WorldWideScience

Sample records for greatly reduced background

  1. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  2. Reducing DRIFT backgrounds with a submicron aluminized-mylar cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Fox, J. R.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gold, M.; Harmon, L.; Harton, J.; Lafler, R.; Landers, J.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Matthews, J.; Miller, E. H.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Walker, D.

    2015-09-01

    Background events in the DRIFT-IId dark matter detector, mimicking potential WIMP signals, are predominantly caused by alpha decays on the central cathode in which the alpha particle is completely or partially absorbed by the cathode material. We installed a 0.9 μm thick aluminized-mylar cathode as a way to reduce the probability of producing these backgrounds. We study three generations of cathode (wire, thin-film, and radiologically clean thin-film) with a focus on the ratio of background events to alpha decays. Two independent methods of measuring the absolute alpha decay rate are used to ensure an accurate result, and agree to within 10%. Using alpha range spectroscopy, we measure the radiologically cleanest cathode version to have a contamination of 3.3±0.1 ppt 234U and 73±2 ppb 238U. This cathode reduces the probability of producing an RPR from an alpha decay by a factor of 70±20 compared to the original stainless steel wire cathode. First results are presented from a texturized version of the cathode, intended to be even more transparent to alpha particles. These efforts, along with other background reduction measures, have resulted in a drop in the observed background rate from 500/day to 1/day. With the recent implementation of full-volume fiducialization, these remaining background events are identified, allowing for background-free operation.

  3. Attribute amnesia is greatly reduced with novel stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.

  4. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  5. Effect of the Great Attractor on the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertschinger, E [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics; Gorski, K M [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Dekel, A [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics

    1990-06-07

    ANISOTROPY in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is expected as a result of fluctuations in gravitational potential caused by large-scale structure in the Universe. The background radiation is redshifted as it climbs out of gravitational wells. Here we present a map of the anisotropy in CMB temperature {Delta}T/T of our region of the Universe as viewed by a distant observer, predicted on the basis of the gravitational potential field. We calculate this field in the vicinity of the Local Group of galaxies from the observed peculiar (non-Hubble) velocities of galaxies, under the assumption that the peculiar motions are induced by gravity. If the cosmological density parameter {Omega} is 1, the gravitational potential field of the Great Attractor and surrounding regions produces a maximum Sachs-Wolfe anisotropy of {Delta}T/T=(1.7{plus minus}0.3) x 10{sup -5} on an angular scale of 1deg. Doppler and adiabatic contributions to this anisotropy are expected to be somewhat larger. If similar fluctuations in the gravitational potential are present elsewhere in the Universe, the anisotropy present when the CMB was last scattered should be visible from the Earth, and should be detectable in current experiments. A fundamental test of whether gravity is responsible for the generation of structure in the Universe can be made by looking for the imprint in the CMB of deep potential wells similar to those found in our neighbourhood, (author).

  6. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  7. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing radon daughter background in alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors are instruments designed to sample aerosols which may contain alpha-emitting radionuclides and, in near-real time, to monitor the sample for alpha emissions. This process is subject to interference from radon decay products. The usual method for overcoming this interference is by signal processing or data processing in such a manner as to accurately subtract a portion of the background from the transuranic count. An innovative alternative approach has been jointly developed in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Texas A ampersand M University. The concept is to attempt to physically remove a portion of the interfering radon daughters from the incoming sample by a diffusion screen before the sample is collected. The results of laboratory tests indicate that a very high removal efficiency for unattached radon progeny can be obtained without excessive loss of efficiency for collection of the contaminant aerosols of concern. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  10. Great Tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, C.M.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple

  11. The great wall in the CfA survey: Its origin and imprint on the microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Wall (GW) found in the latest CfA survey has clearly started out as an aspherical overdense region. We model its evolution after recombination and the imprint its time-dependent gravitational potential leaves on the microwave background radiation (MBR). We approximate GW as an oblate ellipsoid and show that it started at recombination with an almost spherical shape, but with an initial density contrast, δ i , much smaller than it had to be in the spherical model in order to reach the observed GW density contrast of q∝5. The resultant δ i is compatible with the r.m.s. value of δρ/ρ on the GW scale at recombination for models with the n -6 -5 depending on Ω and q. Therefore, MBR observations in that direction can further constrain Ω and the bias factor of the light distribution. (orig.)

  12. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  13. Great tits (Parus major reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel M M Mols

    Full Text Available Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM, as well as Organic Farming (OF, by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers.

  14. Great tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Christel M M; Visser, Marcel E

    2007-02-07

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as well as Organic Farming (OF), by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers.

  15. A hydrogen-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing microorganism from the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, F.; Blakemore, R.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A dissimilatory Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterium was isolated from bottom sediments of the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire. The isolate was a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod which did not appear to fit into any previously described genus. It was temporarily designated strain BrY. BrY grew anaerobically in a defined medium with hydrogen or lactate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. BrY required citrate, fumarate, or malate as a carbon source for growth on H2 and Fe(III). With Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor, BrY metabolized hydrogen to a minimum threshold at least 60-fold lower than the threshold reported for pure cultures of sulfate reducers. This finding supports the hypothesis that when Fe(III) is available, Fe(III) reducers can outcompete sulfate reducers for electron donors. Lactate was incompletely oxidized to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Lactate oxidation was also coupled to the reduction of Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, thiosulfate, or trimethylamine n-oxide under anaerobic conditions. BrY provides a model for how enzymatic metal reduction by respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms has the potential to contribute to the mobilization of iron and trace metals and to the immobilization of uranium in sediments of Great Bay Estuary.

  16. Low-energy supergravities from heterotic compactification on reduced structure backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Pedrera, Danny Manuel

    2009-10-01

    In this thesis, the compactification of heterotic supergravity on six-dimensional manifolds with SU(2) and SU(3) structure is studied. For the SU(2)-structure backgrounds, the spectrum and the bosonic action of the effective theory in four dimensions are obtained. The results are gauged versions of the ungauged N=2 supergravity obtained after compactification on K3 x T 2 . The gauge algebra and the Killing prepotentials are also computed. For the SU(3)-structure backgrounds, the couplings of the resulting N=1 supergravity are computed by reducing terms on the heterotic supergravity action involving fermionic fields, and are further checked by computing the supersymmetry variations of the fermions. (orig.)

  17. Reduced background autofluorescence for cell imaging using nanodiamonds and lanthanide chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Nicole M; Sayyadi, Nima; Parker, Lindsay M; Everest-Dass, Arun; Brown, Louise J; Packer, Nicolle H

    2018-03-14

    Bio-imaging is a key technique in tracking and monitoring important biological processes and fundamental biomolecular interactions, however the interference of background autofluorescence with targeted fluorophores is problematic for many bio-imaging applications. This study reports on two novel methods for reducing interference with cellular autofluorescence for bio-imaging. The first method uses fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), containing nitrogen vacancy centers. FNDs emit at near-infrared wavelengths typically higher than most cellular autofluorescence; and when appropriately functionalized, can be used for background-free imaging of targeted biomolecules. The second method uses europium-chelating tags with long fluorescence lifetimes. These europium-chelating tags enhance background-free imaging due to the short fluorescent lifetimes of cellular autofluorescence. In this study, we used both methods to target E-selectin, a transmembrane glycoprotein that is activated by inflammation, to demonstrate background-free fluorescent staining in fixed endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that both FND and Europium based staining can improve fluorescent bio-imaging capabilities by reducing competition with cellular autofluorescence. 30 nm nanodiamonds coated with the E-selectin antibody was found to enable the most sensitive detective of E-selectin in inflamed cells, with a 40-fold increase in intensity detected.

  18. Graphene as a protein crystal mounting material to reduce background scatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierman, Jennifer L; Alden, Jonathan S; Kim, Chae Un; McEuen, Paul L; Gruner, Sol M

    2013-10-01

    The overall signal-to-noise ratio per unit dose for X-ray diffraction data from protein crystals can be improved by reducing the mass and density of all material surrounding the crystals. This article demonstrates a path towards the practical ultimate in background reduction by use of atomically thin graphene sheets as a crystal mounting platform for protein crystals. The results show the potential for graphene in protein crystallography and other cases where X-ray scatter from the mounting material must be reduced and specimen dehydration prevented, such as in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of microscopic objects.

  19. Evaluation of methods to reduce background using the Python-based ELISA_QC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rose P; Cohen, Cinder F; Saeed, Fatima O; Wetzel, Hanna N; Ball, William J; Kirley, Terence L; Norman, Andrew B

    2018-05-01

    Almost all immunological approaches [immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot], that are used to quantitate specific proteins have had to address high backgrounds due to non-specific reactivity. We report here for the first time a quantitative comparison of methods for reduction of the background of commercial biotinylated antibodies using the Python-based ELISA_QC program. This is demonstrated using a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody. Several approaches, such as adjustment of the incubation time and the concentration of blocking agent, as well as the dilution of secondary antibodies, have been explored to address this issue. In this report, systematic comparisons of two different methods, contrasted with other more traditional methods to address this problem are provided. Addition of heparin (HP) at 1 μg/ml to the wash buffer prior to addition of the secondary biotinylated antibody reduced the elevated background absorbance values (from a mean of 0.313 ± 0.015 to 0.137 ± 0.002). A novel immunodepletion (ID) method also reduced the background (from a mean of 0.331 ± 0.010 to 0.146 ± 0.013). Overall, the ID method generated more similar results at each concentration of the ELISA standard curve to that using the standard lot 1 than the HP method, as analyzed by the Python-based ELISA_QC program. We conclude that the ID method, while more laborious, provides the best solution to resolve the high background seen with specific lots of biotinylated secondary antibody. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. ECG movement artefacts can be greatly reduced with the aid of a movement absorbing device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Wandall, Kirsten; Thorball, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Accurate ECG signal analysis can be confounded by electric lead, and/or electrode movements varying in origin from, for example, hiccups, tremor or patient restlessness. ECG signals recorded using either a conventional electrode holder or with the aid of an electrode holder capable of absorbing...... movement artefacts, were measured on a healthy human subject. Results show a greatly improved stability of the ECG signal recorded using an electrode holder capable of absorbing movement artefacts during periods of lead disturbance, and highlight the movement artefacts that develop when the recording lead...... of a conventional ECG electrode holder is tugged or pulled during theperiod of monitoring. It is concluded that the new design of ECG electrode holder will not only enable clearer signal recordings for clinical assessment, but will reduce the ECG artefacts associated with the transportation of patients, and may...

  1. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-07-26

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function.

  2. Greatly reduced emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The strong support for biomass energy in the Norwegian wood-processing industry during the last 10-15 years has contributed greatly to a considerable reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. The potential for further reductions is primarily linked with the use of oil and involves only a few works. Oil can be replaced by other fuels, and process-technical improvements can reduce the emissions. According to prognoses, emissions will go on decreasing until 2007, when the total emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry will be about 13 per cent less than in 1998. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) amounts to 90 per cent of the total emission, the remaining parts being methane (CH 4 ) from landfills and dumps, and small amounts of N 2 O

  3. The Great Wall in the CfA survey - Its origin and imprint on the microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper models the evolution of the Great Wall (GW) after recombination and the influence of its time-dependent gravitational potential on the MBR. It is shown that within the framework of the Zel'dovich approximation the (pre)GW region can be treated as an ellipsoid. The GW is approximated as an oblate ellipsoid that started at recombination with an almost spherical shape, but with initial density contrast, delta-i, much smaller than it had to be in the spherical model in order to reach the observed density contrast of beta-f of 5. The resultant delta-i is compatible with the rms value of delta-rho/rho on the GW scale at recombination for models with the n less than 0 power spectrum of the primordial density field. It is shown that the time-dependent potential of the GW will induce a detectable fluctuation in MBR. The possibility of similar structures located at higher redshifts producing measurable and perhaps dominant statistical MBR anisotropies by this effect is also discussed.

  4. Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Thien [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Loan, T.T.H.; Nhon, M.V.; Tao, C.V. [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics

    2014-06-15

    This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as {sup 210}Pb (46.5 keV), {sup 234}Th (63.3 keV) and {sup 226}Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

  5. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  6. Comparison of Techniques to Reduce Bremsstrahlung Background Radiation from Monoenergetic Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M; McNabb, D

    2006-01-01

    An important applied technology is a tunable mono-energetic photon source [1]. These sources are made of relativistic electron accelerators coupled to low-energy lasers, which produce high-energy, mono-energetic-rays. One challenge associated with systems such as this is a continuum of bremsstrahlung background created when an electron beam passes through an aperture of some sort and the electron bunch or its halo impinges on the aperture pictured in figure 1. For instance, in the current T-REX [1] design for the interaction point between the laser- and electron-beam, the electron-beam passes through the center of a mirror used to reflect the laser. There is a potential with this design that bremsstrahlung radiation may be produced at the edges of the mirror openings and contaminate the mono-energetic photon beam. Certain applications [2] may be sensitive to this contamination. To reduce the bremsstrahlung contaminate a collimator (thickness ∼24in. (calculated from XCOM database [3]) to attenuate by a factor of 10 -3 the 112MeV photons expected in the T-REX demonstration [1]) is situated between the aperture and target. To maximize the brightness of the photon-beam, the collimator opening must be no less than the size of the photon-beam spot size expected to be about 1mm. This fixes the collimator opening. a priori the aperture size must be greater than the collimator opening and is a function distance between the aperture and collimator. In this paper we focus on two approaches to estimate the aperture size, given a collimator and a target whose sizes and distances from the aperture are given. In the next section we will discuss these approaches

  7. Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    ...; and using sail and solar power. Reducing energy use on Navy ships. A 2001 study concluded that fitting a Navy cruiser with more energy-efficient electrical equipment could reduce the ship's fuel use by 10% to 25...

  8. Central load reduces peripheral processing: Evidence from incidental memory of background speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halin, Niklas; Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Is there a trade-off between central (working memory) load and peripheral (perceptual) processing? To address this question, participants were requested to undertake an n-back task in one of two levels of central/cognitive load (i.e., 1-back or 2-back) in the presence of a to-be-ignored story presented via headphones. Participants were told to ignore the background story, but they were given a surprise memory test of what had been said in the background story, immediately after the n-back task was completed. Memory was poorer in the high central load (2-back) condition in comparison with the low central load (1-back) condition. Hence, when people compensate for higher central load, by increasing attentional engagement, peripheral processing is constrained. Moreover, participants with high working memory capacity (WMC) - with a superior ability for attentional engagement - remembered less of the background story, but only in the low central load condition. Taken together, peripheral processing - as indexed by incidental memory of background speech - is constrained when task engagement is high. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  10. An improved ATAC-seq protocol reduces background and enables interrogation of frozen tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corces, M Ryan; Trevino, Alexandro E; Hamilton, Emily G; Greenside, Peyton G; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Vesuna, Sam; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Rubin, Adam J; Montine, Kathleen S; Wu, Beijing; Kathiria, Arwa; Cho, Seung Woo; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Carter, Ava C; Kasowski, Maya; Orloff, Lisa A; Risca, Viviana I; Kundaje, Anshul; Khavari, Paul A; Montine, Thomas J; Greenleaf, William J; Chang, Howard Y

    2017-10-01

    We present Omni-ATAC, an improved ATAC-seq protocol for chromatin accessibility profiling that works across multiple applications with substantial improvement of signal-to-background ratio and information content. The Omni-ATAC protocol generates chromatin accessibility profiles from archival frozen tissue samples and 50-μm sections, revealing the activities of disease-associated DNA elements in distinct human brain structures. The Omni-ATAC protocol enables the interrogation of personal regulomes in tissue context and translational studies.

  11. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    ...%. The Navy has installed fuel-saving bulbous bows and stern flaps on many of its ships. Ship fuel use could be reduced by shifting to advanced turbine designs such as an intercooled recuperated (ICR) turbine...

  13. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga+ implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga+ implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 103 Ω−1m−1 to 1.46 × 104 Ω−1m−1 and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm−1K−1 to 1.22 Wm−1K−1 for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga+ implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga+ point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga+-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  14. Artificial Light at Night Reduces Daily Energy Expenditure in Breeding Great Tits (Parus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk A. M. H. Welbers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and colors. In birds, effects of ALAN on activity levels are reported for several species and, hence, their daily energy expenditure (DEE may be affected. DEE is a potent mediator of life-history trade-offs and fitness and thus an important aspect to consider when examining the potential long-term ecological effects of ALAN. Previous work has suggested that birds exposed to ALAN show higher levels of provisioning and nocturnal activity, suggesting that white ALAN increases DEE. Other factors regulating DEE, such as provisioning behavior and food availability, might also respond to ALAN and thus indirectly affect DEE. We tested the hypothesis that ALAN increases DEE using an experimental setup where four previously unlit transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as a control treatment. This setup was replicated in eight locations across the Netherlands. We measured DEE of our focal species, the great tit (Parus major, using a novel doubly labeled water technique that uses breath rather than blood samples. Contrary to our expectations, birds feeding their offspring under white and green ALAN showed lower DEE compared to birds in the control dark treatment. Differences in chick provisioning activity did not explain this result, as neither visit rates nor daily activity timing was affected by light treatment. However, food availability under white and green light was much higher compared to red light and the dark control. This difference strongly suggests that the lower DEE under white and green ALAN sites is a consequence of higher food availability in these treatments. This result shows that there can be positive

  15. Genetic Correlations Greatly Increase Mutational Robustness and Can Both Reduce and Enhance Evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam F Greenbury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutational neighbourhoods in genotype-phenotype (GP maps are widely believed to be more likely to share characteristics than expected from random chance. Such genetic correlations should strongly influence evolutionary dynamics. We explore and quantify these intuitions by comparing three GP maps-a model for RNA secondary structure, the HP model for protein tertiary structure, and the Polyomino model for protein quaternary structure-to a simple random null model that maintains the number of genotypes mapping to each phenotype, but assigns genotypes randomly. The mutational neighbourhood of a genotype in these GP maps is much more likely to contain genotypes mapping to the same phenotype than in the random null model. Such neutral correlations can be quantified by the robustness to mutations, which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of the null model, and crucially, above the critical threshold for the formation of large neutral networks of mutationally connected genotypes which enhance the capacity for the exploration of phenotypic novelty. Thus neutral correlations increase evolvability. We also study non-neutral correlations: Compared to the null model, i If a particular (non-neutral phenotype is found once in the 1-mutation neighbourhood of a genotype, then the chance of finding that phenotype multiple times in this neighbourhood is larger than expected; ii If two genotypes are connected by a single neutral mutation, then their respective non-neutral 1-mutation neighbourhoods are more likely to be similar; iii If a genotype maps to a folding or self-assembling phenotype, then its non-neutral neighbours are less likely to be a potentially deleterious non-folding or non-assembling phenotype. Non-neutral correlations of type i and ii reduce the rate at which new phenotypes can be found by neutral exploration, and so may diminish evolvability, while non-neutral correlations of type iii may instead facilitate evolutionary exploration

  16. Genetic Correlations Greatly Increase Mutational Robustness and Can Both Reduce and Enhance Evolvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, Sam F.; Schaper, Steffen; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Louis, Ard A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutational neighbourhoods in genotype-phenotype (GP) maps are widely believed to be more likely to share characteristics than expected from random chance. Such genetic correlations should strongly influence evolutionary dynamics. We explore and quantify these intuitions by comparing three GP maps—a model for RNA secondary structure, the HP model for protein tertiary structure, and the Polyomino model for protein quaternary structure—to a simple random null model that maintains the number of genotypes mapping to each phenotype, but assigns genotypes randomly. The mutational neighbourhood of a genotype in these GP maps is much more likely to contain genotypes mapping to the same phenotype than in the random null model. Such neutral correlations can be quantified by the robustness to mutations, which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of the null model, and crucially, above the critical threshold for the formation of large neutral networks of mutationally connected genotypes which enhance the capacity for the exploration of phenotypic novelty. Thus neutral correlations increase evolvability. We also study non-neutral correlations: Compared to the null model, i) If a particular (non-neutral) phenotype is found once in the 1-mutation neighbourhood of a genotype, then the chance of finding that phenotype multiple times in this neighbourhood is larger than expected; ii) If two genotypes are connected by a single neutral mutation, then their respective non-neutral 1-mutation neighbourhoods are more likely to be similar; iii) If a genotype maps to a folding or self-assembling phenotype, then its non-neutral neighbours are less likely to be a potentially deleterious non-folding or non-assembling phenotype. Non-neutral correlations of type i) and ii) reduce the rate at which new phenotypes can be found by neutral exploration, and so may diminish evolvability, while non-neutral correlations of type iii) may instead facilitate evolutionary exploration and so

  17. Background noise measurements from jet exit vanes designed to reduced flow pulsations in an open-jet wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, D. R.; Martin, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many open jet wind tunnels experience pulsations of the flow which are typically characterized by periodic low frequency velocity and pressure variations. One method of reducing these fluctuations is to install vanes around the perimeter of the jet exit to protrude into the flow. Although these vanes were shown to be effective in reducing the fluctuation content, they can also increase the test section background noise level. The results of an experimental acoustic program in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel is presented which evaluates the effect on tunnel background noise of such modifications to the jet exit nozzle. Noise levels for the baseline tunnel configuration are compared with those for three jet exit nozzle modifications, including an enhanced noise reduction configuration that minimizes the effect of the vanes on the background noise. Although the noise levels for this modified vane configuration were comparable to baseline tunnel background noise levels in this facility, installation of these modified vanes in an acoustic tunnel may be of concern because the noise levels for the vanes could be well above background noise levels in a quiet facility.

  18. Variation in the effects of family background and birth region on adult obesity: results of a prospective cohort study of a Great Depression-era American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Tumin, Dmitry

    2015-06-05

    Studies have identified prenatal and early childhood conditions as important contributors to weight status in later life. To date, however, few studies have considered how weight status in adulthood is shaped by regional variation in early-life conditions, rather than the characteristics of the individual or their family. Furthermore, gender and life course differences in the salience of early life conditions to weight status remain unclear. This study investigates whether the effect of family background and birth region on adult obesity status varies by gender and over the life course. We used data from a population-based cohort of 6,453 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-2008. Early life conditions were measured retrospectively at and after the baseline. Obesity was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Logistic models were used to estimate the net effects of family background and birth region on adulthood obesity risk after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and health behaviors measured in adulthood. Four economic and demographic data sets were used to further test the birthplace effect. At ages 50-61, mother's education and birth region were associated with women's obesity risk, but not men's. Each year's increase in mother's education significantly reduces the odds of being obese by 6% (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97) among women, and this pattern persisted at ages 66-77. Women born in the Mountain region were least likely to be obese in late-middle age and late-life. Measures of per capita income and infant mortality rate in the birth region were also associated with the odds of obesity among women. Women's obesity status in adulthood is influenced by early childhood conditions, including regional conditions, while adulthood health risk factors may be more important for men's obesity risk. Biological and social mechanisms may account for the gender difference.

  19. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A conservation paradox in the Great Basin—Altering sagebrush landscapes with fuel breaks to reduce habitat loss from wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Coates, Peter S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Pilliod, David S.; Vaillant, Nicole M.

    2018-03-15

    Interactions between fire and nonnative, annual plant species (that is, “the grass/fire cycle”) represent one of the greatest threats to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and associated wildlife, including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). In 2015, U.S. Department of the Interior called for a “science-based strategy to reduce the threat of large-scale rangeland fire to habitat for the greater sage-grouse and the sagebrush-steppe ecosystem.” An associated guidance document, the “Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan,” identified fuel breaks as high priority areas for scientific research. Fuel breaks are intended to reduce fire size and frequency, and potentially they can compartmentalize wildfire spatial distribution in a landscape. Fuel breaks are designed to reduce flame length, fireline intensity, and rates of fire spread in order to enhance firefighter access, improve response times, and provide safe and strategic anchor points for wildland fire-fighting activities. To accomplish these objectives, fuel breaks disrupt fuel continuity, reduce fuel accumulation, and (or) increase plants with high moisture content through the removal or modification of vegetation in strategically placed strips or blocks of land.Fuel breaks are being newly constructed, enhanced, or proposed across large areas of the Great Basin to reduce wildfire risk and to protect remaining sagebrush ecosystems (including greater sage-grouse habitat). These projects are likely to result in thousands of linear miles of fuel breaks that will have direct ecological effects across hundreds of thousands of acres through habitat loss and conversion. These projects may also affect millions of acres indirectly because of edge effects and habitat fragmentation created by networks of fuel breaks. Hence, land managers are often faced with a potentially paradoxical situation: the need to substantially alter sagebrush habitats with fuel breaks

  1. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies.

  2. Preconcentration of a low-grade uranium ore yielding tailings of greatly reduced environmental concerns. Part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, D.; Raicevic, M.

    1980-11-01

    The low-grade ore sample used for this investigation contained 0.057 percent uranium with uranothorite as the major uranium-bearing mineral and a small amount of brannerite, occurring in the quartz-sericite matrix of a conglomerate. The preconcentration procedures, consisting of pyrite flotation with or without flotation of radioactive minerals, followed by high intensity wet magnetic treatment of the sized flotation tailings, produced pyrite and radioactive concentrates of acceptable uranium grades ranging from 0.1 to 0.135 percent uranium. The combined concentrates comprised 37 to 49 percent of the ore by weight with the following combined recoveries: 95.6 to 97.9 percent of the uranium; 94.7 to 96.3 percent of the radium; 97.8 to 99.3 percent of the thorium over 98 percent of the pyrite. The preconcentration tailings produced comprised between 51 and 63 percent of the ore by weight and contained from: 0.0022 to 0.0037 percent U; 12 to 17 pCi/g Ra; 0.002 to 0.004 percent Th less than 0.03 percent S. Because these tailings are practically pyrite-free, they should not generate acidic conditions. Due to their low radium content, their radionuclide hazards are greatly reduced. These preconcentration tailings therefore, could be suitable for surface disposal, mine backfill, revegetation or other uses

  3. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R.; Roth, Cali; Carlson, Benjamin; Smart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  4. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, John; Windle, Jill

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers wanting to increase protection of the Great Barrier Reef from pollutants generated by agriculture need to identify when measures to improve water quality generate benefits to society that outweigh the costs involved. The research reported in this paper makes a contribution in several ways. First, it uses the improved science understanding about the links between management changes and reef health to bring together the analysis of costs and benefits of marginal changes, helping to demonstrate the appropriate way of addressing policy questions relating to reef protection. Second, it uses the scientific relationships to frame a choice experiment to value the benefits of improved reef health, with the results of mixed logit (random parameter) models linking improvements explicitly to changes in "water quality units." Third, the research demonstrates how protection values are consistent across a broader population, with some limited evidence of distance effects. Fourth, the information on marginal costs and benefits that are reported provide policymakers with information to help improve management decisions. The results indicate that while there is potential for water quality improvements to generate net benefits, high cost water quality improvements are generally uneconomic. A major policy implication is that cost thresholds for key pollutants should be set to avoid more expensive water quality proposals being selected.

  5. Study of rare neutron induced processes and coincidence analyses to identify and reduce background contributions in the COBRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, Jan Horst Karl

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay, primarily of the isotope 116 Cd. The applied semiconductor detectors of cadmium zinc telluride that are 90% to be enriched enable both the detection and the source of this decay. The half-lives of decays of this kind are expected in the range of more than 10 26 years. Therefore, the reduction of contributions to the background is of decisive importance. The main subjects of this work are, on the one hand, the time synchronization of the data, which provides the basis for coincidence analysis. This analysis method has access not only to identification of contributions to the background, but also to observe decays involving positron annihilation and decays into excited states. In this study, the intrinsic detector contamination of some decay products of 238 U and 232 Th was measured and sensitivities to the half-lives of the decays like 120 Te and 128 Te in each case to the first excited state of daughter products are given. On the other hand, qualitative studies on the importance of neutrons in the COBRA experiment were conducted. These have shown that fast neutrons, thus with energies greater than 10 keV, only result in an insignificant contribution to the background for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 116 Cd. Previous studies have also shown that the thermal neutron flux can be in situ determined by coincidence analysis.

  6. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  7. Reducing the uncertainty in background marine aerosol radiative properties using CAM5 model results and CALIPSO-retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Gantt, B.; Dawson, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Gasso, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abundance of natural aerosols in the atmosphere strongly affects global aerosol optical depth (AOD) and influences clouds and the hydrological cycle through its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Because the anthropogenic contribution to climate forcing represents the difference between the total forcing and that from natural aerosols, understanding background aerosols is necessary to evaluate the influences of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud reflectivity and persistence (so-called indirect radiative forcing). The effects of marine aerosols are explored using remotely sensed data obtained by Cloud-aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.0), coupled with the PNNL Modal Aerosol Model. CALIPSO-provided high resolution vertical profile information about different aerosol subtypes (defined as clean continental, marine, desert dust, polluted continental, polluted dust, and biomass burning), particulate depolarization ratio (or particle non-sphericity), reported aerosol color ratio (the ratio of aerosol backscatter at the two wavelengths) and lidar ratios over different parts of the oceans are compared to model-simulations to help evaluate the contribution of biogenic aerosol to CCN budget in the marine boundary layer. Model-simulations show that over biologically productive ocean waters primary organic aerosols of marine origin can contribute up to a 20% increase in CCN (at a supersaturation of 0.2%) number concentrations. Corresponding changes associated with cloud properties (liquid water path and droplet number) can decrease global annual mean indirect radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosol (less cooling) by ~0.1 Wm-2 (7%). This study suggests ignoring the complex chemical composition and size distribution of sea spray particles could result in considerable uncertainties in predicted anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  8. Local cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia arising on the background of the reduced resistance of the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Malanicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to study the features of the cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia, proceeding against a background of reduced resistance of the organism for improving treatment methods. 53 children aged 3 to 7 years were examined. The main group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia, which ran against a background of reduced resistance of the body. The comparison group consisted of 23 children with community-acquired pneumonia who had good resistance. Local immunity was studied on the basis of  valuation of cytokine status parameters (tumor necrotic factor-α, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ and cellular composition with an estimate of destructive changes in neutrophils in induced sputum. It was revealed that in the main group of children there is a depression of the neutrophils’ release into the bronchial secretion and a marked increase in the number of neutrophils with maximum signs of destruction of the nucleus and cytoplasm against the background of cytokine status imbalance, manifested in an increase in the content of the tumor necrotic factor-α and a decrease in interleukin-8 and interferon- γ. Inclusion in the traditional therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in children who have a reduced resistance, anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride, eliminates the imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines and increases the release of functionally complete neutrophils in the bronchial secret.

  9. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  10. Moderate solar geoengineering greatly reduces the largest changes in climate whilst modestly increasing the changes in climate over a small fraction of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, P. J.; Keith, D.; He, J.; Vecchi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Whilst solar geoengineering reduces global temperature it cannot perfectly offset the climate effects of elevated CO2 concentrations. Solar geoengineering has been shown to have a greater effect on the global hydrological cycle than CO2 and substantial differences in regional precipitation relative to a scenario without elevated CO2­ concentrations have been noted. In this study we evaluate a moderate scenario of solar geoengineering, one which offsets 50% of the forcing from elevated CO2 concentrations, using a 25 Km resolution global climate model and verify these results using the Geoengineering model Intercomparison project ensemble. We calculate the fraction of regions that would be better or worse off after solar geoengineering deployment, defining those which see greater absolute change as worse off and vice versa. We find that 51% of the land area would be statistically significantly better off for precipitation, 33% for Precipitation minus evaporation (P-E), and that less than 3% would be worse off for precipitation, and 1% for P-E. We find that the fraction of the land area experiencing the largest changes in climate, defined as the upper quartile of the CO2 minus control anomaly, is greatly reduced for precipitation, P-E and 5-day maximum precipitation, and eliminated for mean and max annual temperature. The regions which are made worse off in precipitation or P-E by solar geoengineering typically saw relatively little to no CO2 induced climate change and see relatively little to moderate change in the solar geoengineering scenario. There is little overlap between the regions made worse off in terms of precipitation and P-E. In fact, whilst precipitation is reduced in almost all regions made worse off by solar geoengineering, P-E is increased in the majority of regions made worse off. Overall, we find that for each variable considered solar geoengineering greatly reduces the fraction of the world experiencing relatively large change and that those

  11. Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Daniel S; Berens, Ali J; Glastad, Karl M; Severin, Andrew J; Brendel, Volker P; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Comparative genomics of social insects has been intensely pursued in recent years with the goal of providing insights into the evolution of social behaviour and its underlying genomic and epigenomic basis. However, the comparative approach has been hampered by a paucity of data on some of the most informative social forms (e.g. incipiently and primitively social) and taxa (especially members of the wasp family Vespidae) for studying social evolution. Here, we provide a draft genome of the primitively eusocial model insect Polistes dominula, accompanied by analysis of caste-related transcriptome and methylome sequence data for adult queens and workers. Polistes dominula possesses a fairly typical hymenopteran genome, but shows very low genomewide GC content and some evidence of reduced genome size. We found numerous caste-related differences in gene expression, with evidence that both conserved and novel genes are related to caste differences. Most strikingly, these -omics data reveal a major reduction in one of the major epigenetic mechanisms that has been previously suggested to be important for caste differences in social insects: DNA methylation. Along with a conspicuous loss of a key gene associated with environmentally responsive DNA methylation (the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3), these wasps have greatly reduced genomewide methylation to almost zero. In addition to providing a valuable resource for comparative analysis of social insect evolution, our integrative -omics data for this important behavioural and evolutionary model system call into question the general importance of DNA methylation in caste differences and evolution in social insects. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  13. Reduced recanalization rates of the great saphenous vein after endovenous laser treatment with increased energy dosing: definition of a threshold for the endovenous fluence equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proebstle, Thomas Michael; Moehler, Thomas; Herdemann, Sylvia

    2006-10-01

    Recent reports indicated a correlation between the amount of energy released during endovenous laser treatment (ELT) of the great saphenous vein (GSV) and the success and durability of the procedure. Our objective was to analyze the influence of increased energy dosing on immediate occlusion and recanalization rates after ELT of the GSV. GSVs were treated with either 15 or 30 W of laser power by using a 940-nm diode laser with continuous fiber pullback and tumescent local anesthesia. Patients were followed up prospectively with duplex ultrasonography at day 1 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 114 GSVs were treated with 15 W, and 149 GSVs were treated with 30 W. The average endovenous fluence equivalents were 12.8 +/- 5.1 J/cm2 and 35.1 +/- 15.6 J/cm2, respectively. GSV occlusion rates according to the method of Kaplan and Meier for the 15- and 30-W groups were 95.6% and 100%, respectively, at day 1, 90.4% and 100% at 3 months, and 82.7% and 97.0% at 12 months after ELT (log-rank; P = .001). An endovenous fluence equivalent exceeding 20 J/cm2 was associated with durable GSV occlusion after 12 months' follow-up, thus suggesting a schedule for dosing of laser energy with respect to the vein diameter. Higher dosing of laser energy shows a 100% immediate success rate and a significantly reduced recanalization rate during 12 months' follow-up.

  14. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  15. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  16. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  17. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  18. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  20. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  1. Maternal exposure to Great Lakes sport-caught fish and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, but not polychlorinated biphenyls, is associated with reduced birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, M.G.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Kanarek, M.S.; Falk, C.M.; Steenport, D.M.; Draheim, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fish consumption may be beneficial for a developing human fetus, but fish may also contain contaminants that could be detrimental. Great Lakes sport-caught fish (GLSCF) are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), but the effects of these contaminants on birth outcome are not clear. To distinguish potential contaminant effects, we examined (1) whether the decrease over time in contaminant levels in GLSCF is paralleled by an increase in birth weight of children of GLSCF-consuming mothers and (2) the relation between maternal serum concentrations of these contaminants and birth weight. Mothers (n=511) were interviewed from 1993 to 1995, and maternal serum was collected from 1994 to 1995 (n=143). Potential confounders considered were child gender, maternal age at delivery, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy, maternal education level, maternal parity, and maternal breastfeeding. Children born during 1970-1977, 1978-1984, and 1985-1993 to mothers who ate more than 116 meals of GLSCF before pregnancy were, on average, 164 g lighter, 46 g heavier, and 134 g heavier, respectively, than children of mothers who ate no GLSCF before pregnancy (P trend=0.05). GLSCF-consuming mothers had higher serum PCB and DDE concentrations, but only increased DDE was associated with lower birth weight. The data suggest that fetal DDE exposure (as indicated by maternal serum DDE concentration) may decrease birth weight and that decreased birth weight effects associated with GLSCF consumption have decreased over time

  2. The Effect of Reduced Water Availability in the Great Ruaha River on the Vulnerable Common Hippopotamus in the Ruaha National Park, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stommel

    Full Text Available In semi-arid environments, 'permanent' rivers are essential sources of surface water for wildlife during 'dry' seasons when rainfall is limited or absent, particularly for species whose resilience to water scarcity is low. The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius requires submersion in water to aid thermoregulation and prevent skin damage by solar radiation; the largest threat to its viability are human alterations of aquatic habitats. In the Ruaha National Park (NP, Tanzania, the Great Ruaha River (GRR is the main source of surface water for wildlife during the dry season. Recent, large-scale water extraction from the GRR by people upstream of Ruaha NP is thought to be responsible for a profound decrease in dry season water-flow and the absence of surface water along large sections of the river inside the NP. We investigated the impact of decreased water flow on daytime hippo distribution using regular censuses at monitoring locations, transects and camera trap records along a 104km section of the GRR within the Ruaha NP during two dry seasons. The minimum number of hippos per monitoring location increased with the expanse of surface water as the dry seasons progressed, and was not affected by water quality. Hippo distribution significantly changed throughout the dry season, leading to the accumulation of large numbers in very few locations. If surface water loss from the GRR continues to increase in future years, this will have serious implications for the hippo population and other water dependent species in Ruaha NP.

  3. Quantifying phenology metrics from Great Basin plant communities and their relationship to seasonal water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush steppe is critical habitat in the Great Basin for wildlife and provides important ecosystem goods and services. Expansion of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) in the Great Basin has reduced the extent of sagebrush steppe causing habitat, fire, and...

  4. Low-dose biplanar radiography can be used in children and adolescents to accurately assess femoral and tibial torsion and greatly reduce irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyrignac, Olivier; Baunin, Christiane; Vial, Julie; Sans, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse Purpan, Department of Radiology, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Moreno, Ramiro [ALARA Expertise, Oberhausbergen (France); Accadbled, Franck; Gauzy, Jerome Sales de [Hopital des Enfants, Department of Orthopedics, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Sommet, Agnes [Universite Paul Sabatier, Department of Fundamental Pharmaco-Clinical Pharmacology, Toulouse (France)

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate in children the agreement between femoral and tibial torsion measurements obtained with low-dose biplanar radiography (LDBR) and CT, and to study dose reduction ratio between these two techniques both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty children with lower limb torsion abnormalities were included in a prospective study. Biplanar radiographs and CTs were performed for measurements of lower limb torsion on each patient. Values were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Interreader and intrareader agreements were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients. Comparative dosimetric study was performed using an ionization chamber in a tissue-equivalent phantom, and with thermoluminescent dosimeters in 5 patients. Average differences between CT and LDBR measurements were -0.1 ±1.1 for femoral torsion and -0.7 ±1.4 for tibial torsion. Interreader agreement for LDBR measurements was very good for both femoral torsion (FT) (0.81) and tibial torsion (TT) (0.87). Intrareader agreement was excellent for FT (0.97) and TT (0.89). The ratio between CT scan dose and LDBR dose was 22 in vitro (absorbed dose) and 32 in vivo (skin dose). Lower limb torsion measurements obtained with LDBR are comparable to CT measurements in children and adolescents, with a considerably reduced radiation dose. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of alternative planting strategies to reduce wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) damage to spring wheat in the northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, B L; Cárcamo, H A; Bremer, E

    2009-12-01

    Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., producers are often reluctant to use solid-stemmed wheat cultivars resistant to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), due to concerns regarding yield, efficacy or market opportunities. We evaluated the impact of several planting strategies on wheat yield and quality and wheat stem sawfly infestation at two locations over a three-year period. Experimental units consisted of large plots (50 by 200 m) located on commercial farms adjacent to wheat stem sawfly-infested fields. Compared with a monoculture of a hollow-stemmed cultivar ('AC Barrie'), planting a monoculture of a solid-stemmed cultivar ('AC Eatonia') increased yield by an average of 16% (0.4 mg ha(-1)) and increased the grade of wheat by one unit at the two most heavily infested site-years. Planting a 1:1 blend of AC Eatonia and AC Barrie increased yield by an average of 11%, whereas planting 20- or 40-m plot margins to AC Eatonia increased yield by an average of 8%. High wheat stem sawfly pressure limited the effectiveness of using resistant cultivars in field margins because plants were often infested beyond the plot margin, with uniform infestation down the length of the plots at the two most heavily infested site-years. The effectiveness of AC Eatonia to reduce wheat stem sawfly survivorship was modest in this study, probably due to weather-related factors influencing pith expression and to the high abundance of wheat stem sawfly. Greater benefits from planting field margins to resistant cultivars or planting a blend of resistant and susceptible cultivars might be achievable under lower wheat stem sawfly pressure.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of reducing national emissions of SO2 and metals in Poland on background pollution using a bioindication method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Baczewska-Dąbrowska, Aneta H; Dąbrowski, Piotr; Gworek, Barbara; Suwara, Irena

    2018-01-01

    Changes in environmental pollution by S, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in 2006-2014 were evaluated using a bioindication method. This method was based on measurements of pollutants in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. The measurements were performed in the Chojnowskie Forests, a region recognized as a background area for central Poland. The changes in the contents of sulfur (S) and metals in needles were not comparable with the changes in the global emissions of the pollutants in Poland. On average, the pollution level in the study area decreased by 9.9% for S, 61.4% for Pb, 22.5% for Cd, 11.7% for Zn and 10.4% for Cu. During the same period, global emissions in Poland decreased by 38.1% for S, 8.0% for Pb, 63.2% for Cd, 11.7% for Zn and 14.0% for Cu. Therefore, the differences in the changes in emissions and the needle contents of each element should be examined separately which was not a goal of this study. However, the discrepancy between these results did not prevent the use of bioindication methods. Evaluation of pollutant contents in plants reflected their incorporation in biological processes rather than air or soil pollution levels.

  7. Use of a molecular diagnostic test in AFB smear positive tuberculosis suspects greatly reduces time to detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestani Tukvadze

    Full Text Available The WHO has recommended the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests to detect and help combat M/XDR tuberculosis (TB. There are limited data on the performance and impact of these tests in field settings.The performance of the commercially available Genotype MTBDRplus molecular assay was compared to conventional methods including AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST using both an absolute concentration method on Löwenstein-Jensen media and broth-based method using the MGIT 960 system. Sputum specimens were obtained from TB suspects in the country of Georgia who received care through the National TB Program.Among 500 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens, 458 (91.6% had both a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a valid MTBDRplus assay result. The MTBDRplus assay detected isoniazid (INH resistance directly from the sputum specimen in 159 (89.8% of 177 specimens and MDR-TB in 109 (95.6% of 114 specimens compared to conventional methods. There was high agreement between the MTBDRplus assay and conventional DST results in detecting MDR-TB (kappa = 0.95, p<0.01. The most prevalent INH resistance mutation was S315T (78% in the katG codon and the most common rifampicin resistance mutation was S531L (68% in the rpoB codon. Among 13 specimens from TB suspects with negative sputum cultures, 7 had a positive MTBDRplus assay (3 with MDR-TB. The time to detection of MDR-TB was significantly less using the MTBDRplus assay (4.2 days compared to the use of standard phenotypic tests (67.3 days with solid media and 21.6 days with broth-based media.Compared to conventional methods, the MTBDRplus assay had high accuracy and significantly reduced time to detection of MDR-TB in an area with high MDR-TB prevalence. The use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for TB and drug resistance should increase the proportion of patients promptly placed on appropriate therapy.

  8. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  9. A preamplifier with reduced background noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.

    1950-01-01

    A description is given of a preamplifier in use with a mass spectrometer for rapid gas mixtures analysis, described in Report CEA-42. The instrument can be employed for amplifying any weak currents from high-impedance sources, in the frequency range 10 to 5000 cycle/sec

  10. Low dose X-irradiation of thymus filler cells in limiting dilution cultures of LPS-reactive B cells reduces the background Ig-secreting cells without affecting growth-supporting capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijkaas, H.; Preesman, A.A.; Benner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reactive B cells in the mouse can be determined in the limiting dilution culture system developed by Andersson et al. (1976, 1977) which is completely dependent upon the presence of thymus filler cells, usually of rat origin. The assessment of B cell clones of mouse origin, however, can be hampered by the occurrence of varying numbers of thymus-derived immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells. The number of these background Ig-secreting cells can be significantly reduced by low dose (110 mgray = 11 rad) X-irradiation of the rat thymus filler cells, without affecting their growth-supporting capacity. (Auth.)

  11. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  12. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voogt Carmen V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (n = 375: no intervention. Primary outcomes measures will be: 1 the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2 reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3 frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971

  13. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, Neslihan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of {sup 76}Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 10{sup 25} years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Q{sub ββ} = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from {sup 214}Bi ({sup 238}U-series), {sup 208}Tl ({sup 232}Th-series), {sup 42}K (progeny of {sup 42}Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  14. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  15. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-15

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD) web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (n = 375: no intervention). Primary outcomes measures will be: 1) the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2) reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3) frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971.

  16. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  17. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  18. On the spatial behavior of background plasma in different background pressure in CPS device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantaray, Subrata; Paikaray, Rita; Sahoo, Gourishankar; Das, Parthasarathi; Ghosh, Joydeep; Sanyasi, Amulya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Blob formation and transport is a major concern for investigators as it greatly reduces the efficiency of the devices. Initial results from CPS device confirm the role of fast neutrals inside the bulk plasma in the process of blob formation and transport. 2-D simulation of curvature and velocity shear instability in plasma structures suggest that in the presence of background plasma, secondary instability do not grow non-linearly to a high level and stabilizes the flow. Adiabaticity effect also creates a radial barrier for interchange modes. In the absence of background plasma the blob fragments even at the modest level of viscosity. The fast neutrals outside bulk plasma supposed to stabilize the system. The background plasma set up is aimed at creating fast neutrals outside main plasma column, hence; the background plasma set up is done in CPS device. The spatial behavior of plasma column in between electrodes is different for different base pressure in CPS device. The spatial variation of electron temperature of plasma column between electrodes is presented in this communication. Electron temperature is measured from emission spectroscopy data. The maximum electron temperature (line averaged) is ∼ 1.5 eV. (author)

  19. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  20. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  1. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  2. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  4. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  5. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  6. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  7. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  8. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  9. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  10. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific

  12. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  13. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  14. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  15. A method of background noise cancellation for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, D F; Yoshizawa, M

    2003-01-01

    When superconducting quantum inference devices (SQUIDs) operate in low-cost shielding or unshielded environments, the environmental background noise should be reduced to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present a background noise cancellation method based on a spectral subtraction algorithm. We first measure the background noise and estimate the noise spectrum using fast Fourier transform (FFT), then we subtract the spectrum of background noise from that of the observed noisy signal and the signal can be reconstructed by inverse FFT of the subtracted spectrum. With this method, the background noise, especially stationary inferences, can be suppressed well and the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased. Using high-T C radio-frequency SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer, we have measured the magnetic field produced by a watch, which was placed 35 cm under a SQUID. After noise cancellation, the signal-to-noise ratio could be greatly increased. We also used this method to eliminate the vibration noise of a cryocooler SQUID

  16. Installation of a muon veto for low background gamma spectroscopy at the LBNL low-background facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.J., E-mail: kjthomas@lbl.gov [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Norman, E.B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A.R.; Chan, Y.D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    An active veto system consisting of plastic scintillation panels was installed outside the Pb shielding of a 115% n-type HPGe detector in an effort to reduce background continuum generated by cosmic ray muons on the surface. The Low Background Facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performs low level assay (generally of primordial U, Th, K) of candidate construction materials for experiments that require a high level of radiopurity. The counting is performed in two facilities: one local surface site and a remote underground site of approximately 600 m.w.e. For the recently installed veto system at the surface location, the top scintillator panel has been in use for nearly 1 year and the full 3π anticoincidence shield was commissioned into normal counting operations in January 2013. The integrated background from 20 to 3600 keV is reduced overall by a factor of 8, where most of the energy spectrum above 100 keV achieves an overall reduction that varies from 8 to 10. A dramatic improvement of peak-to-background across the entire continuum is observed, greatly enhancing low-level peaks that would otherwise be obscured.

  17. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  18. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  19. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  20. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  1. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  2. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  3. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  4. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  5. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  6. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  7. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  8. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  9. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  10. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  11. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  12. A statistical background noise correction sensitive to the steadiness of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    A statistical background noise correction is developed for removing background noise contributions from measured source levels, producing a background noise-corrected source level. Like the standard background noise corrections of ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745, and ISO 11201, the statistical background correction increases as the background level approaches the measured source level, decreasing the background noise-corrected source level. Unlike the standard corrections, the statistical background correction increases with steadiness of the background and is excluded from use when background fluctuation could be responsible for measured differences between the source and background noise levels. The statistical background noise correction has several advantages over the standard correction: (1) enveloping the true source with known confidence, (2) assuring physical source descriptions when measuring sources in fluctuating backgrounds, (3) reducing background corrected source descriptions by 1 to 8 dB for sources in steady backgrounds, and (4) providing a means to replace standardized background correction caps that incentivize against high precision grade methods.

  13. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  14. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  15. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  16. Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT

    OpenAIRE

    Pütz, P.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Justen, M.; Schultz, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2012-01-01

    Supplementing the publications based on the first-light observations with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on SOFIA, we present background information on the underlying heterodyne detector technology. We describe the superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) detectors that are used as frequency mixers in the L1 (1400 GHz), L2 (1900 GHz), and M (2500 GHz) channels of GREAT. Measured performance of the detectors is presented and background information on the...

  17. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  18. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  19. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  20. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  1. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  2. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  3. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  4. Redistribution of energetic particles by background turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, T.; Jenko, F.

    2007-01-01

    The quest to understand the turbulent transport of particles, momentum and energy in magnetized plasmas remains a key challenge in fusion research. A basic issue being .still relatively poorly understood is the turbulent ExB advection of charged test particles with large gyroradii. Especially the interaction of alpha particles or impurities with the background turbulence is of great interest. In order to understand the dependence of the particle diffusivity on the interaction mechanisms between FLR effects and the special structure of a certain type of turbulence, direct numerical simulations are done in artificially created two dimensional turbulent electrostatic fields, assuming a constant magnetic field. Finite gyroradius effects are introduced using the gyrokinetic approximation which means that the gyrating particle is simply replaced by a charged ring. Starting from an idealized isotropic potential with Gaussian autocorrelation function, numerous test particle simulations are done varying both the gyroradius and the Kubo number of the potential. It is found that for Kubo numbers larger than about unity, the particle diffusivity is almost independent of the gyroradius as long as the latter does not exceed the correlation length of the electrostatic potential, whereas for small Kubo numbers the diffusivity is monotonically reduced. The underlying physical mechanisms of this behavior are identified and an analytic approach is developed which favorably agrees with the simulation results. The investigations are extended by introducing anisotropic structures like streamers and zonal flows into the artificial potential, leading to quantitative modulations of the gyroradius dependence of the diffusion coefficient. Analytic models are used to explain these various effects. After having developed a general overview on the behavior in simplified artificial potentials, test particle simulations in realistic turbulence created by the gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE are

  5. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  6. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  7. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  8. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  9. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  10. Infrared image background modeling based on improved Susan filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehua, Xia

    2018-02-01

    When SUSAN filter is used to model the infrared image, the Gaussian filter lacks the ability of direction filtering. After filtering, the edge information of the image cannot be preserved well, so that there are a lot of edge singular points in the difference graph, increase the difficulties of target detection. To solve the above problems, the anisotropy algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the anisotropic Gauss filter is used instead of the Gauss filter in the SUSAN filter operator. Firstly, using anisotropic gradient operator to calculate a point of image's horizontal and vertical gradient, to determine the long axis direction of the filter; Secondly, use the local area of the point and the neighborhood smoothness to calculate the filter length and short axis variance; And then calculate the first-order norm of the difference between the local area of the point's gray-scale and mean, to determine the threshold of the SUSAN filter; Finally, the built SUSAN filter is used to convolution the image to obtain the background image, at the same time, the difference between the background image and the original image is obtained. The experimental results show that the background modeling effect of infrared image is evaluated by Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity (SSIM) and local Signal-to-noise Ratio Gain (GSNR). Compared with the traditional filtering algorithm, the improved SUSAN filter has achieved better background modeling effect, which can effectively preserve the edge information in the image, and the dim small target is effectively enhanced in the difference graph, which greatly reduces the false alarm rate of the image.

  11. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  12. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  13. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  14. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  15. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  16. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  17. The spinorial method of classifying supersymmetric backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2006-01-01

    We review how the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity can be reduced to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This is an extension of the work [hep-th/0503046

  18. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  19. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  20. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  1. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  2. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  3. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  4. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  5. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  6. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  7. Research on background neutron of 226Ra γ source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the background neutron emission of 226 Ra γ source: the mechanism of resulting in background neutron is studied; a thesis that the (α, n) type reaction on Radium carriers Cl or Br is the main source of creating background neutron emission of 226 Ra γ source has been proposed and certificated; a proposal of substitution of Cl carrier by Br in radium source produced in China in order to reduce background neutron emission is put forward. A result to reduce the background neutron from 96.4 neutrons/4πsmgRa to 6.1 neutrons/4πsmgRa is obtained

  8. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  9. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  10. Noise correlations in cosmic microwave background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kosowsky, Arthur; Myers, Steven T.

    1995-01-01

    Many analysis of microwave background experiments neglect the correlation of noise in different frequency of polarization channels. We show that these correlations, should they be present, can lead to serve misinterpretation of an experiment. In particular, correlated noise arising from either electronics or atmosphere may mimic a cosmic signal. We quantify how the likelihood function for a given experiment varies with noise correlation, using both simple analytic models and actual data. For a typical microwave background anisotropy experiment, noise correlations at the level of 1% of the overall noise can seriously reduce the significance of a given detection.

  11. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  12. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  13. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  14. The Great Books and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  15. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  16. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  17. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  18. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  19. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  20. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  1. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  2. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, L. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  3. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  4. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  5. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  6. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  7. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  8. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  9. Learning and the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Singh, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    We study a stylized theory of the volatility reduction in the U.S. after 1984 - the Great Moderation - which attributes part of the stabilization to less volatile shocks and another part to more difficult inference on the part of Bayesian households attempting to learn the latent state of the economy. We use a standard equilibrium business cycle model with technology following an unobserved regime-switching process. After 1984, according to Kim and Nelson (1999a), the variance of U.S. macroec...

  10. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  11. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  12. What killed Alexander the Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  13. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  14. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  15. Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.

  16. Detection prospects of the cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015).

  17. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  18. Studying The Great Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Torkunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article revises an established view of Russian Revolution as two separate events - February Revolution and October Revolution. The author supports the concept of the «Great Russian Revolution», which unites these two events in a single process of revolutionary development. The author draws attention to the following advantages of the concept under consideration. First, it conceptualizes the revolution as a process contingent of a local and global historical context. In this sense, the revolution is presented as the transition of society to the modern stage of development, meaning the transition to modernity. Second, revolutionary events in Russia are considered from the point of view of the evolution of the spatial and socioeconomic distribution and rearrangement of key social groups: peasantry, elites, national and ethnic minorities. Third, it takes into account the personal factor in the revolutionary events, the influence of individual personalities on escalation or the reduction of socio-political tensions. Fourth, it draws attention to the fact that revolutions imply the use of various forms of political violence. Each revolution is characterized by a unique correlation of forms and intensity of political violence. Finally, it gives a normative assessment of the Revolution, encouraging a national discussion on the results and consequences of this great event.

  19. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  20. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  1. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  2. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  3. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  4. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  5. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  6. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  7. The Great Hedge of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great Hedge of India', a 3 700 kilometre-long hedge installed by the British customs to safeguard the colonial salt tax system and avoid salt smuggling totally faded from both memory and records (e.g. maps) in less than a century. Roy Moxham found traces of the hedge in a book footnote and searched it for several years until he found its meagre remains. The speaker wrote a book about this quest. He said that this story reveals how things disappear when they are no longer useful and, especially, when they are linked to parts of history that are not deemed particularly positive (the hedge was a means of colonial power)

  8. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  9. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  10. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  11. The origin of 'Great Walls'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2009-01-01

    A new semi-analytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. The set of these regions in Lagrangian space form the progenitor of the structure and after the mapping it determines the pattern of the structure in real or redshift space. The particle trajectories have crossed in such regions and the mapping is no longer unique there. The progenitor after mapping makes only one stream in the multi-stream flow regions therefore it does not comprise all the mass. Nevertheless, it approximately retains the shape of the structure. The progenitor of the structure in real space is determined by the linear density field along with two non-Gaussian fields derived from the initial potential. Its shape in Eulerian space is also affected by the displacement field. The progenitor of the structure in redshift space also depends on these fields but in addition it is strongly affected by two anisotropic fields that determine the pattern of great walls as well as their huge sizes. All the fields used in the mappings are derived from the linear potential smoothed at the current scale of nonlinearity which is R nl = 2.7 h −1 Mpc for the adopted parameters of the ΛCDM universe normalized to σ 8 = 0.8. The model predicts the existence of walls with sizes significantly greater than 500 h −1 Mpc that may be found in sufficiently large redshift surveys

  12. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  13. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  14. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  15. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  16. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  17. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  18. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  19. The Great Recession and Workers' Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kanghyock

    2018-03-01

    During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  1. The heart and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, V.

    1985-01-01

    Heart disease is the fifth most common cause of death in infants and children (preceded by anoxic and hypoxic conditions, gross congenital malformations, accidental death, and immaturity). Of all the cardiac lesions, congenital heart disease (CHD) makes up the gross majority, accounting for approximately 90% of all cardiac deaths. Approximately two-thirds of all infants who die from CHD do so within the first year of life; of these, approximately one-third die within the first month. The most common cause of death in the first month is hypoplastic left heart syndrome and lesions associated with it, i.e., aortic atresia/critical aortic stenosis and mitral atresia/critical mitral stenosis. Severe coarctation of the aorta (coarctation syndrome) and transposition of the great arteries are the other most important causes of death in this age group. CHD occurs as a familial condition in approximately 1-4% of cases; ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defect are particularly common forms. Parental age plays an important role, with a significantly increased risk of CHD in infants of mothers over 39 years of age. Patent ductus arteriosus is more prevalent in firstborn children, particularly those born prematurely to young mothers. Environmental factors, such as exposure to teratogenic agents, have also been shown to increase the incidence of CHD. Children with various syndromes also have increased incidence of CHD. Down syndrome is a classic example, as are other trisomies

  2. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  3. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  4. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  5. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  6. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  7. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  8. Wages, Productivity and Work Intensity in the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Darby; Robert A Hart

    2002-01-01

    We show that U.S. manufacturing wages during the Great Depression were importantly determined by forces on firms' intensive margins. Short-run changes in work intensity and the longer-term goal of restoring full potential productivity combined to influence real wage growth. By contrast, the external effects of unemployment and replacement rates had much less impact. Empirical work is undertaken against the background of an efficient bargaining model that embraces employment, hours of work and...

  9. Background Selection in Partially Selfing Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Self-fertilizing species often present lower levels of neutral polymorphism than their outcrossing relatives. Indeed, selfing automatically increases the rate of coalescence per generation, but also enhances the effects of background selection and genetic hitchhiking by reducing the efficiency of recombination. Approximations for the effect of background selection in partially selfing populations have been derived previously, assuming tight linkage between deleterious alleles and neutral loci. However, loosely linked deleterious mutations may have important effects on neutral diversity in highly selfing populations. In this article, I use a general method based on multilocus population genetics theory to express the effect of a deleterious allele on diversity at a linked neutral locus in terms of moments of genetic associations between loci. Expressions for these genetic moments at equilibrium are then computed for arbitrary rates of selfing and recombination. An extrapolation of the results to the case where deleterious alleles segregate at multiple loci is checked using individual-based simulations. At high selfing rates, the tight linkage approximation underestimates the effect of background selection in genomes with moderate to high map length; however, another simple approximation can be obtained for this situation and provides accurate predictions as long as the deleterious mutation rate is not too high. PMID:27075726

  10. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...

  11. Imaging of pediatric great vessel stents : Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Harder, A M; Suchá, D; van Hamersvelt, R W; Budde, R P J; de Jong, P A; Schilham, A M R; Bos, C; Breur, J M P J; Leiner, T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications might occur after great vessel stent implantation in children. Therefore follow-up using imaging is warranted. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of stents used to treat great vessel obstructions in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five

  12. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  13. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  14. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  15. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  16. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  18. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  19. The determination and use of radionuclide background in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Background is the major component of gross photon peak area. Therefore, net area, nuclide activity, counting uncertainty, and limits of detection calculations are no better than the calculation of background. In this study, background in gamma spectrometry is explored in several of its aspects. Means are presented to reduce background. Standard practices are presented to be used in the acquisition of valid, relevant background data. Unified standard calculations with examples are presented in the use of background data to determine net count and counting uncertainty. L. A. Currie's latest calculations of Lower Limits of Detection (1) (LLD) as they apply to gamma spectrometry are reviewed. Finally, Maximum Undetected Activity (MUA), LLD, and Critical Level (CL) concepts and calculations are compared in sample spectra

  20. Regional versus local influences on lead and cadmium loading to the Great Lakes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohn, S.; Long, D.; Fett, J.; Patino, L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2004-07-01

    Environmental legislation has reduced the anthropogenic loadings of Pb and Cd to the Great Lakes region over the past 3 decades. However, the accumulation rates of these metals still remain above background values. Because environmental legislation was targeted at major sources (e.g., Pb in gasoline) whose influence on the environment was on a regional scale, local sources (e.g., watershed scale) for the metals may now play a more significant role. The relative importance of regional versus local scale influences on metal inputs to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, sediment chronologies of Pb and Cd were examined from 12 inland lakes that cover the broad geographic area of the State of Michigan. These chronologies were compared temporally and spatially and to watershed population densities and metal production records to gain an understanding of local and regional influences on metal inputs to the Great Lakes region. Results show that anthropogenic Pb loading during the 1930s and 1970s was dominated by regional sources. such as coal burning and use of leaded gasoline. Current loadings are now more related to local influences such as watershed population densities, rather than atmospheric deposition. Anthropogenic Cd loadings to the Great Lakes region have been dominated by both regional and local sources over time. Lead may also have shown the influence of local sources over time, if the influence of emissions from gasoline had not been present. This work shows that Pb and Cd loadings in the Great Lakes region are strongly related to watershed population densities; however, the specific sources and pathways for the metal cycling are unclear.

  1. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn. The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228 Th.

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  3. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  4. Effect of background correction on peak detection and quantification in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert C; John, Mallory G; Rutan, Sarah C; Filgueira, Marcelo R; Carr, Peter W

    2012-09-07

    A singular value decomposition-based background correction (SVD-BC) technique is proposed for the reduction of background contributions in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) data. The SVD-BC technique was compared to simply subtracting a blank chromatogram from a sample chromatogram and to a previously reported background correction technique for one dimensional chromatography, which uses an asymmetric weighted least squares (AWLS) approach. AWLS was the only background correction technique to completely remove the background artifacts from the samples as evaluated by visual inspection. However, the SVD-BC technique greatly reduced or eliminated the background artifacts as well and preserved the peak intensity better than AWLS. The loss in peak intensity by AWLS resulted in lower peak counts at the detection thresholds established using standards samples. However, the SVD-BC technique was found to introduce noise which led to detection of false peaks at the lower detection thresholds. As a result, the AWLS technique gave more precise peak counts than the SVD-BC technique, particularly at the lower detection thresholds. While the AWLS technique resulted in more consistent percent residual standard deviation values, a statistical improvement in peak quantification after background correction was not found regardless of the background correction technique used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Background as a residual radioactivity criterion for decommissioning: Appendix A to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffert, A.M.; Meck, R.A.; Miller, K.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report was originally published as an appendix to the draft U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document entitled, open-quotes Generic Environmental Impact Statement in Support of Rulemaking on Radiological Criteria for Decommissioning of NRC-Licensed Nuclear Facilities.close quotes Because of the great interest in this report by members of the public, citizen and environmental organizations, academicians, licensees, and regulators, the NRC staff is publishing this report separately, so that it can be readily available to a diverse audience. This report was created to assist both the NRC staff and interested members of the public in evaluating background radiation (background) as a decommissioning criterion, by serving as a primer on background and providing information on the existing applications of background in regulatory criteria and standards. This report also discusses some of the methods available to measure and distinguish between the very low radiation levels associated with background and man-made sources of radiation. Two approaches are considered for applying background as a decommissioning criterion; these are the use of background dose rates and background radionuclide concentrations. This report concludes that the temporal and spatial variability of background produces a wide range of doses to United States residents, which prevents the application of background dose rates as a decommissioning criterion. Instead, this report recommends that local background radionuclide concentrations serve as a benchmark for decommissioning criteria, while taking into account the concept of reducing residual radioactivity to a level as low as is reasonably achievable

  6. The great exterminator of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, D

    1992-05-30

    community to make human development a priority and reduce debt.

  7. Legislative background of food and nutrition policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andreeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective policy aimed at improving nutrition practices is highly recognized by the global community. METHODS: Analysis of Ukrainian legislative documents was conducted to clarify the situation in the field of policy initiatives and legislation devoted to nutrition in Ukraine. Documents in force adopted from 1991 to 2011 including key words “nutrition”, “health”, “concept”, and “food products” were reviewed.RESULTS: We reviewed 55 legislative acts related to nutrition and identified several groups: 18 documents are related to organization of supply, regimen, norms of nutrition in state establishments or for special populations; 12 documents related to economic and technological regulation of food preparation, quality control and distribution; 3 documents regulating nutritious and safety norms of food products for children under 3 years; 14 documents aimed to control food safety, quality and accessibility; 6 other documents partly referred to nutrition, including 4 Concepts of healthy lifestyles. Some of the principles of healthy eating are declared in the “Concept of improving food security and quality of nutrition of the population” approved by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. Principles of maintaining breastfeeding, activities aimed to reduce iodine deficiency among population as well as school educational program “Foundations of health” were those few governmental activities, which supported some of the ideas declared in the Concept. CONCLUSION: Great attention of policymakers is paid to regulation of production, distribution of food, its quality control, affordability of products for special population groups, especially children. Not much attention is devoted in the official documents to creating and maintaining the healthy eating practices of the population. Mechanisms aimed to form healthy eating practices are not specified in the legislative documents. No regulatory documents to

  8. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N; Fahringer, Timothy W; Clifford, Christopher J; Thurow, Brian S; Bathel, Brett F

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields. (paper)

  9. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  10. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  11. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  12. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza

    2009-01-01

    We study the field profile of a scalar field φ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential Φ c at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V(φ) = M 4+n φ −n by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential Φ c is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for Φ c ∼< O(0.1)

  13. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  14. Alpha Background Discrimination in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszko, Julieta; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator (MJD) searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would have implications for grand-unification and the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In MJD, potential background events that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating on the passivated detector surface have been observed. We have studied these events by scanning the passivated surface of a P-type point contact detector like those used in MJD with a collimated alpha source. We observe that surface alpha events exhibit high charge-trapping, with a significant fraction of the trapped charge being re-released slowly. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of these events and the filter developed to identify the occurrence of this delayed charge recovery, allowing for the efficient rejection of passivated surface alpha events while retaining 99.8% of bulk events. We also discuss the impact of this filter on the sensitivity of MJD. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Phys., the Particle Astrophys. and Nuclear Phys. Programs of the NSF, and SURF. Additional support from the NSFGRFP under Grant No. 1256082.

  15. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this

  16. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  17. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  18. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...

  19. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han,Jae Woong; Abdal Daye,Ahmed; Eppakayala,Vasuki; Kim,Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Vasuki Eppakayala, Jin-Hoi KimDepartment of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South KoreaBackground: Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxid...

  20. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  1. Observations and modeling of seismic background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data.With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise.Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the TERRAscope network

  2. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  3. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in…

  4. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  5. Libraries Achieving Greatness: Technology at the Helm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    Libraries have been around for thousands of years. Many of them are considered great because of their magnificent architecture or because of the size of their collections. This paper offers ten case studies of libraries that have used technology to achieve greatness. Because almost any library can implement technology, a library does not have to…

  6. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  7. The AMEMIYA probe. Theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitz, Hans Joahim; Althausen, Bernhard; Uehara, Kazuya; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The present probe was developed in order to measure the temperature T i of positive ions in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamak where T i is usually larger than the electron temperature Ti so that the presheath in front of the probe need not be considered and the ions reach the probe with the thermal velocity. The axis of the cylindrical probe is placed parallel to the magnetic field. The important parameter are L/a, the ratio of the length to the radius of the cylindrical probe and κ, the ratio of the probe radius to (π/4) 1/2 , where is the mean ion Larmor radius. The ion current densities to the side and the end surfaces are expressed by the double integral, which can give an analytical formula with respect to the value of κ. If two electrodes with different lengths are placed parallel to the magnetic field, the difference of current densities can be reduced to κ and hence to Ti. Some examples of the application of the probe to tokamaks, JFT-2M and Textor, are demonstrated. (author)

  8. Facial and bodily correlates of family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Perrett, David I

    2006-09-22

    It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images of faces of women whose parents separated during their childhood (who were 'father absent'), women whose parents remained together, but had poor quality relationships and women whose parents were together and had good quality relationships. Images were then rated by male and female judges. Father absence and poor parental relationships were associated with apparent facial masculinity and reduced attractiveness in daughters. Poor parental relationships were also associated with reduced apparent health. Study 2 compared family background with body measurements and found that father absence or a poor quality relationship between parents were associated with body masculinity (high waist-to-hip ratio) and increased weight-for-height and adiposity. These results highlight the possibility of physical masculinization being associated with purported father absence 'effects'.

  9. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  10. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  11. Background television in the homes of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2012-11-01

    US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children's background television exposure. US parents/caregivers (N = 1454) with 1 child between the ages of 8 months and 8 years participated in this study. A nationally representative telephone survey was conducted. Parents were asked to report on their child's exposure to background television via a 24-hour time diary. Parents were also asked to report relevant home media behaviors related to their child: bedroom television ownership, number of televisions in the home, and how often a television was on in the home. The average US child was exposed to 232.2 minutes of background television on a typical day. With the use of multiple regression analysis, we found that younger children and African American children were exposed to more background television. Leaving the television on while no one is viewing and children's bedroom television ownership were associated with increased background television exposure. Although recent research has shown the negative consequences associated with background television, this study provides the first nationally representative estimates of that exposure. The amount of exposure for the average child is startling. This study offers practitioners potential pathways to reduce exposure.

  12. Advanced Background Subtraction Applied to Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Horne, William C.

    2015-01-01

    An advanced form of background subtraction is presented and applied to aeroacoustic wind tunnel data. A variant of this method has seen use in other fields such as climatology and medical imaging. The technique, based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the background noise cross-spectral matrix, is robust against situations where isolated background auto-spectral levels are measured to be higher than levels of combined source and background signals. It also provides an alternate estimate of the cross-spectrum, which previously might have poor definition for low signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Simulated results indicate similar performance to conventional background subtraction when the subtracted spectra are weaker than the true contaminating background levels. Superior performance is observed when the subtracted spectra are stronger than the true contaminating background levels. Experimental results show limited success in recovering signal behavior for data where conventional background subtraction fails. They also demonstrate the new subtraction technique's ability to maintain a proper coherence relationship in the modified cross-spectral matrix. Beam-forming and de-convolution results indicate the method can successfully separate sources. Results also show a reduced need for the use of diagonal removal in phased array processing, at least for the limited data sets considered.

  13. Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Johanna; Marshall, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Managers face a future in which the impacts of climate change on tropical marine ecosystems are becoming increasingly frequent and severe. Further degradation is inevitable as the climate continues to change but the extent of the decline will depend on the rate and magnitude of climate change and the resilience of the ecosystem. Changes to the ecosystem have implications for the industries and regional communities that depend on the GBR. Climate projections for the GBR region include increasing air and sea temperatures, ocean acidification, nutrient enrichment (via changes in rainfall), altered light levels, more extreme weather events, changes to ocean circulation and sea level rise. Impacts have already been observed, with severe coral bleaching events in 1998 and 2002, and mass mortalities of seabirds linked to anomalously warm summer conditions. Climate change also poses significant threats to the industries and communities that depend on the GBR ecosystem, both directly and indirectly through loss of natural resources; industries such as recreational and commercial fishing, and tourism, which contributes to a regional tourism industry worth $6.1 billion (Access Economics 2005). A vulnerability assessment undertaken by leading experts in climate and marine science identified climate sensitivities for GBR species, habitats, key processes, GBR industries and communities (Johnson and Marshall 2007). This information has been used to develop a Climate Change Action Plan for the GBR. The Action Plan is a five-year program aimed at facilitating targeted science, building a resilient ecosystem, assisting adaptation of industries and communities, and reducing climate footprints. The Action Plan identifies strategies to review current management arrangements and raise awareness of the issue in order to work towards a resilient ecosystem. Integral to

  14. Spectrum and isotropy of the submillimeter background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlner, D.

    1977-01-01

    Two great astronomical discoveries have most shaped our present concept of the Big Bang universe. Like the Hubble recession of the galaxies, the discovery of the 3 0 K background radiation by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 has given rise to a line of research which is still very active today. Penzias and Wilson's universal microwave background at 7 cm was immediately interpreted by R.H. Dicke's group at Princeton as coming from the primordial fireball of incandescent plasma which filled the universe for the million years or so after its explosive birth. This interpretation gives rise to two crucial predictions as to the nature of the background radiation. Its spectrum should be thermal even after having been red shifted by a factor of approximately 1000 by the expansion of the universe, and the radiation should be isotropic - assuming that the universe itself is isotropic. If the background radiation is indeed from the primordial fireball it affords us the only direct view at the very young universe. This paper deals with the spectrum and then the isotropy of the background radiation, with emphasis on high frequency or submillimeter measurements. Prospects for the future are discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  15. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  16. Credit spread variability in U.S. business cycles: the Great Moderation versus the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton Hollander; Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...

  17. Credit spread variability in U.S. business cycles: The Great Moderation versus the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton Hollander and Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...

  18. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  19. An ultralow background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, R.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Ryge, P.

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring of minimum detectable activity is becoming increasingly important as environmental concerns and regulations require more sensitive measurement of the radioactivity levels in the workplace and the home. In measuring this activity, however, the background becomes one of the limiting factors. Anticoincidence systems utilizing both NaI(T1) and plastic scintillators have proven effective in reducing some components of the background, but radiocontaminants in the various regions of these systems have limited their effectiveness, and their cost is often prohibitive. In order to obtain a genuinely low background detector system, all components must be free of detectable radioactivity, and the cosmic ray produced contribution must be significantly reduced. Current efforts by the authors to measure the double beta decay of Germanium 76 as predicted by Grand Unified Theories have resulted in the development of a high resolution germanium diode gamma spectrometer with an exceptionally low background. This paper describes the development of this system, outlines the configuration and operation of its preamplifier, linear amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, 4096-channel analyzer, shielding consisting of lead-sandwiched plastic scintillators wrapped in cadmium foil, photomultiplier, and its pulse generator and discriminator, and then discusses how the system can be utilized to significantly reduce the background in high resolution photon spectrometers at only moderate cost

  20. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  1. Visual Suppression of Monocularly Presented Symbology Against a Fused Background in a Simulation and Training Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterbottom, Marc D; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J; Taylor, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    .... This may create interocular differences in image characteristics that could disrupt binocular vision by provoking visual suppression, thus reducing visibility of the background scene, monocular symbology...

  2. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  3. Great Power Interests and Conflicting Objectives in the Mediterranean-Middle East-Persian Gulf Region. Part I. Background Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Tunisia , and Algeria; between Italy and 1ibya; and between Britain and Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and the Persia.i Gulf. The British now have little more... Petrole : la troisieme guerre mondiale, pp. 215 ff (Paris, 1974) 56 All this adds up to a mixed bag of conceptual and structural differences which is...signed an agree- ment with Morocco (for two patrol vessels) and Tunisia (one patrol vessel) and expanded its arms deals with Libya. Germany and Italy

  4. The Great Recession and confidence in homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.

  5. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  6. The Making of a Great Captain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weibel, Theodore G

    2006-01-01

    ... judgement. This paper examines the hypothesis that Great Captains are a product of their families, are highly educated from an early age, possess the qualities of a genius, encounter grand life experiences...

  7. Thirty years of great ape gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Call, Josep

    2018-02-21

    We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of the process have been reliably established by multiple researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that they are fixed action patterns, as there are many differences, including the use of attention-getters. It is also a mistake, we argue, to assimilate great ape gestures to human gestures by claiming that they are used referentially and declaratively in a human-like manner, as apes' "pointing" gesture has many limitations and they do not gesture iconically. Great ape gestures constitute a unique form of primate communication with their own unique qualities.

  8. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  9. Theodosius Dohzhansky: A Great Inspirer 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the direct personal influence of some of these great scientists on their peers and successors is re~atively small. A very small number of scientists ... studying the evolutionary genetics of speciation in Drosophila. --------~--------43. RESONANCE I ...

  10. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  11. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  12. The diverse impacts of the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession had a large negative impact on the U.S. economy. Asset prices, most notably stock and house prices, declined substantially, resulting in a loss in wealth for many American households. In this article, Makoto Nakajima documents how diverse households were affected in a variety of dimensions during the Great Recession, in particular between 2007 and 2009, using newly available data from the 2007-2009 Survey of Consumer Finances. He discusses why it is important to look at th...

  13. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  14. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  15. Background matching and evolution of cryptic colours of selected passerines in deciduous woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursell, Jens; Dyck, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Most drab plumage colours are probably cryptic. Crypsis (camouflage) occurs when the colour of a significant part of the plumage is similar to the colour of a significant part of the background against which the prey bird may be detected by a potential predator. In this study we compare back...... colours of tits and associated species with colour backgrounds in their habitat during a four-month period in winter. We test the hypothesis that in some of the species back colour is similar to one of the background colours. In addition to colour backgrounds, microhabitats and tree species were also...... recorded. Great Tit Parus major, Nuthatch Sitta europea and Treecreeper Certhia familiaris showed distinct preferences for different colour backgrounds, reflecting their choice of microhabitats and tree species. The data suggest that in the Great Tit the olivemoss green back colour has evolved as crypsis...

  16. Genetic background impacts vaccine-induced reduction of pneumococcal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Kirsten; Van Selm, Saskia; van Opzeeland, Fred; Langereis, Jeroen D.; Verhagen, Lilly M.; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A.; De Jonge, Marien I.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most successful strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory infections. Recent evidence suggests that differences in the host genetic background and environmental factors may contribute to heterogeneity in the immune response to vaccination.

  17. State of the art of D ampersand D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D ampersand D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D ampersand D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ''rough surfaces'' includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluation and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D ampersand D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface

  18. Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Are These Guys Serious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could contain the oldest information in the universe, dating from an inflationary epoch just after the Big Bang. Detecting this signal presents an experimental challenge, as it is both faint and hidden behind complicated foregrounds. The rewards, however, are great, as a positive detection would not only establish inflation as a physical reality but also provide a model-independent measurement of the relevant energy scale. I will present the scientific motivation behind measurements of the CMB polarization and discuss how recent experimental progress could lead to a detection in the not-very-distant future.

  19. Star point centroid algorithm based on background forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhao, Rujin; Zhu, Nan

    2014-09-01

    The calculation of star point centroid is a key step of improving star tracker measuring error. A star map photoed by APS detector includes several noises which have a great impact on veracity of calculation of star point centroid. Through analysis of characteristic of star map noise, an algorithm of calculation of star point centroid based on background forecast is presented in this paper. The experiment proves the validity of the algorithm. Comparing with classic algorithm, this algorithm not only improves veracity of calculation of star point centroid, but also does not need calibration data memory. This algorithm is applied successfully in a certain star tracker.

  20. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  1. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Brodie, Jon E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Rohde, Ken W.; Davis, Aaron M.; Masters, Bronwyn L.; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change. - Herbicide residues have been detected in Great Barrier Reef catchment waterways and river water plumes which may affect marine ecosystems.

  2. Artificial reefs and reef restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Matthew W.; Roseman, Edward; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the published literature to provide an inventory of Laurentian Great Lakes artificial reef projects and their purposes. We also sought to characterize physical and biological monitoring for artificial reef projects in the Great Lakes and determine the success of artificial reefs in meeting project objectives. We found records of 6 artificial reefs in Lake Erie, 8 in Lake Michigan, 3 in Lakes Huron and Ontario, and 2 in Lake Superior. We found 9 reefs in Great Lakes connecting channels and 6 reefs in Great Lakes tributaries. Objectives of artificial reef creation have included reducing impacts of currents and waves, providing safe harbors, improving sport-fishing opportunities, and enhancing/restoring fish spawning habitats. Most reefs in the lakes themselves were incidental (not created purposely for fish habitat) or built to improve local sport fishing, whereas reefs in tributaries and connecting channels were more frequently built to benefit fish spawning. Levels of assessment of reef performance varied; but long-term monitoring was uncommon as was assessment of physical attributes. Artificial reefs were often successful at attracting recreational species and spawning fish; however, population-level benefits of artificial reefs are unclear. Stressors such as sedimentation and bio-fouling can limit the effectiveness of artificial reefs as spawning enhancement tools. Our investigation underscores the need to develop standard protocols for monitoring the biological and physical attributes of artificial structures. Further, long-term monitoring is needed to assess the benefits of artificial reefs to fish populations and inform future artificial reef projects.

  3. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  4. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  5. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on trends in developing innovative technologies related to reducing CO2 emission in departments consuming great quantity of energy, such as petrochemical industry; 1999 nendo sekiyu kagaku kogyo nado energy tashohi bumon ni okeru CO{sub 2} sakugen ni kansuru kakushinteki gijutsu kaihatsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey was performed on the state of developing energy saving and CO2 emission reducing technologies in the following fields: (1) distillation technologies, (2) combustion technologies, (3) heat transfer and conduction technologies, and (4) technologies to convert and fix generated CO2. While the technologies in the field (1) are of the matured domain, technologies providing 20 to 60% energy saving effect have been developed. In the field (2), gas turbine combustion can achieve an overall plant thermal efficiency of 50% or more, whereas a trial calculation indicates that CO2 emission can be reduced by 22%. Catalytic combustion is noticed as a measure to make low NOx emission possible. A composite type catalytic combustor for gas turbines demonstrated that NOx emission of less than 5 ppm can be achieved. In the field (3), energy saving effect higher by 52% than in the warm wind room heating system has been obtained. Development has been made on heat storing materials that have phase change temperature of higher than 80 degrees C and large latent heat storage quantity. In the field (4), researches are advanced in a TiO{sub 2} catalyst that uses sunlight. A catalyst that is methanated at high speed with CO2 conversion rate at nearly 100% has been developed. In methanol synthesis, a catalyst that has high selectivity even at low temperatures has been developed. (NEDO)

  6. The noise background and its suppression in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangcheng

    1996-01-01

    In the modern high energy physics experiments, system is very complicated and from a lot of sources may originate noise and background. How to reduce and restrain noise and backgrounds? It should use different suppression mode for different kinds of noise and backgrounds

  7. [CLINICAL BACKGROUND ANALYSIS ABOUT TRANSURETHRAL ELECTROCOAGULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Yazawa, Satoshi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Morita, Shinya; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Shinojima, Toshiaki; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-10-01

    Transurethral electrocoagulation (TUC) is a rare event but occurs in a constant manner with various causes or disorders and reduces patient quality of life. So far there have been no reports focusing on the details of TUC. We focused on the clinical background and related causes in cases of TUC in our institution. We identified 76 cases (65 patients) who underwent TUC at Keio University Hospital between April 2001 and March 2011. We focused on patient background, especially with respect to the primary disease, treatment modality, use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant agent, timing of TUC, type of electrosurgical device, and the incidence of transfusion. The primary disease for TUC included bladder tumor (BT) in 31 cases, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in 13, prostate cancer (PCa) in 13, idiopathic bladder bleeding in 4, periarteritis nodosa in 3, uterine cervical cancer in 3, and others in 9. TUC after transurethral resection (TUR) was found in 38 cases, including transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in 26 of 31 BT cases and transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in 12 of 13 BPH cases. After TURBT, TUC was performed before removal of a urethral catheter in 7 cases, and after removal of a urethral catheter in 19 cases. With regard to TUC associated with TURP, the average estimated prostate volume in TUC cases before removal of the urethral catheter was 66.2 ml, which was significantly larger than that in TUC cases after removal of the urethral catheter (46.1 ml, p = 0.045). TUC after the radiation therapy was observed in 21 cases, and the average time from the radiation therapy to TUC was 3.4 years (7 months-10 years). TUC was caused by multiple causes or disorders, and 75% of our TUC was associated with BT, BPH or PCa. TUC associated with TURBT frequently occurred within 1 week after TURBT but was still observed after 1 month following the operation. All TUC associated with TURP occurred within 3 weeks after operation. The average period from

  8. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  9. Demonstration of Cosmic Microwave Background Delensing Using the Cosmic Infrared Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Patricia; Challinor, Anthony; Sherwin, Blake D; Mak, Daisy

    2016-10-07

    Delensing is an increasingly important technique to reverse the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thus reveal primordial signals the lensing may obscure. We present a first demonstration of delensing on Planck temperature maps using the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Reversing the lensing deflections in Planck CMB temperature maps using a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz maps as a lensing tracer, we find that the lensing effects in the temperature power spectrum are reduced in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations. In particular, the characteristic sharpening of the acoustic peaks of the temperature power spectrum resulting from successful delensing is detected at a significance of 16σ, with an amplitude of A_{delens}=1.12±0.07 relative to the expected value of unity. This first demonstration on data of CIB delensing, and of delensing techniques in general, is significant because lensing removal will soon be essential for achieving high-precision constraints on inflationary B-mode polarization.

  10. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    7D-i53 28 GREAT LAKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) / PETROLEUM REFINERY PO INT SOURCE TASK FORCE WINDSOR (ONTARIO) NOV 82UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8...C7 U. 3 X 7 45 1 2 0. ODm C of. C.’ WC.’ L. LI 7 R-Ri53 62B GREAT LKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) 2/3 PETROLEUM REFINERY POINT SOURCE TASK...NUMBER ORGANIZATION* TITLE OF PROJECT 001 A** 0300 ERL-D Acute and Early Life Stage Toxicity Testing of Priority Pollutant Chemicals 002 A 0302 ERL-D

  11. Great Importance Attached to Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Intangible Cultural Heritage on Verge of Extinction? With the acceleration of globalization and modernization, dramatic changes have taken place in China's cultural ecology: intangible cultural heritage is confronted with great challenges and a lot of orally and behaviorally transmitted cultural heritage disappear one after another; a great deal of traditional craftsmanship is on the verge of extinction; a large number of precious objects and materials of historical and cultural values are destroyed,deserted or lost in foreign countries; arbitrary misuse and excessive exploitation of intangible cultural heritage occur from time to time. Therefore, the protection of intangible cultural heritage brooks no delay.

  12. 85Kr and 39Ar background in GENIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    GENIUS is a proposal for a large-scale detector of rare events like double beta decay, cold dark matter and low-energy solar neutrinos in real time. The idea of GENIUS is to operate a large amount of 'naked' Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen, with the aim of reducing the background down to a level of 10 -3 counts/kg keV yr. In this work, we investigate the contribution to the background of GENIUS coming from argon ( 39 Ar) and krypton ( 85 Kr) contamination in the liquid nitrogen

  13. Surface Sensitive Bolometer for the CUORE background reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, M.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Nones, C.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2005-01-01

    The most critical point of the CUORE Project [CUORE Proposal, see the web page: http://crio.mib.infn.it/wig] is the background level (BKGL) in the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) region that is dominated by degraded particles coming from materials that face the detectors. Surface Sensitive Bolometers (SSBs) have been developed in order to reduce the BKGL by means of an active background discrimination. The principle of this technique and the first results obtained are briefly described in the following paper

  14. Kerr metric in the deSitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to the Kerr metric with cosmological constant Λ several other metrics are presented giving a Kerr-like solution of Einstein's equations in the background of deSitter universe. A new metric of what may be termed as rotating deSitter space-time devoid of matter but containing null fluid with twisting null rays, has been presented. This metric reduces to the standard deSitter metric when the twist in the rays vanishes. Kerr metric in this background is the immediate generalization of Schwarzschild's exterior metric with cosmological constant. (author)

  15. Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Sayed

    1999-05-11

    In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick lead shielding which surrounded the detector; (4) the sources of neutron background created in this lead shielding; and (5) the ratio of the total background to the ideal yield. In each case, particular attention is paid to the neutron yield.

  16. Modeling the Thermal Signature of Natural Backgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamborg, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Two measuring stations have been established the purpose being to collect comprehensive databases of thermal signatures of background elements in addition to the prevailing meteorological conditions...

  17. Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

    2007-12-01

    It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  19. Cosmic microwave background polarization results from QUIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buder, I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the success of precision cosmology, cosmologists cannot fully explain the initial conditions of the Universe. Inflation, an exponential expansion in the first ∼ 10 -36 s, is a promising potential explanation. A generic prediction of inflation is odd-parity (B-mode) polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET) aimed at limiting or detecting this polarization. We built a pseudo-correlation microwave polarimeter as an array of mass-produced modules in the focal plane of a 1.4 m telescope. We used rotation around the absorbing ground screen, a new time-stream double-demodulation technique, and optimized optics in the design to reduce instrumental polarization. We observed with this instrument at the Atacama Plateau in Chile between October 2008 and December 2010. This paper describes the analysis and results of these observations from one of 2 parallel pipelines. We developed noise modeling, filtering and data selection following a blind-analysis strategy. Central to this strategy was a suite of null test, each motivated by a possible instrumental problem or systematic effect. We evaluated the systematic errors in the blind stage of the analysis before the result was known. We calculated the CMB power spectra using a pseudo-C l cross-correlation technique that suppressed contamination and made the result insensitive to noise bias. We measured the first 3 peaks of the E-mode spectrum at high significance and limited B-mode polarization. We measured the CMB polarization power at 25 ≤ l ≤ 975. We found no statistically significant deviation from ΛCDM model, and our results are consistent with zero BB and EB power. Systematic errors were well below our B-mode polarization limits. This systematic-error reduction was a strong demonstration of technology for application in more sensitive, next generation CMB experiments. (author)

  20. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  1. Alfanet Worked Example: What is Greatness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Pierre Gorissen

    2004-01-01

    This document consists of an example of a Learning Design based on the What is Greatness example originally created by James Dalziel from WebMCQ using LAMS. Note: The example has been created in parallel with the actual development of the Alfanet system. So no claims can be made that the example

  2. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  3. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  4. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  5. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  6. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset

  7. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  8. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  9. A great potential for market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2003-01-01

    In a report the competition authorities of Norway, Sweden and Denmark conclude that there is a great potential for exerting market power in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission grid divide the Nordic market in shifting constellations of geographic markets and the market concentration in each market may therefore become very high

  10. The great neurosis of Dr. Joseph Gerard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The Great Neurosis, of Dr. Joseph Gerard, was published in 1889 in Paris. The book, intended for the general public, shows the different varieties of neuroses through picturesque and instructive examples. Its scientific and medical value is poor, but provides us with the various meanings of the word 'neurosis' in the late nineteenth century. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  12. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  13. History of Great Ideas: An Honors Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Marty; And Others

    The History of Great Ideas is an interdisciplinary seminar course for sophomore honor students at North Arkansas Community Technical College that teaches the intellectual history of western civilization. Each semester, students study 14 ideas from science, philosophy, history, religion, sociology, and economics to discover how philosophical…

  14. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  15. GreatSchools.org Finds Its Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    GreatSchools.org neatly ranks more than 136,000 traditional public, private, and charter schools nationwide on a scale of 1 to 10, based on state test scores. But what often draws readers are the gossipy insider comments posted by parents, students, and teachers, and the star ratings those commenters contribute. The growth of online school rating…

  16. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  17. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  18. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  19. Chapter 17. Information needs: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Current understanding of great gray owl biology and ecology is based on studies of less than five populations. In an ideal world, a strong conservation strategy would require significant new information. However, current knowledge suggests that conservation of this forest owl should involve fewer conflicts than either the boreal or flammulated owl. The mix of forest...

  20. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  1. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  2. Background radioactivity in sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    River and reservoir sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from five river stations and four reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Analyses include 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, total U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Surprisingly, there are no federal or state regulatory standards in the USA that specify how to compute background radioactivity values on sediments. Hence, the sample median (or 0.50 quantile) is proposed for this background because it reflects central data tendency and is distribution-free. Estimates for the upper limit of background radioactivity on river and reservoir sediments are made for sampled analytes using the 0.95 quantile (two-tail). These analyses also show that seven of ten analytes from reservoir sediments are normally distributed, or are normally distributed after a logarithmic or square root transformation. However, only three of ten analytes from river sediments are similarly distributed. In addition, isotope ratios for 137 Cs/ 238 Pu, 137 Cs/ 239,240 Pu, and 239,240 Pu/ 238 Pu from reservoir sediments are independent of clay content, total organic carbon/specific surface area (TOC/SSA) and cation exchange capacity/specific surface area (CEC/SSA) ratios. These TOC/SSA and CEC/SSA ratios reflect sediment organic carbon and surface charge densities that are associated with radionuclide absorption, adsorption, and ion exchange reactions on clay mineral structures. These latter ratio values greatly exceed the availability of background radionuclides in the environment, and insure that measured background levels are a maximum. Since finer-grained reservoir sediments contain larger clay-sized fractions compared to coarser river sediments, they show higher background levels for most analytes. Furthermore, radioactivity values on reservoir sediments have

  3. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 128-1.8001 Section 128-1.8001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8001 Background. The...

  4. Introduction to the background field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.F.; Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA

    1982-01-01

    The background field approach to calculations in gauge field theories is presented. Conventional functional techniques are reviewed and the background field method is introduced. Feynman rules and renormalization are discussed and, as an example, the Yang-Mills β function is computed. (author)

  5. 12 CFR 408.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 408.1 Section 408.1 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 408.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C...

  6. Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F

    2000-01-01

    .... Comparison of the conventional Michelson interferometer observable with the fully-symmetric Sagnac data-type allows unambiguous discrimination between a gravitational wave background and instrumental noise. The method presented here can be used to detect a confusion-limited gravitational wave background.

  7. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... potential threats to the privacy of individuals to whom such data relates, policy guidelines for Federally...

  8. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1404.2 Section 1404.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. Based on available fire incident information, engineering analysis of the probable...

  9. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds.

  10. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds. (paper)

  11. Beam-gas Background Observations at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00214737; The ATLAS collaboration; Alici, Andrea; Lazic, Dragoslav-Laza; Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Alessio, Federico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Burkhardt, Helmut; Corti, Gloria; Guthoff, Moritz; Manousos, Athanasios; Sjoebaek, Kyrre; D'Auria, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Observations of beam-induced background at LHC during 2015 and 2016 are presented in this paper. The four LHC experiments use the non-colliding bunches present in the physics-filling pattern of the accelerator to trigger on beam-gas interactions. During luminosity production the LHC experiments record the beam-gas interactions using dedicated background monitors. These data are sent to the LHC control system and are used to monitor the background levels at the experiments during accelerator operation. This is a very important measurement, since poor beam-induced background conditions can seriously affect the performance of the detectors. A summary of the evolution of the background levels during 2015 and 2016 is given in these proceedings.

  12. PENGARUH BACKGROUND MAHASISWA TERHADAP KINERJA AKADEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trianasari Angkawijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Students’ Background on Academic Performance. This study examines the effect of background variables on the academic performance of accounting students in a private university in Surabaya. The background variables under study included previous academic performance, prior knowledge on accounting, sex, motivation, preparedness, and expectations. The results show that previous academic performance, motivation, and expectations have positive and significant effects on the students’ overall academic performance in accounting, while preparedness affects only the students’ performance in management accounting. In contrast, prior knowledge on accounting and sex do not give significant impacts to the students’ overall academic performance.These findings indicate the importance of previous aca­demic performance as well as motivation and expectations as background variables in current academic performance. Keywords: students’ background, academic performance, accounting Abstrak: Pengaruh Background Mahasiswa terhadap Kinerja Akademik. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh variabel background terhadap kinerja akademik mahasiswa akuntansi di Universitas Surabaya. Lima variabel background utama dipergunakan, yaitu kinerja akademik sebelumnya, pengetahuan akun­tansi sebelumnya, jenis kelamin, motivasi, kesiapan, dan ekspektasi. Hipotesis diuji menggunakan model regresi linier berganda OLS dan Robust Standar Error. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya, motivasi, dan ekspektasi memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan, sementara kesiapan memberikan pengaruh positif hanya pada kinerja akademik akuntansi manajemen. Sebaliknya, pengetahuan akuntansi sebelumnya dan jenis kelamin tidak memberi­kan pengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan. Temuan ini mengindikasikan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya beserta motivasi dan ekspektasi adalah variabel background

  13. An ultra-low-background detector for axion searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, S; Ferrer Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Mols, J P; Papaevangelou, T [IRFU, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Dafni, T; Lacarra, J Galan; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Morales, J; Ruz, J; Tomas, A [Instituto de Fisica Nuclear y Altas EnergIas, Zaragoza (Spain); Fanourakis, G; Geralis, T; Kousouris, K [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Vafeiadis, T, E-mail: Thomas.Papaevangelou@cern.c [Physics Department, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    A low background Micromegas detector has been operating in the CAST experiment at CERN for the search of solar axions since the start of data taking in 2002. The detector, made out of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a very low level of background (5x10{sup -5} keV{sup -1}-cm{sup -2}-s{sup -1}) without any shielding. New manufacturing techniques (Bulk/Microbulk) have led to further improvement of the characteristics of the detector such as uniformity, stability and energy resolution. These characteristics, the implementation of passive shielding and the improvement of the analysis algorithms have dramatically reduced the background level (2x10{sup -7} keV{sup -1}-cm{sup -2}|s{sup -1}), improving thus the overall sensitivity of the experiment and opening new possibilities for future searches.

  14. An ultra-low-background detector for axion searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, S; Ferrer Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Mols, J P; Papaevangelou, T; Dafni, T; Lacarra, J Galan; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Morales, J; Ruz, J; Tomas, A; Fanourakis, G; Geralis, T; Kousouris, K; Vafeiadis, T

    2009-01-01

    A low background Micromegas detector has been operating in the CAST experiment at CERN for the search of solar axions since the start of data taking in 2002. The detector, made out of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a very low level of background (5x10 -5 keV -1 -cm -2 -s -1 ) without any shielding. New manufacturing techniques (Bulk/Microbulk) have led to further improvement of the characteristics of the detector such as uniformity, stability and energy resolution. These characteristics, the implementation of passive shielding and the improvement of the analysis algorithms have dramatically reduced the background level (2x10 -7 keV -1 -cm -2 |s -1 ), improving thus the overall sensitivity of the experiment and opening new possibilities for future searches.

  15. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  16. Neutronic characteristics simulation of LMFBR of great size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.

    1987-09-01

    The CONRAD experimental program to be executed on the critical mockup MASURCA in Cadarache and use all the european plutonium stock. The objectives of this program are to reduce the uncertainties on important project parameters such as the reactivity value of control rods, the flux distribution to valid calcul methods and data to use for new LMFBR conception (heterogeneous axial core by example) and to resolve the neutronic control problems for a LMFBR of great size. The present study has permitted to define this program and its physical characteristics [fr

  17. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  18. Modeling Lost-Particle Accelerator Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Theodore; Kozanecki, Witold

    2005-01-01

    Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE a modified version of Decay TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

  19. Motivation to Study in Higher Education: A Comparison between Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sandra; Higson, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with reasons for the motivation to study in higher education. To find out about motives, around 200 A-level students in Germany and Great Britain were asked about their plans for the time after completion of their A-levels. Through socio-demographic data the authors could deploy facts about social backgrounds and the…

  20. 77 FR 38803 - Request for Nominations to the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... affiliations and other considerations); Demonstrated experience with Great Lakes issues; Leadership experience... nominees will include: The background and experiences that would help members contribute to the diversity... the nominee's experience and knowledge will bring value to the work of the GLAB. To help the Agency in...

  1. Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Background Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey’s primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly’s startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the swallowtail’s startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the

  2. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

  3. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

  4. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  5. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  6. Slavnov-Taylor constraints for nontrivial backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binosi, D.; Quadri, A.

    2011-01-01

    We devise an algebraic procedure for the evaluation of Green's functions in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nontrivial background field. In the ghost-free sector the dependence of the vertex functional on the background is shown to be uniquely determined by the Slavnov-Taylor identities in terms of a certain 1-PI correlator of the covariant derivatives of the ghost and the antighost fields. At nonvanishing background this amplitude is shown to encode the quantum deformations to the tree-level background-quantum splitting. The approach only relies on the functional identities of the model (Slavnov-Taylor identities, b-equation, antighost equation) and thus it is valid beyond perturbation theory, and, in particular, in a lattice implementation of the background field method. As an example of the formalism we analyze the ghost two-point function and the Kugo-Ojima function in an instanton background in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, quantized in the background Landau gauge.

  7. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  8. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  9. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  10. CT of the heart and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Diseases of the heart and great vessels were diagnosed by CT through comparison of the pictures with that of control. Indications for CT included pericardiac diseases such as pericardial effusion, pericardiac cyst, pericardiac defect, pericardiac fat pad, and dilated or hypertrophic ventriculus. Of coronary artery diseases, myocardial infarction is the best indication for CT; and coronary artery calcification and coronary artery bypass graft for checking up the patency were also indications for this method. CT was useful for diagnosis of valvular diseases, especially mitral valve diseases, congenital heart diseases with structural abnormalities, abnormalities of the aorta and great veins, and of the pulmonary arteries and veins, and for follow-up of pulmonary congestion. (Ueda, J.)

  11. The power mix in Great-Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebuchet, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a new reform of the electric power sector in Great Britain: RIIO (Revenue = Incentives + Innovations + Outputs). The author discusses aspects related to market organisation and aspects related to the grid. First, she gives an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Great-Britain by describing its evolution from the start of the liberalisation policy until our days, and by presenting the regulation of the electric power transport network. In a second part, she analyses which changes will be introduced by RIIO. She comments the general principles of this reform and discusses its implications for the sector. Appendices describe the LCN Fund (Low carbon network Fund) mechanism which is a specific bidding and selection process, and briefly indicate the projects selected by this fund in 2010 and 2011

  12. Why are there no great women chefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This article applies the rhetorical and deliberately provocative approach of the watershed essay art historian Linda Nochlin wrote in 1971—“Why Have there Been No Great Women Artists?”—to today's culinary industry. Nochlin used the question her title posed as a theoretical trap that would draw attention not only to the inherent sexism or prejudice that pervades the way the public perceives art, but also to those same issues' existence within and impact on academia and the other cultural institutions responsible for posing these sorts of questions. Nochlin bypassed the obvious and irrelevant debate over women's being less or differently talented and, in so doing, exposed that debate for being a distraction from the heart of the matter: how, sociologically (media) or institutionally (museums, foundations, etc.), people define a “great artist.” Although it's 40 years later, the polemic is as effective when used to understand the gender divide in the food world.

  13. Alexander the Great's relationship with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liappas, J A; Lascaratos, J; Fafouti, S; Christodoulou, G N

    2003-05-01

    This study sought to clarify if Alexander the Great indulged pathologically in alcohol and whether it contributed to his death. The texts of the historians Diodorus of Sicily, Plutarch, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Athenaeus, Aelian and Justin were studied, with their information concerning wine consumption by Macedonians, and especially Alexander, and were evaluated. The surviving historical texts, all later than Alexander's epoch, are based on a series of contemporary histories and especially on the 'Royal Journals', an official diary written in the imperial court. Alexander consumed large quantities of undiluted wine periodically, reaching pathological intoxication. However, the existing data do not provide convincing evidence that Alexander the Great manifested abuse of or dependence on alcohol according to DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria and it seems unlikely that alcohol was involved in his untimely death.

  14. Ultrasound assessment of great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander RK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajiv K Chander,1 Thomas S Monahan1,2 1Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography is the ideal modality to assess great saphenous vein insufficiency. Duplex ultrasonography incorporates both gray scale images to delineate anatomy and color-Doppler imaging that visualizes the flow of blood in a structure. Assessment of great saphenous vein requires definition of the anatomy, augmentation of flow, evaluation for both superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and determining the presence of reflux. Currently, evolution in the treatment of reflux also relies on ultrasound for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the utilization of the ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of greater saphenous vein reflux is important for practitioners treating reflux disease. Keywords: duplex ultrasonography, small saphenous vein 

  15. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... of Great Zimbabwe at around 1550 AD. However, new research findings suggest a different scenario. Combining geoarchaeolological investigations, soil micromorphology and geochemistry with the study of historical sources and ethnographic records, new datasets indicate prolonged availability and diversified...

  16. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  17. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasunobu; Seo, Kami; Motoyoshi, Tadahiro; Okada, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  18. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, L.E.; Miller, M.C.; Engman, J.; Evans, R.L.; Koch, R.W.; Brence, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fish sampling by electroshocking in the Great Miami River above and below the Fernald sit was designed to determine changes in the health of the fish community compared to the previous nine years and to collect samples for uranium analysis in fish filets. This document contains information describing the findings of this program. Topics discussed include: physical and chemical parameters, species richness, species diversity, and water analysis

  19. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  20. Network Interactions in the Great Altai Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Aleksandrovich Korshunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, an effective interaction between educational institutions in the Great Altai region is needed. The innovation growth can enhancing this interaction. The article explores the state of network structures in the economy and higher education in the border territories of the countries of Great Altai. The authors propose an updated approach to the three-level classification of network interaction. We analyze growing influence of the countries with emerging economies. We define the factors that impede the more stable and multifaceted regional development of these countries. Further, the authors determine indicators of the higher education systems and cooperation systems at the university level between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization countries (SCO and BRICS countries, showing the international rankings of the universities in these countries. The teaching language is important to overcome the obstacles in the interregional cooperation. The authors specify the problems of the development of the universities of the SCO and BRICS countries as global educational networks. The research applies basic scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, as well as the SWOT analysis method. We have indentified and analyzed the existing economic and educational relations. To promote the economic innovation development of the border territories of the Great Altai, we propose a model of regional network university. Modern universities function in a new economic environment. Thus, in a great extent, they form the technological and social aspects of this environment. Innovative network structures contribute to the formation of a new network institutional environment of the regional economy, which impacts the macro- and microeconomic performance of the region as a whole. The results of the research can help to optimize the regional economies of the border

  1. Academic Performance and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...

  2. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  3. Introduction: Mobilizing Shakespeare During the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Smialkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This introduction situates this special issue in the context of ongoing debates surrounding the “cultural mobilization” of Shakespeare during the Great War. The key areas of these debates include the degree to which Shakespeare could successfully be appropriated during the war for totalizing – nationalist and imperialist – purposes; the challenges to such appropriations (for instance, from the colonized nations); ideological fractures produced by seeing Shakespeare, simultaneously, as “univer...

  4. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  5. Determining Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Elwin G. Smith; Burton C. English

    1982-01-01

    Wind erosion is defined as the movement of soil particles resulting from strong turbulent winds. The movement of soil particles can be categorized as suspension, saltation, or surface creep. Fine soil particles can be suspended in the atmosphere and carried for great distances. Particles too large to be suspended move in a jumping action along the soil surface, known as saltation. Heavier particles have a rolling movement along the surface and this type of erosion is surface creep.

  6. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF THE IONIZING RADIATION BACKGROUND ON GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We find that the amount and nature of the assumed ionizing background can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution. Galaxy evolution simulations typically incorporate an ultraviolet background which falls off rapidly above z = 3; e.g., that of Haardt and Madau. However, this decline may be too steep to fit the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe constraints on electron scattering optical depth or observations of intermediate redshift (z ∼ 2-4) Lyα forest transmission. As an alternative, we present simulations of the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with UV backgrounds that decline more slowly at high redshift: both a simple intensity rescaling and the background recently derived by Faucher-Giguere, which softens the spectrum at higher redshifts. We also test an approximation of the X-ray background with a similar z dependence. We find for the test galaxies that an increase in either the intensity or hardness of ionizing radiation generically pushes star formation toward lower redshifts: although overall star formation in the simulation boxes is reduced by 10%-25%, the galaxies show a factor of ∼2 increase in the fraction of stars within a 30 kpc radius that are formed after z = 1. Other effects include late gas inflows enhanced up to 30 times, stellar half-mass radii decreased by up to 30%, central velocity dispersions increased up to 40%, and a strong reduction in substructure. The magnitude of the effects depends on the environmental/accretion properties of the particular galaxy.

  8. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible......, the performance was equally good when using eight or four loudspeakers, and the reproduction method was shown to be robust for different program materials. The proposed technique to reduce audible artifacts increased the perceived similarity....

  9. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  10. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure

  11. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  12. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  13. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  14. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  15. Sources of plutonium to the great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, G.E.; Kennedy, C.W.; Bobula, C.M. III.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in the study of 238 Pu, in the Great Miami River watershed the contribution of various sources to the total 238 Pu transported by the river. Periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from Mound Laboratory from 1973 to 1975 have released approximately 20 mCi of 238 Pu each year to the Great Miami River. Changes in the wastewater treatment system in 1976 have reduced the annual discharge to less than 3 mCi/year. However, despite this sevenfold reduction of plutonium in the wastewater discharge, the annual flux of 238 Pu down the river has remained relatively constant and is approximately 10 times greater than can be accounted for by the reported effluent discharges. Therefore, other sources of the 238 Pu in the Great Miami River exist. A second possible source of plutonium is the resuspension of sediments enriched by earlier waste water releases and deposited in the river. However, since there appear to be few areas where large accumulations of sediment could occur, it seems improbable that resuspension of earlier sediment deposits would continue to be a significant contributor to the annual flux of plutonium. A much more likely source is the continuing erosion of soil from a canal and stream system contaminated with approx. 5 Ci of 238 Pu, 7 which connects directly to the river 6.9 km upstream from Franklin. Results from samples analyzed in 1978 show the average concentration of 238 Pu in suspended sediments from the canal to be approximately 10 3 times greater than suspended sediment concentrations in the river and waste water effluent.Thus the main contributor to the total amount of plutonium transported by the Great Miami River appears to be highly enriched sediment from the canal, which is eroded into the river where it is then diluted by uncontaminated sediments

  16. [Neurosyphilis, the great imitator: a diagnostic challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogebrug, J.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is a tertiary form of syphilis and is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Today, more than one type of neurosyphilis often manifest simultaneously, which can pose difficulties to the diagnostic process. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year-old man presented with an attack

  17. On the microwave background spectrum and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    1982-01-01

    We show that the combined measurement of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) intensity and noise can provide direct information on the temperature and the emissivity of the source responsible for the CBR. (orig.)

  18. Quantum background independence in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1994-01-01

    Not only in physical string theories, but also in some highly simplified situations, background independence has been difficult to understand. It is argued that the ''holomorphic anomaly'' of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa gives a fundamental explanation of some of the problems. Moreover, their anomaly equation can be interpreted in terms of a rather peculiar quantum version of background independence: in systems afflicted by the anomaly, background independence does not hold order by order in perturbation theory, but the exact partition function as a function of the coupling constants has a background independent interpretation as a state in an auxiliary quantum Hilbert space. The significance of this auxiliary space is otherwise unknown. (author). 23 refs

  19. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  20. REQUEST FOR EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST For Background ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sbickram

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... the applicant's qualifications and ability to undertake the hot spot background study. ... any interviews, presentations and subsequent proposals, are the sole ... The program will focus on increasing the resilience of the most ...

  1. History and background of the project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Nair, R.R.

    The history of oceanography, the discovery of manganese nodules and the background of the developments in nodule research and mining is given The first nodules were collected in 1981 on board the research vessel R V Gaveshani Following the success...

  2. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient...

  3. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Washington § 770.49 Background. (a) Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is a major naval ship repair facility, with... interruption. Additionally, most of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is dedicated to heavy industrial activity where...

  4. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  5. A Practical Theorem on Gravitational Wave Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, E. S.

    2001-01-01

    There is an extremely simple relationship between the spectrum of the gravitational wave background produced by a cosmological distribution of discrete gravitational wave sources, the total time-integrated energy spectrum of an individual source, and the present-day comoving number density of remnants. Stated in this way, the background is entirely independent of the cosmology, and only weakly dependent on the evolutionary history of the sources. This relationship allows one easily to compute...

  6. Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, A.

    2006-01-01

    Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been studied using the 3-year WMAP data on cosmic microwave background radiation. It is shown that the isotherms clustering could be produced by the baryon-photon fluid turbulence in the last scattering surface. The Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of the turbulence is estimated directly from the CMB data as Re λ ∼10 2

  7. Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We then demonstrate its effectiveness by classifying the maximally supersymmetric IIB G-backgrounds and by showing that N=31 IIB solutions do not exist. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Superstring gravitational wave backgrounds with spacetime supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter; Kiritsis, E; Kounnas, C; Lüst, D

    1994-01-01

    We analyse the stringy gravitational wave background based on the current algebra E.sup(c).sub(2). We determine its exact spectrum and construct the modular invariant vacuum energy. The corresponding N=1 extension is also constructed. The algebra is again mapped to free bosons and fermions and we show that this background has N=4 (N=2) unbroken spacetime supersymmetry in the type II (heterotic case).

  9. Background dose subtraction in personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picazo, T.; Llorca, N.; Alabau, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)

  10. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  11. Spacetime Dynamics and Slow Neutrino Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2018-06-01

    Space is a form of existence of matter, while time is a measure of change of the matter in the space. Issac Newton suggested that the space and time are absolute, not affected by matter and its motion. His first law of motion or the law of inertia says that, without net force acts on it, an object in motion remains the motion in a straight line at a constant speed. Ernest Mach proposed that the inertia of a body results from the gravitational interaction on the body by the rest of the entire universe. As mass is a measure of inertia, Mach’s principle can be simply stated as mass here is affected by matter there. On the basis of Mach’s principle, Albert Einstein considered the space and time to be relative and developed two theories of relativities. One called special relativity describes the effect of motion on spacetime and the other called general relativity describes the effect of matter on spacetime. Recently, the author has further considered reactions of the influenced spacetime on the moving objects, including photons. A moving object including a photon, because of its continuously keeping on displacement, disturbs the rest of the entire universe or distorts/curves the spacetime. The distorted or curved spacetime then generates an effective gravitational force to act back on the moving object or photon, so that reduces the object inertia or photon frequency. Considering the disturbance of spacetime by a photon is extremely weak, the author has modelled the effective gravitational force to be Newtonian and derived a new redshift-distance relation that not only perfectly explained the redshift-distance measurement of distant type Ia supernovae but also inherently obtained Hubble’s law as an approximate at small redshift. In this study, we will further analyse the reaction of the influenced spacetime on moving neutrinos and demonstrate the creation of slow neutrino (or tired neutrino) background that may be gravitationally orbiting around clusters

  12. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  13. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  14. Low energy background radiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Spectral distribution of background radiation at 9 locations spread all over India has been measured. Specifications of the counting set-up standardised for measurement are given. At one of the places, the background spectrum was measured with four different types of detectors. A broad peak in 60-100 keV with differing intensity and standard deviation is observed in all the spectra. In the Kalpakkam area, the peak near the seashore is observed to be more intense than away from the shore. This could be due to the presence of monazite sands on the seashore. The natural background radiation is observed to have a steep rise below 20 keV. Peak intensity is found to be independent of both the location (i.e. the source of energy) and the type of detector used for measurement. The calculated spectra due to multiple scattered radiation (with a nominal source energy of 1 MeV) through paraffin wax and the measured background spectrum with the detector shielded with 20 cm wax show good agreement above 40 keV. This shows that 80 keV hump in the natural background radiation is a property of air. The peak, therefore, in the spectra of natural background radiation is essentially a property of medium and it is independent of location or detector. (M.G.B.)

  15. Background of SAM atom-fraction profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Atom-fraction profiles acquired by SAM (scanning Auger microprobe) have important applications, e.g. in the context of alloy surface engineering by infusion of carbon or nitrogen through the alloy surface. However, such profiles often exhibit an artifact in form of a background with a level that anti-correlates with the local atom fraction. This article presents a theory explaining this phenomenon as a consequence of the way in which random noise in the spectrum propagates into the discretized differentiated spectrum that is used for quantification. The resulting model of “energy channel statistics” leads to a useful semi-quantitative background reduction procedure, which is validated by applying it to simulated data. Subsequently, the procedure is applied to an example of experimental SAM data. The analysis leads to conclusions regarding optimum experimental acquisition conditions. The proposed method of background reduction is based on general principles and should be useful for a broad variety of applications. - Highlights: • Atom-fraction–depth profiles of carbon measured by scanning Auger microprobe • Strong background, varies with local carbon concentration. • Needs correction e.g. for quantitative comparison with simulations • Quantitative theory explains background. • Provides background removal strategy and practical advice for acquisition

  16. Background of SAM atom-fraction profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Atom-fraction profiles acquired by SAM (scanning Auger microprobe) have important applications, e.g. in the context of alloy surface engineering by infusion of carbon or nitrogen through the alloy surface. However, such profiles often exhibit an artifact in form of a background with a level that anti-correlates with the local atom fraction. This article presents a theory explaining this phenomenon as a consequence of the way in which random noise in the spectrum propagates into the discretized differentiated spectrum that is used for quantification. The resulting model of “energy channel statistics” leads to a useful semi-quantitative background reduction procedure, which is validated by applying it to simulated data. Subsequently, the procedure is applied to an example of experimental SAM data. The analysis leads to conclusions regarding optimum experimental acquisition conditions. The proposed method of background reduction is based on general principles and should be useful for a broad variety of applications. - Highlights: • Atom-fraction–depth profiles of carbon measured by scanning Auger microprobe • Strong background, varies with local carbon concentration. • Needs correction e.g. for quantitative comparison with simulations • Quantitative theory explains background. • Provides background removal strategy and practical advice for acquisition.

  17. Non-collision backgrounds in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The proton-proton collision events recorded by the ATLAS experiment are on top of a background that is due to both collision debris and non-collision components. The latter comprises of three types: beam-induced backgrounds, cosmic particles and detector noise. We present studies that focus on the first two of these. We give a detailed description of beam-related and cosmic backgrounds based on the full 2011 ATLAS data set, and present their rates throughout the whole data-taking period. Studies of correlations between tertiary proton halo and muon backgrounds, as well as, residual pressure and resulting beam-gas events seen in beam-condition monitors will be presented. Results of simulations based on the LHC geometry and its parameters will be presented. They help to better understand the features of beam-induced backgrounds in each ATLAS sub-detector. The studies of beam-induced backgrounds in ATLAS reveal their characteristics and serve as a basis for designing rejection tools that can be applied in physic...

  18. The Great Firewall of China: A Critical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiting, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Censorship has a great impact on society as we enter the cyber environment. The Chinese "Great Firewall", as it is commonly called, brings great attention to China as they enter into the global economy...

  19. Background enhancement in breast MR: Correlation with breast density in mammography and background echotexture in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether background enhancement on MR was related to mammographic breast density or ultrasonographic background echotexture in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: We studied 142 patients (79 premenopausal, 63 postmenopausal) who underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MR. We reviewed the mammography for overall breast density of the contralateral normal breast according to the four-point scale of the BI-RADS classification. Ultrasound findings were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous background echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon. We rated background enhancement on a contralateral breast MR into four categories based on subtraction images: absent, mild, moderate, and marked. All imaging findings were interpreted independently by two readers without knowledge of menstrual status, imaging findings of other modalities. Results: There were significant differences between the premenopausal and postmenopausal group in distribution of mammographic breast density, ultrasonographic background echotexture, and degree of background enhancement. Regarding the relationship between mammographic density and background enhancement, there was no significant correlation. There was significant relationship between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in both premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in MR regardless of menopausal status. Interpreting breast MR, or scheduling for breast MR of women showing heterogeneous background echotexture needs more caution.

  20. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press.

  1. The background in the experiment Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  2. The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J; Gran, U; Papadopoulos, G

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1, 10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N = 1 and some N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds. In the N = 2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N = 2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N = 2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure. The spacelike Killing vector field leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving more than two supersymmetries, N > 2. We investigate a class of N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes to one dimension

  3. The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J; Gran, U; Papadopoulos, G [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-21

    We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1, 10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N = 1 and some N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds. In the N = 2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N = 2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N = 2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure. The spacelike Killing vector field leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving more than two supersymmetries, N > 2. We investigate a class of N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes to one dimension.

  4. Great war, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and control of the capacity for thought and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author embarks on a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, art, as well as the national-political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminates in instigating a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is of importance with regard to the question of responsibility for the war, guided by concrete aims of war in which causes for war are reflected. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The freedom movement of democratic youth, Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia, needs to be viewed in the European context as inspired by the Serbian tradition of the cult of Kosovo and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day which speaks both about the victim's sacrifice as sublimation of history and about just suffering as elements of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally encouraged the positing of the theme of St Vitus' Day Temple (Vidovdanski Hram as envisaged by Ivan Meštrović. The foundations of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski who, in his 'Lyrics of Ithaca', succeeds in returning to Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day the inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the need to establish a Victim's Sacrifice Memorial, in our day

  5. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Managing authenticity: the paradox of great leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2005-12-01

    Leaders and followers both associate authenticity with sincerity, honesty, and integrity. It's the real thing--the attribute that uniquely defines great managers. But while the expression of a genuine self is necessary for great leadership, the concept of authenticity is often misunderstood, not least by leaders themselves. They often assume that authenticity is an innate quality--that a person is either genuine or not. In fact, the authors say, authenticity is largely defined by what other people see in you and, as such, can to a great extent be controlled by you. In this article, the authors explore the qualities of authentic leadership. To illustrate their points, they recount the experiences of some of the authentic leaders they have known and studied, including the BBC's Greg Dyke, Nestlé's Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, and Marks & Spencer's Jean Tomlin. Establishing your authenticity as a leader is a two-part challenge. You have to consistently match your words and deeds; otherwise, followers will never accept you as authentic. But it is not enough just to practice what you preach. To get people to follow you, you also have to get them to relate to you. This means presenting different faces to different audiences--a requirement that many people find hard to square with authenticity. But authenticity is not the product of manipulation. It accurately reflects aspects of the leader's inner self, so it can't be an act. Authentic leaders seem to know which personality traits they should reveal to whom, and when. Highly attuned to their environments, authentic leaders rely on an intuition born of formative, sometimes harsh experiences to understand the expectations and concerns of the people they seek to influence. They retain their distinctiveness as individuals, yet they know how to win acceptance in strong corporate and social cultures and how to use elements of those cultures as a basis for radical change.

  7. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, Jean.

    1983-06-01

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  8. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  9. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  10. The great fear of the nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, M.H.

    2000-09-01

    The public opinion always kept complex relations with the atom, done of fascination and repulsion. Is it then correct to speak of ''great fear of nuclear''? To answer this question the author presents, in five chapters, an analysis of the relations between the public and the nuclear. The two first chapters are devoted to historical aspects with respectively a presentation of the atomic episodes and the ground traumatisms. The chapters three and four presents the fears of the nuclear policy and the civil nuclear. The last chapter deals with the the fear of the military nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  11. Commentary. The diseases of Alexander the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2004-06-01

    The accompanying articles that speculate that Alexander the Great had a traumatic carotid dissection or congenital cervical scoliosis demonstrate the difficulties in retrospective diagnosis as a historical enterprise. The extant primary sources were written centuries after Alexander's death and are ambiguous in their original languages, and even more so in translation. Thus we cannot be certain what illness Alexander actually had. Furthermore, anachronistic diagnosis removes Alexander from the medical context of this time, telling us little of historical significance about him. Such investigations also illustrate the more general limits that the absence of context imposes on the study of ancient history.

  12. Small Molecules, Diversity and Great Expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small Molecules, Diversity and Great Expectations · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27.

  13. The great battles of the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2004-10-01

    This book presents an introduction to the great world energy challenges. The first part of this book, is devoted to the energy sources history with a special interest for the petroleum. The advantages and disadvantages of the energy sources as the natural gas, the coal, the nuclear power and the renewable energies, are also discussed. Two chapters are devoted to the analysis of the energy sectors deregulation in Europe, in particular the electric power market. The last part proposes to discuss on the twenty century challenge: how to reconcile the energy demand, the environment protection and the developing countries economic development? (A.L.B.)

  14. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System provides new insights into the burgeoning field of planetary astronomy. As in the first edition, this volume begins with a rigorous treatment of coordinate frames, basic positional astronomy, and the celestial mechanics of two and restricted three body system problems. Perturbations are treated in the same way, with clear step-by-step derivations. Then the Earth’s gravitational potential field and the Earth-Moon system are discussed, and the exposition turns to radiation properties with a chapter on the Sun. The exposition of the physical properties of the Moon and the terrestrial planets are greatly expanded, with much new information highlighted on the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sister volume, Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, are pedagogically well written, providing cl...

  15. Soybean greatly reduces valproic acid plasma concentrations: A food–drug interaction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Anu; Bhandary, Bidur; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of valproic acid (VPA). In a preclinical study, rats were pretreated with two different amounts of soy extract for five days (150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), which resulted in decreases of 57% and 65% in the Cmax of VPA, respectively. AUC of VPA decreased to 83% and 70% in the soy pretreatment groups. Interestingly, the excretion rate of VPA glucuronide (VPAG) was higher in the soy-fed groups. Levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were elevated in the soy-treated group, and GABA concentrations were elevated in the brain after VPA administration. However, this was less pronounced in soy extract pretreated group than for the untreated group. This is the first study to report the effects of soy pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VPA in rodents. PMID:24618639

  16. Soybean greatly reduces valproic acid plasma concentrations: a food-drug interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Anu; Bhandary, Bidur; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2014-03-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of valproic acid (VPA). In a preclinical study, rats were pretreated with two different amounts of soy extract for five days (150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), which resulted in decreases of 57% and 65% in the Cmax of VPA, respectively. AUC of VPA decreased to 83% and 70% in the soy pretreatment groups. Interestingly, the excretion rate of VPA glucuronide (VPAG) was higher in the soy-fed groups. Levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were elevated in the soy-treated group, and GABA concentrations were elevated in the brain after VPA administration. However, this was less pronounced in soy extract pretreated group than for the untreated group. This is the first study to report the effects of soy pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VPA in rodents.

  17. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  18. Positioning bedridden patients to reduce interface pressures over the sacrum and great trochanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Y; Maeshige, N; Sugimoto, M; Uemura, M; Noguchi, M; Terashi, H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of hip-joint rotation on the interface pressure over the sacrum and greater trochanter with a new protocol for positioning of bedridden elderly patients. The interface pressure values over the sacrum and greater trochanter in bedridden patients were evaluated. These were collected in the supine position, 90° lateral position, and 30° and 40° laterally inclined positions with external rotation or neutral positioning of the hip joint. Each interface pressure was assessed with a device measuring pressure distribution, after which, the peak pressure index (PPI) was calculated. In the 17 patients examined, the PPI over the sacrum in the supine position was significantly greater than that in other positions. In the 30° and 40° laterally inclined positions, the PPIs over the greater trochanter were significantly lower in the neutral position of the hip joint compared with those in the external rotation position. Our findings revealed the effects of hip-joint rotation on the interface pressure for the greater trochanter, possibly due to the increased distance between the greater trochanter and the sacrum caused by neutral position of the hip joint. The results demonstrate that it is to best place the hip joint in a neutral position when the legs are in contact with the bed in order to distribute the pressure over the greater trochanter in the 30° and 40° laterally inclined positions. These results can be applied to the clinical setting to improve patient positioning and decrease pressure ulcers. The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

  19. Artificial Light at Night Reduces Daily Energy Expenditure in Breeding Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbers, Anouk; van Dis, Natalie; Kolvoort, Annemieke; Ouyang, J.Q.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.; Dominoni, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and

  20. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  1. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expa......The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during...... the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon...... background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected....

  2. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed. Attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist

  3. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  5. Financialisation, oil and the Great Recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkanoutas-Leventis, Angelos; Nesvetailova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the role of world oil price hike of 2007–08 in serving to transform the financial and banking crisis into what is commonly referred to the Great Recession. Existing literature on the global crisis of 2007–09 tends to view it as a financial or banking phenomenon, with analyses focusing mainly on state policies, governance mechanisms and market dynamics in transforming the banking crisis of 2007–08 into the economic recession of 2008-12/13 Although often attributing the global meltdown to wider phenomenon of financialisation, rarely do existing perspectives delve into the role of the commodity sector in the global credit crunch. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap, by inquiring into the role played by oil as a financial asset class in the political economy of the global crisis. - Highlights: • We study the oil price and its effects on the Great Recession. • We approach oil as a financial asset class. • We observe the transformation of oil through deregulation.

  6. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  7. How to write a great business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, W A

    1997-01-01

    Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers - and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

  8. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of low background detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An implementation of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 code (EGS4) has been developed to allow convenient simulation of typical gamma ray measurement systems. Coincidence gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra for the purpose of extremely low-level assay. Monte Carlo calculations of this sort can be extremely successful since low background detectors are usually free of significant contributions from poorly localized radiation sources, such as cosmic muons, secondary cosmic neutrons, and radioactive construction or shielding materials. Previously, validation of this code has been obtained from a series of comparisons between measurements and blind calculations. An example of the application of this code to an exceedingly low background spectrum stripping will be presented. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Background harmonic superfields in N=2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupnik, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the harmonic superfield formalism in D=4, N=2 supergravity using a subsidiary condition of covariance under the background supersymmetry with a central charge (B-covariance) is considered. Conservation of analyticity together with the B-covariance leads to the appearance of linear gravitational superfields. Analytic prepotentials arise in a decomposition of the background linear superfields in terms of spinor coordinates and transform in a nonstandard way under the background supersymmetry. The linear gravitational superfields can be written via spinor derivatives of nonanalytic spinor prepotentials. The perturbative expansion of supergravity action in terms of the B-covariant superfields and the corresponding version of the differential-geometric formalism are considered. We discuss the dual harmonic representation of the linearized extended supergravity, which corresponds to the dynamical condition of Grassmann analyticity

  11. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  12. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  13. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long (3 ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument's capabilities will be limited by its Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator......, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  14. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  15. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  16. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, C.R.; Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112)

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation: perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Origin of the diffuse background gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.; Puget, J.L.

    1974-05-01

    Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation were observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy formation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given. (U.S.)

  18. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  19. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  20. Adolescent psychological distress, unemployment, and the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have shown a link between psychological distress in early life and subsequent higher unemployment, but none have used sibling models to account for the unobserved family background characteristics which may explain the relationship. This paper uses the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 data to examine whether adolescent psychological distress in 2000 predicts higher unemployment over 2000-11, whether this relationship changed in the period following the Great Recession, and whether it is robust to adjustment for family effects. 7125 cohort members (2986 siblings) self-reported their mental health in 2000 and employment activities over 2000-11. This association was examined using Probit and ordinary least squares regressions controlling for intelligence, physical health, other sociodemographic characteristics and family background. After adjustment for covariates and compared to those with low distress, highly distressed adolescents were 2.7 percentage points (32%) more likely to be unemployed, 5.1 points (26%) more likely to be unemployed or out of the labor force and experienced 11 weeks (28%) more unemployment. The impact of high distress was similar to a one standard deviation decrease in intelligence, and double the magnitude of having a serious physical health problem, and these estimates were robust to adjustment for family fixed-effects. The highly distressed were also disproportionately more likely to become unemployed or exit the labor force in the years following the Great Recession. These findings provide strong evidence of the unemployment penalty of early-life psychological distress and suggest that this relationship may be intensified during economic recessions. Investing in mental health in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The study of infrared target recognition at sea background based on visual attention computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-wei; Zhang, Tian-xu; Shi, Wen-jun; Wei, Long-sheng; Wang, Xiao-ping; Ao, Guo-qing

    2009-07-01

    Infrared images at sea background are notorious for the low signal-to-noise ratio, therefore, the target recognition of infrared image through traditional methods is very difficult. In this paper, we present a novel target recognition method based on the integration of visual attention computational model and conventional approach (selective filtering and segmentation). The two distinct techniques for image processing are combined in a manner to utilize the strengths of both. The visual attention algorithm searches the salient regions automatically, and represented them by a set of winner points, at the same time, demonstrated the salient regions in terms of circles centered at these winner points. This provides a priori knowledge for the filtering and segmentation process. Based on the winner point, we construct a rectangular region to facilitate the filtering and segmentation, then the labeling operation will be added selectively by requirement. Making use of the labeled information, from the final segmentation result we obtain the positional information of the interested region, label the centroid on the corresponding original image, and finish the localization for the target. The cost time does not depend on the size of the image but the salient regions, therefore the consumed time is greatly reduced. The method is used in the recognition of several kinds of real infrared images, and the experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the algorithm presented in this paper.

  2. Background simulation for the GENIUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkratenko, O.A.; Tretyak, V.I.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The background simulations for the GENIUS experiment were performed with the help of GEANT 3.21 package and event generator DECAY 4.Contributions from the cosmogenic activity produced in the Ge detectors and from its radioactive impurities as well as from contamination of the liquid nitrogen and other materials were calculated.External gamma and neutron background were taking into consideration also.The results of calculations evidently show feasibility of the GENIUS project,which can substantially promote development of modern astroparticle physics

  3. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed

  4. Optimization of the ECT background coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.K.; Luton, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was begun to optimize the Eccentric Coil Test (ECT) background coil. In the course of this work a general optimization code was obtained, tested, and applied to the ECT problem. So far this code has proven to be very satisfactory. The results obtained with this code and earlier codes have illustrated the parametric behavior of such a coil system and that the optimum for this type system is broad. This study also shows that a background coil with a winding current density of less than 3000 A/cm 2 is not feasible for the ECT models presented in this paper

  5. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices

  6. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  7. Conserved quantities in background independent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markopoulou, Fotini [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    We discuss the difficulties that background independent theories based on quantum geometry encounter in deriving general relativity as the low energy limit. We follow a geometrogenesis scenario of a phase transition from a pre-geometric theory to a geometric phase which suggests that a first step towards the low energy limit is searching for the effective collective excitations that will characterize it. Using the correspondence between the pre-geometric background independent theory and a quantum information processor, we are able to use the method of noiseless subsystems to extract such coherent collective excitations. We illustrate this in the case of locally evolving graphs.

  8. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  9. A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdelkawy, A.; Habib, N.; abuelela, M.; Wahba, M.; kilany, M.; Kalebebin, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a rotor and rotating collimator suspended in magnetic fields. Each of them is mounted on its mobile platform and whose centres are 66 cm apart, rotating synchronously at speeds up to 16000 rpm. It was found that the neutron burst produced by the rotor with almost 100% transmission passes through the collimator, when the rotation phase between them is 28.8 degree Moreover the background level achieved at the detector position is low, constant and free from peaks due to gamma rays and fast neutrons accompanying the reactor thermal beam.3 fig

  10. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  11. Cosmic microwave background at its twentieth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The role of cosmic microwave background radiation in cosmology is examined. The thermal spectrum, the large entropy in the universe, the large-scale isotropy of the radiation, and the small-scale isotropy or homogeneity of the radiation are analyzed in order to describe the properties of the universe. It is observed that the microwave background spectrum is thermal over a wide range, there is a significant detectable dipole anisotropy in the radiation, but no quadrupole anisotropy, and there is a high deree of radiation isotropy on angular scales between 1-5 degrees. 62 references

  12. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  13. Manual for the Jet Event and Background Simulation Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Angerami, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Jets are the collimated streams of particles resulting from hard scattering in the initial state of high-energy collisions. In heavy-ion collisions, jets interact with the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) before freezeout, providing a probe into the internal structure and properties of the QGP. In order to study jets, background must be subtracted from the measured event, potentially introducing a bias. We aim to understand and quantify this subtraction bias. PYTHIA, a library to simulate pure jet events, is used to simulate a model for a signature with one pure jet (a photon) and one quenched jet, where all quenched particle momenta are reduced by a user-de ned constant fraction. Background for the event is simulated using multiplicity values generated by the TRENTO initial state model of heavy-ion collisions fed into a thermal model consisting of a 3-dimensional Boltzmann distribution for particle types and momenta. Data from the simulated events is used to train a statistical model, which computes a posterior distribution of the quench factor for a data set. The model was tested rst on pure jet events and then on full events including the background. This model will allow for a quantitative determination of biases induced by various methods of background subtraction.

  14. [Environmental context effects of background colors on recognition memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Takeo; Ozecki, Kousuke

    2005-02-01

    Three experiments examined whether or not switching study background-color contexts among target words at testing reduces word-recognition performance. These experiments also examined whether or not presentation rate--one of the determinants of item strength--interacted with background-color context. Undergraduates learned 40 target words presented at a rate of 1.5 or 3.0 seconds per word in one of two background-color contexts in Experiment 1, and in one of ten contexts in Experiments 2 and 3. Recognition of the targets was tested by mixing 40 distractor words with the targets immediately after the learning session in Experiments 1 and 2, and with a 5-minute filled retention interval in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 failed to find background-color context effects on recognition, but Experiments 2 and 3 successfully found the context effects. Presentation rate did not interact with the context effects. The results conflict with the ICE theory. The implications of the present findings are discussed.

  15. The muon veto of the Dortmund low-background facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, Marcel; Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [TU Dortmund, Physik EIV, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma-ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden built at ground level. It uses a high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 60 %, which is set up inside a massive shielding. The outer shielding consists of barite concrete and cast iron, corresponding to ten meters of water equivalent (mw.e.), and houses a multi-layer lead castle as an inner shielding, that features borated polyethylene as a neutron absorber. Additionally an active muon veto is installed to reduce cosmic-induced contributions to the spectrum. The remarkably lowered background of the DLB compared to an unshielded spectrometer, allows radio-purity screening measurements for material preselection with sensitivities better than 1 Bq/kg. This talk focusses on the muon veto of the DLB. Its basic concept and its benefits for low-background operation are described. Also its current status of development and future upgrade plans are presented.

  16. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  17. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2004-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  18. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  19. Natural background approach to setting radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Federow, H.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The suggestion has often been made that an additional radiation exposure imposed on humanity as a result of some important activity such as electricity generation would be acceptable if the exposure was small compared to the natural background. In order to make this concept quantitative and objective, we propose that small compared with the natural background be interpreted as the standard deviation (weighted with the exposed population) of the natural background. This use of the variation in natural background radiation is less arbitrary and requires fewer unfounded assumptions than some current approaches to standard-setting. The standard deviation is an easily calculated statistic that is small compared with the mean value for natural exposures of populations. It is an objectively determined quantity and its significance is generally understood. Its determination does not omit any of the pertinent data. When this method is applied to the population of the United States, it suggests that a dose of 20 mrem/year would be an acceptable standard. This is comparable to the 25 mrem/year suggested as the maximum allowable exposure to an individual from the complete uranium fuel cycle

  20. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens... establish entitlement to black lung benefits. Section 435 of the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  1. The projected background for the CUORE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Hickerson, K.P.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J.; Trentalange, S.; Zhu, B.X. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Banks, T.I.; Drobizhev, A.; Freedman, S.J.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Carbone, L.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Pettinacci, V.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Fernandes, G.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V.; Tenconi, M. [Universit Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Moggi, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualita della Vita, Bologna (Italy); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te with an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operating at temperatures around 10 mK. The experiment is currently being commissioned in Hall A of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The goal of CUORE is to reach a 90% C.L. exclusion sensitivity on the {sup 130}Te decay half-life of 9 x 10{sup 25} years after 5 years of data taking. The main issue to be addressed to accomplish this aim is the rate of background events in the region of interest, which must not be higher than 10{sup -2} counts/keV/kg/year. We developed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, based on results from a campaign of material screening, radioassays, and bolometric measurements, to evaluate the expected background. This was used over the years to guide the construction strategies of the experiment and we use it here to project a background model for CUORE. In this paper we report the results of our study and our expectations for the background rate in the energy region where the peak signature of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te is expected. (orig.)

  2. Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...

  3. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  4. Controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    RENA is a research programm into the controllable forms of natural background radiation, which cover the activities originating from the naturally occurring radionuclides enhanced by human intervention. In the RENA-program emphasis lays upon the policy aspects of environmental-hygienic, economical and governmental character. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... take into account the need to mobilize the Nation's resources in response to a wide range of crisis or...

  6. ttH multilepton: background estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The slides present the background encountered in the ttH->Multilepton search and describe the data-driven techniques used for the determination of the dominant non-prompt-lepton contamination as well as the contribution of electron charge mis-identification.

  7. Climate change: Scientific background and process

    OpenAIRE

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past together with a brief synopsis likely future impacts of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The paper also gives a briefing on the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  8. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  9. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  10. Probabilistic Model-based Background Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Anderson, Jakob; Prehn, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    is the correlation between pixels. In this paper we introduce a model-based background subtraction approach which facilitates prior knowledge of pixel correlations for clearer and better results. Model knowledge is being learned from good training video data, the data is stored for fast access in a hierarchical...

  11. The projected background for the CUORE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benato, G.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Novati, V.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sakai, M.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Laubenstein, M.

    2017-08-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{130}Te with an array of 988 TeO_2 bolometers operating at temperatures around 10 mK. The experiment is currently being commissioned in Hall A of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The goal of CUORE is to reach a 90% C.L. exclusion sensitivity on the ^{130}Te decay half-life of 9 × 10^{25} years after 5 years of data taking. The main issue to be addressed to accomplish this aim is the rate of background events in the region of interest, which must not be higher than 10^{-2} counts/keV/kg/year. We developed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, based on results from a campaign of material screening, radioassays, and bolometric measurements, to evaluate the expected background. This was used over the years to guide the construction strategies of the experiment and we use it here to project a background model for CUORE. In this paper we report the results of our study and our expectations for the background rate in the energy region where the peak signature of neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{130}Te is expected.

  12. 42 CFR 81.0 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND... OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 81.0 Background. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C. 7384-7385 [1994, supp. 2001], provides for...

  13. Spectrum of the extragalactic background light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzual A, G [Centro de Investigacion de Astronomia, Merida (Venezuela)

    1981-01-01

    The observed spectrum of the extragalactic background light in the range from ultraviolet to optical wavelengths is compared with a model prediction. The model uses the locally observed luminosity function of galaxies as well as evolutionary models for galaxy spectral energy distributions. The predicition is too faint by a factor of about 10.

  14. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.40 Background. (a) The DON follows the uniform fee schedule... Freedom of Information Act Fee Schedule and Guidelines. (b) Fees reflect direct costs for search; review...

  15. Dim point target detection against bright background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Qiheng; Xu, Zhiyong; Xu, Junping

    2010-05-01

    For target detection within a large-field cluttered background from a long distance, several difficulties, involving low contrast between target and background, little occupancy, illumination ununiformity caused by vignetting of lens, and system noise, make it a challenging problem. The existing approaches to dim target detection can be roughly divided into two categories: detection before tracking (DBT) and tracking before detection (TBD). The DBT-based scheme has been widely used in practical applications due to its simplicity, but it often requires working in the situation with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In contrast, the TBD-based methods can provide impressive detection results even in the cases of very low SNR; unfortunately, the large memory requirement and high computational load prevents these methods from real-time tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method for dim target detection. We address this problem by combining the advantages of the DBT-based scheme in computational efficiency and of the TBD-based in detection capability. Our method first predicts the local background, and then employs the energy accumulation and median filter to remove background clutter. The dim target is finally located by double window filtering together with an improved high order correlation which speeds up the convergence. The proposed method is implemented on a hardware platform and performs suitably in outside experiments.

  16. Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, Ulf; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George; Roest, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds.We then demonstrate

  17. Climate change. Scientific background and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes briefly the natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past. It also discusses the future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  18. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  20. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  1. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  2. A wonderful laboratory and a great researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    It was great to be associated with Prof. Dr. Karl Rawer. He devoted his life to make use of the wonderful laboratory of Nature, the Ionosphere. Through acquisition of the experimental data from AEROS satellites and embedding it with data from ground stations, it was possible to achieve a better empirical model, the International Reference Ionosphere. Prof. Dr. Karl Rawer has been as dynamic as the Ionosphere. His vision about the ionospheric data is exceptional and has helped the scientific and engineering community to make use of his vision in advancing the dimensions of empirical modelling. As a human being, Prof. Dr. Karl Rawer has all the traits of an angel from Heaven. In short he developed a large team of researchers forming a blooming tree from the parent node. Ionosphere still plays an important role in over the horizon HF Radar and GPs satellite data reduction.

  3. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  4. Acetone utilization by sulfate-reducing bacteria: draft genome sequence of Desulfococcus biacutus and a proteomic survey of acetone-inducible proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Acosta, Olga B; Schleheck, David; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus is able to utilize acetone for growth by an inducible degradation pathway that involves a novel activation reaction for acetone with CO as a co-substrate. The mechanism, enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in this acetone activation reaction are of great interest because they represent a novel and yet undefined type of activation reaction under strictly anoxic conditions. Results In this study, a draft genome sequence of D. biacutus ...

  5. Benchmarking the Particle Background in the Large Hadron Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, Edda; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Hessey, N P; Otto, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background benchmarking measurements have been made to check the low-energy processes which will contribute via nuclear reactions to the radiation background in the LHC experiments at CERN. Previously these processes were only evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations, estimated to be reliable within an uncertainty factor of 2.5. Measurements were carried out in an experimental set-up comparable to the shielding of ATLAS, one of the general-purpose experiments at LHC. The absolute yield and spectral measurements of photons and neutrons emanating from the final stages of the hadronic showers were made with a Bi_4Ge_3O_{12} (BGO) detector. The particle transport code FLUKA was used for detailed simulations. Comparison between measurements and simulations show that they agree within 20% and hence the uncertainty factor resulting from the shower processes can be reduced to a factor of 1.2.

  6. Detector Background Reduction by Passive and Active Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Slivka, J.; Todorovic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The operational problems of the gamma ray spectrometer shielded passively with 12 cm of lead and actively by five 0.5 m × 0.5 m × 0.05 m plastic veto shields are described. The active shielding effect from both environmental gamma ray, cosmic muons and neutrons was investigated. For anticoincidence gating wide range of scintillator pulses, corresponding to the energy range of 150 keV-75 MeV, were used. With the optimal set up the integral background, for the energy region of 50 - 3000 keV, of 0.31 c/s was achieved. The detector mass related background was 0.345 c/(kg s). The 511 keV annihilation line was reduced by the factor of 7 by the anticoincidence gate. It is shown that the plastic shields increase the neutron capture gamma line intensities due to neutron termalization.(author)

  7. IIB backgrounds with five-form flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate all N=2 supersymmetric IIB supergravity backgrounds with non-vanishing five-form flux. The Killing spinors have stability subgroups Spin(7) x R 8 , SU(4) x R 8 and G 2 . In the SU(4) x R 8 case, two different types of geometry arise depending on whether the Killing spinors are generic or pure. In both cases, the backgrounds admit a null Killing vector field which leaves invariant the SU(4) x R 8 structure, and an almost complex structure in the directions transverse to the lightcone. In the generic case, the twist of the vector field is trivial but the almost complex structure is non-integrable, while in the pure case the twist is non-trivial but the almost complex structure is integrable and associated with a relatively balanced Hermitian structure. The G 2 backgrounds admit a time-like Killing vector field and two spacelike closed one-forms, and the seven directions transverse to these admit a co-symplectic G 2 structure. The Spin(7) x R 8 backgrounds are pp-waves propagating in an eight-dimensional manifold with holonomy Spin(7). In addition we show that all the supersymmetric solutions of simple five-dimensional supergravity with a time-like Killing vector field, which include the AdS 5 black holes, lift to SU(4) x R 8 pure Killing spinor IIB backgrounds. We also show that the LLM solution is associated with a co-symplectic co-homogeneity one G 2 manifold which has principal orbit S 3 xS 3

  8. Effect of acidic pH on flow cytometric detection of bacteria stained with SYBR Green I and their distinction from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, Daniel; Nocker, Andreas; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Bongaerts, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Unspecific background caused by biotic or abiotic particles, cellular debris, or autofluorescence is a well-known interfering parameter when applying flow cytometry to the detection of microorganisms in combination with fluorescent dyes. We present here an attempt to suppress the background signal intensity and thus to improve the detection of microorganisms using the nucleic acid stain SYBR ® Green I. It has been observed that the fluorescent signals from SYBR Green I are greatly reduced at acidic pH. When lowering the pH of pre-stained samples directly prior to flow cytometric analysis, we hypothesized that the signals from particles and cells with membrane damage might therefore be reduced. Signals from intact cells, temporarily maintaining a neutral cytosolic pH, should not be affected. We show here that this principle holds true for lowering background interference, whereas the signals of membrane-compromised dead cells are only affected weakly. Signals from intact live cells at low pH were mostly comparable to signals without acidification. Although this study was solely performed with SYBR ® Green I, the principle of low pH flow cytometry (low pH-FCM) might hold promise when analyzing complex matrices with an abundance of non-cellular matter, especially when expanded to non-DNA binding dyes with a stronger pH dependence of fluorescence than SYBR Green I and a higher pK a value. (paper)

  9. Method and apparatus for reducing background in inelastic gamma ray logging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    The amplified pulses from a radioactivity detector are coupled through a delay line to a linear gate. The amplified pulses from the detector are also connected to a discriminator. The output of the discriminator is AND gated in a logical gate with a clock pulse which is synchronized with a high energy neutron source. The AND gate triggers a first single shot multivibrator which in turn triggers the linear gate. The delay line allows for the time required for the detector pulse to rise to the discriminator threshold and for the propagation delay in the logic circuitry. The linear gate opens before the arrival of the detector pulse and closes after it passes through. A J-K flip-flop circuit is triggered by the trailing edge of the output of the first single shot multivibrator to disable the AND gate, thus causing the linear gate to pass only the first detected pulse having the necessary discriminator level. The output of the AND gate is OR gated with the output of a second single shot multivibrator which is triggered off the trailing edge of the clock pulse. The output of the OR gate drives a negative high voltage pulser which is connected to a negative pulsing ring in a neutron generator. The leading edge of the clock pulse drives a positive high voltage pulser which is connected to a positive pulsing ring in the neutron generator. The neutron generator is thus extinguished upon the detection of the first detector pulse occurring within the clock pulse interval having the necessary discriminator threshold. In an alternative embodiment, a second AND gate is used to gate a source control clock pulse and the output from the J-K flip-flop to provide a driving pulse for the ion source pulser. (U.S.)

  10. A method and device for reducing background in well logging devices using inelastic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, R.B.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a well logging device, of the type comprising a source of pulsed neutrons and means for detecting radioactivity. The device comprises means adapted to interrupt the neutron source emission in response to the detection of a single gamma radiation showing a pre-determined feature [fr

  11. A preamplifier with reduced background noise; Preamplificateur a bruit de fond reduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, J

    1950-07-01

    A description is given of a preamplifier in use with a mass spectrometer for rapid gas mixtures analysis, described in Report CEA-42. The instrument can be employed for amplifying any weak currents from high-impedance sources, in the frequency range 10 to 5000 cycle/sec.

  12. Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Varadharajan, Geetha; Punekar, M.P.; Chougaokar, M.P.; Ayappan, P.

    2010-01-01

    In India, the personnel monitoring service of ∼ 70,000 radiation workers is being provided using indigenously developed TLD system comprising three CaSO 4 :Dy embedded Teflon discs. In order to remove TL and reset the distribution of defects/trapping centres, all TLD cards are subjected to an annealing treatment at elevated temperature prior to their next use. As per the standardized protocol annealing is carried out in a hot air circulating oven at 230 deg C for 4 hr, which is sufficient to reset the TL dosemeters for dose levels upto 100 mSv. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards namely A, B, C and D series, exposed to various dose levels

  13. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  14. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  15. The Great Recession and America's geography of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thiede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results: The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions: The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, and the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state disparities in local labor market conditions. Contribution: To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately

  16. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  17. Assessment of biomass cogeneration in the Great Lakes region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many biomass cogeneration facilities have successfully entered into power sales agreements with utilities across the country, often after overcoming various difficulties or barriers. Under a project sponsored by the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, DynCorp sm-bullet Meridian has conducted a survey of biomass facilities in the seven Great Lakes states, selecting 10 facilities for case studies with at least one facility in each of the seven states. The purpose of the case studies was to address obstacles that biomass processors face in adding power production to their process heat systems, and to provide examples of successful strategies for entering into power sales agreements with utilities. The case studies showed that the primary incentives for investing in cogeneration and power sales are to reduce operating costs through improved biomass waste management and lower energy expenditures. Common barriers to cogeneration and power sales were high utility stand-by charges for unplanned outages and low utility avoided cost payments due to excess utility generation capacity

  18. Determinants of residential space heating expenditures in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena [Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Von Melle Park 5, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Rehdanz, Katrin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In Great Britain, several policy measures have been implemented in order to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. In the domestic sector, this could, for example, be achieved by improving space heating efficiency and thus decreasing heating expenditure. However, in order to efficiently design and implement such policy measures, a better understanding of the determinants affecting heating expenditure is needed. In this paper we examine the following determinants: socio-economic factors, building characteristics, heating technologies and weather conditions. In contrast to most other studies we use panel data to investigate household demand for heating in Great Britain. Our data sample is the result of an annual set of interviews with more than 5000 households, starting in 1991 and ending in 2005. The sample represents a total of 64,000 observations over the fifteen-year period. Our aim is to derive price and income elasticities both for Britain as a whole and for different types of household. Our results suggest that differences exist between owner-occupied and renter households. These households react differently to changes in income and prices. Our results also imply that a number of socio-economic criteria have a significant influence on heating expenditure, independently of the fuel used for heating. Understanding the impacts of different factors on heating expenditure and impact differences between types of household is helpful in designing target-oriented policy measures. (author)

  19. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  20. Analysis of background components in Ge-spectrometry and their influence on detection limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusser, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In low radioactivity measurements the system own background of the spectrometer is, besides the counting efficiency, the limiting factor for the achievable sensitivity. Since the latter is mostly fixed, background reduction is the only way to gain sensitivity, although it is inversely proportional only to the square root of the background rate but directly proportional to the counting efficiency. A thorough understanding of the background sources and their quantitative contribution helps to choose the most adequate suppression method in order to reach a certain required level of detection limit. For Ge-spectrometry the background can be reduced by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude compared to the unshielded case applying state-of-the-art techniques. This reduction factor holds for the continuous background spectrum as well as for the line background as demonstrated for a Ge detector of the Heidelberg-Moscow double beta decay experiment. (orig./DG)