cost of medication were captured. A 3.5% discount rate was used for costs and health outcomes. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate probabilistic results with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Results: The mean number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs was 3.01 (95% UI 2.81–3.20 and 2.22 (95% UI 2.02–2.41 for lenalidomide–dexamethasone and bortezomib, respectively, giving an incremental gain of 0.79 (95% UI 0.49–1.06 QALYs in favor of lenalidomide–dexamethasone. The mean cost of therapy per patient was estimated at €77,670 (95% UI €76,509

  3. Educational and training activities in personal dosimetry in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An individual monitoring programme is one of the main components of any radiation protection programme since it constitutes the mean for assessing and thus optimising the doses of occupationally exposed workers. The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the competent authority for radiation protection and nuclear safety in Greece. GAEC's educational and training activities in the field of occupational radiation protection at the national and regional (Eastern Europe) level are presented, along with the relevant activities of the Univ. of Ioannina in the region of North-West Greece, as an example of a local education and training programme. The curricula of two postgraduate courses addressed to qualified experts and medical physics experts and mainly the modules dedicated to individual monitoring are discussed as well. (authors)

  4. From Asia Minor to Greece: History, Memory and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yeşim Bedlek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory studies are among the most controversial topics of our era. While the official history is made up of state discourse, personal history reaches the reader through the memories of the individuals. The events that leave traces in memory are passed on to future generations by oral history studies. The pasts of individuals whose individual experiences are unpacked by the oral historians give us more detailed information about the traumas individuals. Yiannis Karatzoglou also documents his past in order to pass the traumas of migration due to the Lausanne Convention signed in 1923 between Greece and Turkey. This study examines the impact of the social, cultural and political decisions of Turkey and Greece on individuals through the life story of Yiannis in the light of history and memory.

  5. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to DDT in Greece; laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIVADAS, G A; THYMAKIS, K

    1956-01-01

    The authors describe an investigation, started in Greece in the autumn of 1953 and continued during the 1954 malaria-transmission season, to determine the variations in the susceptibility to DDT of the anophelines in different localities, with a view to establishing a point of departure which would make it possible to follow any future changes in susceptibility to this insecticide.The degree of susceptibility of the mosquitos to DDT was assessed numerically by both the technique of topical application of microdoses of the insecticide and the technique devised by Busvine & Nash. The villages of Elos and Asterion (Skála area), the Agoulinitsa area, and the Georgioupolis (Crete) area were chosen for the investigation.The findings disclosed considerable differences in the susceptibility to DDT in the above areas, but showed that, on the whole, the tendency for anophelines to acquire resistance to DDT seemed to be continuing in Greece.

  6. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to DDT in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Gregory A.; Thymakis, Kyriacos

    1956-01-01

    The authors describe an investigation, started in Greece in the autumn of 1953 and continued during the 1954 malaria-transmission season, to determine the variations in the susceptibility to DDT of the anophelines in different localities, with a view to establishing a point of departure which would make it possible to follow any future changes in susceptibility to this insecticide. The degree of susceptibility of the mosquitos to DDT was assessed numerically by both the technique of topical application of microdoses of the insecticide and the technique devised by Busvine & Nash. The villages of Elos and Asterion (Skála area), the Agoulinitsa area, and the Georgioupolis (Crete) area were chosen for the investigation. The findings disclosed considerable differences in the susceptibility to DDT in the above areas, but showed that, on the whole, the tendency for anophelines to acquire resistance to DDT seemed to be continuing in Greece. PMID:13404428

  7. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  8. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  9. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennimata, Dimitra; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The e-Bug pack and web site educational material has been translated and adapted to the Greek language and educational background, and implemented throughout Greece as a supplementary educational resource in elementary and junior high schools. Elementary and junior high school teachers in Greece have actively participated in the development of the e-Bug educational resource and supported the implementation of all e-Bug activities. Dissemination to all key national stakeholders has been undertaken, and endorsement has been obtained from educational and medical associations, societies and institutions. Independent evaluation has been carried out, as part of dissertation thesis projects, for postgraduate studies. The e-Bug educational resource provides all the essentials for the dissemination of good health behaviours in hygiene, monitoring the spread of infection and the prudent use of antibiotics, to the youth of this country. Its contribution is expected to be evident in the next adult generation.

  10. Assessment of Parkinson’s disease risk loci in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Bozi, Maria; Koutsis, Georgios; Panas, Marios; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Ralli, Styliani; Bras, Jose; Letson, Christopher; Edsall, Connor; Pliner, Hannah; Arepali, Sampath; Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Fidani, Liana; Bostanjopoulou, Sevasti; Keller, Margaux F; Wood, Nicholas W; Hardy, John; Houlden, Henry; Stefanis, Leonidas; Plaitakis, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been shown to be a powerful approach to identify risk loci for neurodegenerative diseases. Recent GWAS in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been successful in identifying numerous risk variants pointing to novel pathways potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Contributing to these GWAS efforts, we performed genotyping of previously identified risk alleles in PD patients and controls from Greece. We showed that previously published risk profiles for Northern European and American populations are also applicable to the Greek population. In addition, while we were largely underpowered to detect individual associations we replicated 5 of 32 previously published risk variants with nominal p-values Greek PD patients. Collectively, these results indicate that there is likely a substantial genetic component to PD in Greece similarly to other worldwide populations that remains to be discovered. PMID:24080174

  11. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.

    2005-12-01

    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (Mrisk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for the partial support of this research, in the framework of ESTIA project.

  12. Involvement and Loyalty in Recreation Swimming in Greece: Investigating Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Kontogianni; Charilaos Kouthouris; Achilleas Barlas; Vasileiοs Voutselas

    2011-01-01

    Present study tested the validity of involvement scale (Kyle et al., 2004), examined differences according demographic characteristics and investigated possible relationships between involvement and attitudinal loyalty in context of recreational swimming. Three hundred and forty nine participants (61.9% females) from a major swimming sport center in northern Greece, completed the three dimensional involvement model of Kyle’s et al (2004), and Armitage & Conner’s (1999) attitudinal loyalty’s i...

  13. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

  15. TOURISM AND THE ECONOMY IN TOURISTIC COUNTRIES LIKE GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiannis STEFANOS

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to extend the evaluation process of the structural characteristics of the Greek tourist market and their outcome, especially with regards to the pricing policy of hotel services. Under this framework, we use a combinational analysis of factors of the Finance Theory. Techniques used in financial analysis, empirical results produced by previous research work undertaken in the area of international tourist demand, as well as current discoveries in the structure of Greek tourist market, aim at the extraction of useful conclusions, both for the Greek tourist industry and for tourist policy planning.

  16. Recent analyses of the excavated textile find from Grave 35 HTR73, Kerameikos cemetery, Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Orphanou, Vassiliki

    2011-01-01

    The following study presents the results of instrumental analyses performed on the excavated textile find HTR73 from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. In Greece, preservation of excavated textiles is rare, mainly due to the unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing. The Kerameikos textile...... find is from the 5th century BC, and has been preserved in association with copper, which is the most common type of preservation in Greece. Past analyses had indicated the presence of silk fibres, of the Bombyx mori silkworm, the use of which was not common in Classical Greece. In the present study...... of cotton is an equally rare phenomenon for the Classical period in Greece....

  17. Local people's perceptions of planning and management issues in Prespes Lakes National Park, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakolis, D

    2001-03-01

    Local people's perceptions of planning and management issues were investigated in Prespes Lakes National Park in north-western Greece, 24 years after designation. Ensued conflicts due to lack of local community participation in the designation procedure and in the decision-making process thereafter necessitated this research. Knowledge of the park and its aims, source of information about aims, necessity for works and facilities, attitudes toward certain policies, and effectiveness of administration and management scheme, were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. Respondents were contacted by systematic sampling, which resulted in 201 cases for analysis. Poor knowledge of aims associated with education of people was revealed and the managing authority (the Forest Service) as source of information was mentioned in only one case. Forest recreation facilities and improvement of accessibility were considered of high priority, as means of possible tourism development of the area. A policy of non-intensive agriculture with compensation for loss of income, if the wetlands of the park were in danger, seems acceptable, younger ages accepting it more easily. The need for a new administration and management scheme with the participation of local communities in the decision-making process was revealed, supported mainly by the younger age groups. Finally, the results indicated that the information derived from such research could help managers of protected areas to resolve arising conflicts.

  18. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  19. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  20. Spatial variability and trends of the rain intensity over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Larissi, I. K.; Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the mean annual rain intensity in Greece are examined during a 41-year period (1962-2002). The meteorological datasets concern monthly rain amounts (mm) and the respective monthly durations (h) recorded at thirty two meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed on Greek territory, in order to calculate the mean monthly rain intensity. All the rain time series used in the analysis were tested by the application of the short-cut Bartlett test of homogeneity. The spatial distribution of the mean annual rain intensity is studied using the Kriging interpolation method, while the temporal variability, concerning the mean annual rain intensity trends along with their significance (Mann-Kendall test), is analysed. The findings of the analysis show that statistically significant negative trends (95% confidence level) appear mainly in the west sub-regions of Greece, while statistically significant positive trends (95% confidence level) appear in the wider area of Athens and the complex of Cyclades Islands. Further analysis concerning the seasonal rain intensity is needed, because there are different seasonal patterns, taking into account that, convective rain in Greece occurs mainly within the summer season.