Sample records for greatest challenge facing

  1. A Challenge with the Greatest Reward (United States)

    Essary, Jessica


    For many teachers, the first time that they have a student who has little or no background with English, the thought of constantly engaging them in relevant activities throughout the entire day can be intimidating. Based on the author's experience teaching English language learners, she can assure teachers that it is a challenge worth facing. In…

  2. Coping and acceptance: the greatest challenge for veterans with intestinal stomas. (United States)

    Krouse, Robert S; Grant, Marcia; Rawl, Susan M; Mohler, M Jane; Baldwin, Carol M; Coons, Stephen Joel; McCorkle, Ruth; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y


    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) create challenges for veterans. The goal of this qualitative analysis was to understand better patients' perspectives regarding their greatest challenge. Ostomates at three Veterans Affairs locations were surveyed using the modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy questionnaire that contained an open-ended request for respondents to describe their greatest challenge. The response rate was 51% (239 of 467); 68% (163 of 239) completed the open-ended item. Content analysis was performed by an experienced qualitative research team. Coping and acceptance were the most commonly addressed themes. The most frequently expressed issues and advice were related to a need for positive thinking and insight regarding adjustment over time. Coping strategies included the use of humor, recognition of positive changes resulting from the stoma, and normalization of life with an ostomy. Coping and acceptance are common themes described by veterans with an intestinal stoma. Health-care providers can assist veterans by utilizing ostomate self-management strategies, experience, and advice.

  3. Stigma and Discrimination in HIV/AIDS; The greatest Challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greatest challenge to the efforts of the various agencies and governments in the care, support and treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS, appears to be stigma and discrimination. Stigma and discrimination has to be addressed through public education, legislation to protect people living with HIV/AIDS and also by ...

  4. The greatest challenges reported by long-term colorectal cancer survivors with stomas. (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K; Hornbrook, Mark C; Grant, Marcia; Baldwin, Carol M; Wendel, Christopher S; Mohler, M Jane; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Krouse, Robert S


    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the greatest challenges reported by long-term colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies. Surveys that included an open-ended question about challenges of living with an ostomy were administered at three Kaiser Permanente regions: Northern California, Northwest, and Hawaii. The study was coordinated at the Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System in Tucson. The City of Hope Quality of Life Model for Ostomy Patients provided a framework for the study's design, measures, data collection, and data analysis. The study's findings may be generalized broadly to community settings across the United States. Results replicate those of previous research among veterans, California members of the United Ostomy Association, Koreans with ostomies, and colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies residing in the United Kingdom. The greatest challenges reported by 178 colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies confirmed the Institute of Medicine's findings that survivorship is a distinct, chronic phase of cancer care and that cancer's effects are broad and pervasive. The challenges reported by study participants should inform the design, testing and integration of targeted education, early interventions, and ongoing support services for colorectal cancer patients with ostomies.

  5. Homeland Security. Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership (United States)


    Security Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...including attention to management practices and key success factors. HOMELAND SECURITY Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership management and coordination challenges if it is to provide this leadership and be successful in preventing and responding to any future

  6. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri


    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  7. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab


    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  8. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  9. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  10. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  11. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, J.


    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  12. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  13. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - An Overview (United States)



    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  14. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  15. Original Research Challenges facing young African scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods ... The research profile of Africans is relatively new, and the .... outside the country because it will support my original ideas.”.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria


    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  17. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  18. Facing the challenges of a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollins, P.


    British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

  19. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes


    Bogdan Sojkin


    This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...

  20. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sojkin


    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.

  1. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Alshammari, Thamir M; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Le Louet, Herve; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J


    To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice.  Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training.  The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance.

  2. The challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Etsako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Data were collected through questionnaires and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among selected motorcyclists, police officers and road safety officials in Etsako West Local Government ...

  3. What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing. Free Primary Education in Lesotho .... resulted in high levels of poverty amongst women, particularly in rural areas. Women ...... Lesotho demographics profile 2010. Available at ...

  4. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today (United States)

    Moog, François


    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  5. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.


    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  6. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who ...

  7. Challenges facing water management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varis, O.; Vakkilainen, P.


    The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)

  8. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven


    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  9. Challenges Faced by Undergraduate Military Students at American Public University System (United States)

    Machuca, Ana; Torres, Karin; Morris, Pamela; Whitley, William


    This paper will summarize some of challenges faced by military students enrolled in an associate and bachelors online program at American Public University System (APUS). The survey results on which the study is based exposed the following problems faced by military personnel: 48.7% had difficulties working around military obligations, 33.3%…

  10. Challenges Facing Supervisors and Students in the Process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper established that communication, supervisorstudent relationship, access to literature, plagiarism, and poor writing skills among some students are some of the key challenges facing students and supervisors in writing dissertations/theses at OUT. The paper recommends that communication between students and ...

  11. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use ...

  12. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU


    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  13. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.


    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…

  14. Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Africa accounts for 14% of world's population, and the economies of most African countries are considered to be growing, but this is not reflected in the amount of research published by Africans. This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development.

  15. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England. (United States)

    Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham


    This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people's views. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  18. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  19. Medical physics and challenges faced in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatudde, R.


    Individual medical physicists have presented many challenges which have greatly inhibited their input in patient care and management. To improve the role and recognition of medical physicists in Africa, FAMPO was established. This is the Federation of African Medical Physics Organisations. Its main role is to bridge the gap between individual medical physicists, existing medical physicist bodies and the International Organisation of Medical Physics (IOMP). It is a non profit making organisation. A qualified medical physicist is an individual who is competent to practice independently one or more of the sub fields of medical physics. i.e. therapeutic radiological, diagnostic radiological, medical nuclear and medical health. Their time should on average be distributed equally among three areas, clinical service and consultation, research and development, and teaching. All diagnostic and radiotherapy centres should have a well established comprehensive quality assurance programme in place, which should involve machine installation and calibration, source delivery and safety, operational procedures, clinical dosimetry and the whole treatment planning process. This should be followed according to national and international recommendations. A study was carried out to identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in Africa and the objectives of the study were; To identify the number of qualified medical physicists and their working experience in hospitals in African countries. To identify the level of involvement of medical physicists in the three areas of Nuclear medicine, Radiology and Radiotherapy in hospitals in African countries.To identify countries with recognised professional bodies governing medical physicists in African countries.To identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries Methods and materials The study was conducted on thirteen medical physicists from seven African countries. i.e. Nigeria, Kenya, Libya, Tanzania, Zambia

  20. Strategies being followed in India to face challenge of drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Strategies being followed in India to face challenge of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Increasing the coverage with DOTS. Operational research to monitor the trends in drug resistance. Research in methods for rapid detection of drug resistance. Improving methods/ ...

  1. Higher education in the face of social challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cuevas Jiménez


    Full Text Available Higher education refers to the subsequent training to high school education; that is undergraduate and graduate; whose mission is to preserve; develop and disseminate culture. Throughout the history of higher education it has undergone a process of transformation; mainly due to the development of knowledge and the transformation of society. In the process they highlighted two great moments; in the first; which culminated in the mid-twentieth century; it conceived the higher education institution encompassing all knowledge of society; and who graduated was ready to perform professionally throughout life; the second time; after those dates; it is conceivable that knowledge is no longer exclusive to the institution of higher education; and there can be no efficient performance without continuous training and continuous updating of knowledge. The objective of this work is to point out the general goals and some strategies of the students’ formation of superior education; to confront the big challenges that it faces today the society. To define this goals and strategies four challenge levels are considered: a physical; structural and politicalideological challenges; b challenges around the scientifictechnician and of the knowledge advances; c challenges of the internal structure of the formative process and the access to the superior education; and d challenges in the formation of values in the students. 

  2. Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of children on the ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... to 34 randomly selected children who were beneficiaries of an initiative called the Community Outreach Programme.

  3. A Content Analysis Concerning the Studies on Challenges Faced by Novice Teachers (United States)

    Kozikoglu, Ishak


    The purpose of this research is to analyze the studies concerning challenges faced by novice teachers in terms of various aspects and compare challenges according to location of the studies conducted in Turkey and abroad. A total of 30 research studies were included in detailed analysis. This is a descriptive study based on qualitative research…

  4. Becoming a nurse faculty leader: facing challenges through reflecting, persevering and relating in new ways. (United States)

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Young, Patricia K; Nelson, Kristine A


    The aim of the present study was to explore the experience of becoming a nurse faculty leader. In a recent interpretation of 23 interviews conducted with nurse faculty leaders from across the United States about their experiences of becoming a leader three themes were identified: being thrust into leadership, taking risks and facing challenges. This interpretive phenomenological study further explicates three aspects of how nurse educators faced challenges in becoming and serving as a leader. Facing challenges meant reflecting, persevering through difficulties and learning to relate to others in new ways. Exemplars of participant experiences are provided for concreteness, to assist readers in determining how findings resonate with their own experience and how they can actualize this resonance in their own leadership practice. In the present study, reflecting, persevering through difficulties and learning to relate with others in a new way was how leaders faced challenges. Leadership development opportunities that facilitate self-exploration, caring and thoughtful interactions with others and values clarification serve as the foundation for becoming a nurse faculty leader who is, in turn, able to build leadership capacity in other individuals and organizations.

  5. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita


    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  6. Examining the Challenging Hindrances facing in the Construction Projects: South India’s Perspective (United States)

    Subramanyam, K.; Haridharan, M. K.


    Developing countries like India require a huge infrastructure to facilitate needs of the people. Construction industry provides several opportunities to the individuals. Construction manager work is to supervise and organize the construction activities in construction projects. Now a day construction manager facing challenges. This paper aimed to study the challenges facing by the construction manager in the perception of construction professionals. 39 variables were taken from the literature review which found to be severe impact on construction managers’ performance. Construction manager, project manager and site engineers are the respondents for this survey. Using SPSS, regression analysis was done and recognized significant challenges. These challenges were classified into 5 domains. In management challenges, resource availability and allocation, risks and uncertainties existing in the project onsite, top management support and cost constraints are the most significant variables. In skills requirement of a construction manager challenges, technical skills required to learn and adapt new technology in the project, decision making and planning according to the situation in site are the most significant variables. In performance challenges, implementation of tasks according to the plan is the important variable whereas in onsite challenges, manage project risks, develop project policies and procedures are the most important.

  7. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A


    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  8. Exploring strategies to overcome extra-organisational challenges faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. (United States)

    Kho, Boon Phiaw; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Lim, Ching Jou; Saleem, Fahad


    The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations. Items were constructed based on the findings of a prior qualitative research supplemented with relevant literature about these issues. High levels of homogeneity in responses were recorded on various extra-organisational challenges faced, particularly those economy-oriented. Strategic changes to counter these challenges were focused on pricing and product stocked, rather than services provision. Highly rated strategies included increasing discounts for customers (n = 54; 68%) and finding cheaper suppliers (n = 70; 88%). Legislative changes proposed that might increase their share of the pharmaceutical market were strongly supported by respondents, particularly about making it compulsory for general practitioners to provide patients the option to have their medicines dispensed in community pharmacies (n = 72; 90%). Current legislative conditions and Malaysian consumer mindset may have constrained the strategic choices of community pharmacies to deal with the strong extra-organisational challenges. A long-term multipronged approach to address these issues and increased involvement of community pharmacists themselves in this agenda are required to influence practice change. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Identity Issues and Challenges Faced by Russian Immigrants in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell


    Full Text Available Among the processes cosmopolitan societies undergo at the present moment, is the unprecedented increase in mass migration across cultures. What challenges are faced by both immigrants, who have to settle in novel socio-cultural environments, and by the host populations accepting them? The current qualitative study investigates the nature of identity construction among Russian-speaking immigrants in New Zealand, applying thematic analysis for the interpretation of the data collected via 23 in-depth interviews. Among the most common themes articulated by the participants was the feeling of identity loss. A taken-for-granted sense of identity, brought by the participants from their culture of origin, was not validated by their new society of residence, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cultural resources. The participants were faced with a challenge of re-constructing their old identity, or constructing a new one, utilising the available resources in the community around them. At the same time, there was a sub-group for whom this challenge brought the realisation that the nature of their identity is cosmopolitan, rather than located within any particular culture or geographical space.

  10. Challenges faced by parents of children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia. (United States)

    Taderera, Clever; Hall, Herna


    Parenting children with learning disabilities requires a high level of knowledge and access to resources, information and services. In developing countries, however, these resources and services are not always available. Parents in Namibia, a developing country, therefore face challenges addressing children's learning and other developmental disabilities, including challenges related to preventative and supportive interventions. This research focuses on challenges faced by parents as they parent children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents regarding the challenges they face in parenting their children with learning disabilities. Thematic analysis enabled the researchers to identify, analyse and report on themes that emerged from the qualitative interview data. Analysis of the interviews indicated that some participants had only a vague understanding of learning disabilities, as they did not have access to essential knowledge about this phenomenon. They also lacked an awareness of the availability of programmes, services and policies meant to benefit their children with learning disabilities. Participants voiced that they, their children with learning disabilities and community members have stereotypes and prejudices regarding learning disabilities. In this study, most of the children with learning disabilities were raised by single, unemployed parents who seemed to have access to less support from external sources than married couples parenting children with learning disabilities. These single parents are usually not married and because of lack of financial support from the other parent, the majority of them indicated that they struggle to meet the financial and material needs of their children. The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as

  11. The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya


    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia


    The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women¡¯s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) p...

  12. Finding a Trans-Affirmative Provider: Challenges Faced by Trans and Gender Diverse Psychologists and Psychology Trainees. (United States)

    Dickey, Lore M; Singh, Anneliese A


    This article explores some of the challenges faced by trans and gender diverse (TGD) individuals who not only are attempting to access trans-affirmative care, but who are also members of the very profession from which they are seeking services. The authors explore challenges related to finding supervision, accessing care for assessment services, and finding a provider for personal counseling. With each example, the authors unpack the challenges and also address the implications for training for all involved. Based on these challenges that TGD psychologists and trainees face in attempting to access care, the authors provide recommendations related to trans-affirmative training for psychologists. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. E-learning challenges faced by academics in higher education


    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances


    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...

  14. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.


    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779

  15. Challenges faced by international nurses when migrating: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Pung, L-X; Goh, Y-S


    Results from this literature review were used to identify the challenges faced by international nurses in their host countries following migration. The increasing strain of nursing shortages in the healthcare system has led to the recruitment of international nurses among many countries. However, following migration, international nurses are faced with challenges that may result in poor integration with their host countries. Using Cooper's five stages for integrative research reviews, a literature search was conducted across seven databases using a PRISMA search strategy. Additional manual searches were also conducted on the end-references of the retrieved articles. The authors then independently reviewed the selected articles using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal form to extract and generate the themes for the review. Twenty-four articles were selected for the review. The themes generated included: (i) difficulty orientating; (ii) a longing for what is missing; (iii) professional development and devaluing; (iv) communication barriers; (v) discrimination and marginalization; (vi) personal and professional differences; and (vii) a meaningful support system. By identifying the challenges faced by international nurses, interventions that ensure equal treatment (e.g. multifaceted transition programmes and culturally sensitive 'buddy' systems) can be implemented to help international nurses adapt to their new environments. Adequate communication can be achieved by encouraging international nurses to speak English and learn the colloquial language and non-verbal behaviours used by native nurses. With good integration international nurses may be able to reach their full career potential as professional nurses in their host countries. The adaptation process is a dynamic process that requires effort from both international and native nurses. Thus, any strategies that are developed and implemented must be multifaceted. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  16. The challenges that parents of children with epilepsy face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampra, Matina; Tzerakis, Nikolas; Thomsen, Louise Lund Holm


    , parents/caregivers found that they needed more education about the existing sources of psychosocial and emotional support to cope with their child's epilepsy personally and as a family. Finally, the parents/caregivers who let their child know about the epilepsy and discussed the implications......Objective This qualitative study explored the challenges that Greek parents/caregivers of children with controlled epilepsy (CwE) face regarding the disorder. Methods Interviews were conducted based on open-ended questions guided by a review of the literature. A total of 91 parents/caregivers were...... recruited by neurologists at the neurology clinics of two Athens public hospitals. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to explore parent/caregiver experiences. The data were grouped and analyzed through a textual interpretation. Results Two key challenges were identified for parents of Cw...

  17. Challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies: Unlocking value through professional international purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tukuta


    Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges. Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014. Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries. Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.

  18. Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brister, J.


    Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear programme are distilled into four major categories: human resource development, financing, infrastructure and process. In implementing a successful nuclear programme role of the government is key to success. It requires clear and sustained policy support, international and bilateral agreements, developing the depth required of technical skills and infrastructure, proven delivery programme, management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, decommissioning and electricity market regulation.

  19. Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman


    Full Text Available Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks—addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis—I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them. The first is problem definition: generating consensus on what the problem is and how it should be addressed. The second is positioning: portraying the issue in ways that inspire external audiences to act. The third is coalition-building: forging alliances with these external actors, particularly ones outside the health sector. The fourth is governance: establishing institutions to facilitate collective action. Research indicates that global health networks that effectively tackle these challenges are more likely to garner support to address the conditions that concern them. In addition to the effectiveness of networks, I also consider their legitimacy, identifying reasons both to affirm and to question their right to exert power.

  20. Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization


    Al Ajlouni, Ahmed


    Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

  1. FedWeb Greatest Hits: Presenting the New Test Collection for Federated Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Zhou, Ke; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    This paper presents 'FedWeb Greatest Hits', a large new test collection for research in web information retrieval. As a combination and extension of the datasets used in the TREC Federated Web Search Track, this collection opens up new research possibilities on federated web search challenges, as

  2. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad


    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  3. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings. (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L


    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.

  4. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Legodi


    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  5. Sponge systematics facing new challenges. (United States)

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N


    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  6. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scott J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

  7. 'If it ain't broke, don't fix it': Challenges facing institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recruitment and retention of blacks and women in senior posts is still the major challenge facing .... classed social space in order to gain trust and to succeed in their careers. ... In this paper, we examine how participants in one particular ADP experience the .... they didn't want a new way of doing things and they believed the.

  8. Challenges Facing 3-D Audio Display Design for Multimedia (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    The challenges facing successful multimedia presentation depend largely on the expectations of the designer and end user for a given application. Perceptual limitations in distance, elevation and azimuth sound source simulation differ significantly between headphone and cross-talk cancellation loudspeaker listening and therefore must be considered. Simulation of an environmental context is desirable but the quality depends on processing resources and lack of interaction with the host acoustical environment. While techniques such as data reduction of head-related transfer functions have been used widely to improve simulation fidelity, another approach involves determining thresholds for environmental acoustic events. Psychoacoustic studies relevant to this approach are reviewed in consideration of multimedia applications

  9. Challenges faced by cocoyam farmers in adapting to climate change in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Ifeanyi-Obi


    Full Text Available The study examined the challenges faced by cocoyam farmers in adapting to climate change in Southeast, Nigeria. Three hundred and eighty-four respondents selected through multi-stage sampling technique were used for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Findings showed that majority were females (67%, married (92% and maintain average household size of 6 persons and a mean age of 51 years. They were mainly primary (32% and secondary (34% school certificate holders with farming (77% as their major occupation. The major cropping pattern practiced was mixed farming with cassava (63% and maize (58% as the major crops cultivated by the farmers. Majority of the farmers owned farms of one hectare and below accessed mainly through inheritance (76% and labour sourced mainly through hiring (50%. Most (81% of the farmers have spent more than ten years in farming. Climate change information was accessed mainly through their personal experience (64%, radio (42% and fellow villagers (39%. The study identified eight major challenges faced by cocoyam farmers in adapting to climate change namely Lack/high cost of farm inputs and low soil fertility (Factor 1, Land and labour constraints (Factor 2, Poor access to information and ineffectiveness of cooperatives (Factor 3, lack of/poor access to fund and credit facilities and poor government support (Factor 4, lack of improved varieties of cocoyam (factor 5, poor value attached to cocoyam (Factor 6, poor infrastructural capacity and technology know-how (Factor 7 and Transportation constraint (Factor 8. Analysis of variance identified significant variations in the challenges faced by cocoyam farmers in the study area. The study recommends enrollment in cooperatives and revitalizing existing cooperatives, re-orientation of farmers on the benefits of cocoyam and increased used of climate change

  10. Electronic health systems: challenges faced by hospital-based providers. (United States)

    Agno, Christina Farala; Guo, Kristina L


    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed.

  11. Face Attention Network: An Effective Face Detector for the Occluded Faces


    Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang


    The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...

  12. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience (United States)

    Alias, Aliza


    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  13. Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Budi Utami


    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

  14. Management challenges faced by managers of New Zealand long-term care facilities. (United States)

    Madas, E; North, N


    This article reports on a postal survey of 78 long-term care managers in one region of New Zealand, of whom 45 (58%) responded. Most long-term care managers (73.2%) were middle-aged females holding nursing but not management qualifications. Most long-term care facilities (69%) tended to be stand-alone facilities providing a single type of care (rest home or continuing care hospital). The most prominent issues facing managers were considered to be inadequate funding to match the growing costs of providing long-term care and occupancy levels. Managers believed that political/regulatory, economic and social factors influenced these issues. Despite a turbulent health care environment and the challenges facing managers, long-term care managers reported they were coping well and valued networking.

  15. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.


    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  16. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan


    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  17. Detector technology challenges for nuclear medicine and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.K.


    The challenges facing the development of new detector technology for single photon imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) are considered. There is currently great interest in functional imaging with radionuclides, particularly PET, triggered by new clinical applications and developments in molecular and cell biology. Multi-modality systems that combine radionuclide imaging with CT present new challenges, as do very high resolution systems for imaging small animals. Whilst for PET there are some fairly well defined routes to improving performance, the basic design of single photon systems has remained unchanged for many years. This review outlines the challenges that must be addressed by detector physicists in order to obtain significant advances in performance, and indicates some of the approaches currently being adopted. Emphasis is given to PET which is where the greatest opportunities appear to lie

  18. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, E.E.


    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO 2 . Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  19. Challenges and motivators to physical activity faced by retired men when ageing: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Bredland, Ebba Langum; Söderström, Sylvia; Vik, Kjersti


    Active ageing reflects the message from World Health Organisation about addressing the challenge faced by the rapidly ageing population. Knowledge about barriers and facilitators to an active lifestyle must be given more attention. In addition, men seem to participate less in cultural activities and less in fall-prevention groups than women do. When mostly women work with the elderly in primary care, one might question whether the activities offered to older men meet their activity preferences. The aim of this study is to provide new knowledge about challenges and motivators encountered by retired men in maintaining physical activity when ageing. Nine retired men, aged between 66 and 83, wrote a Time Geographic Diary for 7 days each. Two focus group discussions with the men were held. A Systemic Text Condensation was used to analyse the data. The analyses identified three categories to describe challenges in being physical active: differences between men and women; meaningful physical activity; and environmental - especially socio-cultural - constraints. Motivating conditions were seen as: new activities to get younger friends, and more information about how to cope. To achieve the aim of active ageing, service providers as well as local authorities need to have a better understanding of the challenges retired men encounter when ageing. This study highlights vital aspects of the challenges faced by retired men in maintaining their physical activity level.

  20. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski


    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  1. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris


    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit

  2. Women In Action: Challenges Facing Women Entrepreneurs In The Gauteng Province Of South Africa


    Elizabeth Chinomona; Eugine Tafadzwa Maziriri


    In today’s post-modern era, the role of women entrepreneurs in economic development is inevitable and women are willing to take action in business and contribute to the nation’s growth. Women are stepping up to own and run businesses in numbers that would have been hard to imagine a mere few decades ago. However, women entrepreneurs face a wide variety of challenges both in starting and in growing their business ventures. The objective of this paper is to investigate the challenges women entr...

  3. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia" (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim


    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  4. The Nigerian Economy in the Face of Socio-Political Challenges: A Retrospective View and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomola M Obamuyi


    Full Text Available This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.

  5. Leadership survey. An evaluation of health care executives' challenges. (United States)

    Thrall, T H; Hoppszallern, S


    Locating and keeping employees represents one of the greatest challenges facing health care leaders today. This is a key finding of the third Leadership Survey of executives in physician practices, managed care organizations and hospitals. The survey is sponsored by the Medical Group Management Association and Hospitals & Health Networks magazine. Other significant results: Practices put the most emphasis on teamwork, training and staff development as methods to combat labor shortages; practice executives count adequacy of reimbursements and physician productivity as top leadership challenges, along with the availability of qualified workers; practices choose print advertising and the addition of new products and services as the best ways for them to build market share.

  6. Rural Teachers' Views: What Are Gender-Based Challenges Facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho? (United States)

    Morojele, Pholoho


    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from…



    Raden Aswin Rahadi


    This research is a part of a continuous study to analyze the opportunities and challenges for micro-small and medium business in Indonesia when facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2016. It has its own uniqueness, as it will combine the point of view between current business owners and current literature study synthesis on business perception towards AEC. Ten business owners have been interviewed. The results suggested AEC provides challenges for the business owners, particularly in terms...

  8. Challenges facing the distribution of an artificial-intelligence-based system for nursing. (United States)

    Evans, S


    The marketing and successful distribution of artificial-intelligence-based decision-support systems for nursing face special barriers and challenges. Issues that must be confronted arise particularly from the present culture of the nursing profession as well as the typical organizational structures in which nurses predominantly work. Generalizations in the literature based on the limited experience of physician-oriented artificial intelligence applications (predominantly in diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment) must be modified for applicability to other health professions.

  9. Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries


    Rajanbir Kaur; Kanwaljit Kaur; Rajinder Kaur


    Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of p...

  10. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University (United States)

    Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali


    This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students' presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and…

  11. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols


    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  12. The challenges facing today's operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walach, T. [Canadian District Energy Association, Vaughan, ON (Canada)


    A summary of how the Northwind Windsor plant operates was presented along with reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. The plant is a joint venture between Exelon Thermal Technologies and Ontario Power Generation. The plant produces and sells hot water, chilled water, steam and electricity to the Windsor Utilities Commission. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The plant offers less management costs, lower energy costs, a lower level of risk management, stable energy rates, better use of building space, reliable service, and a cleaner environment. However, operators face significant challenges in terms of plant operation. They must be knowledgeable in the operation and maintenance of innovative equipment, and must have detailed information regarding operating efficiencies. District Energy requires more complex plants that use various energy saving technologies that deliver a broad range of energy types.

  13. Western United States Dams Challenges Faced, Options, and Opportunities (United States)

    Raff, D.


    Water management in the Western United States relies significantly upon a fleet of small to very large engineered dams to store water during times of runoff and distribute that water during times of need. Much of this infrastructure is Federally owned and/or operated, and was designed and funded during the first half of the twentieth century through a complex set of repayment contracts for Federally authorized purposes addressing water supply, recreation, and hydropower, and other water management objectives. With environmental laws, namely the Endangered Species Act, and other environmental concerns taking a more active role in water resources in the mid to latter half of the twentieth century, this infrastructure is being stressed even greater than anticipated to provide authorized purposes. Additionally, weather and climate norms being experienced are certainly near the edges, if not outside, of anticipated variability in the climate and hydrology scenarios for which the infrastructure was designed. And, finally, these dams, economically designed for a lifespan of 50 - 100 years, are experiencing maintenance challenges from routine to significant. This presentation will focus on identifying some of the history and challenges facing the water infrastructure in the Western United States. Additionally, some perspectives on future paths to meet the needs of western irrigation and hydropower production will be provided.

  14. Challenges and issues facing the future of nursing education: implications for ethnic minority faculty and students. (United States)

    Davis, Sheila P; Davis, Danyetta D


    Current trends in higher education in the United States demand that nursing take stock of how it is prepared or being prepared to face challenges and issues impacting on its future. The intense effort made to attract students to pursue advanced training in science and engineering in the United States pales in comparison to the numbers of science and engineering majors produced yearly in international schools. As a result, more and more jobs are being outsourced to international markets. Could international outsourcing become a method of nursing education? Authors submit that to remain competitive, the nursing profession must attract a younger cohort of technologically savvy students and faculty reflective of the growing diverse population in the United States. Additionally, nursing programs in research universities face even more daunting challenges as it relates to mandates for funded research programs of educational units. This article offers suggestions and recommendations for nursing programs in higher education institutions on ways to attract and retain ethnic minorities and of how to harness the power of research to address burgeoning societal health challenges.

  15. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II]. (United States)

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira


    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  16. Challenges Pre-Service Teachers Face When Implementing a 5E Inquiry Model of Instruction (United States)

    Enugu, Ramya; Hokayem, Hayat


    This study examined the challenges that pre-service teachers faced when implementing inquiry and their perspective on how to overcome them. The data sample was 55 pre-service teachers (PSTs) enrolled into two sections of a science methods course in a private university in North Texas. The data sources consisted of inquiry-based lesson plans, PST…

  17. Post-industrial landscape - its identification and classification as contemporary challenges faced by geographic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír


    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-78 ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : classification * geographical research * identification method * landscape structure Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB


    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  19. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Komarac


    Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.

  20. ‘Everyone has a secret they keep close to their hearts’: challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV infection at the Kenyan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upsurge in the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART has led to a significant increase in the survival of vertically acquired HIV infected children, many of whom are currently living into adolescence and early adulthood. However little if anything is known of the lived experiences and the challenges faced by HIV positive adolescents in the African context. We set out to investigate psychosocial challenges faced by HIV infected adolescents on the Kenyan coast. Methods A total of 44 participants (12 HIV-infected adolescents, 7 HIV uninfected adolescents, and 25 key informants took part in this qualitative study, using individually administered in-depth interviews. A framework approach was used to analyze the data using NVIVO software. Results We observed that the challenges faced by adolescents in rural Kenya could be placed into six major themes: poverty, poor mental and physical health, the lack of a school system that is responsive to their needs, challenges in how to disclose to peers and family members, high levels of stigma in its various forms, and challenges of medical adherence leading to the need for close monitoring. Conclusion In this African community, vertically acquired HIV-infected adolescents face a complex set of social, economic and medical challenges. Our study points to the urgent need to develop multisectorial intervention support programmes to fully address these challenges.

  1. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai


    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...... the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two....

  2. Computational Physics' Greatest Hits (United States)

    Bug, Amy


    The digital computer, has worked its way so effectively into our profession that now, roughly 65 years after its invention, it is virtually impossible to find a field of experimental or theoretical physics unaided by computational innovation. It is tough to think of another device about which one can make that claim. In the session ``What is computational physics?'' speakers will distinguish computation within the field of computational physics from this ubiquitous importance across all subfields of physics. This talk will recap the invited session ``Great Advances...Past, Present and Future'' in which five dramatic areas of discovery (five of our ``greatest hits'') are chronicled: The physics of many-boson systems via Path Integral Monte Carlo, the thermodynamic behavior of a huge number of diverse systems via Monte Carlo Methods, the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents via molecular dynamics, predictive simulations of global climate change via detailed, cross-disciplinary earth system models, and an understanding of the formation of the first structures in our universe via galaxy formation simulations. The talk will also identify ``greatest hits'' in our field from the teaching and research perspectives of other members of DCOMP, including its Executive Committee.

  3. Indigenous mothers face more than three delays: The challenges of multiculturalism in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosta-G., Manigeh


    Full Text Available Although the maternal mortality ratio has descended in Bolivia from 416 (1989 to 229 deaths (DHS 2003 per one hundred thousand live births, it is one of the highest in the region. As a national average, the ratio conceals the rural-urban, socio-economics differences and the reality of the indigenous population. Maternal mortality is one of the major challenges at national level. Reduction of maternal mortality, in addition of technical-medical measures offering health services, requires to focus on socio-cultural aspects that hamper the access to health services. This article examines challenges faced by indigenous mothers accessing the health services. In addition to the geographic, economic and administrative barriers that generate delays in access to the health services, there are others that are presented in the context of multiculturalism resulting from discriminatory attitudes exercised in health centers. The testimonies of indigenous mothers show delays faced in health centers because of prejudice and discrimination suffered, threatening the lives of mothers and their babies. The study also suggests the need to deepen the concept of multiculturalism as a successful strategy in health, in order to promote equity and social justice on the horizon of more inclusive societies.

  4. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K


    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk (United States)


    549 Nanotechnology equivalent.17 In addition, nanotechnology -enabled water desalination and filtration systems may offer affordable...Senate NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk May 2010 GAO-10-549...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology : Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce

  6. Immigrant to Canada, newcomer to childhood cancer: a qualitative study of challenges faced by immigrant parents. (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Banerjee, Ananya T; Sung, Lillian; Klaassen, Robert J; Dix, David; Poureslami, Iraj M; Shaw, Nicola


    Given the increasing numbers of immigrant families in Canada, it is imperative that healthcare providers (HCPs) understand the caregiving experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our study aimed to explore any special challenges faced by immigrant parents of children with cancer and to identify supportive factors. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Participants included 50 first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least six months post-diagnosis. Recruitment took place at six Canadian pediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi. Analysis involved coding and the use of the constant comparison method. Interviewing continued until no new themes emerged. While immigrant parents described many challenges faced by any parent of a child with cancer, the context of being an immigrant made certain experiences particularly challenging. Parents described challenges in the following areas: managing caregiving demand and financial strain, accessing support from others, and interfacing with the healthcare system. Parents described receiving a range of practical, emotional, social and informational support from extended family, their workplace, other cancer families, community organizations and HCPs. Our study addresses an important gap in the research literature by providing practical insight into the experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our findings may help to inform the development of pediatric oncology policies and programs in ways that respond to the unique needs and challenges of culturally and linguistically diverse families. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Assessing Students Perceptions on Intensive Face to Face in Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study assessed students‟ perception on Intensive Face to Face sessions. The study specifically aimed at identifying students‟ perception on quality of interaction between tutors and students and between students on the other hand. It also explored the nature of challenges students meet in attending face to ...

  8. Challenges faced by former child soldiers in the aftermath of war in Uganda. (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse


    Warfare takes a profound toll of all layers of society, creating multiple and multilevel challenges that impinge on the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. This study aims to assess the scope and salience of challenges confronting former child soldiers and at identifying additional challenges they face compared to non-recruited young people in war-affected northern Uganda. The study was carried out with a stratified random sample of northern Ugandan adolescents (n = 1,008), of whom a third had formerly been recruited (n = 330). The mixed-method comparison design consisted of a constrained free listing task to determine the challenges; a free sorting task to categorize them into clusters; and statistical analysis of their prevalence among formerly recruited youth and of how they compare with those of nonrecruited youth. Altogether, 237 challenges were identified and clustered into 15 categories, showing that formerly recruited participants mainly identified "emotional" and "training and skills"-related challenges. Compared with nonrecruited counterparts, they reported significantly more "emotional" and fewer "social and relational" challenges, with the exception of stigmatization. Overall, there was similarity between the challenges reported by both groups. The challenges confronting formerly recruited youths reach well beyond the effects of direct war exposure and emerge mainly from multiple influence spheres surrounding them. These challenges are largely shared in common with nonrecruited youths. This multidimensional and collective character of challenges calls for comprehensive psychosocial interventions through which healing the psychological wounds of war is complemented by mending the war-affected surroundings at all levels and in all life areas. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges Facing Crop Production And (Some) Potential Solutions (United States)

    Schnable, P. S.


    To overcome some of the myriad challenges facing sustainable crop production we are seeking to develop statistical models that will predict crop performance in diverse agronomic environments. Crop phenotypes such as yield and drought tolerance are controlled by genotype, environment (considered broadly) and their interaction (GxE). As a consequence of the next generation sequencing revolution genotyping data are now available for a wide diversity of accessions in each of the major crops. The necessary volumes of phenotypic data, however, remain limiting and our understanding of molecular basis of GxE is minimal. To address this limitation, we are collaborating with engineers to construct new sensors and robots to automatically collect large volumes of phenotypic data. Two types of high-throughput, high-resolution, field-based phenotyping systems and new sensors will be described. Some of these technologies will be introduced within the context of the Genomes to Fields Initiative. Progress towards developing predictive models will be briefly summarized. An administrative structure that fosters transdisciplinary collaborations will be briefly described.

  10. First liver transplant in Qatar: an evolving program facing many challenges. (United States)

    Khalaf, Hatem; Derballa, Moataz; Elmasry, Mohammed; Khalil, Ahmed; Yakoob, Rafie; Almohannadi, Muneera; Almaslamani, Muna; Fadhil, Riadh; Al-Kaabi, Saad; Al-Ansari, Abdulla; Almaslamani, Yousuf


    Beginning to do liver transplants in a developing country is challenging. We report on the first few liver transplants performed in Qatar and discuss future exceptions and challenges facing our program. The first liver transplant was performed in Qatar on December 6, 2011. Since starting the program, 4 deceased-donor liver transplants have been performed in Qatar. All recipients underwent a standard deceased-donor liver transplant procedure, which included a duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis without a veno-venous bypass. All liver transplants were performed at the Hamad Medical Corporation by a local team of surgeons without external assistance. The 4 patients were all men, with a median age of 56 years (age range, 46-63 y). Indications for liver transplant included hepatitis C cirrhosis in 2 patients, and 1 patient with hepatitis B cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma, and the other patient with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. Median amount of blood transfused was 6 units (range, 0-10 U); median time spent in the intensive care unit was 2 days (range, 2-5 d); median amount of time spent in the hospital was 10 days (range, 9-16 d). All 4 recipients have survived after a median follow-up of 438 days (range, 33-602 d) and are enjoying a healthy life, with no significant posttransplant complications. A deceased-donor liver transplant can be performed in Qatar with no external assistance. However, a severe organ shortage remains the biggest obstacle facing us. Efforts should be directed toward improving the number and quality of available deceased donors in Qatar. Meanwhile, live-donor liver transplant may be the only way for us, going forward, to prevent deaths on the waiting list.

  11. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner


    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  12. Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.


    Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

  13. Challenges Facing Group Work Online (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun


    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  14. A Short Twenty Years: Meeting the Challenges Facing Teachers Who Bring Rwanda into the Classroom (United States)

    Gudgel, Mark


    As the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda approaches, Mark Gudgel argues that we should face the challenges posed by teaching about Rwanda. Drawing on his experience as a history teacher in the US, his experience researching and supporting others' classrooms in the US and UK, his training in Holocaust education and his knowledge…

  15. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition. (United States)

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike


    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.


    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  17. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)


    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  18. Challenges facing air management for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.B. [Department of Energy (United States); Sutton, R. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Wagner, F.W. [Energetics Incorporated (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 mpg. while meeting customer needs and all safety and emission requirements. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in the research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient energy conversion system for the PNGV. A critical challenge facing fuel cell systems for the PNGV is the development of efficient, compact, cost-effective air management systems. The U.S. Department of Energy has been exploring several compressor/expander options for pressurized fuel cell systems, including scroll, toroidal intersecting vane, turbine, twin screw, and piston technologies. Each of these technologies has strengths and weaknesses regarding efficiency, pressure ratio over turndown, size and weight, and cost. This paper will present data from the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development efforts on air management systems and will discusses recent program developments resulting from an independent peer review evaluation. (author)

  19. Climate change: Wilderness's greatest challenge (United States)

    Nathan L. Stephenson; Connie Millar


    Anthropogenic climatic change can no longer be considered an abstract possibility. It is here, its effects are already evident, and changes are expected to accelerate in coming decades, profoundly altering wilderness ecosystems. At the most fundamental level, wilderness stewards will increasingly be confronted with a trade-off between untrammeled wilderness character...

  20. Japan's shift to a proactive defense architecture: Challenges faced by industry, government, and society


    Chung, Hoyoon


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a result of the changing security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Japan is shifting to a more proactive defense policy, as outlined in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG). This thesis investigates the challenges faced by Japan's industry, government, and society in meeting the NDPG objectives. To do this, this thesis probes the following problem areas: difficulties with indigenous production of weapons systems, inability...

  1. Challenges confronting female surgical leaders: overcoming the barriers. (United States)

    Kass, Rena B; Souba, Wiley W; Thorndyke, Luanne E


    The number of women reaching top ranks in academic surgery is remarkably low. The purpose of this study was to identify: 1) barriers to becoming a female surgical leader; 2) key attributes that enable advancement and success; and 3) current leadership challenges faced as senior leaders. Semi-structured interviews of ten female surgical leaders queried the following dimensions: attributes for success, lessons learned, mistakes, key career steps, the role of mentoring, gender advantages/disadvantages, and challenges. Perseverance (60%) and drive (50%) were identified as critical success factors, as were good communication skills, a passion for scholarship, a stable home life and a positive outlook. Eighty percent identified discrimination or gender prejudice as a major obstacle in their careers. While 90% percent had mentors, 50% acknowledged that they had not been effectively mentored. Career advice included: develop broad career goals (50%); select a conducive environment (30%); find a mentor (60%); take personal responsibility (40%); organize time and achieve balance (40%); network (30%); create a niche (30%); pursue research (30%); publish (50%); speak in public (30%); and enjoy the process (30%). Being in a minority, being highly visible and being collaborative were identified as advantages. Obtaining buy-in and achieving consensus was the greatest leadership challenge reported. Female academic surgeons face challenges to career advancement. While these barriers are real, they can be overcome by resolve, commitment, and developing strong communication skills. These elements should be taken into consideration in designing career development programs for junior female surgical faculty.

  2. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory


    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  3. United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.


    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, in an area known as the Borderlands, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. This circular identifies several challenge themes and issues associated with life and the environment in the Borderlands, listed below. The challenges are not one-sided; they do not originate in one country only to become problems for the other. The issues and concerns of each challenge theme flow in both directions across the border, and both nations feel their effects throughout the Borderlands and beyond. The clear message is that our two nations, the United States and Mexico, face the issues in these challenge themes together, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) understands it must work with its counterparts, partners, and customers in both countries.Though the mission of the USGS is not to serve as land manager, law enforcer, or code regulator, its innovation and creativity and the scientific and technical depth of its capabilities can be directly applied to monitoring the conditions of the landscape. The ability of USGS scientists to critically analyze the monitored data in search of signals and trends, whether they lead to negative or positive results, allows us to reach significant conclusions—from providing factual conclusions to decisionmakers, to estimating how much of a natural resource exists in a particular locale, to predicting how a natural hazard phenomenon will unfold, to forecasting on a scale from hours to millennia how ecosystems will behave.None of these challenge themes can be addressed strictly by one or two science disciplines; all require well-integrated, cross-discipline thinking, data collection, and analyses. The multidisciplinary science themes that have become the focus of the USGS mission parallel the major challenges in the border region between Mexico and the United States. Because of this multidisciplinary approach, the USGS

  4. Web-Based vs. Face-to-Face MBA Classes: A Comparative Assessment Study (United States)

    Brownstein, Barry; Brownstein, Deborah; Gerlowski, Daniel A.


    The challenges of online learning include ensuring that the learning outcomes are at least as robust as in the face-to-face sections of the same course. At the University of Baltimore, both online sections and face-to-face sections of core MBA courses are offered. Once admitted to the MBA, students are free to enroll in any combination of…

  5. Challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia. (United States)

    Walubita, Mulima; Sikateyo, Bornwell; Zulu, Joseph M


    Zambia is experiencing high prevalence of childhood cancer. However, very few children access and complete treatment for cancer. This study aimed to document the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia, and their coping strategies. This was an exploratory health facility-based qualitative study that was conducted at a Paediatric oncology ward at referral hospital in Zambia. In-depth individual interviews conducted with fifteen (15) caregivers and seven (7) key informants were analysed using thematic analysis. Several challenges related to managing the childhood cancer diagnosis were recorded. Individual and family challenges were inadequate knowledge on childhood cancer, lack of finances to meet treatment and transport costs as well as long period of hospitalisation that affected women's ability to perform multiple responsibilities. Whereas challenges at community level were inadequate support to address emotional and physical distress and social stigmatisation experienced by caregivers. Health systems issues included inadequate specialised health workers, poor communication among health workers, limited space and beds as well as insufficient supplies such as blood. Cultural related factors were the belief that cancer is a product of witchcraft as well as religious beliefs regarding the role of faith healing in childhood cancer treatment. Coping strategies used by parents/ caregivers included praying to God, material support from organisations and church as well as delaying having another child. Addressing the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a childhood cancer diagnosis may require adopting a systems or an ecological approach that allows developing strategies that simultaneously address challenges related to the individual, family, community, health system and cultural aspects.

  6. The Role of School Nurses, Challenges, and Reactions to Delegation Legislation: A Qualitative Approach. (United States)

    Lineberry, Michelle; Whitney, Elizabeth; Noland, Melody


    Passage of new laws, national standards regarding delegation, and the recommendation for at least one full-time nurse in every school have provided more visibility to the role of school nurses. Recent legislative amendments in Kentucky presented an opportunity to examine how the role of the school nurse is changing. Aims were to describe the (1) role of school nurses in Kentucky, (2) impact of school nurses, (3) challenges faced by school nurses, and (4) impact of budget cuts and legislation. Three focus groups were conducted. School nurses faced challenges of limited time and resources, communication barriers, and multiple documentation requirements. Nurses' greatest impacts were their availability, recognition of psychosocial problems and health concerns, and connection with resources. Nurses had not yet encountered many changes due to new legislation that expanded delegation of diabetes-related tasks to unlicensed school personnel, but some had concerns about possible negative effects while others expressed support.

  7. Operational HOF Practices in the AREVA Group to Face New Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coye de Brunélis, T.; Bachellerie, E.; Sidaner, J.-F.


    Operating experience from TMI and and more general experience from three decades of nuclear facility operations, have shown the value of safety culture’s contribution to nuclear risk management. More than ever, this particular aspect of human and organizational factors (HOF) is central to the AREVA group’s concerns as it faces new challenges. The first generation of operators commissioned the facilities and optimized their operation. This first phase gave them a better understanding of operations and related limits, particularly through testing and start-up operations and the responses that were found for all of the technical issues that arose. All of these interactions offered opportunities to make the safety challenges of processes and facilities tangible and directly perceptible. The young operators of those bygone years are now the ones who are “in the know” in the organizations, the ones with unique technical know-how and a multi-layered perception of the risks involved. Those first generations of operators, with their unique operational knowledge, are gradually leaving the industrial world. Replacing those skills creates a new set of challenges. Concomitantly, the French nuclear safety authority benefited from these facility start-ups to increase its skills by sharing in the learning process concerning the facilities’ operational realities and in the construction of a safety configuration program, and by gaining a concrete perception of risk. This fostered the mutual trust that is vital and integral to facility safety.

  8. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, H.


    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  9. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  10. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe


    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  11. Challenges faced in rural hospitals: the experiences of nurse managers in Uganda. (United States)

    Kakyo, T A; Xiao, L D


    The aim of this study was to understand nurse ward managers perceived challenges in the rural healthcare setting in Uganda. The health workforce, essential medicines and equipment and political unrest are the main factors affecting the international community in addressing the hefty disease burden in World Health Organization African regions. Nurse ward managers have an important role to play to mitigate these factors in health facilities in these regions through leadership, supervision and support for staff. This study utilized interpretive phenomenology based on Gadamer's hermeneutical principles. Eleven nurse managers from two rural public hospitals in Uganda were interviewed. Those with more than a 2-year experience in their management role were invited to participate in the study. Nurse managers pointed out four major challenges with staffing, while they worked in the rural healthcare settings. These are summarized into themes: 'Numbers do matter'; 'I cannot access them when I need them at work'; 'Challenges in dealing with negative attitudes'; and 'Questioning own ability to manage health services'. Health facilities in rural areas face extremely low staff-to-patient ratio, a high level of workload, lack of essential medicines and equipment, low salaries and delayed payment for staff. Nurse managers demonstrated situation-based performance to minimize the impact of these challenges on the quality and safety of patient care, but they had less influence on policy and resource development. It is imperative to mobilize education for nurse ward managers to enable them to improve leadership, management skills and to have a greater impact on policy and resource development. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Challenges faced by nurses in managing pain in a critical care setting. (United States)

    Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Allcock, Nick; James, Veronica; Lathlean, Judith


    To explore nurses' challenges in managing pain among ill patients in critical care. Pain can lead to many adverse medical consequences and providing pain relief is central to caring for ill patients. Effective pain management is vital since studies show patients admitted to critical care units still suffer from significant levels of acute pain. The effective delivery of care in clinical areas remains a challenge for nurses involved with care which is dynamic and constantly changing in critically ill. Qualitative prospective exploratory design. This study employed semi structured interviews with nurses, using critical incident technique. Twenty-one nurses were selected from critical care settings from a large acute teaching health care trust in the UK. A critical incident interview guide was constructed from the literature and used to elicit responses. Framework analysis showed that nurses perceived four main challenges in managing pain namely lack of clinical guidelines, lack of structured pain assessment tool, limited autonomy in decision making and the patient's condition itself. Nurses' decision making and pain management can influence the quality of care given to critically ill patients. It is important to overcome the clinical problems that are faced when dealing with pain experience. There is a need for nursing education on pain management. Providing up to date and practical strategies may help to reduce nurses' challenges in managing pain among critically ill patients. Broader autonomy and effective decision making can be seen as beneficial for the nurses besides having a clearer and structured pain management guidelines. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, I.R.; Soentono, S.


    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of

  14. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bermès


    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  15. Technological challenges at ITER plasma facing components production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazul, I.V., E-mail: [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.A.; Gervash, A.A.; Giniyatulin, R.N.; Guryeva, T.M.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Makhankov, A.N.; Okunev, A.A. [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevryukov, O.N. [MEPhI, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Technological aspects of ITER PFC manufacturing in Russia are presented. • Range of technologies to be used during manufacturing of ITER PFC at Efremov Institute has been, in general, defined and their complexity, originality and difficulty are described. • Some features and challenges of welding, brazing and various tests are discussed. - Abstract: Major part of ITER plasma facing components will be manufactured in the Russian Federation (RF). Operational conditions and other requirements to these components, as well as the scale of production, are quite unique. These unique features and related technological solutions found in the frame of the project are discussed. Procedure breakdown and results of qualification for the proposed technologies and potential producers are presented, based on mockups production and testing. Design of qualification mockups and prototypes, testing programs and results are described. Basic quantitative and qualitative parameters of manufactured components and methods of quality control are presented. Critical manufacturing issues and prospects for unique production for future fusion needs are discussed.

  16. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other Language learners in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie O'Connor


    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  17. Lost in Translation: Adapting a Face-to-Face Course Into an Online Learning Experience. (United States)

    Kenzig, Melissa J


    Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Tolerance to spatial-relational transformations in unfamiliar faces: A further challenge to a configural processing account of identity recognition. (United States)

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caminati, Martina; Caudek, Corrado


    One of the most important questions in face perception research is to understand what information is extracted from a face in order to recognize its identity. Recognition of facial identity has been attributed to a special sensitivity to "configural" information. However, recent studies have challenged the configural account by showing that participants are poor in discriminating variations of metric distances among facial features, especially for familiar as opposed to unfamiliar faces, whereas a configural account predicts the opposite. We aimed to extend these previous results by examining classes of unfamiliar faces with which we have different levels of expertise. We hypothesized an inverse relation between sensitivity to configural information and expertise with a given class of faces, but only for neutral expressions. By first matching perceptual discriminability, we measured tolerance to subtle configural transformations with same-race (SR) versus other-race (OR) faces, and with upright versus upside-down faces. Consistently with our predictions, we found a lower sensitivity to at-threshold configural changes for SR compared to OR faces. We also found that, for our stimuli, the face inversion effect disappeared for neutral but not for emotional faces - a result that can also be attributed to a lower sensitivity to configural transformations for faces presented in a more familiar orientation. The present findings question a purely configural account of face processing and suggest that the role of spatial-relational information in face processing varies according to the functional demands of the task and to the characteristics of the stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Critical Thinking Skills through Writing Tasks: Challenges Facing Maritime English Students at Aqaba College, AlBalqa Applied University, Jordan (United States)

    Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud; Ayassrah, Mohamed Ayed


    Teaching English for Special Purposes (ESP) in a context where English is taught as a Foreign Language (EFL) is no easy task. There is in fact extensive research reporting on challenges facing both teacher and student in the Foreign Language classroom where language skills must be learnt outside their usual context. Even more challenging is…

  20. Animal models of binge drinking, current challenges to improve face validity. (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Rolland, Benjamin; Gierski, Fabien; Martinetti, Margaret P; Naassila, Mickael


    Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The Quebec Healthy Cities and Towns Network: a powerful movement faced with new challenges]. (United States)

    Simard, Paule


    After twenty years serving its members, the Quebec Healthy Cities and Towns Network (QHCTN) faces several challenges. There are currently many changes being made in the local organization and the administration of services. The Network, through its capacity to mobilize the different municipalities, is the best placed to advocate and support a coordinated approach to government initiatives and also to encourage partnerships with other institutions (education, health, socio-economic) and communities. There is, nonetheless, a need to rethink its direct support to members, especially in terms of communication and networking among them.

  2. Challenges of microtome‐based serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy in neuroscience (United States)



    Summary Serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is becoming increasingly popular for a wide range of applications in many disciplines from biology to material sciences. This review focuses on applications for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience, which is one of the major driving forces advancing SBEM. Neuronal circuit reconstruction poses exceptional challenges to volume EM in terms of resolution, field of view, acquisition time and sample preparation. Mapping the connections between neurons in the brain is crucial for understanding information flow and information processing in the brain. However, information on the connectivity between hundreds or even thousands of neurons densely packed in neuronal microcircuits is still largely missing. Volume EM techniques such as serial section TEM, automated tape‐collecting ultramicrotome, focused ion‐beam scanning electron microscopy and SBEM (microtome serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy) are the techniques that provide sufficient resolution to resolve ultrastructural details such as synapses and provides sufficient field of view for dense reconstruction of neuronal circuits. While volume EM techniques are advancing, they are generating large data sets on the terabyte scale that require new image processing workflows and analysis tools. In this review, we present the recent advances in SBEM for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience and an overview of existing image processing and analysis pipelines. PMID:25907464

  3. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia


    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  4. Automatic landmark detection and face recognition for side-view face images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Broemme, Arslan; Busch, Christoph


    In real-life scenarios where pose variation is up to side-view positions, face recognition becomes a challenging task. In this paper we propose an automatic side-view face recognition system designed for home-safety applications. Our goal is to recognize people as they pass through doors in order to

  5. Using an Iterative Mixed-Methods Research Design to Investigate Schools Facing Exceptionally Challenging Circumstances within Trinidad and Tobago (United States)

    De Lisle, Jerome; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mohammed, Rhoda; Lee-Piggott, Rinnelle


    In this study, methodology and theory were linked to explicate the nature of education practice within schools facing exceptionally challenging circumstances (SFECC) in Trinidad and Tobago. The research design was an iterative quan>QUAL-quan>qual multi-method research programme, consisting of 3 independent projects linked together by overall…

  6. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients. (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J


    Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

  7. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves


    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  8. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab


    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

  9. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders


    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition......, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities...

  10. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.


    Challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian natural gas industry were discussed. The greatest opportunity is that the industry will become part of a fully functioning continental gas market for the first time in history. The challenge will be to ensure that the access to continental markets, which the Alliance project would provide, moves forward in a timely way, especially if the proposed merger between Canada's two dominant natural gas pipelines occurs. The second challenge is to find ways to deal with global warming in a more sensible and knowledgeable way. In the view of this author, the implications of the Kyoto greenhouse gas emission protocol could be potentially devastating to the competitiveness of the North American economy. According to the author, the emission stabilization policy will save the Earth only 0.05 degree C of warming in 2025 based on projected planetary temperature rise from 1990 to 2050. By 2050, the stabilization of emissions will have resulted in savings of only 0.10 degrees C, still a negligible amount. The impact of the Canadian Kyoto obligation was analyzed using federal Department of the Environment data. It was noted that in order for Canada to meet its commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 6 per cent by 2008-2012, actual annual reduction in emission would have to amount to 20-25 per cent. To achieve that would require unimaginably drastic measures. 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Article Commentary: The interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC Assessment: Evaluating the Long-term Community-Based Service and Support Needs of Children Facing Special Healthcare Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Phillips


    Full Text Available The vast majority of assessment instruments developed to assess children facing special healthcare challenges were constructed to assess children within a limited age range or children who face specific conditions or impairments. In contrast, the interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC Assessment Form was specifically designed to assess the long-term community-based service and support needs of children and youth aged from four to 20 years who face a wide range of chronic physical or behavioral health challenges. Initial research indicates that PEDS HC items exhibit good predictive validity–-explaining significant proportions of the variance in parents’ perceptions of needs, case managers’ service authorizations, and Medicaid program expenditures for long-term community-based services and supports. In addition, PEDS HC items have been used to construct scales that summarize the strengths and needs of children facing special healthcare challenges. Versions of the PEDS HC are now being used in Medicaid programs in three states in the United States.

  13. Challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe: The case of Chitungwiza town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwa Rugoho


    Conclusion: The government, in partnership with other stakeholders, should address challenges faced by women with disabilities when accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Non-government, private hospitals and profit-making organisations should join hands with government in funding health requirements for women with disabilities.

  14. Missed Opportunities for Science Learning: Unacknowledged Unscientific Arguments in Asynchronous Online and Face-to-Face Discussions (United States)

    Callis-Duehl, Kristine; Idsardi, Robert; Humphrey, Eve A.; Gougis, Rebekka Darner


    We explored the scientific argumentation that occurs among university biology students during an argumentation task implemented in two environments: face-to-face in a classroom and online in an asynchronous discussion. We observed 10 student groups, each composed of three students. Our analysis focused on how students respond to their peers' unscientific arguments, which we define as assertions, hypotheses, propositions, or explanations that are inaccurate or incomplete from a scientific perspective. Unscientific arguments provide opportunities for productive dissent, scientific argumentation, and conceptual development of scientifically desirable conceptions. We found that students did not respond to the majority of unscientific arguments in both environments. Challenges to unscientific arguments were expressed as a question or through explanation, although the latter was more common online than face-to-face. Students demonstrated significantly more epistemic distancing in the face-to-face environment than the online environment. We discuss the differences in discourse observed in both environments and teaching implications. We also provide direction for future research seeking to address the challenges of engaging students in productive scientific argumentation in both face-to-face and online environments.

  15. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi


    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  16. Challenges Faced by Development Partners in Supporting the Growth and Development of Commercial Enterprises in Lira District, Northern Uganda (United States)

    Eton, Marus; Mwirumubi, Richard; Edaku, Charles


    Entrepreneurship is defined as the process where an individual discovers, evaluates and exploit opportunities independently. Most countries have embraced entrepreneurship development as ways of creating employment and economic growth and development. The objective of the study was to examine the challenges faced by commercial enterprises in Lira…

  17. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  18. What are the challenges facing our industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  19. What are the challenges facing our industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  20. Small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana: a factor analysis of motivations and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mensah-Ansah


    Full Text Available Five hundred and five small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana were surveyed to determine their motivation for owning/operating a small tourism business and the challenges they encounter. Tourism accommodation business owners indicated factors such as maintaining lifestyle, being their own bosses, capitalising on a business opportunity, generation of retirement income influence the decision to own/operate a small tourism accommodation businesses. These variables can be categorized as non-economic and economic factors. It was found that though the owners were motivated by commercial enterprise goals, these are subordinated to the pursuit of socially driven lifestyle motivation factors. Small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana perceive the non-availability of skilled hospitality personnel and limited access to structured hospitality training programmes as the greatest challenge facing their industry.

  1. Expression modeling for expression-invariant face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. Ter; Veltkamp, R.C.


    Morphable face models have proven to be an effective tool for 3D face modeling and face recognition, but the extension to 3D face scans with expressions is still a challenge. The two main difficulties are (1) how to build a new morphable face model that deals with expressions, and (2) how to fit

  2. Revisiting hansen's disease: Recognizing the many neurodermatologic faces and its diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P Shelley


    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (HD looms still as a public health problem. Conventional wisdom and teaching largely view HD as a predominantly dermatologic disorder with much emphasis in the dermatology postgraduate curriculum. This review attempts to reorient this view and reemphasize that HD has primarily neurologic underpinnings since Mycobacterium leprae is an intracellular neurotropic bacterium. The main thrust of this article would, therefore, be a neurologist's perspective of HD. The cutaneous manifestations of HD are the sequelae of the neurobiology of M. leprae, its selective predilection to human Schwann cells, neurovascular bundle and its localization in the intracutaneous nerve plexus of the skin. We discuss the nuances of HD as a “great imitator,” the many faces of its neurodermatologic clinical presentation, the neurologic basis of HD clinical examination, and its diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

  3. Some environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng


    Some of the environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century have been discussed in the paper. They are: the use of the linear non-threshold (LNT) model for radiation protection, the concept of 'controllable dose' as an alternative to the current International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of dose limitation, the future of collective dose and the ALARA (As low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and the application of a risk-based framework for managing hazards. The author proposes that, the risk assessment/risk management framework could be used for managing the environmental, safety and decommissioning issues associated with the uranium fuel cycle. (author)

  4. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu


    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  5. USDA's national institute of food and agriculture (NIFA): engaging knowledge and technology, incentives and policies to promote appropriate decision making in the management of water and watersheds (United States)

    James Dobrowolski


    Agriculture, across the value chain, is the greatest consumptive user of water resources in the United States and around the world. Perhaps the greatest challenge facing agricultural producers will be increased agricultural production to meet rising demand in the face of limited water resources.

  6. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing. (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel


    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  7. Treatment compliance and challenges among tuberculosis patients across selected health facilities in Osun State Nigeria. (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ogundun, O A; Afolabi, O T; Ojo, T O; Atiba, B P; Oguntunase, D O


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the world and Africa has approximately one quarter of the world's cases. One of the greatest challenges facing most TB programmes is the non-compliance to TB treatment among TB patients. This study aimed at determining the challenges of management of tuberculosis (TB) across selected Osun State health facilities. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 102 TB patients in the health facilities. The instrument measured socio-demographic variables, patient related factors, socio-economic variables, health care system related factors to TB disease and treatment. Data were analysed and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was placed at p facilities (χ2 = 21.761, p facility and patient-related factors were largely responsible.

  8. Assessing Student Performance and Perceptions in Lecture Capture vs. Face-to-Face Course Delivery (United States)

    Euzent, Patricia; Martin, Thomas; Moskal, Patrick; Moskal, Patsy


    Public universities are currently facing a challenge in determining how to deliver quality instruction in the face of severe fiscal constraints. With recent technological advances, courses streamed over the Internet (i.e., lecture capture) are now becoming common. However, little research has been published that specifically examines student…

  9. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo


    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  10. Challenges faced by primary care physicians when prescribing for patients with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Malaysia: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Sellappans, Renukha; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Ng, Chirk Jenn


    The aim of this study was to identify the challenges faced by primary care physicians (PCPs) when prescribing medications for patients with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. 3 focus group discussions were conducted between July and August 2012 in a teaching primary care clinic in Malaysia. A topic guide was used to facilitate the discussions which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach. PCPs affiliated to the primary care clinic were purposively sampled to include a range of clinical experience. Sample size was determined by thematic saturation of the data. 14 family medicine trainees and 5 service medical officers participated in this study. PCPs faced difficulties in prescribing for patients with chronic diseases due to a lack of communication among different healthcare providers. Medication changes made by hospital specialists, for example, were often not communicated to the PCPs leading to drug duplications and interactions. The use of paper-based medical records and electronic prescribing created a dual record system for patients' medications and became a problem when the 2 records did not tally. Patients sometimes visited different doctors and pharmacies for their medications and this resulted in the lack of continuity of care. PCPs also faced difficulties in addressing patients' concerns, and dealing with patients' medication requests and adherence issues. Some PCPs lacked time and knowledge to advise patients about their medications and faced difficulties in managing side effects caused by the patients' complex medication regimen. PCPs faced prescribing challenges related to patients, their own practice and the local health system when prescribing for patients with chronic diseases. These challenges must be addressed in order to improve chronic disease management in primary care and, more importantly, patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  11. Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba


    Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa. Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District. Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency. Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives. Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation

  12. Factors influencing men entering the nursing profession, and understanding the challenges faced by them: Iranian and developed countries' perspectives. (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Negarandeh, Reza; Monadi, Morteza; Azadi, Arman


    Men entering the nursing profession have been investigated from several different perspectives. Due to male gender characteristics and existing public image, nursing is often not considered as a career choice by men. Whether nursing would benefit from increased number of men is a key question in the literature. The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to identify factors influencing men to enter the nursing profession. In addition, it sought to understand the challenges they are confronted within this profession. A systematic search of the existing literature was performed using an Internet search with broad keywords to access related articles in both Persian and English databases. Finally, 34 studies (written between 2000 and early 2013) were selected and surveyed. Most of the studies were conducted in developed counties. The review identified reasons why males choose nursing, and other challenges facing men entering and working in nursing. Themes that emerged from the literature include educational and societal barriers experienced by men in nursing, recruitment, career choice, and role strain. Regarding men's influences on professional development, and also the importance of gender-based caring, policies for recruitment and retention of men in nursing must be followed hastily. However, there is a need for further research regarding the challenges faced by men entering nursing, in both Iran and other developing countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Aswin Rahadi


    Full Text Available This research is a part of a continuous study to analyze the opportunities and challenges for micro-small and medium business in Indonesia when facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC in 2016. It has its own uniqueness, as it will combine the point of view between current business owners and current literature study synthesis on business perception towards AEC. Ten business owners have been interviewed. The results suggested AEC provides challenges for the business owners, particularly in terms of capital; competitiveness; sales system; innovation; finance, bureaucracy; and government preparedness. AEC also provides opportunities, in terms of market potential; creativity; export opportunities; business owners’ resistances and sustainability; and knowledge of local market. From all of the keywords mentioned by the respondents, there are four main attributes considered as important: human resources; creativities; market share; and capital. Finally, most of the respondents suggested that AEC will bring more positive influences for the development of micro-small and medium business in Indonesia.

  14. Hyper-realistic face masks: a new challenge in person identification. (United States)

    Sanders, Jet Gabrielle; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Minemoto, Kazusa; Noyes, Eilidh; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Jenkins, Rob


    We often identify people using face images. This is true in occupational settings such as passport control as well as in everyday social environments. Mapping between images and identities assumes that facial appearance is stable within certain bounds. For example, a person's apparent age, gender and ethnicity change slowly, if at all. It also assumes that deliberate changes beyond these bounds (i.e., disguises) would be easy to spot. Hyper-realistic face masks overturn these assumptions by allowing the wearer to look like an entirely different person. If unnoticed, these masks break the link between facial appearance and personal identity, with clear implications for applied face recognition. However, to date, no one has assessed the realism of these masks, or specified conditions under which they may be accepted as real faces. Herein, we examined incidental detection of unexpected but attended hyper-realistic masks in both photographic and live presentations. Experiment 1 (UK; n = 60) revealed no evidence for overt detection of hyper-realistic masks among real face photos, and little evidence of covert detection. Experiment 2 (Japan; n = 60) extended these findings to different masks, mask-wearers and participant pools. In Experiment 3 (UK and Japan; n = 407), passers-by failed to notice that a live confederate was wearing a hyper-realistic mask and showed limited evidence of covert detection, even at close viewing distance (5 vs. 20 m). Across all of these studies, viewers accepted hyper-realistic masks as real faces. Specific countermeasures will be required if detection rates are to be improved.

  15. Christianity Facing the Ageing of Global Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka


    Full Text Available The ageing population is a great challenge for the whole world including churches, Christian communities, Christian families and the so-called “Christian countries”. The respect and support for elderly people is almost a common rule of social life in developed countries regardless of religious views. But in the Christian world this obligation has very strong religious justification – obligation enshrined in the Commandments of Old (the fourth/fifth Commandment and New (the second one of The Greatest Commandments of Love Testaments. Therefore between the Christianity – understood as a set of different communities sharing their beliefs in Jesus Christ – and aging population there are many very different connections including among others: honour and respect, privilege, obligations, giving – receiving relations, duty, charity, solidarity, dependency. They are present both in the teaching and the practice of different Christian communities starting with Churches, through NGOs and Christian societies, ending with Christian families. The paper shows some of these connections. It also tries – based on a case of Poland – to answer the question whether the Christianity is ready to face the aging of global population

  16. The Challenges Facing Accounting Education: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need of the accounting profession to effectively and continuously meet new challenges confronting it and adapt its services to changing conditions and circumstances has become a necessity to the survival of the profession and the society. The challenges confronting the accountant on his role to the society at large in a ...

  17. Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.


    The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

  18. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  19. Collaborative Random Faces-Guided Encoders for Pose-Invariant Face Representation Learning. (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Zhang, Yizhe; Fu, Yun


    Learning discriminant face representation for pose-invariant face recognition has been identified as a critical issue in visual learning systems. The challenge lies in the drastic changes of facial appearances between the test face and the registered face. To that end, we propose a high-level feature learning framework called "collaborative random faces (RFs)-guided encoders" toward this problem. The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, we propose a novel supervised autoencoder that is able to capture the high-level identity feature despite of pose variations. Second, we enrich the identity features by replacing the target values of conventional autoencoders with random signals (RFs in this paper), which are unique for each subject under different poses. Third, we further improve the performance of the framework by incorporating deep convolutional neural network facial descriptors and linking discriminative identity features from different RFs for the augmented identity features. Finally, we conduct face identification experiments on Multi-PIE database, and face verification experiments on labeled faces in the wild and YouTube Face databases, where face recognition rate and verification accuracy with Receiver Operating Characteristic curves are rendered. In addition, discussions of model parameters and connections with the existing methods are provided. These experiments demonstrate that our learning system works fairly well on handling pose variations.

  20. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities : What kind of communication challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and what kind of strategies the parents use to overcome the challenges?


    Ramos, Alexandra Jacinta


    This is a qualitative study that explores and tries to understand what kind of communicational challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and to comprehend what kind of strategies these parents use to overcome these challenges. The designation of the Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) was formerly proposed by Johnson and Myklebust. NLD were firstly described by Myklebust as an inability to read and understand nonverbal aspect...

  1. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland


    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  2. Illumination robust face recognition using spatial adaptive shadow compensation based on face intensity prior (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Kae-Horng; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin


    Robust face recognition under illumination variations is an important and challenging task in a face recognition system, particularly for face recognition in the wild. In this paper, a face image preprocessing approach, called spatial adaptive shadow compensation (SASC), is proposed to eliminate shadows in the face image due to different lighting directions. First, spatial adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE), which uses face intensity prior model, is proposed to enhance the contrast of each local face region without generating visible noises in smooth face areas. Adaptive shadow compensation (ASC), which performs shadow compensation in each local image block, is then used to produce a wellcompensated face image appropriate for face feature extraction and recognition. Finally, null-space linear discriminant analysis (NLDA) is employed to extract discriminant features from SASC compensated images. Experiments performed on the Yale B, Yale B extended, and CMU PIE face databases have shown that the proposed SASC always yields the best face recognition accuracy. That is, SASC is more robust to face recognition under illumination variations than other shadow compensation approaches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present article tries to capture current market developments of the Chinese retail sales in the last 4-5 years, emphasising its tendency to become the first global market before 2020. The author makes a brief analysis of the Chinese retail market sales characteristics including growth rates, sales structure, influencing factors (population growing income, urbanization, consumer goods imports. The characteristics of the constantly changing retail consumer market and the main challenges faced by the trans-national companies activating on the Chinese market represent distinct points in the analysis undertaken in this article.

  4. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images. (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qijun


    Three-dimensional (3D) face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D) face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  5. Web-based versus face-to-face interprofessional team encounters with standardized patients. (United States)

    Lempicki, Kelly A; Holland, Christine S


    Challenges exist in developing interprofessional education (IPE) activities including coordinating schedules and obtaining appropriate space for teams to work. Virtual worlds have been explored as a means to overcome some of these challenges. We sought to develop a web-based interprofessional team interaction with a standardized patient (SP), as compared to a face-to-face SP interaction, focusing on the competency area of interprofessional communication. Interprofessional teams of students were randomized to complete a web-based or face-to-face SP encounter. The web-based encounter was conducted via video conference that students accessed using their own electronic device. Interprofessional communication was evaluated by faculty observers and the SPs. Participants of the web-based encounter also completed a perceptions questionnaire. Interprofessional communication was rated as average/above average by the authors and SPs. Perceptions of the web-based encounter were mixed with not all students willing to complete such an encounter again despite finding it enjoyable and a positive learning experience. The need for adequate preparation was identified, including the opportunity to review the patient case before the encounter. The web-based SP encounter afforded students the opportunity to utilize communication technology to provide patient-centered care while collaborating as an interprofessional team. Video conferencing presents an opportunity to bypass some logistical challenges in scheduling IPE experiences and can be implemented as a co-curricular activity, avoiding course revisions. Additional studies are needed to further explore student and patient perspectives and clarify when, and with what level of trainees, the experiences are most valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Midttun, Atle


    Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

  7. Learning Race from Face: A Survey. (United States)

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang


    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.

  8. Challenges of Virtual School Leadership (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; LaFrance, Jason; Beck, Dennis


    The purpose of this case study was to examine challenges faced by virtual school leaders in the United States. Through semistructured interviews, the researchers explored challenges faced by eighteen leaders of fully online or blended online programs. Analysis revealed six main challenges: funding, staff, accountability, time, parents, and…

  9. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa (United States)

    Scott, Susan


    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  10. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  11. Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era :  A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies


    Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio


    Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ma...

  12. Robust online face tracking-by-detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comaschi, F.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Corporaal, H.


    The problem of online face tracking from unconstrained videos is still unresolved. Challenges range from coping with severe online appearance variations to coping with occlusion. We propose RFTD (Robust Face Tracking-by-Detection), a system which combines tracking and detection into a single

  13. In Pursuit of Ethical Research: Studying Hybrid Communities Using Online and Face-to-Face Communications (United States)

    Busher, Hugh; James, Nalita


    Hybrid communities using online and face-to-face communications to construct their practices are increasingly part of everyday life amongst people who have easy access to the internet. Researching these communities raises a number of challenges for researchers in the pursuit of ethical research. The paper begins by exploring what is understood by…

  14. Greatest Happiness Principle in a Complex System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás


    Full Text Available The principle of greatest happiness was the basis of ethics in Plato’s and Aristotle’s work, it served as the basis of utility principle in economics, and the happiness research has become a hot topic in social sciences in Western countries in particular in economics recently. Nevertheless there is a considerable scientific pessimism over whether it is even possible to affect sustainable increases in happiness.In this paper we outline an economic theory of decision based on the greatest happiness principle (GHP. Modern equilibrium economics is a simple system simplification of the GHP, the complex approach outlines a non-equilibrium economic theory. The comparison of the approaches reveals the fact that the part of the results – laws of modern economics – follow from the simplifications and they are against the economic nature. The most important consequence is that within the free market economy one cannot be sure that the path found by it leads to a beneficial economic system.

  15. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition......, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development...

  16. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach]. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida


    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described.

  17. The Kent Face Matching Test. (United States)

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus


    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Unconventional combinations of prospective parents: ethical challenges faced by IVF providers. (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert


    Professional guidelines have addressed ethical dilemmas posed by a few types of nontraditional procreative arrangements (e.g., gamete donations between family members), but many questions arise regarding how providers view and make decisions about these and other such arrangements. Thirty-seven ART providers and 10 patients were interviewed in-depth for approximately 1 h each. Interviews were systematically analyzed. Providers faced a range of challenges and ethical dilemmas concerning both the content and the process of decisions about requests for unconventional interfamilial and other reproductive combinations. Providers vary in how they respond - what they decide, who exactly decides (e.g., an ethics committee or not), and how - often undergoing complex decision-making processes. These combinations can involve creating or raising the child, and can shift over time - from initial ART treatment through to the child's birth. Patients' requests can vary from fully established to mere possibilities. Arrangements may also be unstable, fluid, or unexpected, posing challenges. Difficulties emerge concerning not only familial but social, combinations (e.g., between friends). These arrangements can involve blurry and confusing roles, questions about the welfare of the unborn child, and unanticipated and unfamiliar questions about how to weigh competing moral and scientific concerns - e.g., the autonomy of the individuals involved, and the potential risks and benefits. Clinicians may feel that these requests do not "smell right"; and at first respond with feelings of "yuck," and only later, carefully and explicitly consider the ethical principles involved. Proposed arrangements may, for instance, initially be felt to involve consanguineous individuals, but not in fact do so. Obtaining and verifying full and appropriate informed consent can be difficult, given implicit familial and/or cultural expectations and senses of duty. Social attitudes are changing, yet patients


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros


    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  20. Recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face: a challenging clinical problem. (United States)

    Hojjati, Hossein; Davani, Sam Zeraatian Nejad; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi


    In the neck or face, there are different causes for subcutaneous emphysema such as injury to the sinuses, the hypopharynx, the laryngotracheal complex, the pulmonary parenchyma, the esophagus or the presence of gas-forming organisms. However, factitious subcutaneous emphysema, a rare cause, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this clinical report, we discuss a 20-year-old girl who was under follow-up because of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face and periorbital area. After 2 years of work-ups, including a period of close observation in the intensive care unit, self air injection by syringe was found as the cause of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face, and the patient was labeled as having factitious recurrent subcutaneous emphysema. Therefore, when a patient presents with unexplained recurrent subcutaneous emphysema, one should suspect self-infliction and examine for puncture marks.

  1. The challenges that parents of children with epilepsy face: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Kampra, Matina; Tzerakis, Nikolaos; Lund Holm Thomsen, Louise; Katsarou, Efstathia; Voudris, Konstantinos; D Mastroyianni, Sotiria; Mouskou, Stella; Drossou, Kyriaki S; Siatouni, Anna; Gatzonis, Stylianos


    This qualitative study explored the challenges that Greek parents/caregivers of children with controlled epilepsy (CwE) face regarding the disorder. Interviews were conducted based on open-ended questions guided by a review of the literature. A total of 91 parents/caregivers were recruited by neurologists at the neurology clinics of two Athens public hospitals. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to explore parent/caregiver experiences. The data were grouped and analyzed through a textual interpretation. Two key challenges were identified for parents of CwE: the disclosure of epilepsy and the absence of adequate information about coping with epilepsy. Parents in Greece were hesitant to reveal their child's epilepsy to school staff and their wider social milieu. Also, although satisfied with the patient-centered approach they experienced with their hospital doctor, parents/caregivers found that they needed more education about the existing sources of psychosocial and emotional support to cope with their child's epilepsy personally and as a family. Finally, the parents/caregivers who let their child know about the epilepsy and discussed the implications with the child found that parent-child communication improved. This study provides valuable insight into the impact of epilepsy on parents of CwE, which might help hospital and school staff support families with greater understanding, sensitivity, and skill. The findings suggest that Greek authorities should staff hospitals and schools with experts and more systematically advertise sources of information about epilepsy and ways to cope with it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 21st century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: embodied interpretation of phenomenological data. (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine


    Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge

  3. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada. (United States)

    Bear, Daniel


    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J; Pintsuk, G.; Rödig, M.


    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions

  5. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng


    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully convolutional network (MB-FCN) for face detection, which considers both efficiency and effectiveness in the design process. Our MB-FCN detector can deal with faces at all scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. As such, our MB-FCN model saves computation and thus is more efficient, compared to previous methods that make multiple passes. For each branch, the specific skip connections of the convolutional feature maps at different layers are exploited to represent faces in specific scale ranges. Specifically, small faces can be represented with both shallow fine-grained and deep powerful coarse features. With this representation, superior improvement in performance is registered for the task of detecting small faces. We test our MB-FCN detector on two public face detection benchmarks, including FDDB and WIDER FACE. Extensive experiments show that our detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on all these datasets in general and by a substantial margin on the most challenging among them (e.g. WIDER FACE Hard subset). Also, MB-FCN runs at 15 FPS on a GPU for images of size 640 x 480 with no assumption on the minimum detectable face size.

  6. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  9. Exploring career advancement challenges people with disabilities are facing in the South African work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter


    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has faced a number of discriminatory practices in the past. Most of these practices are still present today. Although a considerate amount of attention has been given to discrimination based on gender, race and religion, limited emphasis has been placed on discrimination based on disability, specifically within the workplace. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of individuals living with a disability with regards to career advancement challenges they face in the South African workplace. Motivation for study: The research literature shows that irrespective of employment equity legislation, employees with disabilities have restricted opportunities to advance in their careers. Research is needed to assist these employees with their career development. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research design with an exploratory approach was followed. Probability, purposeful and snowballing sampling techniques were applied in this study on 15 employed individuals with declared disabilities. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and the verbatim transcriptions were analysed by content analysis. Main findings/results: The findings indicated that people with disabilities generally experience career advancement challenges and reach career plateau. Managers and colleagues’ lack of knowledge about disability has an adverse impact on the careers of people living with a disability. The study found that human resource practices, especially promotion opportunities, discriminate against employees with disabilities. Furthermore, the study further indicated that there is prejudice against invisible disabilities, and as a result, employees are reluctant to declare their disability. Practical implications: Human resource practitioners and managers need to recognise the influence that disabilities have on the career advancement of individuals living with a

  10. Psychosocial challenges facing physicians of today. (United States)

    Arnetz, B B


    Fundamental changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care have added new stressors or opportunities to the medical profession. These new potential stressors are in addition to previously recognized external and internal ones. The work environment of physicians poses both psychosocial, ergonomic, and physico-chemical threats. The psychosocial work environment has, if anything, worsened. Demands at work increase at the same time as influence over one's work and intellectual stimulation from work decrease. In addition, violence and the threat of violence is another major occupational health problem physicians increasingly face. Financial constraint, managed care and consumerism in health care are other factors that fundamentally change the role of physicians. The rapid deployment of new information technologies will also change the role of the physician towards being more of an advisor and information provider. Many of the minor health problems will increasingly be managed by patients themselves and by non-physician professionals and practitioners of complementary medicine. Finally, the economic and social status of physicians are challenged which is reflected in a slower salary increase compared to many other professional groups. The picture painted above may be seen as uniformly gloomy. In reality, that is not the case. There is growing interest in and awareness of the importance of the psychosocial work environment for the delivery of high quality care. Physicians under stress are more likely to treat patients poorly, both medically and psychologically. They are also more prone to make errors of judgment. Studies where physicians' work environment in entire hospitals has been assessed, results fed-back, and physicians and management have worked with focused improvement processes, have demonstrated measurable improvements in the ratings of the psychosocial work environment. However, it becomes clear from such studies that quality of the

  11. Challenges, opportunities and trends in engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.


    Many challenges and opportunities face the engineering profession and engineering education. The engineering profession advances best if challenges are properly addressed, opportunities beneficially exploited and reasoned speculation made on future trends. In this article, the author presents his views on some of the challenges and opportunities facing the engineering education, and possible future trends, with the objective of fostering continued discussion of and action on these issues. This topic is of great importance because the development of engineering education is strongly influenced by the challenges and opportunities it faces and how it responds, and by anticipated future trends. (author)

  12. A personal perspective on challenges that face women scientists (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine


    Gender equality has been a topic of discussion throughout my long (now three decade) career. This alone illustrates the complex nature of the issue, and the lack of a simple solution, particularly as many of the daily challenges that women face are institution or discipline-specific. For this reason, I will summarize some of the issues that appear to me to be more general, and therefore ones that may have general solutions. The first and foremost relates to demands on women's time. One way that academic institutions have sought to overcome gender bias has been to require that every university committee have a female member; in departments, schools and faculties where women represent a minority, this necessarily means that women shoulder an inequitable share of the service duties. I have experienced this myself, seen it in promotion files at all levels, and observed it with regard to my female colleagues. Clearly time spent doing service is time not spent doing science. There is also an easy solution to this problem, which is to re-think the underlying assumption that men are necessarily gender-biased if they don't have a woman sitting in the room! Additional time demands can come from informal mentoring of both students and younger colleagues, particularly in cases where senior male colleagues are viewed as too important, or too intimidating, to be consulted on personal issues. Although I suspect that this problem may also be widespread, it is more difficult to quantify, and is therefore more difficult to factor into time allotments of departmental duties. A final thought relates to hiring practices. I have now worked in both the US and UK educational systems, which have very different interview and hiring protocols. I will review both, highlighting components that I think are most likely to promote equitable hiring practices.

  13. Organisational, technological and economic innovations: the nuclear industry reinvents itself to face 2030 challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris


    As the French nuclear industry is facing a major challenge (financial weakness, an electric power market in crisis, 15 years without building any reactor, delayed works), this report first outlines why innovation is necessary to guarantee a low carbon and competitive electricity, to comfort the leadership position of this sector in the world, and to respond to expectations of civil society. Then, it describes how the French nuclear industry is already implementing organisational, technological and social innovations, notably through the development of digital technologies. The third part identifies priorities of new public policies: to imagine a new business model for nuclear (a better visibility for investors, taking all induced costs in the power system into account in a diversified mix, reform of the carbon market, taking avoided atmospheric pollution into account), to rethink regulation in order to free innovation spirit, and to prepare the future by investing in research

  14. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges]. (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R


    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  15. The contribution of youth work to address the challenges young people are facing, in particular the transition from education to employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding activi...... activities where they take part voluntarily, designed for supporting their personal and social development through non-formal and informal learning'....

  16. Vitality Detection in Face Images using Second Order Gradient


    Aruni Singh


    Spoofing is a very big challenge in biometrics, specially in face image. So many artificial techniques are available to tamper or hide the original face. To ensure the actual presence of live face image in contrast to fake face image this research has been contributed. The intended purpose of proposed approach is also to endorse the biometric authentication, by joining the liveness awareness with Facial Recognition Technology (FRT). In this research 200 dummy face images and 200 real face ima...

  17. A survey of real face modeling methods (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng


    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  18. Face recognition accuracy of forensic examiners, superrecognizers, and face recognition algorithms. (United States)

    Phillips, P Jonathon; Yates, Amy N; Hu, Ying; Hahn, Carina A; Noyes, Eilidh; Jackson, Kelsey; Cavazos, Jacqueline G; Jeckeln, Géraldine; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sankaranarayanan, Swami; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Castillo, Carlos D; Chellappa, Rama; White, David; O'Toole, Alice J


    Achieving the upper limits of face identification accuracy in forensic applications can minimize errors that have profound social and personal consequences. Although forensic examiners identify faces in these applications, systematic tests of their accuracy are rare. How can we achieve the most accurate face identification: using people and/or machines working alone or in collaboration? In a comprehensive comparison of face identification by humans and computers, we found that forensic facial examiners, facial reviewers, and superrecognizers were more accurate than fingerprint examiners and students on a challenging face identification test. Individual performance on the test varied widely. On the same test, four deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), developed between 2015 and 2017, identified faces within the range of human accuracy. Accuracy of the algorithms increased steadily over time, with the most recent DCNN scoring above the median of the forensic facial examiners. Using crowd-sourcing methods, we fused the judgments of multiple forensic facial examiners by averaging their rating-based identity judgments. Accuracy was substantially better for fused judgments than for individuals working alone. Fusion also served to stabilize performance, boosting the scores of lower-performing individuals and decreasing variability. Single forensic facial examiners fused with the best algorithm were more accurate than the combination of two examiners. Therefore, collaboration among humans and between humans and machines offers tangible benefits to face identification accuracy in important applications. These results offer an evidence-based roadmap for achieving the most accurate face identification possible. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin


    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  20. Learning discriminant face descriptor. (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z


    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  1. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition. (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng


    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  2. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases. (United States)

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J


    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. A Challenging Giant Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimena Castro Pérez


    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor that appears exclusively on the skin. It is a low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor of subcutaneous tissues that has a propensity for local recurrence but seldom metastasizes. It may rarely occur on the head and neck accounting for less than one percent of total head and neck malignancies. We present a man with a giant DFSP on the face. Oncological, functional, and aesthetic aspects are set forth.

  4. Assessment of dietary challenges faced by Sub-Saharan immigrants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data relating to socio-demographic characteristics, such as continuity with ethnic food culture and the problems faced by Sub-Saharan immigrants with regard to them retaining their traditional food culture was collected. All the respondents indicated that they treasured and maintained their traditional food culture, albeit to ...

  5. Challenges Faced by Adult Learners Enrolled in Blended Distance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research attempted to provide an insight into major barriers facing adult learners pursuing a diploma in adult and continuing education programme through Blended Distance Learning. Participants included the adult learners, staff from the Department of Open and Distance Learning who are also the facilitators of the ...

  6. Detection of emotional faces: salient physical features guide effective visual search. (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri


    In this study, the authors investigated how salient visual features capture attention and facilitate detection of emotional facial expressions. In a visual search task, a target emotional face (happy, disgusted, fearful, angry, sad, or surprised) was presented in an array of neutral faces. Faster detection of happy and, to a lesser extent, surprised and disgusted faces was found both under upright and inverted display conditions. Inversion slowed down the detection of these faces less than that of others (fearful, angry, and sad). Accordingly, the detection advantage involves processing of featural rather than configural information. The facial features responsible for the detection advantage are located in the mouth rather than the eye region. Computationally modeled visual saliency predicted both attentional orienting and detection. Saliency was greatest for the faces (happy) and regions (mouth) that were fixated earlier and detected faster, and there was close correspondence between the onset of the modeled saliency peak and the time at which observers initially fixated the faces. The authors conclude that visual saliency of specific facial features--especially the smiling mouth--is responsible for facilitated initial orienting, which thus shortens detection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Female entrepreneurship and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs to reconcile conflicts between work and family: multiple case study in travel agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivanda Meira Teixeira


    Full Text Available Women have gained more and more space in various professional areas and this development also occurs in the field of entrepreneurship. In Brazil GEM 2013 identified for the first time, that the number of new woman entrepreneurs was higher than male entrepreneurs. However, it is recognized that women entrepreneurs face many difficulties when trying to reconcile their companies with the family. The main objective of this research is to analyse the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs of travel agencies to reconcile the conflict between work and family. This study adopted the multiple cases research strategy and were selected seven women creators and managers of travel agencies in the cities of Aracaju and the Barra dos Coqueiros, in the state of Sergipe (east coast of Brazil. In an attempt to reconcile well the multiple roles these women often face the frustration and guilt. At this moment, it shows the importance of emotional contribution of husband and children. It is noticed that the search for balance between the conflicting demands generate emotional distress and / or physical.

  8. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research. (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M


    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  9. EEG source imaging assists decoding in a face recognition task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus S.; Eliasen, Anders U.; Pedersen, Nicolai


    of face recognition. This task concerns the differentiation of brain responses to images of faces and scrambled faces and poses a rather difficult decoding problem at the single trial level. We implement the pipeline using spatially focused features and show that this approach is challenged and source...

  10. The mighty oak faces challenges in the Pacific West (United States)

    Gail Wells


    In popular imagination, the oak tree stands for strength, endurance, and longevity. But in the coastal lowlands and central valleys of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, oaks face a battery of natural and human-induced threats. Sudden oak death, caused by a virulent pathogen identified in 2000, has killed millions of tanoaks, California black oaks,...

  11. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water ...

  12. Disguised face identification using multi-modal features in a quaternionic form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolopoulos, George; Tzitzilonis, Vasileios; Kappatos, Vassilios


    Disguised face recognition is considered as very challenging and important problem in the face recognition field. A disguised face recognition algorithm is proposed using quaternionic representation. The feature extraction module is accomplished with a new method, decomposing each face image...... that the proposed algorithm can achieve high recognition results under disguised conditions....

  13. Trismus in Face Transplantation Following Ballistic Trauma. (United States)

    Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J


    Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face

  14. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines (United States)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  15. Processing of Words and Faces by Patients with Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Ellis


    Full Text Available Tests of word and face processing were given to patients with complex partial epilepsy focussed on the left or right temporal lobe, and to non-epileptic control subjects. The left TLE group showed the greatest impairment on object naming and on reading tests, but the right TLE group also showed a lesser impairment relative to the normal control subjects on both tests. The right TLE group was selectively impaired on distinguishing famous from non-famous faces while the left TLE group was impaired at naming famous faces they had successfully recognized as familiar. There was no significant difference between the three groups on recognition memory for words. The implications of the results for theories of the role of the temporal lobes in word and face processing, and the possible neural mechanisms responsible for the deficits in TLE patients, are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Samsonova


    Full Text Available Political leadership is a concept central to understanding political processes and outcomes, yet its definition is elusive. The study of political leadership has a long history. Many disciplines have contributed to this study, including history, philosophy, political theory, psychology etc. Leadership is a process in which leaders and followers interact dynamically in a particular situation or context. Leaders must be able to connect with followers to understand their mood and their initiative. There are essential and operational differences between a leader and a manager. Managerial effectiveness is related to an emphasis on rationality and organizational structure. Leadership effectiveness is linked to symbols and culture. The interactive nature of leader-followers-situation can help us better understand the changing nature of the leaderfollower relationship and the increasingly greater complexity of situations leaders and followers face in contemporary world. Good leadership makes a difference, and it can be enhanced through greater awareness of the important factors influencing the leadership process. The changes we are facing in today’s world demand a new breed of political leaders, new forms and mechanisms of leader-follower interaction that provide effective leadership. 

  17. The challenges of energy - response to Moody-Stuart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Houghton


    Full Text Available Sir Mark has lucidly addressed the growing demand for accessible energy throughout the world, the need for basic provision of energy to one third of the world's population and the conflicts that arise between the ways in which energy is supplised and used and the constraints of sustainability. It is, of course, the innovation, creativity and activity of industry that will provide solutions to the problems we face. It is therefore appropriate and helpful to hear form one of the leaders of the energy industry. The vision he presents i one of a vibrant, innovation, market-driven industry operating within a regulatory framework that gives the maximum flexibility for creative solutions. The greatest challenges faced by the world energy sector are concerned with environmental sustainability. Because the emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide spread rapidly around the globe, sustainability has to be considered on a global basis and global solutions are rquired. International agreements concerning action, for instance the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC, need to be based on sound science and on four widely accepted principles, namely the Precautionary Principle, the Polluter Pays Principles and the Principles of Sustainable Development and Equity. The challenge to the FCCC is to devise mechanisms and arragements that will bring about substantial reductions in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and that also satisfy there principles. A recent Energy Review from the Policy Innovation Unit of the UK Government's Cabinet Office has considered in detail how a sustainable energy strategy can be developed. Finally, reasons are given for optimism that, given the necessary commitment by the world community, a sustainable energy strategy for the world can be developed and realised during the 21st century.

  18. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku


    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  19. Greatest Happiness Principle in a Complex System: Maximisation versus Driving Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás


    Full Text Available From philosophical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the principle of the pursuit of the greatest happiness. From mathematical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the utility maximisation program. Though economists are aware of the serious limitations of the equilibrium analysis, they remain in that framework. We show that the maximisation principle, which implies the equilibrium hypothesis, is responsible for this impasse. We formalise the pursuit of the greatest happiness principle by the help of the driving force postulate: the volumes of activities depend on the expected wealth increase. In that case we can get rid of the equilibrium hypothesis and have new insights into economic theory. For example, in what extent standard economic results depend on the equilibrium hypothesis?

  20. International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety. Contributed papers and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Over the past two decades, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems - Facing Safety and Security Challenges, held in Moscow in 2006. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, because it brought together senior regulators of nuclear safety, radiation safety and security from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness with the objective of improving the protection of the public and the users of nuclear and radioactive material. The International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, from 23 to 27 April 2007. This conference, again, was the first of its kind, because it was the first to address technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), the role they play in supporting either the national regulatory bodies or the industry in making optimum safety decisions and the challenges they face in providing this support. This conference provided a forum for the TSOs to discuss these and other issues with the organizations to which they provide this support - that is, the regulators and the operators/industry - as well as with other stakeholders such as research organizations and public authorities. This conference can also be considered to have a link to the Moscow conference. The Moscow conference concluded that effective regulation of nuclear safety is vital for the safe use of nuclear energy and associated technologies, both now and in the future, and is an essential prerequisite for establishing an effective Global Nuclear Safety Regime. The Moscow conference also highlighted the importance of continued and improved international cooperation in the area of nuclear safety. These

  1. Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan


    Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.

  2. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Alain


    events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  3. Atypical Hemispheric Specialization for Faces in Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.


    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings from typically developing infants and children have demonstrated that the right hemisphere becomes specialized for processing faces. Face processing impairments and atypical hemispheric specialization have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to examine the emergence of the right-lateralized face processing network in infants at high-risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. To investigate the earliest appearance of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence (a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity) to faces during the first year of life. Forty-nine HRA and 46 LRC infants contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6- and/or 12-months. EEG was recorded while infants viewed pictures of either their mother or a stranger. Event-related gamma-band (30-50Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior regions for left and right hemispheres was computed. HRA infants showed an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically in these infants. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12-months were those that later met diagnostic criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first

  4. Haar-like Features for Robust Real-Time Face Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Face recognition is still a very challenging task when the input face image is noisy, occluded by some obstacles, of very low-resolution, not facing the camera, and not properly illuminated. These problems make the feature extraction and consequently the face recognition system unstable....... The proposed system in this paper introduces the novel idea of using Haar-like features, which have commonly been used for object detection, along with a probabilistic classifier for face recognition. The proposed system is simple, real-time, effective and robust against most of the mentioned problems....... Experimental results on public databases show that the proposed system indeed outperforms the state-of-the-art face recognition systems....

  5. Active methods of preventing bumps in situations where the longwall face advances to and crosses a roadway in thick coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, C


    The method was analyzed in the Wujek coal mine, where the coal bed is located at 600 m and was 5.3 m to 5.7 m thick. The following situation is described: A longwall face had to pass through a ventilation tunnel. To reduce the inner stress of the coal mass above and below the ventilation tunnel infusion was used. Water was forced into the walls of the tunnel. The tunnel section was 200 m long, 28 holes were drilled, each 40 m deep, diameter of the bore 42 to 45 mm, water pressure 300 at. To prevent bumps the orientation of the longwall face, which had been parallel to the ventilation tunnel, was changed so that it was at the angle of 15 degrees to the ventilation tunnel. Experience showed that the most dangerous situation in the tunnel arises when the distance between a longwall face and a roadway is reduced to 45 m. At that moment pressure on the road support system is the greatest. The danger of bumps at a longwall face is the greatest when it is 25 m away from a roadway.

  6. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, U.


    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  7. Technology survey on video face tracking (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins


    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  8. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrist, P.E.


    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  9. 'Shedding light' on the challenges faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers. (United States)

    Hassan-Bitar, Sahar; Narrainen, Sheila


    to explore the challenges and barriers faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers (HCPs) to the provision of quality maternal health-care services through a case study of a Palestinian public referral hospital in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. descriptive qualitative study. The data are from a broader study, conducted in 2005 at the same hospital as part of a baseline assessment of maternal health services. 31 maternal HCPs; nine midwives and 14 nurses and eight doctors. the quality of care provided for women and infants at this Palestinian public hospital is substandard. The maternal HCPs work within a difficult and resource-constrained environment. ISSUES INCLUDE: high workload, poor compensation, humiliation in the workplace, suboptimal supervision and the absence of professional support and guidance. Midwives are perceived to be at the bottom of the health professional hierarchy. there is a need for managers and policy makers to enable maternal HCPs to provide better quality care for women and infants during childbirth, through facilitating the roles of midwives and nurses and creating a more positive and resourceful environment. Palestinian midwives need to increase their knowledge and use evidence-based practices during childbirth. They need to unite and create their own circle of professional support in the form of a Palestinian midwifery professional body. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing. (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena


    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing.

  11. Sudan: world’s greatest humanit-arian transport challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McConnell


    Full Text Available The Fleet Forum, a group of more than 40 aid agencies, is working to slash by 25% the annual $800 million cost of running some 60,000 vehicles. Darfur has shown the need to work together to achieve more cost-efficient and safe humanitarian transport.

  12. Alternatives to the face-to-face consultation in general practice: focused ethnographic case study. (United States)

    Atherton, Helen; Brant, Heather; Ziebland, Sue; Bikker, Annemieke; Campbell, John; Gibson, Andy; McKinstry, Brian; Porqueddu, Tania; Salisbury, Chris


    NHS policy encourages general practices to introduce alternatives to the face-to-face consultation, such as telephone, email, e-consultation systems, or internet video. Most have been slow to adopt these, citing concerns about workload. This project builds on previous research by focusing on the experiences of patients and practitioners who have used one or more of these alternatives. To understand how, under what conditions, for which patients, and in what ways, alternatives to face-to-face consultations present benefits and challenges to patients and practitioners in general practice. Focused ethnographic case studies took place in eight UK general practices between June 2015 and March 2016. Non-participant observation, informal conversations with staff, and semi-structured interviews with staff and patients were conducted. Practice documents and protocols were reviewed. Data were analysed through charting and the 'one sheet of paper' mind-map method to identify the line of argument in each thematic report. Case study practices had different rationales for offering alternatives to the face-to-face consultation. Beliefs varied about which patients and health issues were suitable. Co-workers were often unaware of each other's practice; for example, practice policies for use of e-consultations systems with patients were not known about or followed. Patients reported benefits including convenience and access. Staff and some patients regarded the face-to-face consultation as the ideal. Experience of implementing alternatives to the face-to-face consultation suggests that changes in patient access and staff workload may be both modest and gradual. Practices planning to implement them should consider carefully their reasons for doing so and involve the whole practice team. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  13. A comparison of problem identification interviews conducted face-to-face and via videoconferencing using the consultation analysis record. (United States)

    Fischer, Aaron J; Collier-Meek, Melissa A; Bloomfield, Bradley; Erchul, William P; Gresham, Frank M


    School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century: welcoming speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law Hieng Ding


    The address discusses the following issues: Globalisation and the advent of new technologies and knowledge necessitate countries to depend on one another for progress and development; the need for international co-operation ; roles of nuclear science and technology in facing the challenges of the 2l st Century; food and energy supply as the greatest challenges facing many countries in the future, along with the provision of cheap and good health care, safe industrial development, and clean environment; the contribution of nuclear science and technology i.e In food production, techniques using radiation and isotopes are used to improve crop and animal production through soil fertilisation, plant and animal breeding, insect and pest control, and food preservation; In health and medical care, the use of radiation and isotopes for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes; In industry, activities in radiography, nondestructive testing, control systems and radioactive tracers, analytical techniques and quality control, radiation processing to enhance the properties of materials; In the environmental sector, the use of isotopes and the development of analytical tools, including radioactive tracer methods, neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption in the investigation and detection of environmental pollutants such as pesticides and toxic materials. Other issues also discussed were safety ; public awareness and acceptance of the technology

  15. The Effect of Interviewer Experience, Attitudes, Personality and Skills on Respondent Co-operation with Face-to-Face Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Jäckle


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behaviour and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and inter-personal skills and most have been based on small samples of interviewers. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those interviewers over a 13-month period. We find evidence of effects of experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills on co-operation rates. Several of the effects of attitudes and inter-personal skills are explained by differences in experience, though some independent effects remain. The role of attitudes, personality and skills seems to be greatest for the least experienced interviewers.

  16. Challenge and Change (United States)

    Mehaffy, George L.


    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges…

  17. Challenges faced by health workers in implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme in Uganda. (United States)

    Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, H; Mayon-White, R T; Okong, P; Carpenter, L M


    To report the experience of health workers who had played key roles in the early stages of implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services (PMTCT) in Uganda. Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including counsellors, obstetricians and PMTCT coordinators at the five PMTCT test sites in Uganda to investigate the benefits, challenges and sustainability of the PMTCT programme. Audio-taped interviews were held with each informant between January and June 2003. These were transcribed verbatim and manually analysed using the framework approach. The perceived benefits reported by informants were improvement of general obstetric care, provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-positive mothers, staff training and community awareness. The main challenges lay in the reluctance of women to be tested for HIV, incomplete follow-up of participants, non-disclosure of HIV status and difficulties with infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers. Key informants thought that the programme's sustainability depended on maintaining staff morale and numbers, on improving services and providing more resources, particularly antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive women and their families. Uganda's experience in piloting the PMTCT programme reflected the many challenges faced by health workers. Potentially resource-sparing strategies such as the 'opt-out' approach to HIV testing required further evaluation.

  18. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science (United States)

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter


    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  19. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity. (United States)

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil K


    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 individuals), which drops to 0.27 on the largest dataset considered (13 K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0.71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  20. Online Scientific Dissemination of Knowledge Blended with Face-to-Face Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend


    is experienced differently throughout a society due to fast and slow adopters. Blending online learning with face-to-face experience will strengthen the learning curve among the targeted users and ensure a faster dissemination of knowledge and thus learning to the entire community....... between the seed scientists, seed consultants, and the seed growers, and the requirements for a knowledge website for learning new seed science. This paper describes the specification requirements set for the required website including taxonomized hierarchical meta-tagging, RSS, legal matters, together...... with limitations and potentials. However, selecting online communication media as a dissemination tool for a community comes with a challenge – among other things it risks creating a learning divide between fast and slow learners. According to the theoretical framework “Diffusion of Innovation”[1] innovation...

  1. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  2. The increasing environmental challenge for the Canadian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, J.


    The environmental challenge facing the Canadian petroleum industry involves the increasing public call for a clean environment and a more intense pressure on the technological and economic means to achieve such an environment. It is estimated that the potential economic impact on the petroleum industry of national environmental response strategies under Canada's Green Plan could amount to ca $17 billion over the next 15-20 years. Leading environmental issues of relevance to the petroleum industry are toxic contamination of groundwater and surface land, particulates in the air, ground-level emissions such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, acid rain, oil spill prevention, waste reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions. Increased environmental costs pose a problem for the petroleum industry since profitability is suffering, due to oversupply and low prices. It is suggested that more attention is needed in three areas of environmental policy development in Canada: determination of environmental priorities, reflecting response strategies that achieve the greatest reduction in risk at an affordable cost; increased understanding of the links between trade and the environment; and harnessing of market forces to achieve environmental goals

  3. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan


    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  4. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming


    2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.

  5. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change (United States)

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.


    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  6. Was ocean acidification responsible for history's greatest extinction? (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    Two hundred fifty million years ago, the world suffered the greatest recorded extinction of all time. More than 90% of marine animals and a majority of terrestrial species disappeared, yet the cause of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) dieoff remains unknown. Various theories abound, with most focusing on rampant Siberian volcanism and its potential consequences: global warming, carbon dioxide poisoning, ocean acidification, or the severe drawdown of oceanic dissolved oxygen levels, also known as anoxia. To narrow the range of possible causes, Montenegro et al. ran climate simulations for PTB using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, a carbon cycle-climate coupled general circulation model.

  7. Women in the Teaching Profession: Impacts and Challenges


    A. M. Sultana; Norhirdawati. M. Zahir; Norzalan. H. Yaacob


    Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in bal...

  8. Challenges in war-related thoracic injury faced by French military surgeons in Afghanistan (2009-2013). (United States)

    de Lesquen, Henri; Beranger, Fabien; Berbis, Julie; Boddaert, Guillaume; Poichotte, Antoine; Pons, Francois; Avaro, Jean-Philippe


    This study reports the challenges faced by French military surgeons in the management of thoracic injury during the latest Afghanistan war. From January 2009 to April 2013, all of the civilian, French and Coalition casualties admitted to French NATO Combat Support Hospital situated on Kabul were prospectively recorded in the French Military Health Service Registry (OPEX(®)). Only penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma patients were retrospectively included. Eighty-nine casualties were included who were mainly civilian (61%) and men (94%) with a mean age of 27.9 years old. Surgeons dealt with polytraumas (78%), severe injuries (mean Injury Severity Score=39.2) and penetrating wounds (96%) due to explosion in 37%, gunshot in 53% and stabbing in 9%. Most of casualties were first observed or drained (n=56). In this non-operative group more than 40% of casualties needed further actions. In the operative group, Damage Control Thoracotomy (n=22) was performed to stop ongoing bleeding and air leakage and Emergency Department Thoracotomy (n=11) for agonal patient. Casualties suffered from hemothorax (60%), pneumothorax (39%), diaphragmatic (37%), lung (35%), heart or great vessels (20%) injuries. The main actions were diaphragmatic sutures (n=25), lung resections (wedge n=6, lobectomy n=4) and haemostasis (intercostal artery ligation n=3, heart injury repairs n=5, great vessels injury repairs n=5). Overall mortality was 11%. The rate of subsequent surgery was 34%. The analysis of the OPEX(®) registry reflects the thoracic surgical challenges of general (visceral) surgeons serving in combat environment during the latest Afghanistan War. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana


    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  10. An opportunity and an imperative: Chapter 11 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Page, William R.


    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. The Borderlands have become a microcosm for the entire United States and Mexico; the issues faced in that region are felt throughout both nations—water availability and quality, ecosystem health, natural resource needs, safety from natural hazards, and human socioeconomic well-being. If these issues were not challenging enough, we now recognize that the difficulties of addressing them are exacerbated by the onset of climate change, and as we come to better understand the complexities of the components of these challenge themes, we discover that each part is inextricably intertwined with other overarching issues. Further, because we are a creative and progressive society, we all seek to understand and appreciate the natural environments associated with the Borderlands while at the same time benefitting from the region’s many social and economic values. It is little wonder that we as a society find it increasingly difficult to ask the right questions, much less find suitable answers to the questions we do ask. For the many scientists who have worked in the Borderlands and contributed to the preceding chapters, this circular is a way to describe to the two nations of the region the capabilities the U.S. Geological Survey can provide to assist in that quest for knowledge and understanding in preparation for the future.

  11. Issues and Challenges Facing the Minority Woman Dentist. (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.


    The status of minority women dentists is reviewed, and initiatives to improve it are noted. Issues and challenges for African-American female dentists are outlined, including negative racial/gender stereotypes, lack of advancement opportunities, difficulties in starting practices and securing professional and social support systems, lack of…

  12. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.


    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  13. Comparing Costs of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Extended Care Programs for the Management of Obesity in Rural Settings (United States)

    Radcliff, Tiffany A.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Durning, Patricia E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Limacher, Marian C.; Janicke, David M.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.


    Background A major challenge following successful weight loss is continuing the behaviors required for long-term weight maintenance. This challenge may be exacerbated in rural areas with limited local support resources. Objective This study describes and compares program costs and cost-effectiveness for 12-month extended care lifestyle maintenance programs following an initial 6-month weight loss program. Design A 1-year prospective controlled randomized clinical trial. Participants/Setting The study included 215 female participants age 50 or older from rural areas who completed an initial 6-month lifestyle program for weight loss. The study was conducted from June 1, 2003, to May 31, 2007. Intervention The intervention was delivered through local Cooperative Extension Service offices in rural Florida. Participants were randomly-assigned to a 12-month extended care program using either individual telephone counseling (n=67), group face-to-face counseling (n=74), or a mail/control group (n=74). Main Outcome Measures Program delivery costs, weight loss, and self-reported health status were directly assessed through questionnaires and program activity logs. Costs were estimated across a range of enrollment sizes to allow inferences beyond the study sample. Statistical Analyses Performed Non-parametric and parametric tests of differences across groups for program outcomes were combined with direct program cost estimates and expected value calculations to determine which scales of operation favored alternative formats for lifestyle maintenance. Results Median weight regain during the intervention year was 1.7 kg for participants in the face-to-face format, 2.1 kg for the telephone format, and 3.1 kg for the mail/control format. For a typical group size of 13 participants, the face-to-face format had higher fixed costs, which translated into higher overall program costs ($420 per participant) when compared to individual telephone counseling ($268 per participant) and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devi


    Full Text Available Facial recognition system is fundamental a computer application for the automatic identification of a person through a digitized image or a video source. The major cause for the overall poor performance is related to the transformations in appearance of the user based on the aspects akin to ageing, beard growth, sun-tan etc. In order to overcome the above drawback, Self-update process has been developed in which, the system learns the biometric attributes of the user every time the user interacts with the system and the information gets updated automatically. The procedures of Plastic surgery yield a skilled and endurable means of enhancing the facial appearance by means of correcting the anomalies in the feature and then treating the facial skin with the aim of getting a youthful look. When plastic surgery is performed on an individual, the features of the face undergo reconstruction either locally or globally. But, the changes which are introduced new by plastic surgery remain hard to get modeled by the available face recognition systems and they deteriorate the performances of the face recognition algorithm. Hence the Facial plastic surgery produces changes in the facial features to larger extent and thereby creates a significant challenge to the face recognition system. This work introduces a fresh Multimodal Biometric approach making use of novel approaches to boost the rate of recognition and security. The proposed method consists of various processes like Face segmentation using Active Appearance Model (AAM, Face Normalization using Kernel Density Estimate/ Point Distribution Model (KDE-PDM, Feature extraction using Local Gabor XOR Patterns (LGXP and Classification using Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Efficient techniques have been used in each phase of the FRAS in order to obtain improved results.

  15. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  16. A long hard road? Urban freight transport challenges facing South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW


    Full Text Available shown very little interest in the increasingly severe freight transport problems facing urban areas, there is now growing interest in the logistics of collection and delivery services in towns and city centres....

  17. "Members of the same club": challenges and decisions faced by US IRBs in identifying and managing conflicts of interest. (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert


    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be "indirect financial" conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB members should recuse themselves

  18. The greatest hydroelectric power plant in the world. Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonov - Chento, Ilija


    Details to demonstrate the size and engineering achievements of one of the world's greatest hydroelectric power plant are given. Principal technical features of construction and operation of the Itaipu Dam are tabulated and discussed

  19. New Challenges Facing Small Undergraduate Departments And The Role Of Faculty And Administrators. (United States)

    El-Shazly, A. K.


    Small geoscience departments with 5 faculty members or less in undergraduate institutions are facing serious challenges that will have a profound impact on their future, as well as the future of geoscience education. In addition to past and future budget cuts that affect all departments, small departments are more vulnerable to such problems as (i) decreased enrollments in introductory level classes, (ii) small number of geology majors, (iii) small number of graduates per year (iv) lack or paucity of equipment necessary for faculty and student research, (v) limited opportunities for external funding, (vi) need to offer upper division classes on an alternate year basis, (vii) difficulty in recruiting and retaining students, (viii) high teaching loads for faculty, and (ix) designing rigorous curricula based on 120 credit hours with a significant component of liberal art classes. These problems pose new challenges for faculty, department chairs and administrators. Faculty need to design curricula tailored to the need of the job market, without compromising rigor or the quality of the program. New classes/ concentrations in environmental science, hydrogeology and geographical information systems should be offered, and traditional classes in petrology, geophysics and tectonics should be maintained. Classes in Physics, Chemistry and Math should be core requirements. Student involvement in research should be encouraged at an early stage (sophomore/ junior levels). Department chairs need to assign duties in their department carefully to capitalize on the strengths of their faculty: faculty with strong research backgrounds should be helped in their efforts to pursue external funding opportunities, whereas those with strong teaching abilities should be evaluated primarily on their performance in the classroom. Student credit hour production should not be used as a criterion for evaluating faculty. Administrators should evaluate programs and departments based on the success

  20. Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Haist


    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.

  1. Professional development for teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing: facing the assessment challenge. (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie


    Teachers of students with low-incidence disabilities, such as students who are deaf or hard of hearing, face unique challenges in putting education policy into practice. The present article presents professional development findings from the Third Annual National Survey of Accommodations and Assessment for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Cawthon, Hersh, Kim, & Online Research Lab, in press). A total of 391 participants described professional development they had experienced related to assessment of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Teachers reported greater exposure to topics in school/district sessions and discussion with their colleagues than in their preparation programs. Teaching at a school for the deaf or teaching students in high school were significant predictors of an increased prevalence of professional development opportunities on assessment-related topics for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

  2. Community in Online Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Arasaratnam-Smith, Lily A.; Northcote, Maria


    Exploring the challenges and opportunities associated with the concepts of community and communication in online higher education, this paper reconsiders the intention to replicate face-to-face learning and teaching strategies in online learning environments. Rather than beginning with the assumption that face-to-face education is the prototype…

  3. Trading Zones: Building Connections to Past Research in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce


    Faculty face significant challenges when moving into scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) for the first time. Perhaps the greatest of these challenges is the act of building connections to past research, both within the individual scholar's field, and more broadly across the disciplines. This article examines the nature of this challenge,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M. Wright


    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing development of technology, online teaching is more readily accepted as a viable component in teaching and learning, and blended learning, the combining of online and face-to-face learning, is becoming commonplace in many higher education institutions. Blended learning is, particularly in developing countries, in its early stages and not without its challenges. Asynchronous online lessons are currently still more prevalent in many areas of South-East Asia, perhaps due to potential difficulty in obtaining strong Internet connections, which may deter educators from synchronous options. Technological media have the potential to broaden the scope of resources available in teaching and to enhance the language learning experience. Although research to date shows some focus on blended learning, literature on distance online teaching seems more prevalent. This study exposed 112 Malaysian undergraduate EFL students' responses to an online lesson as part of an English grammar course, and investigates common student perceptions of the online lesson as compared with face-to-face lessons. Questionnaires using qualitative (Likert scale questions and quantitative (open-ended questions approaches provided data for content analysis to determine common student perceptions, with particular reference to motivation and interest. In general, more students associated in-class lessons with higher motivation and more interest, due to better understanding, valued classroom interaction with the lecturer and peers, and input from the lecturer. Students preferring the online lesson cited speed and convenience of study and flexibility of time and place of study as reasons for their choice. Skilful implementation of online lessons can enhance a language course but should not undermine the value of face-to-face instruction with EFL teachers.

  5. Facing Global Challenges with Materials Innovation (United States)

    Rizzo, Fernando


    The path of society evolution has long been associated with a growing demand for natural resources and continuous environmental degradation. During the last decades, this pace has accelerated considerably, despite the general concern with the legacy being left for the next generations. Looking ahead, the predicted growth of the world population, and the improvement of life conditions in most regions, point to an increasing demand for energy generation, resulting in additional pressure on the Earth's sustainability. Materials have had a key role in decreasing the use of natural resources, by either improving efficiency of existing technologies or enabling the development of radical new ones. The greenhouse effect (CO2 emissions) and the energy crisis are global challenges that can benefit from the development of new materials for the successful implementation of promising technologies and for the imperative replacement of fossil fuels by renewable sources.

  6. The struggle for language: diagnosis, relief from grief of urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the urban environment are greatest challenges facing family members. Focusing on these challenges will contribute to establishment of just equitable and effective interventions for urban children who are hard of hearing, their caregivers (parents), and other related families. African Journal for the Psychological Study ...

  7. Impact of total quality management on students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low academic performance of secondary school students in our society has been the greatest challenges facing the educational system in the country. The challenges associated with the country's educational performance especially at the secondary schools could be improved upon if total quality management control is ...

  8. Beyond Faces and Expertise (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle


    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  9. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers. (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly


    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  10. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity (United States)

    Whitcomb, Rachel


    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  11. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Del-Ben


    Full Text Available Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  12. Tracking and recognition face in videos with incremental local sparse representation model (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang


    This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.

  13. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen. (United States)

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed


    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  14. Attentional System for Face Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinto da Silva Panta Leão


    Full Text Available The human visual system quickly performs complex decisions due, in part, to attentional system, which positions the most relevant targets in the center of the visual field, region with greatest concentration of photoreceptor cells. The attentional system involves sensory, cognitive and also mechanical elements, because the eye and head muscles must be activated to produce movement. In this paper we present the proposal of a face detector system that, as well as the biological system, produces a coordinated movement with the purpose of positioning the target image in the center of camera's visual field. The developed system has distinct parts, one responsible for video pattern recognition and other for controlling the mechanical part, implemented as processes that communicate with each other by sockets.

  15. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

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    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda


    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  16. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR


    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  17. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals (United States)

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M


    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  18. Ethical challenges within Veterans Administration healthcare facilities: perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics committee chairpersons. (United States)

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Pearlman, Robert A; Bottrell, Melissa; Altemose, Jane K; Fox, Ellen


    To promote ethical practices, healthcare managers must understand the ethical challenges encountered by key stakeholders. To characterize ethical challenges in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities from the perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics consultants. We conducted focus groups with patients (n = 32) and managers (n = 38); semi-structured interviews with managers (n = 31), clinicians (n = 55), and ethics committee chairpersons (n = 21). Data were analyzed using content analysis. Managers reported that the greatest ethical challenge was fairly distributing resources across programs and services, whereas clinicians identified the effect of resource constraints on patient care. Ethics committee chairpersons identified end-of-life care as the greatest ethical challenge, whereas patients identified obtaining fair, respectful, and caring treatment. Perspectives on ethical challenges varied depending on the respondent's role. Understanding these differences can help managers take practical steps to address these challenges. Further, ethics committees seemingly, are not addressing the range of ethical challenges within their institutions.

  19. Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic. (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed


    The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 4D Unconstrained Real-time Face Recognition Using a Commodity Depthh Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimbinschi, Florin; Wiering, Marco; Mohan, R.E.; Sheba, J.K.


    Robust unconstrained real-time face recognition still remains a challenge today. The recent addition to the market of lightweight commodity depth sensors brings new possibilities for human-machine interaction and therefore face recognition. This article accompanies the reader through a succinct

  1. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed. (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara


    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  2. “Members of the Same Club”: Challenges and Decisions Faced by US IRBs in Identifying and Managing Conflicts of Interest (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert


    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. Methods I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. Results IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be “indirect financial” conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. Conclusions This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB

  3. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed-Method Study (United States)

    Macherera, Margaret; Moyo, Lindani; Ncube, Mkhanyiseli; Gumbi, Angella


    Objectives Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe. Methods A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest. Results A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal

  4. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc


    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  5. A Survey of 2D Face Recognition Techniques

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    Mejda Chihaoui


    Full Text Available Despite the existence of various biometric techniques, like fingerprints, iris scan, as well as hand geometry, the most efficient and more widely-used one is face recognition. This is because it is inexpensive, non-intrusive and natural. Therefore, researchers have developed dozens of face recognition techniques over the last few years. These techniques can generally be divided into three categories, based on the face data processing methodology. There are methods that use the entire face as input data for the proposed recognition system, methods that do not consider the whole face, but only some features or areas of the face and methods that use global and local face characteristics simultaneously. In this paper, we present an overview of some well-known methods in each of these categories. First, we expose the benefits of, as well as the challenges to the use of face recognition as a biometric tool. Then, we present a detailed survey of the well-known methods by expressing each method’s principle. After that, a comparison between the three categories of face recognition techniques is provided. Furthermore, the databases used in face recognition are mentioned, and some results of the applications of these methods on face recognition databases are presented. Finally, we highlight some new promising research directions that have recently appeared.

  6. Informal Caregiver Challenges for Advanced Cancer Patients During End-of-Life Care in Johannesburg, South Africa and Distinctions Based on Place of Death. (United States)

    O'Neil, Daniel S; Prigerson, Holly G; Mmoledi, Keletso; Sobekwa, Mfanelo; Ratshikana-Moloko, Mpho; Tsitsi, Jacob M; Cubasch, Herbert; Wong, Michelle L; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones A O; Sackstein, Paul E; Blinderman, Craig D; Jacobson, Judith S; Joffe, Maureen; Ruff, Paul; Neugut, Alfred I; Blanchard, Charmaine L


    In sub-Saharan Africa, late diagnosis with cancer is common. Many dying patients rely on family members for care; little is known about the challenges African informal caregivers face. To better understand the challenges of informal caregivers at the end of life in South Africa, both at home and in inpatient facilities. We included advanced cancer patients and caregivers from a public hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Study nurses interviewed patients and caregivers about their experiences. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we determined the factors associated with greater caregiver difficulty, focusing on patients dying at home vs. in inpatient facilities. Among 174 informal caregivers, 62 (36%) reported "a lot" of challenges. These caregivers struggled most with keeping the patient clean (16%) and with patient interactions (34%). Symptoms associated with greater difficulty included pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.4 [95% CI 1.2-4.7]), urinary incontinence (OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.9]), fecal incontinence (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.0-5.7]), insomnia (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.9]), fatigue (OR 6.3 [95% CI 1.8-21.6]), extremity weakness (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.9]), shame (OR 4.2 [95% CI 1.5-12.0]), and sadness (OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.8]). Caregivers of patients dying at home reported the greatest difficulty with patients' physical symptoms; caregivers of those dying in facilities reported the greatest difficulty with emotional symptoms. Informal caregivers of patients dying at home reported challenges with practical functional care; this effect was reduced in the inpatient setting. Skills training for these caregivers could relieve some of this burden. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycentrism in Global Health Governance Scholarship Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face". (United States)

    Tosun, Jale


    Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric. Concisely, polycentric forms of governance mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. Drawing on the essay, we propose a polycentric approach to the study of global health governance that incorporates coalitionbuilding tactics, internal governance and global political priority as explanatory factors. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. Cultural-social and human resource challenges facing development of information technology in Iran's higher education in viewpoint of graduate students

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    M. Rahmanpoor


    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was survey of cultural-social and human recourses  challenges facing development of information technology in higher education in Iran. The population of this study was all graduate students studying in the Department of the State University in academic year 2010-2011. In first stage, Tehran, Allameh-Tabatabaee, San’ati-Sharif, Isfahan, Shiraz and Kurdistan Universities were selected as samples. Among these universities, 460 patients were randomly selected in proportion. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient respectively 0/94, and its validity was confirmed by several professors. The data were calculated using SPSS statistical software and then analyzed. In Descriptive statistics level, indicators of frequency, percentage and standard deviation, and in inferential statistics level, T test, ANOVA and post hoc test was used. The results showed that in cultural-social  dimension including the important challenges were the high ratio of computers to students, poor students searching spirit, and lack of English language teachers and students. In human resource dimension are also unfamiliar of the students with the how access to information in databases, shortage or lack of professional expertise in information technology, faculty and administrators do not understand the capabilities of information technology, were most important challenges Information technology in Iran's higher education.

  9. Face recognition in the thermal infrared domain (United States)

    Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.


    Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.

  10. "I don't like talking about it because that's not who I am": Challenges children face during epilepsy-related family communication. (United States)

    O'Toole, S; Lambert, V; Gallagher, P; Shahwan, A; Austin, J K


    Childhood epilepsy not only significantly impacts a child's social relationships and psychosocial wellbeing, but it can also cause disruptions in family relations. Children living with epilepsy often rely on parental figures for guidance in relation to their condition. A paucity of research has examined the challenges for children when communicating about epilepsy with parental figures. This qualitative study explored the challenges faced by children when talking about epilepsy with their parent(s). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 children (aged 6-16 years) living with epilepsy. Participants were recruited from a neurology department of a major pediatric hospital and from a national epilepsy association. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed four themes: communication impeding normalcy, parental overprotection, parental reactions to epilepsy-related communication, and restriction of activities as a consequence of epilepsy-related communication. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of parent-child dialogue surrounding epilepsy and where challenges lie for children in conversing about their condition. Parents and health care professionals play a pivotal role in facilitating an environment where children feel comfortable talking about epilepsy. This information will be instrumental in the development of a communication-based intervention for families living with epilepsy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions, paradoxes and challenges of implementing the United Nations conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Nigeria.

  12. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 3. emergency and casualty slaughter certification. (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J


    Veterinarians are faced with significant conflicts of interest when issuing certificates for the transport and slaughter of acutely injured and casualty livestock. In a recent Policy Delphi study, emergency and casualty slaughter certification was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the third in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials), we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and opportunities for best practice in emergency and casualty slaughter certification in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely a representative from the regulatory body, local authority veterinarians with research experience in emergency slaughter, an animal welfare research scientist, official veterinarians from the competent authority, a private veterinary practitioner, and a member of a farming organisation. Results revealed a conflict between the responsibility of private veterinary practitioners (PVPs) to safeguard the welfare of acutely injured bovines on-farm and the client's commercial concerns. As a consequence, some PVPs may feel under pressure to certify, for example, an acutely injured animal for casualty slaughter instead of recommending either on-farm emergency slaughter or disposal by the knackery service. Among Official Veterinarians, there are concerns about the pressure within processing plants to accept acutely injured livestock as casualty animals. Confusion pertaining to legislation and definition of fitness to travel also contribute to these dilemmas. Conflicts of interest arise due to the gap between governance and provision to facilitate on-farm emergency slaughter of livestock. Increased availability and acceptance of on

  13. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.


    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  14. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Ghanem, Bernard


    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully

  15. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming


    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  16. Power distribution in the face of the new energy paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desama, Claude


    After the challenge of the liberalization of the domestic market of the energy which put an end to the vertically integrated structures, the managers of the distribution networks must now face the energy transition i.e. to substitution from a supply from electricity centralized by intermittent productions related to renewable energies. The article approaches the possible solutions to face this new energy paradigm

  17. Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries. (United States)

    Kaur, Rajanbir; Kaur, Kanwaljit; Kaur, Rajinder


    Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management. Girls and women have very less or no knowledge about reproductive tract infections caused due to ignorance of personal hygiene during menstruation time. In rural areas, women do not have access to sanitary products or they know very little about the types and method of using them or are unable to afford such products due to high cost. So, they mostly rely on reusable cloth pads which they wash and use again. Needs and requirements of the adolescent girls and women are ignored despite the fact that there are major developments in the area of water and sanitation. Women manage menstruation differently when they are at home or outside; at homes, they dispose of menstrual products in domestic wastes and in public toilets and they flush them in the toilets without knowing the consequences of choking. So, there should be a need to educate and make them aware about the environmental pollution and health hazards associated with them. Implementation of modern techniques like incineration can help to reduce the waste. Also, awareness should be created to emphasize the use of reusable sanitary products or the natural sanitary products made from materials like banana fibre, bamboo fibre, sea sponges, water hyacinth, and so on.

  18. Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanbir Kaur


    Full Text Available Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management. Girls and women have very less or no knowledge about reproductive tract infections caused due to ignorance of personal hygiene during menstruation time. In rural areas, women do not have access to sanitary products or they know very little about the types and method of using them or are unable to afford such products due to high cost. So, they mostly rely on reusable cloth pads which they wash and use again. Needs and requirements of the adolescent girls and women are ignored despite the fact that there are major developments in the area of water and sanitation. Women manage menstruation differently when they are at home or outside; at homes, they dispose of menstrual products in domestic wastes and in public toilets and they flush them in the toilets without knowing the consequences of choking. So, there should be a need to educate and make them aware about the environmental pollution and health hazards associated with them. Implementation of modern techniques like incineration can help to reduce the waste. Also, awareness should be created to emphasize the use of reusable sanitary products or the natural sanitary products made from materials like banana fibre, bamboo fibre, sea sponges, water hyacinth, and so on.

  19. Coping in old age with extreme childhood trauma: aging Holocaust survivors and their offspring facing new challenges. (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H


    The Holocaust has become an iconic example of immense human-made catastrophes, and survivors are now coping with normal aging processes. Childhood trauma may leave the survivors more vulnerable when they are facing stress related to old age, whereas their offspring might have a challenging role of protecting their own parents from further pain. Here we examine the psychological adaptation of Holocaust survivors and their offspring in light of these new challenges, examining satisfaction with life, mental health, cognitive abilities, dissociative symptoms, and physical health. Careful matching of female Holocaust survivors and comparison subjects living in Israel was employed to form a case-control study design with two generations, including four groups: 32 elderly female Holocaust survivors and 47 daughters, and 33 elderly women in the comparison group, and 32 daughters (total N = 174). Participants completed several measures of mental and physical health, and their cognitive functioning was examined. The current study is a follow-up of a previous study conducted 11 years ago with the same participants. Holocaust survivors showed more dissociative symptomatology (odds = 2.39) and less satisfaction with their life (odds = 2.79) as compared to a matched group. Nonetheless, adult offspring of Holocaust survivors showed no differences in their physical, psychological, and cognitive functioning as compared to matched controls. Holocaust survivors still display posttraumatic stress symptoms almost 70 years after the trauma, whereas no intergenerational transmission of trauma was found among the second generation.

  20. Innovation in the face of future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albistur, F. X.


    The Chairman of the Senate Commission for Industry. Tourism and Commerce emphasises the legitimate ambition felt by the citizens of all democratic States with respect to safety and underlines his trust in the regulatory body. He analyses the interesting example of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, true reflection of the democracy achieved in the country, from the standpoint of its history, the functions that have been added to its realm of competence in recent years environmental radiological surveillance, intervention in emergencies and activities at non-regulated facilities- and the need for it to adapt, within a framework of overall consensus, to improve its response to future challenges and to the goal of promoting credibility and forging a closer relationship with the public. (Author)

  1. Age synthesis and estimation via faces: a survey. (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Guo, Guodong; Huang, Thomas S


    Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions.

  2. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Vivien


    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  3. Wise reasoning in the face of everyday life challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Igor; Gerlach, Tanja M.; Denissen, J.J.A.


    How stable vs. dynamic is wisdom in daily life? We conducted a daily diary study of wise reasoning (WR) by recording people's reflections on daily challenges in terms of three facets: intellectual humility, self-transcendence, and consideration of others' perspectives/compromise. We observed

  4. Massive the Higgs boson and the greatest hunt in science

    CERN Document Server

    Sample, Ian


    Now fully updated -- this is the dramatic and gripping account of the greatest scientific discovery of our time. In the early 1960s, three groups of physicists, working independently in different countries, stumbled upon an idea that would change physics and fuel the imagination of scientists for decades. That idea was the Higgs boson -- to find it would be to finally understand the origins of mass -- the last building block of life itself. Now, almost 50 years later, that particle has finally been discovered.

  5. Robust Face Recognition by Computing Distances from Multiple Histograms of Oriented Gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco


    The Single Sample per Person Problem is a challenging problem for face recognition algorithms. Patch-based methods have obtained some promising results for this problem. In this paper, we propose a new face recognition algorithm that is based on a combination of different histograms of oriented

  6. Behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers (United States)

    Mitchell, Teresa V.; Letourneau, Susan M.; Maslin, Melissa T.


    Purpose This study examined the effects of deafness and sign language use on the distribution of attention across the top and bottom halves of faces. Methods In a composite face task, congenitally deaf signers and typically hearing controls made same/different judgments of the top or bottom halves of faces presented with the halves aligned or spatially misaligned, while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results Both groups were more accurate when judging misaligned than aligned faces, which indicates holistic face processing. Misalignment affected all ERP components examined, with effects on the N170 resembling those of face inversion. Hearing adults were similarly accurate when judging the top and bottom halves of the faces, but deaf signers were more accurate when attending to the bottom than the top. Attending to the top elicited faster P1 and N170 latencies for both groups; within the deaf group, this effect was greatest for individuals who produced the highest accuracies when attending to the top. Conclusions These findings dovetail with previous research by providing behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers, and by documenting that these effects generalize to a speeded task, in the absence of gaze shifts, with neutral facial expressions. PMID:23142816

  7. Can schools save kids' palates? Cooking from scratch in schools--the greatest food service challenge of our time. (United States)

    Collins, Beth


    School District Food Service Departments are faced with the enormous task of feeding children in the United States up to two thirds of the meals that they consume during the week at school. The shift in food production since the 1970s produced a trend away from scratch-cooked foods and resulted in more meals created from processed foods. The United States has reached a tipping point where the health of the current generation is compromised by increasing health risks of diet-related disease. Schools have been identified as a critical environment in which there is an opportunity to effect change in what children eat. As a result, in the last 10 years, there has been a resurgence of interest in freshly prepared meals in schools. This article explores one chef’s transition from the private sector to the public sector and the experiences of working with school districts to successfully transform their school food service operations into a scratch cooking model.

  8. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study. (United States)

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F


    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo


    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  10. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities (United States)

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo


    Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

  11. Confronting the Challenges Facing the Nigerian Nation State: Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explains the concept of nation-state and sports. It critically examines some of the challenges characterizing Nigerian nation state such as ethnicity, corruption, politics of godfatherisms, tribalism, language differences, and religious crises among others. It emphasizes the use of sports for creating of friendship ...

  12. Penicillin: the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes. (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L


    The principal point of this paper is that the discovery of penicillin and the development of the supporting technologies in microbiology and chemical engineering leading to its commercial scale production represent it as the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes. Our nomination of penicillin for the top therapeutic molecule rests on two lines of evidence concerning the impact of this event: (1) the magnitude of the therapeutic outcomes resulting from the clinical application of penicillin and the subsequent widespread use of antibiotics and (2) the technologies developed for production of penicillin, including both microbial strain selection and improvement plus chemical engineering methods responsible for successful submerged fermentation production. These became the basis for production of all subsequent antibiotics in use today. These same technologies became the model for the development and production of new types of bioproducts (i.e., anticancer agents, monoclonal antibodies, and industrial enzymes). The clinical impact of penicillin was large and immediate. By ushering in the widespread clinical use of antibiotics, penicillin was responsible for enabling the control of many infectious diseases that had previously burdened mankind, with subsequent impact on global population demographics. Moreover, the large cumulative public effect of the many new antibiotics and new bioproducts that were developed and commercialized on the basis of the science and technology after penicillin demonstrates that penicillin had the greatest therapeutic impact event of all times. © Springer-Verlag 2011



    Khan, Munawar


    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct to find the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in economic growth of a country. The countries of world, where there is nothing for tourists or traders are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study was conducted to find the challenges being faced by to...

  14. 50 top IT project management challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand


    This book offers a focused and concise summary of 50 challenges facing today's IT project manager. The authors draw on years of practical experience (rather than classroom theory) to outline these challenges and offer useful tips and advice on how to deal with them.

  15. Hopes and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China tops the medal tally again at the Asian Games but still faces challenges in some events The curtain of the 16th Asian Games has fallen, but the 15 days of exciting competitions will be recorded in the history of the Games.

  16. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion. (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi


    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena


    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  18. Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue (United States)

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett


    ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. Strategic Issues Facing U.S. Navy Human Systems Integration Professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duehring, Jeremy L


    .... Strategic issues represent relevant challenges and problems facing this community over the next few years, including appropriate pay-back tours from officers receiving master's degrees from the NPS...

  20. Facing NAFTA: Literacy and Work in Mexico. (United States)

    Flores, Gloria Hernandez; Lankshear, Colin


    Outlines the deep and complex challenge faced by Mexico in its quest for closer economic integration with so-called advanced economies. Discusses extensive poverty and illiteracy, and the systematic exclusion of many people from access to the very kinds of learning required by Mexico's economic project. Argues that extraordinary efforts and…

  1. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future


    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing


    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30?years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health servi...

  2. Defense Weather Satellites: DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs (United States)


    and compare the operational effectiveness and life cycle costs of potential solutions. This testimony is based on a report GAO issued in March...Technology, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10 a.m. ET Thursday, July 7, 2016 GAO-16-769T United States...Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives July 2016 DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition

  3. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research plays an important role in achieving Zero Hunger. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World sends a clear message that Zero Hunger is one of the greatest challenges we face on a global level.

  4. A Human Rights-Based Approach to Poverty Reduction: The Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Human Rights-Based Approach to Poverty Reduction: The Role of the Right of ... remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's ...

  5. School Issues Under [Section] 504 and the ADA: The Latest and Greatest. (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper highlights recent guidance and rulings from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of interest to administrators, advocates, and attorneys. It is a companion piece to Student Issues on SectionNB504/ADA: The Latest and Greatest. Compliance with SectionNB504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) continues to involve debate and dialog on…

  6. Challenges to Business Excellence: Some Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alan


    Full Text Available The business excellence models are used by many organisations around the world as a strategic driver for business improvement and in some cases as the basis for applications for awards based on the models. These include the Baldrige, EFQM, Australian Business Excellence Framework and many other national and regional models. Whilst many award recipients showcase their achievements, comparatively little is known about the challenges and impediments they face in reaching and sustaining high levels of success as evidenced by winning awards. This paper seeks to identify challenges faced by examining the experience of a sample of Australian Business Excellence Award winners. Findings suggest that the primary challenges include; leadership support, drive and consistency throughout the organisation and communicating strategy and making it meaningful for people at all levels. The study also found variability in challenges across organisations.

  7. Investigation of depth dependent changes in cerebral haemodynamics during face perception in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, A; Fox, S; Everdell, N; Volein, A; Tucker, L; Csibra, G; Gibson, A P; Hebden, J C; Johnson, M H; Elwell, C E


    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to record oxygenation changes in the visual cortex of 4 month old infants. Our in-house topography system, with 30 channels and 3 different source-detector separations, recorded changes in the concentration of oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin (HbO 2 , HHb and HbT) in response to visual stimuli (face, scrambled visual noise and cartoons as rest). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the capability of the system to spatially localize functional activation and study the possibility of depth discrimination in the haemodynamic response. The group data show both face stimulation and visual noise stimulation induced significant increases in HbO 2 from rest, but the increase in HbO 2 with face stimulation was not significantly different from that seen with visual noise stimulation. The face stimuli induced increases in HbO 2 were spread across a greater area across all depths than visual noise induced changes. In results from a single subject there was a significant increase of HbO 2 in the inferior area of the visual cortex in response to both types of stimuli, and a larger number of channels (source-detector pairs) showed HbO 2 increase to face stimuli, especially at the greatest depth. Activation maps were obtained using 3D reconstruction methods on multi source-detector separation optical topography data

  8. Threats to cross-border wildlife linkages in the Sky Islands Wildlands Network (United States)

    Kim Vacariu


    One of the greatest challenges facing conservationists in the Sky Islands region is finding a realistic means to maintain historic travel routes for wide-ranging species crossing the United States-Mexico border. This challenge is made difficult due to the ongoing efforts by the Federal government to install additional security infrastructure to stem the flood of...

  9. International Graduate Students' Academic Writing Practices in Malaysia: Challenges and Solutions (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar


    This article focuses on the challenges faced by non-native English speaking international graduate students in their academic writing practices while they studied at a university in Malaysia as well as the solutions they employed when faced with the challenges. Academic Literacies Questionnaire was used to collect data. Based on 131 participants,…

  10. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future. (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing


    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea.

  11. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard


    Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and

  12. Real-time detection with AdaBoost-svm combination in various face orientation (United States)

    Fhonna, R. P.; Nasution, M. K. M.; Tulus


    Most of the research has used algorithm AdaBoost-SVM for face detection. However, to our knowledge so far there is no research has been facing detection on real-time data with various orientations using the combination of AdaBoost and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Characteristics of complex and diverse face variations and real-time data in various orientations, and with a very complex application will slow down the performance of the face detection system this becomes a challenge in this research. Face orientation performed on the detection system, that is 900, 450, 00, -450, and -900. This combination method is expected to be an effective and efficient solution in various face orientations. The results showed that the highest average detection rate is on the face detection oriented 00 and the lowest detection rate is in the face orientation 900.

  13. Face-to-Face Activities in Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...

  14. Systems approach to waste governance: unpacking the challenges facing local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K


    Full Text Available and Tourism (DEAT, 2007) highlighted the obstacles that are faced by local government in achieving service delivery for waste. The three identified obstacles included Financial Capacity; Institutional Capacity; Technical Capacity. 2 Opportunity cost... the systems diagrams show (Figure 2), is that without intervention by national government departments, e.g. National Treasury, Department of Provincial and Local Government, or Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, municipalities will be unable...

  15. Iterative closest normal point for 3D face recognition. (United States)

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios


    The common approach for 3D face recognition is to register a probe face to each of the gallery faces and then calculate the sum of the distances between their points. This approach is computationally expensive and sensitive to facial expression variation. In this paper, we introduce the iterative closest normal point method for finding the corresponding points between a generic reference face and every input face. The proposed correspondence finding method samples a set of points for each face, denoted as the closest normal points. These points are effectively aligned across all faces, enabling effective application of discriminant analysis methods for 3D face recognition. As a result, the expression variation problem is addressed by minimizing the within-class variability of the face samples while maximizing the between-class variability. As an important conclusion, we show that the surface normal vectors of the face at the sampled points contain more discriminatory information than the coordinates of the points. We have performed comprehensive experiments on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database, which is presently the largest available 3D face database. We have achieved verification rates of 99.6 and 99.2 percent at a false acceptance rate of 0.1 percent for the all versus all and ROC III experiments, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, have seven and four times less error rates, respectively, compared to the best existing methods on this database.

  16. Navigating Transitions: Challenges for Engineering Students (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Wilsey, Jillian N.; Parthum, Michael J., Sr.; Lewis, Kemper


    As college students enter engineering, they face challenges when they navigate across various transitions. These challenges impact whether a student can successfully adapt to the rigorous curricular requirements of an engineering degree and to the norms and expectations that are particular to engineering. This article focuses on the transitions…

  17. Core corporate governance dilemmas facing boards: a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyram Serretta


    Full Text Available Directors and boards face many challenges in terms of managing complexity. A key factor of success in practicing good corporate governance is the board’s ability to cope with paradox. The purpose of this research has been to explore the core corporate governance dilemmas facing boards. The investigation was qualitative in nature using the Delphi technique. Six core corporate governance dilemmas facing board members were identified one of which is not mentioned in the international literature. The findings should provide directors with an ability to identify the nature of the paradoxes they need to respond to.

  18. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields. (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama


    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin


    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  20. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng


    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  1. Domestic change in the face of European Integration and Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet


    epistemological concerns within the Europeanization literature, this in-the-making research agenda is also faced with a number of methodological challenges. This article deals with some of the most pressing methodological challenges we face when conducting empirical research and moving towards more comprehensive...... accounts of domestic change. Drawing on methodologies known from comparative politics and discourse analysis, the article argues in favour of three methodological moves: (1) from top-down towards bottom-up methodological set-ups; (2) from counterfactual analysis towards compound temporal comparative......Before the early 2000s, research on Europeanization and globalization developed largely independently of each other. Since then a limited, yet increasing, number of studies have shown an interest in investigating and differentiating between the domestic implications of European integration - known...

  2. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Jamilah Karim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Hasan Sham; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli


    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  3. Word and face recognition deficits following posterior cerebral artery stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina


    Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...

  4. Top Ten Challenges Facing the Next Secretary of Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    In an effort to assist with the first Presidential administration transition of the Department of Homeland Security, the Homeland Security Advisory Council has identified ten key challenges that will...

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan


    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad


    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  6. IT Project Portfolio Management; Challenges faced by Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian


    Abstract. Increasing the organizational benefits from IT projects is a key concern in most organizations. The use of Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is generally recommended by consultants (e.g. Kaplan 2005) and researchers (e.g. De Reyck et al 2005) as one way of increasing the organizational...... benefits from IT investments. This article reports from an action research project aiming at understanding and improving IT PPM practices in Danish municipalities, thereby contributing to the general body of knowledge concerning PPM of IT projects. Our findings suggest that the participating organizations...... might benefit from a structured approach as suggested by the literature (e.g. Kaplan 2005), but also that the prescriptive PPM literature in some areas is too simplistic when compared to the reality faced by the participating practitioners. Especially, our research suggests that different PPM elements...

  7. Risk factors and protective factors associated with incident or increase of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Z. (Zeyun); M. Lugtenberg; Franse, C. (Carmen); Fang, X. (Xinye); Hu, S. (Shanlian); Jin, C. (Chunlin); H. Raat (Hein)


    textabstractIntroduction: Frailty is one of the greatest challenges facing our aging population, as it can lead to adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization, and mortality. However, the factors that are associated with frailty are poorly understood. We performed a systematic

  8. Face mask ventilation--the dos and don'ts. (United States)

    Wood, Fiona E; Morley, Colin J


    Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the mask shape although the size must appropriately fit the face. The essence of the technique is to roll the mask on to the face from the chin while avoiding the eyes, with a finger and thumb apply a strong even downward pressure to the top of the mask, away from the stem and sloped sides or skirt of the mask, place the other fingers under the jaw and apply a similar upward pressure. Preterm infants require continuous end-expiratory pressure to facilitate lung aeration and maintain lung volume. This is best done with a T-piece device, not a self-inflating or flow-inflating bag. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment. (United States)

    Howland, Joan S.


    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  10. Affective attitudes to face images associated with intracerebral EEG source location before face viewing. (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D


    We investigated whether different, personality-related affective attitudes are associated with different brain electric field (EEG) sources before any emotional challenge (stimulus exposure). A 27-channel EEG was recorded in 15 subjects during eyes-closed resting. After recording, subjects rated 32 images of human faces for affective appeal. The subjects in the first (i.e., most negative) and fourth (i.e., most positive) quartile of general affective attitude were further analyzed. The EEG data (mean=25+/-4. 8 s/subject) were subjected to frequency-domain model dipole source analysis (FFT-Dipole-Approximation), resulting in 3-dimensional intracerebral source locations and strengths for the delta-theta, alpha, and beta EEG frequency band, and for the full range (1.5-30 Hz) band. Subjects with negative attitude (compared to those with positive attitude) showed the following source locations: more inferior for all frequency bands, more anterior for the delta-theta band, more posterior and more right for the alpha, beta and 1.5-30 Hz bands. One year later, the subjects were asked to rate the face images again. The rating scores for the same face images were highly correlated for all subjects, and original and retest affective mean attitude was highly correlated across subjects. The present results show that subjects with different affective attitudes to face images had different active, cerebral, neural populations in a task-free condition prior to viewing the images. We conclude that the brain functional state which implements affective attitude towards face images as a personality feature exists without elicitors, as a continuously present, dynamic feature of brain functioning. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser


    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  12. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching (United States)

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta


    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  13. Embracing openness: the challenges of OER in Latin American education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Paola Mireles Torres


    Full Text Available The Open Educational Resources (OER movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and faces many challenges that need to be addressed. Some of these challenges include awareness raising and capacity development. But there is a bigger challenge to face: embracing openness as a core value and an institutional strategy. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the meaning of the term “open” in education and we analyze the challenges facing the OER in Latin American countries.

  14. Top DoD Management Challenges, Fiscal Year 2018 (United States)


    Providing Effective, Comprehensive, and Cost Effective Health Care 10. Identifying and Implementing Efficiencies in the DoD INSPECTOR GENERAL...8: Ensuring Ethical Conduct ................ 64 Challenge 9: Providing Effective, Comprehensive, and Cost Effective Health  Care...eroding ISIS physical caliphate in Iraq. INFLUENCE OF RUSSIA AND IRAN IN SYRIA In March 2017, General Votel testified that Iran poses the greatest

  15. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  16. Face Liveness Detection Based on Skin Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yi Wang


    Full Text Available Face recognition systems have been widely adopted for user authentication in security systems due to their simplicity and effectiveness. However, spoofing attacks, including printed photos, displayed photos, and replayed video attacks, are critical challenges to authentication, and these spoofing attacks allow malicious invaders to gain access to the system. This paper proposes two novel features for face liveness detection systems to protect against printed photo attacks and replayed attacks for biometric authentication systems. The first feature obtains the texture difference between red and green channels of face images inspired by the observation that skin blood flow in the face has properties that enable distinction between live and spoofing face images. The second feature estimates the color distribution in the local regions of face images, instead of whole images, because image quality might be more discriminative in small areas of face images. These two features are concatenated together, along with a multi-scale local binary pattern feature, and a support vector machine classifier is trained to discriminate between live and spoofing face images. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method for face spoof detection is promising when compared with that of previously published methods. Furthermore, the proposed system can be implemented in real time, which is valuable for mobile applications.

  17. Responding with Care to Students Facing Trauma (United States)

    Souers, Kristin


    Exposure to trauma--which many experts view as include ongoing life stressors like poverty, parents divorcing, death of a family member, or drug abuse in the home--is prevalent among school-aged children. Teachers know that facing trauma impedes students' ability to focus and learn, but it can be challenging to keep responding caringly to a…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Z. BUGI


    Full Text Available This study set out to find out what challenges the E-leaner faces in the Nigerian environment. Survey research design was used to obtain the opinion of 200 randomly selected E-learners in Kaduna metropolis. Their responses revealed that the most prominent challenges they face are, Inadequate Power supply, Internet connectivity problems, Efficacy of service providers, Affordability of computer hardware, Software and other accessories, Depth of knowledge and skills of internet operation, Cost of accessing internet and production of hard copy. Of all these problems, power supply and its inadequacy ranked highest while depth internet knowledge and skills ranked last. Recommendations were made on how to solve these challenges.

  19. Numerical analysis of the non-contacting gas face seals (United States)

    Blasiak, S.


    The non-contacting gas face seals are used in high-performance devices where the main requirements are safety and reliability. Compliance with these requirements is made possible by careful research and analysis of physical processes related to, inter alia, fluid flow through the radial gap and ring oscillations susceptible to being housed in the enclosure under the influence of rotor kinematic forces. Elaborating and developing mathematical models describing these phenomena allows for more and more accurate analysis results. The paper presents results of studies on stationary ring oscillations made of different types of materials. The presented results of the research allow to determine which of the materials used causes the greatest amplitude of the vibration of the system fluid film-working rings.

  20. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Gabriela M.; Arnaud, Marta I.; Cesario, Pablo A.


    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of

  1. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Gabriela M.; Arnaud, Marta I.; Cesario, Pablo A. [Nuclear Affairs and Institutional Communication Department, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP (Argentina)


    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal

  2. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  3. Challenges of International Students in a Japanese University: Ethnographic Perspectives (United States)

    Lee, Ju Seong


    The author investigates what challenges four international students (Vietnamese, Filipino, Brazilian, and Chinese) faced and how they coped with these dilemmas in a Japanese language program during the first semester in 2014. Multiple apparatuses (e.g., field notes, face-to-face oral interviews, focal group conversations, and semi-structured…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Distinguishing Challenges Faced by Mid-Life Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Tanksley, James F.


    The United States public education system is facing a possible shortage of several hundred thousand teachers over the next decade. To overcome the projected shortfall in teacher supply, schools of education of state university and college systems may need to look to the fastest growing segment of the college student population, the non-traditional…

  5. The development of a concise questionnaire designed to measure perceived outcomes on the issues of greatest importance to patients. (United States)

    Busby, M; Burke, F J T; Matthews, R; Cyrta, J; Mullins, A


    To develop a concise patient feedback audit instrument designed to inform practice development on those issues of greatest importance to patients. A literature review was used to establish the issues which were of greatest importance to patients. Ten core questions were then designed with the help of an experienced survey and polling organisation. A challenging grading of patient responses was utilised in an attempt to differentiate perceived performance within a practice on the different aspects and between practices. A feasibility study was conducted using the interactive voice response mode with seven volunteer practices in 2009. The instrument was then used in the later part of 2010 by 61 practices mostly in paper-based format. Practices received feedback which is primarily based on a bar chart plotting their percentage of top grades received against a national reference sample (NRS) compiled from the results of other participating practices. A statistical analysis was conducted to establish the level at which an individual practice result becomes statistically significant against the NRS. The 61 participating practices each received an average of 121 responses (total 7,381 responses). Seventy-four percent of responses across all ten questions received the top grade, 'ideal'. Statistical analysis indicated that at the level of 121 responses, a score of around 4-9% difference to the National Reference Sample, depending on the specific question, was statistically significant. In keeping with international experience with dental patient feedback surveys this audit suggests high levels of patient satisfaction with their dental service. Nevertheless, by focusing results on the proportion of highest grades received, this instrument is capable of indicating when perceived performance falls significantly below the average. It can therefore inform practice development.

  6. Information, perspective, and judgments about the self in face and dignity cultures. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Cohen, Dov


    People's judgments about their own moral status and well-being were made differently by those from a Dignity culture (Anglo-Americans) and by those from a Face culture (Asian Americans). Face culture participants were more influenced by information processed from a third-person (compared with first-person) perspective, with information about the self having a powerful effect only when seen through another's eyes. Thus, (a) Asian Americans felt the greatest need for moral cleansing when thinking about how others would judge their many (vs. few) transgressions, but this effect did not hold when others were not invoked, and (b) Asian Americans defined themselves as having a rich social network and worthwhile life when thinking about how others would evaluate their many (vs. few) friendships, but again, effects did not hold when others were not invoked. In contrast, Anglo-Americans responded to information about their transgressions or friendships, but effects were pronounced only when other people were not invoked.

  7. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan


    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  8. Parents: How to Make Discipline Work for You. (United States)

    Ryan, Gloria


    One of the greatest challenges facing parents is disciplining children. Discipline is not controlling or imposing a parent's will upon children. It is a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-discipline. Discipline tips for parents are included. (MT)

  9. Housing management and the creation of customer value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogge, P.J.C.; Smeets, J.J.A.M.


    Creating customer value is the greatest challenge facing profit and non- profit landlords nowadays. By offering valuable products landlords can distinguish themselves from competitors in the housing market. In marketing literature two meanings exist for the phrase "customer value": value of a

  10. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.


    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  12. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Mburu, Grace; George, Gavin


    Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. South Africa's HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13-2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  13. Challenges in aerospace medicine education. (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan


    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  14. Investigation of depth dependent changes in cerebral haemodynamics during face perception in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, A [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fox, S [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Everdell, N [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Volein, A [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Tucker, L [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Csibra, G [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gibson, A P [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hebden, J C [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Johnson, M H [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Elwell, C E [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to record oxygenation changes in the visual cortex of 4 month old infants. Our in-house topography system, with 30 channels and 3 different source-detector separations, recorded changes in the concentration of oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}, HHb and HbT) in response to visual stimuli (face, scrambled visual noise and cartoons as rest). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the capability of the system to spatially localize functional activation and study the possibility of depth discrimination in the haemodynamic response. The group data show both face stimulation and visual noise stimulation induced significant increases in HbO{sub 2} from rest, but the increase in HbO{sub 2} with face stimulation was not significantly different from that seen with visual noise stimulation. The face stimuli induced increases in HbO{sub 2} were spread across a greater area across all depths than visual noise induced changes. In results from a single subject there was a significant increase of HbO{sub 2} in the inferior area of the visual cortex in response to both types of stimuli, and a larger number of channels (source-detector pairs) showed HbO{sub 2} increase to face stimuli, especially at the greatest depth. Activation maps were obtained using 3D reconstruction methods on multi source-detector separation optical topography data.

  15. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication


    Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.


    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  16. Understanding the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing displaced girls and women: findings from qualitative assessments in Myanmar and Lebanon. (United States)

    Schmitt, Margaret L; Clatworthy, David; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Klaesener-Metzner, Nicole; Roesch, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Erin; Sommer, Marni


    There is a significant gap in empirical evidence on the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) challenges faced by adolescent girls and women in emergency contexts, and on appropriate humanitarian response approaches to meet their needs in diverse emergency contexts. To begin filling the gap in the evidence, we conducted a study in two diverse contexts (Myanmar and Lebanon), exploring the MHM barriers facing girls and women, and the various relevant sectoral responses being conducted (e.g. water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), Protection, Health, Education and Camp Management). Two qualitative assessments were conducted: one in camps for internally displaced populations in Myanmar, and one with refugees living in informal settlements and host communities in Lebanon. Key informant interviews were conducted with emergency response staff in both sites, and focus group discussion and participatory mapping activities conducted with adolescent girls and women. Key findings included that there was insufficient access to safe and private facilities for MHM coupled with displacement induced shifts in menstrual practices by girls and women. Among staff, there was a narrow interpretation of what an MHM response includes, with a focus on supplies; significant interest in understanding what an improved MHM response would include and acknowledgement of limited existing MHM guidance across various sectors; and insufficient consultation with beneficiaries, related to discomfort asking about menstruation, and limited coordination between sectors. There is a significant need for improved guidance across all relevant sectors for improving MHM response in emergency context, along with increased evidence on effective approaches for integrating MHM into existing responses.

  17. Issues and Challenges Facing Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries for Practical Application. (United States)

    Cha, Hyungyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Yoonji; Cho, Jaephil; Park, Minjoon


    With the advent of flexible electronics, lithium-ion batteries have become a key component of high performance energy storage systems. Thus, considerable effort is made to keep up with the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. To date, many researchers have studied newly designed batteries with flexibility, however, there are several significant challenges that need to be overcome, such as degradation of electrodes under external load, poor battery performance, and complicated cell preparation procedures. In addition, an in-depth understanding of the current challenges for flexible batteries is rarely addressed in a systematical and practical way. Herein, recent progress and current issues of flexible lithium-ion batteries in terms of battery materials and cell designs are reviewed. A critical overview of important issues and challenges for the practical application of flexible lithium-ion batteries is also provided. Finally, the strategies are discussed to overcome current limitations of the practical use of flexible lithium-based batteries, providing a direction for future research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multi-Institution Research Centers: Planning and Management Challenges (United States)

    Spooner, Catherine; Lavey, Lisa; Mukuka, Chilandu; Eames-Brown, Rosslyn


    Funding multi-institution centers of research excellence (CREs) has become a common means of supporting collaborative partnerships to address specific research topics. However, there is little guidance for those planning or managing a multi-institution CRE, which faces specific challenges not faced by single-institution research centers. We…

  19. Women Superintendents in Illinois: Gender Barriers and Challenges (United States)

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.


    Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…

  20. Investing in space the challenge for Europe

    CERN Document Server

    European Space Agency. Noordwijk. Long-Term Space Policy Committee; Naja, G


    This is the second report of the European Space Agency's Long-term Space Policy Committee (LSPC). The report addresses three challenges that Europe faces at the turn of the century, challenges that will influence its future based on economic prosperity, quality of life, collective security and global solidarity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulqueeny, Delarise


    Full Text Available According to the 2010 UNAIDS Report, an estimated 320 000 (or 20% fewer people died of AIDS-related causes in 2009 when compared to figures in 2004 in sub-Saharan Africa, when antiretroviral therapy was markedly expanded (UNAIDS, 2010. This decreased mortality rate offers hope for HIV-infected people to plan a future, part of which will include dating and sexual relationships. The Report cites KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as being at the heart of the HIV/AIDS epidemic; this article is based on research on dating and sexuality among HIV-positive people in KwaZulu-Natal. Dating and sexuality are an integral part of living. Yet HIV-positive persons are denied intimacy at a time when this is most needed (Kasiram in Kasiram, Partab & Dano, 2006. Little is known about the full range of sexual adaptations that HIV-infected individuals choose (Schiltz & Sandfort, 2000. Kasiram, Partab, Dano and Van Greunen (2003:9 cite interaction and intimacy among HIV-positive persons as a neglected research focus, while Painter (2001 adds that insufficient attention is afforded to couple relationships for infected people. An important reason that motivated this study on dating and sexual challenges faced by HIV-positive people was the first author’s (the main researcher’s personal experience of being HIV positive and counselling and life coaching HIV-positive people. She is confronted regularly with variations of the question “Will I be normal?”, which often translates to: “Will I be able to date and have sex.

  2. Examining the Role of Primary Care Physicians and Challenges Faced When Their Patients Transition to Home Hospice Care. (United States)

    Shalev, Ariel; Phongtankuel, Veerawat; Lampa, Katherine; Reid, M C; Eiss, Brian M; Bhatia, Sonica; Adelman, Ronald D


    The transition into home hospice care is often a critical time in a patient's medical care. Studies have shown patients and caregivers desire continuity with their physicians at the end of life (EoL). However, it is unclear what roles primary care physicians (PCPs) play and what challenges they face caring for patients transitioning into home hospice care. To understand PCPs' experiences, challenges, and preferences when their patients transition to home hospice care. Nineteen semi-structured phone interviews with PCPs were conducted. Study data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Participants included PCPs from 3 academic group practices in New York City. Measured: Physician recordings were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Most PCPs noted that there was a discrepancy between their actual role and ideal role when their patients transitioned to home hospice care. Primary care physicians expressed a desire to maintain continuity, provide psychosocial support, and collaborate actively with the hospice team. Better establishment of roles, more frequent communication with the hospice team, and use of technology to communicate with patients were mentioned as possible ways to help PCPs achieve their ideal role caring for their patients receiving home hospice care. Primary care physicians expressed varying degrees of involvement during a patient's transition to home hospice care, but many desired to be more involved in their patient's care. As with patients, physicians desire to maintain continuity with their patients at the EoL and solutions to improve communication between PCPs, hospice providers, and patients need to be explored.

  3. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  4. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces. (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M


    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  5. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.


    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  6. Challenges faced when identifying patients for combination immunotherapy. (United States)

    Ernstoff, Marc S; Gandhi, Shipra; Pandey, Manu; Puzanov, Igor; Grivas, Petros; Montero, Alberto; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Turk, Mary Jo; Diaz-Montero, Claudia Marcela; Lewis, Lionel D; Morrison, Carl


    In 1996, Jim Allison demonstrated that blocking the immune regulatory molecule CTLA-4 with anit-CTLA4 antibody led to enhance tumor responses in mice. It would take an additional 15 years for human studies to confirm the potency and clinical efficacy of anti-CTLA4, ultimately leading to US FDA approval of the first checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab. Now with a plethora of immune-modulating agents demonstrating single agent safety and benefit across many tumor types, investigation on the optimal combination of immune-based therapies has begun in earnest. While there are many challenges, a central one is how to select which combination for which patient is the best. Here we review the current approaches that a practitioner can use to achieve this therapeutic goal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaher ALSHAMARI


    Full Text Available Qatar’s healthcare system is comparatively new and has experienced noteworthy developments over its brief history. In this paper, our aim is to look at the unique challenges this small nation has faced in building that system. This paper will describe the accomplishments of Qatar’s medical authorities and the challenges they faced. It will also compare public and private healthcare providers. Today, the government of Qatar has financed all the health care for this rapidly-developing, multicultural nation, but it is now planning to introduce medical insurance. This report of its experience will benefit other nations wanting to develop their own healthcare systems.

  8. Masses of galaxies and the greatest redshifts of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J G [Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA)


    The outer parts of a typical galaxy follows an R/sup -2/ density distribution which results in the collapse time of its protogalaxy being proportional to its mass. Since quasars probably occur in the nuclei of galaxies which can only form after the collapse of their parent galaxies, their greatest observed redshift, Zsub(max), is largely determined by the mass, Msub(t), of a typical protogalaxy. The observed Zsub(max) of quasars indicates that Msub(t) = 1 x 10/sup 12/ solar masses. This mass is consistent with the masses of galaxies found in recent dynamical studies. It indicates that most of the mass in a typical galaxy is in the halo lying beyond the familiar optically-bright core, but the mass of a standard galaxy is still only 0.3 of that required for galaxies alone to close the universe.

  9. Ethical Issues in Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 28, 2016 ... and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their ... Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by ...... Lucas V.A. The business of women's health care. In: E.T. ...

  10. High precision automated face localization in thermal images: oral cancer dataset as test case (United States)

    Chakraborty, M.; Raman, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Patsa, S.; Anjum, N.; Ray, J. G.


    Automated face detection is the pivotal step in computer vision aided facial medical diagnosis and biometrics. This paper presents an automatic, subject adaptive framework for accurate face detection in the long infrared spectrum on our database for oral cancer detection consisting of malignant, precancerous and normal subjects of varied age group. Previous works on oral cancer detection using Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging(DITI) reveals that patients and normal subjects differ significantly in their facial thermal distribution. Therefore, it is a challenging task to formulate a completely adaptive framework to veraciously localize face from such a subject specific modality. Our model consists of first extracting the most probable facial regions by minimum error thresholding followed by ingenious adaptive methods to leverage the horizontal and vertical projections of the segmented thermal image. Additionally, the model incorporates our domain knowledge of exploiting temperature difference between strategic locations of the face. To our best knowledge, this is the pioneering work on detecting faces in thermal facial images comprising both patients and normal subjects. Previous works on face detection have not specifically targeted automated medical diagnosis; face bounding box returned by those algorithms are thus loose and not apt for further medical automation. Our algorithm significantly outperforms contemporary face detection algorithms in terms of commonly used metrics for evaluating face detection accuracy. Since our method has been tested on challenging dataset consisting of both patients and normal subjects of diverse age groups, it can be seamlessly adapted in any DITI guided facial healthcare or biometric applications.

  11. Ontario Hydro nuclear - challenges of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.


    The challenges facing Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN), as understood at the time of the conference, are discussed. OHN had many strengths to build on in preparing for the competition ahead, including: extremely competitive production costs, strong technical capabilities, advantages of multiple units, environmental advantages favoring nuclear, strong public support, and improving station performance. Even with these advantages, OHN faced the difficult challenge of improving overall performance in the face of a large debt burden, coupled with the reinvestment demands of aging units at Pickering A and Bruce A. At the time of the conference, Bruce 2 had already been shut down, because the cost of retubing it and replacing its boilers could not be justified. The ''drive to nuclear excellence'' involves the simultaneous achievement of top performance in safety, reliability and cost; and to this end, changes were being made to reverse the trends indicated by disappointing ''peer reviews''

  12. Editorial: Challenges facing age-management/longevity medicine ||Free Paper||

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Walker


    Full Text Available Richard F WalkerInternational Society for Applied Research in Aging (SARAPrior to the discovery of penicillin and production of antibiotics, extrinsic disease was the greatest threat to achieving maximum life potential (longevity. That single event increased life-span several decades for the majority of people living in first world nations. However, protection against lethal infection provided by antibiotics exposed older humans to a wide variety of life-threatening diseases resulting from disintegration of internal order during senescence. These intrinsic diseases including diabetes, stroke, heart attack, cancer, and a multitude of others, resulted in creation of medical subspecialties. Although each specialty focused upon different organs and systems, they all administered treatment in response to disease. In other words, the operative model for modern medicine which deals with intrinsic disease is the same as that which was used for extrinsic disease, ie, a disease occurs and then it is treated. However, unlike therapy for infection which generally cures disease, treatment of intrinsic diseases only provides symptomatic relief, rarely affecting the underlying causes. Also, because it targets specific symptoms, this approach treats the disease condition as an isolated entity, independent of other bodily functions. Thus, the cardiologist, neurologist, allergist, and dermatologist focus their attentions only upon problems occurring within the system(s limited by their training. Accordingly, they prescribe drugs that were created to specifically suppress or relieve symptoms directly related to the problem(s. Despite the fact that this approach rarely provides a cure, it is effective in extending life, if not necessarily its quality, because many of the symptoms of intrinsic disease such as extremely high blood pressure, severe hyperglycemia, or profound breathing difficulties can lead to fatal complications.

  13. Exploring Perception and Use of Everyday Language and Medical Terminology among International Medical Graduates in a Medical ESP Course in Australia (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R.


    Language and communication skills are among the greatest challenges that non-native-English speaking international medical graduates (IMGs) face in English medical consultations. Especially when patients use unfamiliar everyday expressions or attach different meanings to medical terminology, the communicative burden on doctor-patient communication…

  14. Mapping face recognition information use across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eMiellet


    Full Text Available Face recognition is not rooted in a universal eye movement information-gathering strategy. Western observers favor a local facial feature sampling strategy, whereas Eastern observers prefer sampling face information from a global, central fixation strategy. Yet, the precise qualitative (the diagnostic and quantitative (the amount information underlying these cultural perceptual biases in face recognition remains undetermined.To this end, we monitored the eye movements of Western and Eastern observers during a face recognition task, with a novel gaze-contingent technique: the Expanding Spotlight. We used 2° Gaussian apertures centered on the observers' fixations expanding dynamically at a rate of 1° every 25ms at each fixation - the longer the fixation duration, the larger the aperture size. Identity-specific face information was only displayed within the Gaussian aperture; outside the aperture, an average face template was displayed to facilitate saccade planning. Thus, the Expanding Spotlight simultaneously maps out the facial information span at each fixation location.Data obtained with the Expanding Spotlight technique confirmed that Westerners extract more information from the eye region, whereas Easterners extract more information from the nose region. Interestingly, this quantitative difference was paired with a qualitative disparity. Retinal filters based on spatial frequency decomposition built from the fixations maps revealed that Westerners used local high-spatial frequency information sampling, covering all the features critical for effective face recognition (the eyes and the mouth. In contrast, Easterners achieved a similar result by using global low-spatial frequency information from those facial features.Our data show that the face system flexibly engages into local or global eye movement strategies across cultures, by relying on distinct facial information span and culturally tuned spatially filtered information. Overall, our

  15. Challenges of Collaborative Product Styling in Design Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis


    Apart from a long list of advantages, design students face certain challenges when working collectively in groups on form, styling and aesthetics. An investigation about these challenges has been carried out and a number of challenges have been identified. The most apparent challenges relate to d...... to different aesthetic preferences, lack of tools and methods, and difficulties in establishing form related requirements. The challenges are presented and design quality, as well as some solution strategies, is discussed....

  16. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin


    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  17. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.


    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  18. Bringing nanomedicines to market: regulatory challenges, opportunities, and uncertainties. (United States)

    Nijhara, Ruchika; Balakrishnan, Krishna


    Scientists and entrepreneurs who contemplate developing nanomedicine products face several unique challenges in addition to many of the traditional hurdles of product development. In this review we analyze the major physicochemical, biologic and functional characteristics of several nanomedicine products on the market and explore the question of what made them unique. What made them successful? We also focus on the regulatory challenges faced by nanomedicine product developers. Based on these analyses, we propose the factors that are most likely to contribute to the success of nanomedicine products.

  19. Robust 3D face landmark localization based on local coordinate coding. (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Shengpeng; Chen, Chun; Maybank, Stephen J


    In the 3D facial animation and synthesis community, input faces are usually required to be labeled by a set of landmarks for parameterization. Because of the variations in pose, expression and resolution, automatic 3D face landmark localization remains a challenge. In this paper, a novel landmark localization approach is presented. The approach is based on local coordinate coding (LCC) and consists of two stages. In the first stage, we perform nose detection, relying on the fact that the nose shape is usually invariant under the variations in the pose, expression, and resolution. Then, we use the iterative closest points algorithm to find a 3D affine transformation that aligns the input face to a reference face. In the second stage, we perform resampling to build correspondences between the input 3D face and the training faces. Then, an LCC-based localization algorithm is proposed to obtain the positions of the landmarks in the input face. Experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to state of the art methods in terms of its robustness, flexibility, and accuracy.

  20. Challenges in Meeting HIV/AIDS Counselling Needs in Nigeria (United States)

    Gesinde, Abiodun M.


    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is recognized globally as the greatest health challenge of the present generation. It is widely acknowledged to be the foremost killer disease in Africa. Since the first AIDS case was publicly announced in 1986, the astronomical increase in victims has been a matter of concern. The rates of HIV/AIDS infection indicate that…

  1. HIV / AIDS is a challenge we have to face -- Colin Hollis. (United States)


    On July 21, 2000, the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) Malaysia, in cooperation with the UN Population Fund and the UN Development Program (Malaysia), organized the National HIV/AIDS Seminar for Parliamentarians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. During the seminar, Mr. Colin Hollis, secretary general of AFPPD, spoke about the challenge posed by HIV/AIDS on the government. He noted that the epidemic is a part of life and these figures should not only challenge the assumptions of legislators but for them to act as well. He further informed that AFPPD would organize the Asia-Africa Meeting of Parliamentarians and Asia European Dialogue.

  2. Challenges faced by parents of children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clever Taderera


    Conclusion: The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as well as lack of knowledge regarding services and programmes for children with learning disabilities. This lack of knowledge on the part of participants could indicate poor policy education by policy implementers at grass-roots level.

  3. Reduced face aftereffects in autism are not due to poor attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ewing

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine why face identity aftereffects are diminished in children with autism, relative to typical children. To address the possibility that reduced face aftereffects might reflect reduced attention to adapting stimuli, we investigated the consequence of controlling attention to adapting faces during a face identity aftereffect task in children with autism and typical children. We also included a size-change between adaptation and test stimuli to determine whether the reduced aftereffects reflect atypical adaptation to low- or higher-level stimulus properties. Results indicated that when attention was controlled and directed towards adapting stimuli, face identity aftereffects in children with autism were significantly reduced relative to typical children. This finding challenges the notion that atypicalities in the quality and/or quantity of children's attention during adaptation might account for group differences previously observed in this paradigm. Additionally, evidence of diminished face identity aftereffects despite a stimulus size change supports an adaptive processing atypicality in autism that extends beyond low-level, retinotopically coded stimulus properties. These findings support the notion that diminished face aftereffects in autism reflect atypicalities in adaptive norm-based coding, which could also contribute to face processing difficulties in this group.

  4. Teachers for Children with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Education's Greatest Challenge? (United States)

    Lauritzen, Paul; Friedman, Stephen J.


    This article describes children having emotional/behavioral disorders, presents data demonstrating the critical shortage of teachers for this population, discusses factors that contribute to this problem, and offers recommendations including giving teachers of these children an additional salary stipend and providing them the option of…

  5. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sajuti, D.; Aiman, S.; Yuwono, I.; Fathurrachman; Suwarno, H.; Suwardi; Amini, S.; Widjaksana


    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21 s t Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  6. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley


    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  7. Not-for-profit hospitals fight tax-exempt challenges. (United States)

    Hudson, T


    The message being sent by local tax boards, state agencies, and the Internal Revenue Service is clear: Not-for-profit hospitals will have to justify their tax-exempt status. But complying with this demand can be a costly administrative burden. Just ask the executives who have been through the experience. CEO Richard Anderson, of St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem, PA, is luckier than some executives who have faced tax-exempt challenges. He won his hospital's case. But he still faces a yearly battle: The hospital must prove its compliance annually to the county board of assessors. Other executives report similar experiences. Our cover story takes an in-depth look at how administrators faced challenges to their hospital's tax status and what they learned about their relationship with their communities, as well as a complete state and federal legislative outlook for future developments.

  8. The Application of a Total Quality Management Approach to Support Student Recruitment in Schools of Music (United States)

    Weinstein, Larry


    One of the greatest challenges music programme administrators face is that of recruiting students for their programmes. This article suggests that administrators should investigate the benefits of implementing a comprehensive total quality management programme in their institutions. The core values, techniques and tools embodied in the Total…

  9. Facing regulatory challenges of on-line hemodiafiltration. (United States)

    Kümmerle, Wolfgang


    On-line hemodiafiltration (on-line HDF) is the result of a vision that triggered multifarious changes in very different areas. Driven by the idea to offer better medical treatment for renal patients, technological innovations were developed and established that also constituted new challenges in the field of regulatory affairs. The existing regulations predominantly addressed the quality and safety of those products needed to perform dialysis treatment which were supplied by industrial manufacturers. However, the complexity of treatment system required for the provision of on-line fluids demanded a holistic approach encompassing all components involved. Hence, focus was placed not only on single products, but much more on their interfacing, and the clinical infrastructure, in particular, had to undergo substantial changes. The overall understanding of the interaction between such factors, quite different in their nature, was crucial to overcome the arising regulatory obstacles. This essay describes the evolution of the on-line HDF procedure from the regulatory point of view. A simplified diagram demonstrates the path taken from the former regulatory understanding to the realization of necessary changes. That achievement was only possible through 'management of preview' and consequent promotion of technical and medical innovations as well as regulatory re-evaluations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; ; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.


    outcomes and behaviors of complex biological and environmental systems, leading to robust solutions for DOE missions and strategic goals. In March 2010, the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee held the Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision workshop to identify scientific opportunities and grand challenges for BER science in the coming decades and to develop an overall strategy for drafting a long-term vision for BER. Key workshop goals included: (1) Identifying the greatest scientific challenges in biology, climate, and the environment that DOE will face over a 20-year time horizon. (2) Describing how BER should be positioned to address those challenges. (3) Determining the new and innovative tools needed to advance BER science. (4) Suggesting how the workforce of the future should be trained in integrative system science. This report lays out grand research challenges for BER - in biological systems, climate, energy sustainability, computing, and education and workforce training - that can put society on a path to achieve the scientific evidence and predictive understanding needed to inform decision making and planning to address future energy needs, climate change, water availability, and land use.

  11. Comparing word and face recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi


    included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...

  12. Big Data and Analytics in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges (United States)

    Daniel, Ben


    Institutions of higher education are operating in an increasingly complex and competitive environment. This paper identifies contemporary challenges facing institutions of higher education worldwide and explores the potential of Big Data in addressing these challenges. The paper then outlines a number of opportunities and challenges associated…

  13. Food challenges facing people living with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study indicate that the economic situation in the country coupled with the lack of adequate rainfall has posed challenges to the ability of HIV/AIDS patients to maintain a healthy diet. In addition, there were concerns about the departure of non-government organisations which used to provide them with food ...

  14. Facing up to 'challenging behaviour': a model for training in staff-client interaction. (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran; Salmon, Peter


    This paper draws on theory and evidence to develop a conceptual staff training model for the management of 'challenging behaviour'. Staff working with clients who are experienced as challenging commonly report negative feelings such as anxiety, anger, guilt, fear, self-blame and powerlessness, as well as dissatisfaction with their jobs. Current training programmes in challenging behaviour offer a 'smorgasbord' of content, without a clearly defined conceptual framework. Medline and PsychInfo were searched for papers in English from 1998 to 2008, linking 'nurs*' to 'challenging behavio*' and its related terms. Additional hand-searching identified informative papers from disciplines outside nursing older than the search period. We developed an applied model for training educators in respect of challenging behaviours. The model directs educators to consider: the influence of the nurse, including their values, emotional processes and behavioural skills; features of the client; and features of the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment. The most striking implication of the model is that it explicitly recognizes the importance of domains of learning other than skill. This enables educators to find educationally appropriate responses to resource limitations that inevitably constrain training. Challenging behaviour should be considered as a product of several intertwined factors: the actors involved - nurses, clients and others - and the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment.

  15. Seeing emotion with your ears: emotional prosody implicitly guides visual attention to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rigoulot

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication involves the processing of multimodal emotional cues, particularly facial expressions (visual modality and emotional speech prosody (auditory modality which can interact during information processing. Here, we investigated whether the implicit processing of emotional prosody systematically influences gaze behavior to facial expressions of emotion. We analyzed the eye movements of 31 participants as they scanned a visual array of four emotional faces portraying fear, anger, happiness, and neutrality, while listening to an emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterance (Someone migged the pazing uttered in a congruent or incongruent tone. Participants heard the emotional utterance during the first 1250 milliseconds of a five-second visual array and then performed an immediate recall decision about the face they had just seen. The frequency and duration of first saccades and of total looks in three temporal windows ([0-1250 ms], [1250-2500 ms], [2500-5000 ms] were analyzed according to the emotional content of faces and voices. Results showed that participants looked longer and more frequently at faces that matched the prosody in all three time windows (emotion congruency effect, although this effect was often emotion-specific (with greatest effects for fear. Effects of prosody on visual attention to faces persisted over time and could be detected long after the auditory information was no longer present. These data imply that emotional prosody is processed automatically during communication and that these cues play a critical role in how humans respond to related visual cues in the environment, such as facial expressions.

  16. Seeing Emotion with Your Ears: Emotional Prosody Implicitly Guides Visual Attention to Faces (United States)

    Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D.


    Interpersonal communication involves the processing of multimodal emotional cues, particularly facial expressions (visual modality) and emotional speech prosody (auditory modality) which can interact during information processing. Here, we investigated whether the implicit processing of emotional prosody systematically influences gaze behavior to facial expressions of emotion. We analyzed the eye movements of 31 participants as they scanned a visual array of four emotional faces portraying fear, anger, happiness, and neutrality, while listening to an emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterance (Someone migged the pazing) uttered in a congruent or incongruent tone. Participants heard the emotional utterance during the first 1250 milliseconds of a five-second visual array and then performed an immediate recall decision about the face they had just seen. The frequency and duration of first saccades and of total looks in three temporal windows ([0–1250 ms], [1250–2500 ms], [2500–5000 ms]) were analyzed according to the emotional content of faces and voices. Results showed that participants looked longer and more frequently at faces that matched the prosody in all three time windows (emotion congruency effect), although this effect was often emotion-specific (with greatest effects for fear). Effects of prosody on visual attention to faces persisted over time and could be detected long after the auditory information was no longer present. These data imply that emotional prosody is processed automatically during communication and that these cues play a critical role in how humans respond to related visual cues in the environment, such as facial expressions. PMID:22303454

  17. Challenges faced by public health nursing leaders in hyperturbulent times. (United States)

    Reyes, David J; Bekemeier, Betty; Issel, L Michele


    This study discusses the challenges and characteristics of effective public health nursing leaders in local health departments and barriers to effective leadership during the hyperturbulent conditions of 2008-2010. Participants were drawn from a purposive sample of seven directors of nursing (DON) in six county LHDs in two states for this qualitative study using inductive methods. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted, using open-ended questions. Data analysis consisted of coding, pattern identification, and theme development, assisted by the use of ATLAS.ti™. Credibility was achieved through intercoder agreement and resonance of the findings with participants. Two underlying challenges emerged: leadership dissonance and leading through ambiguity. Three key effective leadership attributes identified were as follows: collaborative change management, life-long learning, and being visionary. DONs identified extrinsic and intrinsic barriers to leadership effectiveness and leading change in public health systems and PHN practice. Results suggest ways to support PHN leaders in order to overcome barriers to effective leadership such as defined leadership competencies, continuing education, and mentorship opportunities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Global surgery for pediatric hydrocephalus in the developing world: a review of the history, challenges, and future directions. (United States)

    Muir, Ryan T; Wang, Shelly; Warf, Benjamin C


    OBJECTIVE Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is a major contributor to the global burden of surgically treatable diseases. Significant health disparities exist for the treatment of hydrocephalus in developing nations due to a combination of medical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. This review aims to provide the international neurosurgery community with an overview of the current challenges and future directions of neurosurgical care for children with hydrocephalus in low-income countries. METHODS The authors conducted a literature review around the topic of pediatric hydrocephalus in the context of global surgery, the unique challenges to creating access to care in low-income countries, and current international efforts to address the problem. RESULTS Developing countries face the greatest burden of pediatric hydrocephalus due to high birth rates and greater risk of neonatal infections. This burden is related to more general global health challenges, including malnutrition, infectious diseases, maternal and perinatal risk factors, and education gaps. Unique challenges pertaining to the treatment of hydrocephalus in the developing world include a preponderance of postinfectious hydrocephalus, limited resources, and restricted access to neurosurgical care. In the 21st century, several organizations have established programs that provide hydrocephalus treatment and neurosurgical training in Africa, Central and South America, Haiti, and Southeast Asia. These international efforts have employed various models to achieve the goals of providing safe, sustainable, and cost-effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS Broader commitment from the pediatric neurosurgery community, increased funding, public education, surgeon training, and ongoing surgical innovation will be needed to meaningfully address the global burden of untreated hydrocephalus.

  19. Ophthalmic Start-Up Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Development Hurdles. (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeanette A


    To identify current challenges facing ophthalmic pharmaceutical start-ups in developing new products. Surveys were distributed to the chief executive officer (CEO) or president of ophthalmic start-ups. The survey attracted 24 responses from 78 surveys distributed (31%). The CEOs stated that a lack of financial capital (n = 18, 75%), FDA regulations (n = 6, 25%), and failure to meet clinical endpoints (n = 6, 25%) were their greatest development hurdles. Risk aversion to medicines in early development (n = 18, 75%), mergers and acquisitions reducing corporate choice for licensing agreements (n = 7, 29%), the emergence of large pharmaceutical-based venture capital funding groups (n = 12, 50%), and the failure of many large pharmaceutical companies to develop their own medicines (n = 10, 42%) were noted as recent prominent trends affecting fundraising. The study suggests that development funding, regulatory burden, and meeting clinical endpoints are the greatest development challenges faced by ophthalmic start-up CEOs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.


    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  1. The Global Classroom and the Educational Challenge of Cultural Diversity (United States)

    Moyer, Sonja S.


    Change in education is not going away; instead, it seems to be increasing exponentially. Technology has been the catalyst, and the changes with the greatest impact on education are the location and size of the classroom. The challenges associated with these changes involve working with students from potentially an unlimited number of countries and…

  2. Knowledge Management Challenges For Global Business


    Veli Denizhan Kalkan


    Managing organizational knowledge effectively is a prerequisite for securing competitive advantages in the global marketplace. The field of knowledge management brings out important challenges for global business practices. Based on a comprehensive academic and popular literature review, this paper identifies six main knowledge management challenges faced by global business today. These are developing a working definition of knowledge, dealing with tacit knowledge and utilization of informati...

  3. Fermentation: an age old technology with brand new challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, PJ


    Full Text Available The presentation is based on the new challenges facing an age old technology of fermentation. These challenges were presented at the SASM Conference, the conclusion been that the future of fermentation is only limited by our imagination. Nonetheless...

  4. Overcoming the challenges of the skilled labour shortage through energy industry cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massitti, P. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Calgary, AB (Canada); Goodman, G. [Goodman McDougall and Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dalik, A.; Richardson, S. [RainTree Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gurevitch, J. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described the unique workforce planning and recruitment challenges currently facing the petroleum services industry, and how they are being managed. It offered suggestions as to how energy companies can work more effectively with petroleum industry service providers to ensure that projects have the necessary human resources to staff projects. In particular, the paper referred to the challenge and feasibility of smoothing out drilling cycles throughout the year. The challenge facing the service and supply industry in planning and managing a workforce for Arctic development was also discussed.

  5. Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Axelrod

    Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.

  6. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.


    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  7. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems. (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W


    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  8. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010


    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Creating Linkages between Private and Public: Challenges Facing Woman Principals in South Africa (United States)

    Moorosi, Pontso


    In trying to understand some of the gendered discourses that shape the management of schools as organisations in South Africa, I analyse woman principals' experiences as they try to navigate a balance between their home and work responsibilities. After their appointment as principals, some South African women face difficulties in striking the…

  11. Fusion of LBP and SWLD using spatio-spectral information for hyperspectral face recognition (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Shuai; Xiong, Jinquan


    Hyperspectral imaging, recording intrinsic spectral information of the skin cross different spectral bands, become an important issue for robust face recognition. However, the main challenges for hyperspectral face recognition are high data dimensionality, low signal to noise ratio and inter band misalignment. In this paper, hyperspectral face recognition based on LBP (Local binary pattern) and SWLD (Simplified Weber local descriptor) is proposed to extract discriminative local features from spatio-spectral fusion information. Firstly, the spatio-spectral fusion strategy based on statistical information is used to attain discriminative features of hyperspectral face images. Secondly, LBP is applied to extract the orientation of the fusion face edges. Thirdly, SWLD is proposed to encode the intensity information in hyperspectral images. Finally, we adopt a symmetric Kullback-Leibler distance to compute the encoded face images. The hyperspectral face recognition is tested on Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hyperspectral Face database (PolyUHSFD). Experimental results show that the proposed method has higher recognition rate (92.8%) than the state of the art hyperspectral face recognition algorithms.

  12. Arguments Against a Configural Processing Account of Familiar Face Recognition. (United States)

    Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jenkins, Rob; Kaufmann, Jürgen M


    Face recognition is a remarkable human ability, which underlies a great deal of people's social behavior. Individuals can recognize family members, friends, and acquaintances over a very large range of conditions, and yet the processes by which they do this remain poorly understood, despite decades of research. Although a detailed understanding remains elusive, face recognition is widely thought to rely on configural processing, specifically an analysis of spatial relations between facial features (so-called second-order configurations). In this article, we challenge this traditional view, raising four problems: (1) configural theories are underspecified; (2) large configural changes leave recognition unharmed; (3) recognition is harmed by nonconfigural changes; and (4) in separate analyses of face shape and face texture, identification tends to be dominated by texture. We review evidence from a variety of sources and suggest that failure to acknowledge the impact of familiarity on facial representations may have led to an overgeneralization of the configural account. We argue instead that second-order configural information is remarkably unimportant for familiar face recognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Cross-modal face recognition using multi-matcher face scores (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik


    The performance of face recognition can be improved using information fusion of multimodal images and/or multiple algorithms. When multimodal face images are available, cross-modal recognition is meaningful for security and surveillance applications. For example, a probe face is a thermal image (especially at nighttime), while only visible face images are available in the gallery database. Matching a thermal probe face onto the visible gallery faces requires crossmodal matching approaches. A few such studies were implemented in facial feature space with medium recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal recognition approach, where multimodal faces are cross-matched in feature space and the recognition performance is enhanced with stereo fusion at image, feature and/or score level. In the proposed scenario, there are two cameras for stereo imaging, two face imagers (visible and thermal images) in each camera, and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, linear discriminant analysis). A score vector is formed with three cross-matched face scores from the aforementioned three algorithms. A classifier (e.g., k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression [BLR]) is trained then tested with the score vectors by using 10-fold cross validations. The proposed approach was validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Our experiments show very promising results: ACR (accuracy rate) = 97.84%, FAR (false accept rate) = 0.84% when cross-matching the fused thermal faces onto the fused visible faces by using three face scores and the BLR classifier.

  14. Meta-analytic review of the development of face discrimination in infancy: Face race, face gender, infant age, and methodology moderate face discrimination. (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Marquis, Alexandra R


    Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks). The effect size for infants' face discrimination was small, 6.53% greater than chance (i.e., equal looking to the novel and familiar). There was a significant difference in discrimination by race, overall (own-race, 8.18%; other-race, 3.18%) and between ages (own-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 7.32%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 9.17%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 7.68%; other-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 6.12%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 3.70%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 2.79%). Multilevel linear (mixed-effects) models were used to predict face discrimination; infants' capacity to discriminate faces is sensitive to face characteristics including race, gender, and emotion as well as the methods used, including task timing, coding method, and visual angle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah


    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  16. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces


    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.


    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  17. Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy


    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables


    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  18. Cosmetic Detection Framework for Face and Iris Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi


    Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.

  19. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions (United States)

    Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus


    Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814

  20. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein


    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  1. Challenges and strategies for coping with scleroderma: implications for a scleroderma-specific self-management program. (United States)

    Milette, Katherine; Thombs, Brett D; Maiorino, Kristina; Nielson, Warren R; Körner, Annett; Peláez, Sandra


    The purpose of this study was to explore challenges faced by patients with systemic sclerosis, also called scleroderma, in coping with their disease and the strategies they used to face those challenges. Five focus groups were held with scleroderma patients (4 groups, n = 34) and health care professionals who have experience treating scleroderma (1 group, n = 8). Participants' discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants reported challenges accessing information (e.g., knowledgeable specialists), dealing with negative emotions (e.g., stress due to misunderstandings with loved ones), and accessing resources (e.g., helpful products or devices). Strategies for overcoming challenges were also discussed (e.g., advocating for own needs). When faced with significant challenges while coping with scleroderma, patients develop strategies to manage better and improve their quality of life. To help them cope, patients would benefit from easier access to supportive interventions, including tailored scleroderma self-management programs. Although the challenges experienced by patients with scleroderma are unique, findings from this study might help better understand patients' perspectives regarding coping and disease management for other chronic diseases as well. Implications for Rehabilitation People living with rare diseases, including the rare autoimmune disease scleroderma, face unique challenges and often do not have access to disease-specific educational or other support resources. People with scleroderma report that they face challenges in accessing information, including knowledgeable healthcare providers; managing difficult social interactions and negative emotions; and accessing resources. Strategies employed by scleroderma patients to overcome these challenges include seeking connections to other people with scleroderma or scleroderma patient organizations, actively seeking out local resources, and learning to

  2. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field (United States)

    Pulvermacher, Alice


    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  3. Risk management solutions for Cernavoda Unit #2 NPP completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Pall, S.


    The greatest risk facing today's electric utilities is change. Utility risk managers are being challenged to address the changes of deregulation, new technologies and changing work force. The utilities must be more aware of where all its costs are located to face with the challenge of competition, forcing them to respond with lower prices and innovative services. For completion of large projects, like Cernavoda NPP, Unit 2, the utilities are facing also with certain specific risks: politic, economic, social. The natural perils or machinery breakdown are common risks for operation as well as for construction-commissioning projects. Beyond the explicit challenges associated with the completion of a nuclear power plant in a transition economy environment, the utilities are facing with new risk factors such as professional liability, political risk, product warranty and liability, international exposure, etc. Changes in other governmental policies are also affecting large projects, mentioning healthcare, workplace safety, workers' compensation, environmental clean up, etc.(author)

  4. Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. (United States)

    Mafune, Rhudzani V; Lebese, Rachel T; Nemathaga, Livhuwani H


    Children depend solely on caregivers who can be either parents or guardians for drug administration to enhance adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which might pose any number of challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of 16 caregivers who were 18 years of age and above, and mentally capable, irrespective of educational qualifications, caring for children aged between 0 and 15 years who were on ART between April 2013 and October 2014. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select the 16 caregivers. Required permission, approval and ethical clearance were obtained from the University of Venda Higher Degree Committee, Limpopo Provincial Health Department and relevant institutions. An in-depth, individual, unstructured interview method was used to collect data. One central question was asked: 'What are the challenges you experience when caring for a child on antiretroviral treatment?' Subsequent questions were based on the participants' responses to the central question. Qualitative data were analysed by means of Tesch's open-coding method. The findings of this study revealed that participants, that is, caregivers of children on ART, experienced financial burdens because of transport costs needed to comply with follow-up dates and insufficient of money for food, clothing the child in need of care, pocket money for lunch boxes during school hours and time lost while waiting for consultations. Participants reported some level of stigmatisation against children on ART by family members, especially the husbands or in-laws of the secondary caregivers. Many primary and secondary caregivers seemed to have given up seeking support from government and community structures. The conclusions drawn from this research

  5. Indonesian Sea Power and Regional Maritime Security Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Marsetio


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the regional maritime security challenges facing Indonesia. As it is known that entering to the 21st century has come a new term in regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the Indo-Pacific region. This region consists of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Both of these areas became more interconnected than in the previous period. These two regions became a single, significant system in the global order. Key players in the Indo-Pacific region are China, India and the United States. Of course, their actions have created new challenges in maritime security. These challenges include maritime disputes, pirates, and maritime power competition. The dispute in the South China Sea has spawned a security problem in the Asia Pacific region that Indonesia must face in the future.

  6. Asymptotics for the greatest zeros of solutions of a particular O.D.E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Noschese


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Liouville-Stekeloff method for approximating solutions of homogeneous linear ODE and a general result due to Tricomi which provides estimates for the zeros of functions by means of the knowledge of an asymptotic representation. From the classical tools we deduce information about the asymptotics of the greatest zeros of a class of solutions of a particular ODE, including the classical Hermite polynomials.

  7. Cascaded face alignment via intimacy definition feature (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; Lam, Kin-Man; Chiu, Man-Yau; Wu, Kangheng; Lei, Zhibin


    Recent years have witnessed the emerging popularity of regression-based face aligners, which directly learn mappings between facial appearance and shape-increment manifolds. We propose a random-forest based, cascaded regression model for face alignment by using a locally lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature. This feature is more discriminative than the pose-indexed feature, more efficient than the histogram of oriented gradients feature and the scale-invariant feature transform feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental validation of our algorithm shows that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when testing on some challenging datasets. Compared with the LBF-based algorithm, our method achieves about twice the speed, 20% improvement in terms of alignment accuracy and saves an order of magnitude on memory requirement.

  8. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine


    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  9. Expatriate Adjustment Process: The Impact of Accompanying Children on Self-Initiated Expatriates


    Zakariyya, Abdul Hameed


    Expatriation as a career choice has been growing and gaining popularity. Even multinational enterprises (MNEs) that once depended entirely on their own staff for postings abroad have begun to recruit from the global self-initiated expatriate (SIE) labour market. Though qualified and competent, SIEs face tremendous challenges in relocation and cross cultural adjustment. Previous research suggests that the greatest challenge both categories of expatriates – businesses backed organizational expa...

  10. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.


    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  11. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems. (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W


    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel


    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  13. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination. (United States)

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter


    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Face-Lift Satisfaction Using the FACE-Q. (United States)

    Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H


    Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.

  15. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit


    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  16. Processing language in face-to-face conversation: Questions with gestures get faster responses. (United States)

    Holler, Judith; Kendrick, Kobin H; Levinson, Stephen C


    The home of human language use is face-to-face interaction, a context in which communicative exchanges are characterised not only by bodily signals accompanying what is being said but also by a pattern of alternating turns at talk. This transition between turns is astonishingly fast-typically a mere 200-ms elapse between a current and a next speaker's contribution-meaning that comprehending, producing, and coordinating conversational contributions in time is a significant challenge. This begs the question of whether the additional information carried by bodily signals facilitates or hinders language processing in this time-pressured environment. We present analyses of multimodal conversations revealing that bodily signals appear to profoundly influence language processing in interaction: Questions accompanied by gestures lead to shorter turn transition times-that is, to faster responses-than questions without gestures, and responses come earlier when gestures end before compared to after the question turn has ended. These findings hold even after taking into account prosodic patterns and other visual signals, such as gaze. The empirical findings presented here provide a first glimpse of the role of the body in the psycholinguistic processes underpinning human communication.

  17. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Challenges of locally manufactured vehicle supply chains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe


    Full Text Available Locally manufactured vehicles are destined (partly for the export market and thus, global competitiveness  is  important.  This  article  explores  the  challenges  facing  supply  chains  of locally manufactured vehicles in South Africa. The automotive industry is perceived to be the most advanced in supply chain management practices in South Africa. It has embraced technology and management practices that have transformed the manufacturing environment by using cutting-edge design and visualisation tools. However, the industry has fragilities and faces new and emerging supply chain challenges. A survey research design was employed and  the  data  was  collected  through  face-to-face  semi-structured  interview  questionnaires based on the purposive sampling technique. Data analysis and interpretation was based on descriptive  statistics  using  SPSS  software.  The  findings  revealed  that  there  are  challenges hindering  best  supply  chain  practices  of  local  vehicle  manufacturers.  The  research  also revealed that there is a perceived difference in supply chain challenges between the different manufacturers of different origins in South Africa. Asian manufacturers felt much stronger about the adequacy of their information systems compared to the European manufacturers. Asian  manufacturers  tended  to  agree  more  than  their  European  counterparts  that  labour problems were a challenge. European manufacturers, on the other hand, tended to agree more that rail transport is unreliable. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on supply chain practices in South Africa.

  19. Power distribution faced with the challenges posed by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J.P.; Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.


    The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)

  20. Geo synthetics. a remarkable discipline with great achievements in the past and exciting challenges for a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, J. P.


    This paper presents achievements of the geo synthetics discipline and challenges facing the discipline. The paper shows that one of the main achievements of geo synthetics discipline and challenges facing the discipline. The paper shows that one of the main achievements of geo synthetics is that they have pervaded most branches of geotechnical engineering to the point where it is almost impossible to practice geotechnical engineering without geo synthetics. Then, the paper addresses the challenges facing the geo synthetics discipline. Two major types of challenges are identified: education challenges and technical challenges. Regarding technical challenges, it is recommended that researchers focus on behaviors that are not traditionally considered in geotechnical engineering in order to use geo synthetics to their full potential. Note: this is a significantly expanded version of the keynote paper presented at the 2008 GeoAmericas Conferences. (Author)

  1. Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education. (United States)

    Salmi, Jamil


    The principal set of challenges facing tertiary education today is that set which links it to the construction of knowledge societies. Governments, the private sector, and the World Bank have specific tasks to perform in meeting these challenges. Countries--depending upon whether or not they are transition economies, low-income countries, or small…

  2. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik


    and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction...... in generation capacity requirements. Nevertheless, demand response is not without its challenges. The key challenges for demand response centre around establishing reliable control strategies and market frameworks so that the demand response resource can be used optimally. One of the greatest challenges...... for demand response is the lack of experience, and the consequent need to employ extensive assumptions when modelling and evaluating this resource. This paper concludes with an examination of these assumptions, which range from assuming a fixed linear price–demand relationship for price responsive demand...

  3. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the face: surgical management and challenges for reconstruction. (United States)

    Maimaiti, A; Mijiti, A; Yarbag, A; Moming, A


    Giant basal cell carcinoma, in which the tumour measures 5 cm or greater in diameter, is a very rare skin malignancy that accounts for less than 1 per cent of all basal cell tumours. Very few studies have reported on the incidence, resection and reconstruction of this lesion worldwide. In total, 17 patients with giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck region underwent surgical excision and reconstruction at our hospital. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. The lesion was usually in the forehead, eyelid, lips or nasal-cheek region. The greatest diameter ranged from 5 to 11 cm, with 5-6 cm being the most common size at the time of presentation. All patients had their tumour resected and reconstructed in a single-stage procedure, mostly with a local advancement flap, and with no post-operative flap failure. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck can be successfully treated with a local flap in a single-stage approach.

  4. Series 'Facing Radiation'. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Takahiro


    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  5. Challenges: a state and compact perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.


    The challenges facing states and compacts in their efforts to implement the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act are described. Institutional challenges include: small-volume sites; compact maintenance; shifting agencies and changing personnel; and timing of progress. The technical challenge lies in the enormous number of plans, procedures, and regulations that have to be developed over the next four years. There are two main fiscal challenges: funding of day-to-day operations of compact commissions; and financing the siting and construction of new disposal sites. There are also two main regulatory challenges: host states must develop regulations for siting and selection of technology; and all states have to await federal regulations to be completed. The final challenge is political: whether a region can overcome public opposition and actually site a facility

  6. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges (United States)

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.


    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern…

  7. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African states: a review of Adamu Usman's Sieged. ... This paper discusses and contributes to debates on the critical governance challenges faced by post-colonial African states such as bribery and corruption, lack of democratic and participatory governance, ...

  8. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita


    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  9. Higher Education and Inequality (United States)

    Brown, Roger


    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  10. Students' Perception on Library Service Quality: A Qualitative Study of IIUM Library (United States)

    Ahmed, Selim; Islam, Rafikul


    Academic libraries are currently facing their greatest challenge since the explosion in tertiary education and academic publishing, which began after World War II. The global digital revolution is affecting both the traditional forms of the creation, organisation, and dissemination of knowledge, and the world of tertiary education itself. In the…

  11. Paragogy and Flipped Assessment: Experience of Designing and Running a MOOC on Research Methods (United States)

    Lee, Yenn; Rofe, J. Simon


    This study draws on the authors' first-hand experience of designing, developing and delivering (3Ds) a massive open online course (MOOC) entitled "Understanding Research Methods" since 2014, largely but not exclusively for learners in the humanities and social sciences. The greatest challenge facing us was to design an assessment…

  12. SMEs and their E-Commerce: Implications for Training in Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    Beal, Tim; Abdullah, Moha Asri


    One of the greatest challenges facing traditional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) throughout the world is that posed by the Internet. While the Internet offers great potential to SMEs, from improving and cheapening production processes through to reaching global customers, it also poses great problems. SMEs' resources, human and…

  13. The computational challenges of Earth-system science. (United States)

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois


    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  14. Challenges for nurse managers in China. (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet


    To critically review the challenges facing nurse leaders in China during healthcare reform. China is now undergoing a major reform aimed at enhancing the accessibility and quality of its healthcare at a level that is affordable to the people. Nurses have a key role to play in this reform. Key documents produced by the government of China were critically reviewed using the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) framework. A number of factors, including the insufficient number of nurses and the medical orientation of the health system, have hindered the development of nursing. However, healthcare reform has created new opportunities for nurses and nursing. This paper reviews the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by nurse managers in China. It identifies barriers but also possibilities for nurse leaders to advance nursing and make nurses visible in this era of transforming healthcare. Many of the issues identified in this review, such as the enhancement of quality and accessibility of care, are important to nurse leaders around the world. However, this article reveals the particular challenges faced by nurse leaders in China, with its unique social and historical background.

  15. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers. (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe


    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  16. [Face replantation using labial artery for revascularization. Case report]. (United States)

    de la Parra-Márquez, Miguel; Mondragón-González, Sergio; López-Palazuelos, Jaime; Naal-Mendoza, Norberto; Rangel-Flores, Jesús María


    Restoration of the face function and cosmetic appearance after a traumatic complex wound is a challenge for the plastic surgeon. Worldwide, few cases have been reported about face replantation. To present the case of the first partial face replantation reported in the national bibliography, using the labial artery for revascularization. On June 19th 2011, a 7 years old male presented to the emergency room of the Mexican Institute of Social Security at Monterrey, Mexico, 4 hours after a partial face amputation secondary to a dog bite. The amputated segment was composed of 75% of the upper lip, 33% of the lower lip, oral commissure and 75% of the left cheek. The labial coronary artery and vein were anastomosed with 11-0 nylon sutures and the miorraphy of the orbicularis oris, the depressor anguli oris and the depressor labii inferioris with 4-0 vycril sutures. Six months after the surgery, the functional and aesthetic outcomes were excellent with reestablishment of total labial continence and total recovery of articulation of words. amputations of any facial component should be initially managed with replantation. The function and cosmetics are better than any other technique of reconstruction. The labial coronary artery is an excellent choice for revascularization up to 25% of the face (lips and cheek).

  17. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.


    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  18. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.


    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  19. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features. (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian


    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  20. Face time: educating face transplant candidates. (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan


    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.