WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater wamsutter area

  1. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

  2. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  3. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  4. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  5. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  6. Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report provides a comprehensive look at the external environment impacting Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) (California). It summarizes the social, economic, and political changes at the state and national levels, in general, and in the Sacramento-Yolo Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) served by LRCCD, more…

  7. Greater Focus Needed on Alien Plant Impacts in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Schaffner, U.; Vila, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 459-466 ISSN 1755-263X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * protected areas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.241, year: 2014

  8. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.

  9. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  10. Higher Education's Influence on the Confessional Practices of Roman Catholic Laity in the Greater Miami Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of 20 Roman Catholic laypersons in the Greater Miami area investigated the phenomenon of transformation of confessional practice as a result of the undergraduate educational experience. By searching for meaning in each individual's story, two themes or factors and six sub themes emerged. The themes were…

  11. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist

    Urbanisation processes increasingly influence the use of land and properties in rural areas. In peri-urban areas population composition changes as the areas offer attractive possibilities of other gainful activities than agriculture (OGA), and residential and recreational alternatives to both urban...... have become redundant because of structural changes in agriculture. As a consequence, the structural components of the areas (land cover and landscape elements) thus appear more resistant to changes than transition of the socio-economic system (declining number of full-time farmers and increasing...... property prices because of the attractiveness of land. This raises questions of the desired future of the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen, and about the effectiveness of the existing planning systems and its ability to protect agriculture land, which has been a main objective since the beginning...

  12. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, P.E.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.K.; Asiedu, D.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-08-01

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(M L ) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms -1 . The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  13. Effects of the May 5-6, 1973, storm in the Greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1973-01-01

    Rain began falling on the Greater Denver area the evening of Saturday, May 5, 1973, and continued through most of Sunday, May 6. Below about 7,000 feet altitude, the precipitation was mostly rain; above that altitude, it was mostly snow. Although the rate of fall was moderate, at least 4 inches of rain or as much as 4 feet of snow accumulated in some places. Sustained precipitation falling at a moderate rate thoroughly saturated the ground and by midday Sunday sent most of the smaller streams into flood stage. The South Platte River and its major tributaries began to flood by late Sunday evening and early Monday morning. Geologic and hydrologic processes activated by the May 5-6 storm caused extensive damage to lands and to manmade structures in the Greater Denver area. Damage was generally most intense in areas where man had modified the landscape--by channel constrictions, paving, stripping of vegetation and topsoil, and oversteepening of hillslopes. Roads, bridges, culverts, dams, canals, and the like were damaged or destroyed by erosion and sedimentation. Streambanks and structures along them were scoured. Thousands of acres of croplands, pasture, and developed urban lands were coated with mud and sand. Flooding was intensified by inadequate storm sewers, blocked drains, and obstructed drainage courses. Saturation of hillslopes along the Front Range caused rockfalls, landslides, and mudflows as far west as Berthoud Pass. Greater attention to geologic conditions in land-use planning, design, and construction would minimize storm damage in the future.

  14. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  15. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  16. Reconnaissance map showing thickness of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the thickness and distribution of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii, as a step toward evaluating their susceptibility to failure during earthquake shaking. On several occasions their instability has resulted in serious damage. For example, the 1868 earthquake (m=7+), following a prolonged rainy period, caused a debris flow of hillside ash deposits that killed 31 people in Wood Valley (Bringham, 1869). The 1973 Honomu earthquake (m=6.2) resulted in more damage from shaking to areas underlain by ash deposits in the older part of Hilo than in other areas, and soil slips in ash, as well as rockfalls, were common along the roads north of town (Nielsen and others, 1977). 

  17. Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, M. S.

    2013-07-01

    A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

  18. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  19. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  20. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women living in the Greater Romagna Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Billi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.

  1. Self-mastery among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-mastery is an important psychological resource to cope with stressful situations. However, we have limited understanding of self-mastery among minority aging populations. Objective: This study aims to examine the presence and levels of self-mastery among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. A Chinese version of the Self-Mastery Scale was used to assess self-mastery. Results: Out of the 7-item Chinese Self-Mastery Scale, approximately 42.8% to 87.5% of Chinese older adults experienced some degree of self-mastery in their lives. Older adults with no formal education and the oldest-old aged 85 and over had the lowest level of self-mastery in our study. A higher mastery level was associated with being married, having fewer children, better self-reported health status, better quality of life, and positive health changes. Conclusion: Although self-mastery is commonly experienced among the Chinese aging population in the Greater Chicago area, specific subgroups are still vulnerable. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with self-mastery among Chinese older adults.

  2. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  3. Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Scarlett S; Phan, John C; Lin, Albert Y

    2002-03-01

    To examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. Data were obtained from the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We included breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. We also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or ethnic variations in surgery type. Vietnamese women were younger at diagnosis than other racial or ethnic subgroups (mean age, 51.0 years), with 49.6% of the diagnoses occurring in patients younger than 50. They were also significantly more likely to have received mastectomy for their in situ and localized tumors (61.1% having mastectomy) than women of other racial or ethnic groups. The increased likelihood of having mastectomy among Vietnamese women was not affected greatly by age, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic grade, or physician, but was partly attributable to the hospital of diagnosis. The effects of a lower mean age at diagnosis and the reasons for an unexpectedly higher percentage of mastectomies in this Asian subgroup should be further explored.

  4. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  5. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  6. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  7. Spatial Assessment of Road Traffic Injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA: Spatial Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Tehranchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial analysis approach based on the global spatial autocorrelation of road traffic injuries for identifying spatial patterns. A locational spatial autocorrelation was also used for identifying traffic injury at spatial level. Data for this research study were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI based on 2004 and 2011. Moran’s I statistics were used to examine spatial patterns of road traffic injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. An assessment of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was followed as to identify hot spots and cold spots within the study area. The results revealed that Peel and Durham have the highest collision rate for other motor vehicle with motor vehicle. Geographic weighted regression (GWR technique was conducted to test the relationships between the dependent variable, number of road traffic injury incidents and independent variables such as number of seniors, low education, unemployed, vulnerable groups, people smoking and drinking, urban density and average median income. The result of this model suggested that number of seniors and low education have a very strong correlation with the number of road traffic injury incidents.

  8. The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Joh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.

  9. Consolidation of existing solid waste management plans in the Greater Toronto Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The municipalities of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) will be implementing initiatives in solid waste management, in view of the fact that current landfill capacity is nearly exhausted. A consolidation of information is provided on the solid waste management plans, programs, and facilities within the GTA. In response to environmental concerns coupled with difficulties encountered in developing new solid waste disposal facilities, waste reduction, reuse, and recycling efforts are developing rapidly. Some of the measures currently implemented and under investigation include: curbside recycling programs for newspapers, glass, metal, and plastic containers; expanding recycling efforts to apartment buildings; expanding the kinds of materials collected through the curbside programs; improving recycling services in rural areas; public education and promotional programs; promotion of home composting; household hazardous waste programs; recovery of cardboard from commercial and industrial sources, coupled with bans on cardboard at landfills; recovery of selected waste building materials such as wood and drywall, coupled with bans on these materials at landfills; recovery of paper from office buildings; and programs to assist industries in waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. The solid wastes generated in the GTA are managed in a number of facilities including recycling centers, transfer stations, and landfill sites. A 410 tonne/day energy-from-waste facility has recently been approved for Peel Region and is planned to be constructed in the coming year. 21 refs., 1 fig., 14 tabs.

  10. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Stephanie C.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Vogel, Felix R.; Moran, Michael D.; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Stroud, Craig A.; Ren, Shuzhan; Worthy, Douglas; Broquet, Gregoire

    2018-03-01

    Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of ˜ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario). The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions) inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation-model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry-transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario - Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point - in 3 winter months, January-March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model-measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a sectoral breakdown of emissions

  11. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Pugliese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of  ∼ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario. The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation–model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry–transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario – Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point – in 3 winter months, January–March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model–measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a

  12. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  13. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  14. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas, energy use, and electricity use in the Greater Toronto area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-16

    The Clean Air Partnership (CAP) was interested in scanning and prioritizing energy efficiency opportunities to reduce energy use and the associated greenhouse gas emissions in the greater Toronto area (GTA). A study was conducted to scope out the most promising program directions for the GTA should government funding become available to launch the initiative, based on the relative technical potential of energy efficiency (and some fuel substitution) measures in the targeted sectors. A report to the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) focused on the residential and institutional sectors. These included new and existing residential buildings, condominiums and single-family homes, with special detail provided on appliances and central air conditioning; as well as municipal, university, school, and hospital buildings, with special attention towards measures to make street and traffic signal lighting more energy efficient. This letter provided a summary of findings. Next steps were also presented. It was recommended that three market transformation initiatives be designed and implemented to realize the technical potential for reductions in peak electricity and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. These three programs were discussed with reference to the energy efficient lighting collaborative; a green loan program for new homes and condominiums; and a community residential CDM program. A market transformation framework was also presented. It addressed the five key steps in the movement of a product from the manufacturer to the end user, namely availability; awareness; accessibility; affordability; and acceptance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Measurements of radiological background and some chemical pollutants in two areas of greater cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel Aziz, M.A.; Aly, A.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work aims to the evaluation of radiological background levels and chemical pollutants in greater cairo as the most dense populated city in Egypt. The meteorological data of a complete one year of Cairo city have been collected, investigated and processed to determined the behavior of the pollutants in the atmosphere and the sector that is strongly affected by the pollutants. Portable detector for measuring the radiological background was deployed in Nasr City, where two nuclear centers belonging to Atomic Energy Authority are located, to measure the radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and compare them with the international standard limits. Other detectors were deployed in Shobra El- Khema area to study two significant phenomena, the first is the formation of ozone through the photo-chemical oxidation, its level and its behavior in the atmosphere, taking into consideration the international standard limits. The second phenomenon is the impact of the black plume on the capital Cairo started on October (1999) and its association of pollutant levels increment, defining the nature and the site location of the pollutant source. The carbon monoxide concentrations (as an example), before and during the black plume, were calculated using Gaussian equation then compared with the measured data in Shobra El- Khema region. The other available instruments were used to measure nitrogen oxides, ozone and carbon monoxide

  16. Adolescent gambling in greater Athens area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C; Lazaratou, Helen; Paleologou, Mina P; Peppou, Lily E; Economou, Marina; Malliori, Melpomeni; Papadimitriou, George N; Papageorgiou, Charalampos

    2017-11-01

    Problem gambling in adolescents has recently emerged as a pressing public health concern. In this context and in light of the pervasive financial crisis in Greece, the present study aimed to explore adolescents' gambling involvement in Athens region to estimate the prevalence of its problematic form and to identify its risk/protective factors. A total of 2141 students were recruited from a representative sample of 51 schools located in greater Athens area. The presence of problem gambling was assessed through the use of the DSM-IV-MR-J questionnaire. Data were collected in the form of a self-reported questionnaire during one school hour. Results indicate that 1-year prevalence of high severity problem gambling was found to be 5.6%. Regarding the risk factors for problem gambling; male gender, parental engagement with gambling activities, living without the parents, low grades at school, foreign nationality and the referent absence of availability of food in the household, increased the risk of suffering from the disorder. Gambling behavior among adolescents constitutes a problem in Greece and highlights the need for designing and implementing appropriate preventive interventions, especially amid the ongoing financial crisis.

  17. Indoor air quality in the Greater Beirut area: a characterization and modeling assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine; Oulabi, Mawiya

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of IAQ at various environments selected from different geographic categories from the Greater Beirut area (GBA) in Lebanon. For this purpose, background information about indoor air quality was reviewed, existing conditions were characterized, an air-sampling program was implemented and mathematical modeling was conducted. Twenty-eight indoor buildings were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments (commercial and residential...). Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected and analyzed using carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (TSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) as indicators of indoor air pollution (IAP).Samples were further analyzed using the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) for the presence of major priority metals including iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and bromine (Br). Indoor and outdoor measured levels were compared to the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and health-based National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS), respectively. For the priority metals, on the other hand, indoor measured values were compared to occupational standards recommended by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  18. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  19. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  20. Atmospheric Methane Enhancements Related with Natural Gas Usage in the Greater Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N. P.; Zheng, C.; Ye, W.; Czader, B.; Cohan, D. S.; Tittel, F. K.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas (NG) usage as a replacement of oil and coal has increased significantly in the U.S in recent years. Despite the benefits associated with this fuel, leakage from NG distribution systems and in-use uncombusted NG (e.g., compressed natural gas vehicles) can be relevant sources of methane (CH4) emissions in urban centers. Methane, the main constituent of NG, is a potent greenhouse gas impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, whose emission might outweigh the potential environmental advantages of NG use. Although the Greater Houston area (GHA) is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the U.S, no studies on the potential impact of NG usage on atmospheric CH4 levels have been published in the scientific literature to date. In this work, a mobile-based study of CH4 and ethane (C2H6) concentration levels in eight residential zones with different expected probability of NG leakage in the GHA was conducted in the summer of 2016. A novel laser-based sensor system for simultaneous detection of CH4 and C2H6 was developed and deployed in a mid-sized vehicle, and monitoring of these gas species was conducted for over 14 days covering 250 road miles. Both linear discriminant and cluster analyses were performed to assess the spatial variability of atmospheric CH4 concentrations in the GHA. These analyses showed clear differences in the CH4 mixing ratios in an inter- and intra-neighborhood level and indicated the presence of high CH4 concentration clusters mainly located in the central and west central parts of the GHA. Source discrimination analyses based on orthogonal regression analysis and a Keeling-like plot method were conducted to establish the predominant origin of CH4 in the identified high concentration clusters and in over 30 CH4 concentration peaks observed during the field campaign. Results of these analyses indicate that thermogenic sources of CH4 (e.g., NG) were predominant in short-duration concentration spikes (lasting less than 10 minutes), while CH4

  1. Clinical evaluation of radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). From 1992 to 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari; Umeda, Tokuo

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy clinical records of 8,950 cases were collected from 251 hospitals in the period from 1992 to 1998 by the activity of Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database ROGAD under the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology JASTRO, and their data were analyzed. Outlines of analysis are presented in this paper and other 5 papers in series. Also follow-up data of 814 cases by the 4th follow-up survey study carried out in 1998 were retrieved and examined. Case distribution survey according to ICD-O code for primary tumor region were worked out. Chronological change of case distribution during these seven years were examined and briefly stated in this paper. Case analyses in terms of 5 portions of topographical region were also done, and 5 papers together with this paper describe the results of the analyses. Data analysis comparison between ROGAD and the regular census revealed that the resulted analyses of collected clinical data by ROGAD from 1992 to 1998 indicated the real world of radiation therapy situation in Japan. One of the reason to state this is that ROGAD covers 34.7% of number of facilities and 36.1% of number of cases treated in Japan. The another reason is that we could reduce the rate of mis-registration and items of blanked registration by means of improvement of registration software with logical check. We made sure from our effort of this ROGAD activity for these 7 years experiences that continuation of the run of this database ROGAD would bring us much more accurate information on the radiation oncology situation in Japan. (author)

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperthyroidism in Irish cats from the greater Dublin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Laura; Gallagher, Barbara A; Shiel, Robert E; Mooney, Carmel T

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. Prevalence varies geographically, but is anecdotally considered low in Ireland. The aim of this study was to document prevalence of hyperthyroidism in older cats in the greater Dublin area of Ireland and to assess environmental and clinical associations for development and identification of the disease. Primary-care veterinary practices were requested to select cats aged 10 years or older where blood sampling was being performed for health screening or clinical investigations. Surplus serum/plasma samples were submitted to University College Dublin Diagnostic Endocrine Laboratory for total thyroxine (T 4 ) measurement. Cats were classified as hyperthyroid, equivocal or euthyroid based on a total T 4 concentration (reference interval, 15-60 nmol/L), of >60 nmol/L, 30-60 nmol/L or hyperthyroidism were excluded. A questionnaire completed by the client and veterinarian detailing historical and physical information was also required. Associations between categorical variables were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio (OR) calculated. A P value of hyperthyroid, 54 (10.6%) equivocal and 346 (68.2%) euthyroid. The presence of goitre ( P  weight loss ( P  hyperthyroidism. Cats with goitre were more likely to be diagnosed as hyperthyroid [OR 2.85, (95% CI 1.75-4.62] compared to those without. However, goitre was only palpated in 40 of 102 (39.2%) hyperthyroid cats. Increasing age was the only significant ( P  hyperthyroidism. A relationship between hyperthyroidism and sex, breed, lifestyle, parasite control, vaccination status or feeding habits was not identified. Hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in Irish cats. Age was the only significant risk factor for its development. The high proportion of hyperthyroid cats without palpable goitre (> 60%) may reflect failure to detect goitre and account for the perceived low prevalence of this condition in Ireland.

  3. The case of Iranian immigrants in the greater Toronto area: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iranians comprise an immigrant group that has a very different cultural background from that of the mainstream Canadian population and speaks a language other than English or French; in this case mainly Farsi (Persian. Although Iranian immigrants in Toronto receive a high proportion of care from Farsi-speaking family physicians and health care providers than physicians who cannot speak Farsi, they are still not satisfied with the provided services. The purpose of this study was to identify the obstacles and issues Iranian immigrants faced in accessing health care services as seen through the eyes of Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers working in Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Methods Narrative inquiry was used to capture and understand the obstacles this immigrant population faces when accessing health care services, through the lens of fifty Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers. Thirty three health care professionals and five social workers were interviewed. To capture the essence of issues, individual interviews were followed by three focus groups consisting of three health care professionals and one social worker in each group. Results Three major themes emerged from the study: language barrier and the lack of knowledge of Canadian health care services/systems; lack of trust in Canadian health care services due to financial limitations and fear of disclosure; and somatization and needs for psychological supports. Conclusion Iranians may not be satisfied with the Canadian health care services due to a lack of knowledge of the system, as well as cultural differences when seeking care, such as fear of disclosure, discrimination, and mistrust of primary care. To attain equitable, adequate, and effective access to health care services, immigrants need to be educated and informed about the Canadian health care system and services it provides. It would be of great benefit to

  4. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  5. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii. Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.. A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a

  6. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  7. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  8. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  9. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  10. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  11. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  12. Environmental and energy assessment of new vehicle technologies in the Greater Athens Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiouras, Christos; Angelis-Dimakis, Athanasios; Arampatzis, George; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2011-01-01

    The transport sector in Greece has the largest share in the final energy consumption and the resulting emissions are one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution. This situation is worse in the region of Attica, where nearly half of the country’s private cars circulate in an area equal to 3% of the total country area; the region’s climatic and geomorphological characteristics further aggravate the environmental problem. \\ud This paper examines energy saving and environmental impacts reduc...

  13. GlobeLand30 shows little cropland area loss but greater fragmentation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangyi; Hu, Qiong; van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Wenbin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding of cropland dynamics in a large geographical extent is mostly based on observations of area change, while the changes in landscape pattern are hardly assessed. The total amount of cropland in China has remained relatively stable in recent years, which might suggest there was little change. In this analysis, we combine the number of cropland patches (NP) with the total cropland area (TA) for a more comprehensive characterization of cropland change in China. We use GlobeLand30-a global land cover dataset with a 30 m resolution for the years 2000 and 2010-and characterize changes in TA and NP for each county as increase, stable, or decrease. This characterization shows that 703 out of 2420 counties experienced both cropland loss and increased fragmentation. The predominant cropland loss in these areas, especially in the North China Plain, is converted to artificial land. Another 212 are characterized by the opposite developments: an increase in cropland and decreased fragmentation. These counties, are mainly characterized by a conversion of forest areas and grassland areas. It suggests that the cropland conservation policy in China effectively protected the total cropland area in overall, but the consequences in terms of fragmentation might be underestimated. Counties with no obvious change in both indicators, measuring 279 counties, are mainly located in the Southeast. Our results are further compared with local level case studies: the fair consistency indicates alternatives of applying GlobeLand30 for analyzing landscape changes across scales and for cross-site comparisons.

  14. Radioactivity levels in well water supplies within the greater Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoff, L.M.; Lordi, D.T.; Lue-Hing, C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiological analysis of well water supplies within the geographical boundaries of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago was prompted by the relatively high total alpha levels encountered in wastewaters of a MSDGC water reclamation plant as compared to the wastewaters of the other waste treatment plants. Consequently, 87 wells constituting 42 water supplies were sampled and analyzed for total alpha and beta radioactivity. The wells were grouped according to depth. In general, both total alpha and total beta radioactivity concentrations were found to be a function of well depth. The relatively higher total alpha and beta activities in the wastewaters to one of the treatment plants was attributed to the higher levels found in the well water supply. Comparison with the USEPA's Drinking Water Regulations for Radionuclides (July 9, 1976) showed the maximum total alpha level of 15 pCi/liter was exceeded in 3 wells and 32 of the deep well waters had total alpha level greater than 5 pCi/liter. The total beta level of 50 pCi/liter was exceeded in 8 wells

  15. DNA Fingerprinting to monitor grizzly bear populations in the Greater Glacier Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine; Dave, Schirokauer; Peterson, Kris; Waits, Lisette P.

    2001-01-01

    A study area of 8,100 km² (2 million acres) was established where 126 8 x 8 km (64 km²) grid cells were identified for placement of traps. Trapping was carried out during five 2- week trap sessions. Some 620 hair traps were placed in the field; samples were retrieved between May 19th and August 12th, 1998. Approximately 7,200 hair samples were collected that year. Hair was found at 80% of the traps where the average number of hair samples per trap site was 14. Forty percent of the samples had 5 or more hair follicles. Preliminary results of sampling indicate that DNA was extracted from 90-100% of the hair samples (N=300). Eight hundred miles of trail were surveyed between June 1 and October 9. Thirteen hundred hair samples were collected from rub trees along trails. Seven hundred scat samples were collected from trails.

  16. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  17. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  18. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  19. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  20. Assessing the accuracy of weather radar to track intense rain cells in the Greater Lyon area, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Comby, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The Greater Lyon is a dense area located in the Rhône Valley in the south east of France. The conurbation counts 1.3 million inhabitants and the rainfall hazard is a great concern. However, until now, studies on rainfall over the Greater Lyon have only been based on the network of rain gauges, despite the presence of a C-band radar located in the close vicinity. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to investigate the hydrological quality of this radar. This assessment, based on comparison of radar estimations and rain-gauges values concludes that the radar data has overall a good quality since 2006. Given this good accuracy, this study made a next step and investigated the characteristics of intense rain cells that are responsible of the majority of floods in the Greater Lyon area. Improved knowledge on these rainfall cells is important to anticipate dangerous events and to improve the monitoring of the sewage system. This paper discusses the analysis of the ten most intense rainfall events in the 2001-2010 period. Spatial statistics pointed towards straight and linear movements of intense rainfall cells, independently on the ground surface conditions and the topography underneath. The speed of these cells was found nearly constant during a rainfall event, but depend from event to ranges on average from 25 to 66 km/h.

  1. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. -- Highlights: • PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls. • Study sites in Greater Cincinnati (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 351). • The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA. • Lower PFOA in girls living in areas with granular activated carbon water treatment. -- Serum concentrations of PFCs in young girls were higher in girls who had been breast fed longer, and lower in girls in areas with granular activated carbon municipal water treatment

  2. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  3. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10 -2 mg of Pb, 2.1x10 -3 mg of Cd, 7.7x10 -2 mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10 -2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations

  4. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  5. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  6. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  7. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  8. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  9. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  10. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  11. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  12. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    ± 0.005 ppb/yr for the overall period of 1990-2016. Implications Statement The effectiveness of air emission controls can be evaluated by developing long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influences. KZ filter technique is a well-established method to separate an air quality time-series into: short-term, seasonal and long-term components. This paper applies the KZ filter technique to MDA8 ozone data between 1990-2016 at an urban site in the Greater Houston area and estimates the variance accounted for, by the primary meteorological control variables. Estimates for linear trends of MDA8 ozone are calculated and underlying causes are investigated to provide a guidance for further investigation into air quality management of the Greater Houston Area.

  13. Variability and climate change trend in vegetation phenology of recent decades in the Greater Khingan Mountain area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology has been used in studies as an indicator of an ecosystem’s responses to climate change. Satellite remote sensing techniques can capture changes in vegetation greenness, which can be used to estimate vegetation phenology. In this study, a long-term vegetation phenology study of the Greater Khingan Mountain area in Northeastern China was performed by using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index version 3 (NDVI3g dataset from the years 1982–2012. After reconstructing the NDVI time series, the start date of the growing season (SOS, the end date of the growing season (EOS and the length of the growing season (LOS were extracted using a dynamic threshold method. The response of the variation in phenology with climatic factors was also analyzed. The results showed that the phenology in the study area changed significantly in the three decades between 1982 and 2012, including a 12.1-day increase in the entire region’s average LOS, a 3.3-day advance in the SOS and an 8.8-day delay in the EOS. However, differences existed between the steppe, forest and agricultural regions, with the LOSs of the steppe region, forest region and agricultural region increasing by 4.40 days, 10.42 days and 1.71 days, respectively, and a later EOS seemed to more strongly affect the extension of the growing season. Additionally, temperature and precipitation were closely correlated with the phenology variations. This study provides a useful understanding of the recent change in phenology and its variability in this high-latitude study area, and this study also details the responses of several ecosystems to climate change.

  14. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  15. Quantification and mapping of urban fluxes under climate change: Application of WRF-SUEWS model to Greater Porto area (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Marta-Almeida, M; Sá, E; Coelho, S; Rocha, A; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2017-05-01

    Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986-2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046-2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5, which reflects the worst set of expectations (with the most onerous impacts). The results show that for the future climate conditions, the incoming shortwave radiation will increase by around 10%, the sensible heat flux around 40% and the net storage heat flux around 35%. In contrast, the latent heat flux will decrease about 20%. The changes in the magnitude of the different fluxes result in an increase of the net all-wave radiation by 15%. The implications of the changes of the energy balance on the meteorological variables are discussed, particularly in terms of temperature and precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  17. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  18. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  19. Quantification and mapping of urban fluxes under climate change: Application of WRF-SUEWS model to Greater Porto area (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, S., E-mail: sandra.rafael@ua.pt [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Martins, H. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), SE-60176 Norrköping (Sweden); Marta-Almeida, M. [Centro Oceanográfico A Coruña, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, A Coruña (Spain); Sá, E.; Coelho, S. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha, A. [CESAM & Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Borrego, C.; Lopes, M. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986–2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046–2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5, which reflects the worst set of expectations (with the most onerous impacts). The results show that for the future climate conditions, the incoming shortwave radiation will increase by around 10%, the sensible heat flux around 40% and the net storage heat flux around 35%. In contrast, the latent heat flux will decrease about 20%. The changes in the magnitude of the different fluxes result in an increase of the net all-wave radiation by 15%. The implications of the changes of the energy balance on the meteorological variables are discussed, particularly in terms of temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: • Assessment of energy fluxes behaviour under past period and medium-term climate change projection. • Evaluation of climate change at urban scale. • Meteorological variables alters the partitioning of the energy fluxes. • Changes in the partition of the annual energy balance are found between the two analysed periods. • Increase in the magnitude of sensible and storage heat fluxes.

  20. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000–3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the short‐term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000–3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short‐term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time‐series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1 760 000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52 928 for LRD and 74 845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator. PMID:17182644

  1. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the short-term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000-3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short-term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time-series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1,760,000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52,928 for LRD and 74,845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator.

  2. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  3. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, C.L.S.; Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D.; Archbold, J.; Zawar, N.; Copes, R.; Cole, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R 2 adj =0.11) and country of origin (R 2 adj =0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion: Blood Cd

  4. Measuring unemployment persistence of different labor force groups in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of ARFIMA models and unit root tests with structural breaks to examine the unemployment persistence of different labor forces in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. To this purpose, not only is the region's open unemployment rate analyzed but it is also disaggregated by gender, age, color and position within the household. The period ranges from January 1985 to November 2008 and, despite using a range of estimation methods, the presence of a unit root cannot be rejected in general. The exceptions are the series related to Age 15-17 and over 40. But even in these cases the parameter "d" lies above 0.5. This is an indication that the unemployment rates in São Paulo can be defined as non stationary and the majority of the series are not mean-reverting. Therefore, the disinflation policies implemented by the Brazilian policymakers in the last two decades, as well as changes in real variables, have had long-lasting effects on the unemployment rates in São Paulo.Este artigo usa modelos ARFIMA e testes de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural para examinar o grau de persistência do desemprego de diferentes estratos da força de trabalho na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Para tanto, a taxa agregada desta região é examinada, como também sua desagregação por gênero, idade, raça e posição dentro da família. O período de análise vai de janeiro de 1985 a novembro 2008 e, apesar do uso de diferentes métodos de estimação, a hipótese de raiz unitária não é rejeitada em geral. As duas exceções são as séries relacionadas aos trabalhadores entre 15 e 17 anos e acima dos 40 anos. Mas, mesmo nestes dois casos, o parâmetro "d" fica acima de 0,5. Isso indica que não há estacionariedade e também não há reversão a uma média de longo prazo para a maioria das séries analisadas. Portanto, as políticas econômicas de combate à inflação das últimas duas décadas, assim como mudanças em vari

  5. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, C.L.S., E-mail: clare.wiseman@utoronto.ca [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Archbold, J. [Toronto Public Health (Canada); Zawar, N. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Copes, R. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Public Health Ontario (Canada); Cole, D.C. [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.11) and country of origin (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion

  6. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes. Keywords: Biodiversity, Protected area, Environmental complementarity, Strategies

  7. Environmental protection and management: A water pollution case study within the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.A.; Wright, S.; Graham, K.; Burgin, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The Grose River is contained almost entirely within a World Heritage Area. While sewage pollution in the area has been addressed, pollution at damaging levels continues from a disused coal mine, closed in 1997. Despite some surface rehabilitation, no action has occurred to remediate zinc polluted waters emanating from the mine. We examine the historical regulation and management of the Australian Commonwealth and New South Wales governments and highlight gaps in both regulatory systems. We conclude that there is an urgent need to improve regulation of water pollution, mining and management of the environment in highly valued world heritage areas.

  8. Contested Campuses: Politics, race, and the battles over public education in the Greater Los Angeles Area, 1949-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalesky, Brian Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, during the height of protests and actions by civil rights activists against de facto school segregation in the Los Angeles area, the residents of a group of small cities fought to break away from the Los Angeles City Schools and create a new, independent school district. If established, the district would serve white pupils nearly exclusively, preserving and reinforcing racially segregated schools in the area. Proponents of the plan were residents of the maj...

  9. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buah-Kwofie, A.

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  12. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  13. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  14. Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Newman, G.

    1993-12-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence

  15. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  16. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  17. Satellite monitoring of urban sprawl and assessment of its potential environmental impact in the Greater Toronto Area between 1985 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended.

  18. The behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations for different wind regimes during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign in the greater area of Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppan, P.; Fabian, P.; Vyras, L.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of an international experimental field campaign, the association of air pollution with sea breeze circulation in the Greater Athens Area (GAA) is discussed on the basis of the behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). During typical sea breeze days inside the Athens basin the o...... a straight line across the Athens basin ranging From the island of Aegina in the Gulf of Saronikos to the northern border of the GAA show distinct peaks due to the pollution cloud NEPHOS. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... the ozone levels reach values up to 66% greater than values outside the basin. There is also an increase in ozone and PAN mixing ratios from the south to the north and from lower to higher locations, within the GAA. On-line PAN-measurements with a time resolution of 5 min at three sites located almost along...

  19. Social vulnerabilities and health conditions of arrestees in the Greater Paris area, France, in 2013: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Emilie; Denis, Céline; Bourokba, Nacer; Chauvin, Pierre; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area. Arrestees had a median age of 31 years; 92% were males. As compared to the general population, arrestees had a lower level of education (8.6 vs. 7.6%, p analysis of male arrestees and males from the general population showed that the former had worse social and health conditions. These results argue for widespread medical interventions on all arrestees. Medical examination during detention could act as a gateway to health care and social support.

  20. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  1. Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.; Halford, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

  2. Complex fold and thrust belt structural styles: Examples from the Greater Juha area of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Luke; Hill, Kevin; McLaren, Sandra; Hanani, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    The remote and inhospitable Papuan Fold Belt in Papua New Guinea is one of the youngest yet least well-documented fold and thrust belts on Earth. Within the frontal Greater Juha area we have carried out >100 km of geological traverses and associated analyses that have added significantly to the contemporary geological and geophysical dataset. Our structural analysis provides evidence of major inversion, detachment and triangle zone faults within the uplifted Eastern Muller Ranges. We have used the dataset to develop a quasi-3D model for the Greater Juha area, with associated cross-sections revealing that the exposed Cenozoic Darai Limestone is well-constrained with very low shortening of 12.6-21.4% yet structures are elevated up to 7 km above regional. We suggest the inversion of pre-existing rift architecture is the primary influence on the evolution of the area and that structures link to the surface via triangle zones and detachment faults within the incompetent Mesozoic passive-margin sedimentary sequence underlying competent Darai Limestone. Arc-normal oriented structures, dominantly oblique dextral, up-to-the-southeast, are pervasive across a range of scales and are here interpreted to relate at depth to weakened pre-existing basement cross-structures. It is proposed that Palaeozoic basement fabric controlled the structural framework of the basin during Early Mesozoic rifting forming regional-scale accommodation zones and related local-scale transfer structures that are now expressed as regional-scale arc-normal lineaments and local-scale arc-normal structures, respectively. Transfer structures, including complexly breached relay ramps, utilise northeast-southwest striking weaknesses associated with the basement fabric, as a mechanism for accommodating displacement along major northwest-southeast striking normal faults. These structures have subsequently been inverted to form arc-normal oriented zones of tear faulting that accommodate laterally variable

  3. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  5. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  6. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  7. Amputation history and rehabilitation of black men living in the greater Durban area who have had traumatic amputations of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kubheka

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken amongst twenty five black men living in the greater Durban area who had had amputations of the lower limbs. The type of amputation care and the rehabilitation programme they underwent post-operatively is described. The sample included men from 24 to 50 years of age, of whom the majority were from rural areas. The amputation care intra and post-operatively was marked by the lack of emotional preparation pre-operatively, and lack of rehabilitation information and teaching afterwards. Most respondents had to find information for themselves. This lack of information and teaching seemed to impede physical rehabilitation, with stump sores and limited use of prostheses being the main problems. Vocational rehabilitation was almost totally absent. In contrast to the twenty two respondents who worked before their amputations, only four worked afterwards. The majority had to support their families alone; sixteen of them were totally reliant on a Disability Grant. These problems lead to social isolation, depression, loneliness and other psycho-social problems.

  8. Amputation history and rehabilitation of black men living in the greater Durban area who have had traumatic amputations of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kubheka

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken amongst twenty five black men living in the greater Durban area who had had amputations of the lower limbs. The type of amputation care and the rehabilitation programme they underwent post-operatively is described. The sample included men from 24 to 50 years of age, of whom the majority were from rural areas. The amputation care intra and post-operatively was marked by the lack of emotional preparation pre-operatively, and lack of rehabilitation information and teaching afterwards. Most respondents had to find information for themselves. This lack of information and teaching seemed to impede physical rehabilitation, with stump sores and limited use of prostheses being the main problems. Vocational rehabilitation was almost totally absent. In contrast to the twenty two respondents who worked before their amputations, only four worked afterwards. The majority had to support their families alone; sixteen of them were totally reliant on a Disability Grant. These problems lead to social isolation, depression, loneliness and other psycho-social problems.

  9. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  10. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  11. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  12. Strategic responses to fiscal constraints: a health policy analysis of hospital-based ambulatory physical therapy services in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Verrier, Molly C; Williams, A Paul; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2009-01-01

    Ambulatory physical therapy (PT) services in Canada are required to be insured under the Canada Health Act, but only if delivered within hospitals. The present study analyzed strategic responses used by hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to deliver PT services in an environment of fiscal constraint. Key informant interviews (n = 47) were conducted with participants from all hospitals located within the GTA. Two primary strategic responses were identified: (1) "load shedding" through the elimination or reduction of services, and (2) "privatization" through contracting out or creating internal for-profit subsidiary clinics. All hospitals reported reductions in service delivery between 1996 and 2003, and 15.0% (7/47 hospitals) fully eliminated ambulatory services. Although only one of 47 hospitals contracted out services, another 15.0% (7/47) reported that for-profit subsidiary clinics were created within the hospital in order to access other more profitable forms of quasi-public and private funding. Strategic restructuring of services, aimed primarily at cost containment, may have yielded short-term financial savings but has also created a ripple effect across the continuum of care. Moreover, the rise of for-profit subsidiary clinics operating within not-for-profit hospitals has emerged without much public debate and with little research to evaluate its impact.

  13. Short-term effects of airborne pollens on asthma attacks as seen by general practitioners in the Greater Paris area, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bich Tram; Tual, Séverine; Turbelin, Clément; Pelat, Camille; Cecchi, Lorenzo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Blanchon, Thierry; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    To investigate for the first time the short-term effects of airborne pollen counts on general practitioner (GP) consultations for asthma attacks in the Greater Paris area between 2003-2007. Counts were available for common pollens (Betula, Cupressa, Fraxinus and Poaceae). Weekly data on GP visits for asthma attacks were obtained from the French GP Sentinel Network. A quasi-Poisson regression with generalised additive models was implemented. Short-term effects of pollen counts were assessed using single and multi-pollen models after adjustment for air pollution and influenza. A mean weekly incidence rate of 25.4 cases of asthma attacks per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated during the study period. The strongest significant association between asthma attacks and pollen counts was registered for grass (Poaceae) in the same week of asthma attacks, with a slight reduction of the effect observed in the multi-pollen model. Adjusted relative risk for Poaceae was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.33-1.79) with an inter-quartile range increase of 17.6 grains/m3 during the pollen season. For the first time, a significant short-term association was observed between Poaceae pollen counts and consultations for asthma attacks as seen by GPs. These findings need to be confirmed by more consistent time-series and investigations on a daily basis.

  14. Particle count and black carbon measurements at schools in Las Vegas, NV and in the greater Salt Lake City, UT area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2017-11-01

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, NV (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of greater Salt Lake City, UT (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/sec, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again. Particle count concentrations at two schools were shown to typically be independent of BC or other pollutants. At a school in close proximity to a major freeway, particle count concentrations were high during the midday and when wind speeds were low, regardless of wind direction, showing a large area of effect from roadway emissions

  15. Investigation of vertical and horizontal transport processes and their influence on the concentration of aerosols and ozone over the greater Berlin area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, E.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Beekmann, M.; Neißner, F.

    2003-04-01

    Urban emissions of particulate matter and precursors of ozone are very important in relation to the EU-council directives and national pollution abatement strategies. Knowledge about the contribution of anthropogenic urban sources and about long range transport of polluted air to local concentrations is needed for any reduction strategy. Thus, within the German Atmospheric Research Program AFO2000 a project has been started to investigate the formation and transport of PM10/PM2.5 in the greater Berlin area by sampling and analysing PM, using LIDAR as well as physico-chemical measurements to determine density, partical size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol. Participants are: Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for Meteorology BTU Cottbus, Air Chemistry Department Elight Laser Systems GmbH Freie Universität Berlin, Physics Department Environmental Administration, Berlin Government with an additional PM campaign Measurements at central Berlin monitoring stations exceed standard PM10 tresholds. Therefore, it is important to get a better knowledge about PM sources within and outside the city. Long term applications of the chemical transport model with an aerosol-module REM3/Calgrid is used to explain transport, formation and deposition processes. Backward and forward trajectories are used to determine source/receptor relationships between the observations and European wide emission maps for ozone, precursors and PM10 and PM2,5 by correlation between observed primary aerosols in Berlin and possible sources. The measurements obtained within the project are also used to validate REM3/Calgrid with special respect to SO4, NO3, NH4 and ozone precursors.

  16. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  17. A feasibility study of a culturally and gender-specific dance to promote physical activity for South Asian immigrant women in the greater Toronto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample evidence demonstrating the protective effect of physical activity, the uptake of regular physical activity among South Asian (SA) women remains relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and health impacts of implementing a culture- and gender-specific physical activity among SA immigrant women residing in Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. A community-based mixed methods approach combining cohort pretest and posttest design and qualitative methods employing in depth interviews was used. Twenty-seven SA women from the GTA participated in a 6-week, 2 days per week, Bollywood Dance exercise program led by a female SA instructor. The participation rate was considerably high (85%) and approximately 82% of the participants attended 10 or more of the classes offered. The participants' physical measurements (weight, waist and hip, and body mass index) decreased, although not significantly, over the 6-week period and there was an improvement in their physical, mental, and social health. During the face-to-face interviews, participants reported feeling less stressed and tired, being more mentally and physically robust, and having a sense of fulfillment and self-satisfaction. The only common criticism expressed was that the 6-week duration of the intervention was too short. The results showed that the Bollywood Dance was a feasible strategy in engaging SA immigrant women in physical activity. The key aspects when designing culture- and gender-specific dance interventions include community participation and active engagement in planning and implementation of the program, a supportive environment, same gender and culturally attuned dance instructor, easy access, and minimal to no cost. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  19. Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Raza, Owais

    2017-10-03

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities and trauma caused by the road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims' pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions respectively. Data was descriptively analyzed, and after the principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA. From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 2016, 4 and 5 key weaknesses and capacities respectively were identified to affect the pre-hospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist like ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, coordination and others), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to absence of predefined EMS systems particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment; insufficient skills/training of the first responders; inadequate EMS resources; and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities. Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

  20. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case-control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional decision-makers as potential users of Extreme Weather Event Attribution - Case studies from the German Baltic Sea coast and the Greater Paris area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schwab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Event Attribution has raised increasing attention in climate science in the last years. It means to judge the extent to which certain weather-related extreme events have changed due to human influences on climate with probabilistic statements. Extreme Event Attribution is often anticipated to spur more than just scientific ambition. It is able to provide answers to a commonly asked questions after extreme events, namely, ‘can we blame it on climate change’ and is assumed to support decision-making of various actors engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation. More in-depth research is widely lacking about who these actors are; in which context they can make use of it; and what requirements they have, to be able to actually apply Extreme Event Attribution. We have therefore addressed these questions with two empirical case studies looking at regional decision-makers who deal with storm surge risks in the German Baltic Sea region and heat waves in the Greater Paris area. Stakeholder interviews and workshops reveal that fields of application and requirements are diverse, difficult to explicitly identify, and often clearly associated with stakeholders' specific mandate, the hazard background, and the regional socio-economic setting. Among the considered stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, Extreme Event Attribution is perceived to be most useful to awareness-raising, in particular for climate change mitigation. They emphasised the importance of receiving understandable information - and that, rather later, but with smaller uncertainties than faster, but with higher uncertainties. In the Paris case, we typically talked to people engaged in adaptation with expertise in terms of climate science, but narrowly defined mandates which is typical for the Paris-centred political system with highly specialised public experts. The interviewees claimed that Extreme Event Attribution is most useful to political leverage and public

  3. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  4. Economic Crisis and Portuguese National Health Service Physicians: Findings from a Descriptive Study of Their Perceptions and Reactions from Health Care Units in the Greater Lisbon Area

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Rego; Giuliano Russo; Luzia Gonçalves; Julian Perelman; Pedro Pita Barros

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. Material and Methods: A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the...

  5. Use of a scenario-development procedure to identify potentially disruptive scenarios, Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM

    1994-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility includes four boreholes that contain transuranic (TRLT) waste. Presence of the TRU waste means that this facility must comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste-Final Rule 40 CFR Part 191. To comply with the Containment Requirements of this rule, all potentially disruptive events and processes, and by implication all potentially disruptive combinations of events and processes (scenarios), must be identified for possible inclusion in performance assessments. Screening of the FEPs identified four events for scenario development: exploratory drilling for natural resources, drilling withdrawal wells, irrigation, and subsidence. Recent environmental-isotope analyses of the vadose zone suggest that radionuclide transport from the boreholes to the water table by infiltration is not a feasible transport mechanism within the time frame of regulatory concern. For this reason, the event of drilling withdrawal wells was merged with exploratory drilling for resources. The descriptions of the remaining three events were modified slightly to aid in estimation of event probabilities and consequence analyses. The three events are: exploratory drilling for resources penetrates a TRU borehole, irrigation occurs at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), and subsidence occurs at the RWMS. Use of a logic diagram with these three events resulted in the construction of eight scenarios, including base-case (undisturbed) conditions. Screening these scenarios at this stage of scenario development was beyond the scope of this task. Based on the implementation assumptions, this scenario-development procedure produced a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios that are reproducible and auditable for use in GCD performance assessments

  6. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  7. [Economic Crisis and Portuguese National Health Service Physicians: Findings from a Descriptive Study of Their Perceptions and Reactions from Health Care Units in the Greater Lisbon Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Inês; Russo, Giuliano; Gonçalves, Luzia; Perelman, Julian; Pita Barros, Pedro

    2017-04-28

    In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the changes brought to their workload. This paper provides a descriptive statistical analysis of physicians' responses. In connection to the crisis, our surveyed physicians perceived an increase in demand but a decrease of supply of public health services, as well as an increase in the supply of health services by the private sector. Damaging government policies for the public sector, and the rise of private services and insurance providers were identified as game changers for the sector. Physicians reported a decrease in public remuneration (- 30.5%) and a small increase of public sector hours. A general reduction in living standard was identified as the main adaptation strategy to the crisis. Passion for the profession, its independence and flexibility, were the most frequently mentioned compensating factors. A percentage of 15% of physicians declared considering migration as a possibility for the near future. The crisis has brought non-negligible changes to physicians' working conditions and to the wider market for medical services in Portugal. The physicians' intrinsic motivation for the professions helped counterbalance salary cuts and deteriorating working conditions.

  8. What are the fluxes of greenhouse gases from the greater Los Angeles area as inferred from top-down remote sensing studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelius, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Podolske, J. R.; Hillyard, P.; Iraci, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) have been studied extensively using a variety of tower, aircraft, remote sensing, emission inventory, and modeling studies. It is impractical to survey GHG fluxes from all urban areas and hot-spots to the extent the SoCAB has been studied, but it can serve as a test location for scaling methods globally. We use a combination of remote sensing measurements from ground (Total Carbon Column Observing Network, TCCON) and space-based (Observing Carbon Observatory-2, OCO-2) sensors in an inversion to obtain the carbon dioxide flux from the SoCAB. We also perform a variety of sensitivity tests to see how the inversion performs using different model parameterizations. Fluxes do not significantly depend on the mixed layer depth, but are sensitive to the model surface layers (top-down than bottom-up fluxes highlight the need for additional work on both approaches. Higher top-down fluxes could arise from sampling bias, model bias, or may show bottom-up values underestimate sources. Lessons learned here may help in scaling up inversions to hundreds of urban systems using space-based observations.

  9. Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...

  10. Radiation monitoring. Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS), report covering period of 3 months 1 January to 31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from nine outstations in the Manchester area for the period 01/01/96 to 31/03/96 are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a windrose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose. Graphs of temperature and barometric pressure taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are presented. (UK)

  11. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  12. Preliminary approach to the construction of a Scale of Adherence to the Principles of Criminal Law (SAPCL. A pilot study in the Greater Metropolitan area of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Fuentealba Carrasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the psychometric properties of the “Scale of adherence to the principles of Criminal Law” of a pilot study applied to a consecutive sample of 369 cases in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile. The logic behind the construction of the instrument and its structure is described, focusing on exposing the properties of construct validity through EFA and convergent validity through an inverse correlation with a scale of perceived insecurity. In terms of reliability, we present Cronbach’s Alpha for the General Scale and for each subscale generated. It concludes with the scope, limitations and projections of the scale, as well as suggestions for its expansion and potential for application in other contexts.

  13. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  14. Wolverine in Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Murphy; Jason Wilmot; Jeff Copeland; Dan Tyers; John. Squires

    2011-01-01

    The wolverine is one of the least studied carnivores in North America, particularly in the contiguous United States where it occurs at the southern extent of its range. This project documented the distribution of wolverines in the eastern portion of Yellowstone National Park and adjoining areas of national forest and their population characteristics, habitat...

  15. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  16. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues da; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months) involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (> 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%).

  17. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (≥ 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous basic regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%). PMID:23503489

  18. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  19. Os níveis de saúde na região da Grande São Paulo Health levels in the area of the "Greater São Paulo" (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1970-12-01

    (proportional deaths ratio tended to a normal form of a "J", which demonstrated a regular health level of the studied are. According to the main causes of death, health levels showed an inadequate condition, for, although Circulatory Diseases and Neoplasm are the two main causes of death, even in developed countries, next comes Childhood Diseases, Respiratory Diseases, Digestive System Diseases and Infection and Parasitoses Diseases like in underdeceloped ares. The area of the Greater São Paulo (Brazil itself in an intermediate position between developed and underdeveloped countries according to the causes of death that occurs in its area. Tuberculoses, Measles, Siphilis, Tetanus, Dysenteria, Whooping Cough and Diphteria were among the communicable diseases the main causes of death. The infantil mortality rate since 1961 (61.34/1000 had increased rapidly and had reached 74.92/1000 live birth in 1967. This increase was caused either by neo-natal or post-neonatal mortality. The trends happened to the city and to the State of S. Paulo, showing in this way an agravation in the health levels. Such event is unvailable with the characteristics of the area of the Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, since this is the most urbanized and social-economical developed region, not only of the State of S. Paulo, but also of Brazil, and may be of Latin America. Among the main causes of death in the infant mortality rate, appears in decreasing order, prenatal, natal and neonatal deaths, Digestive system Diseases, Respiratory Diseases and Infection Diseases. Among the main Communicable Diseases in the infant mortality period appears Measles, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Tuberculoses, Dysenteria, Meningococcus Infections, Smallpox and Encephalites. Among the main predisponent factors, were pointed out poor maternal and infant care, lack of maternity beds to indigent people, high proportion of home deliveries, lack of qualified persons to attend infant care, inadequate enviromental health (40% of population

  20. Epidemiology of palpable goiter in Greater Buenos Aires, an iodine-sufficient area Epidemiología del bocio palpable en el Gran Buenos Aires, un área suficiente en yodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Niepomniszcze

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hospital de Clínicas organized a free program of goiter detection by palpation. This campaign was aimed at the population of the metropolitan area of Greater Buenos Aires (11 million inhabitants, with the prerequisite that each participant should be quite unaware whether he/she was a carrier of any thyroid disease. Attendees were split into two groups, i.e., Random and Induced. The former consisted of 542 individuals who came to consultation due to mere curiosity, while the latter involved 500 subjects, comprising consanguineous family members of patients with thyroid disorders and also individuals who suffered from other ailments. Ages ranged from 2 to 85 years. In the Random Group, goiter prevalence of 8.7% was observed, while in the Induced Group it climbed to 14.4%. Since both groups were mostly made up of women (87.2%, a correction based on the masculinity index was applied to members of the Random Group. Thus, the total observed prevalence of goiter was 6%, diffuse goiters corresponding to 3.5% and nodular ones to 2.5%. The frequency of nodules increased with age, 90.5% occurring in those over 40 years. In the Induced Group, goiter prevalence among relatives of patients with thyroid disorders proved to be 13.1%, rising to 17.8% in those who suffered from other complaints. The epidemic data presented herein are the first arising from a screening survey carried out in a large iodine-sufficient population of the southernmost tip of the American continent. These results are useful to build up the world map of goiter prevalence in non-endemic areas.El Hospital de Clínicas organizó un programa gratuito para la detección de bocio por palpación. Esta campaña estuvo dirigida a la población del área metropolitana del Gran Buenos Aires, con el prerrequisito de que cada participante debía desconocer si padecía alguna enfermedad tiroidea. De acuerdo a las motivaciones que llevaron a los pacientes a la evaluación, se dividieron en 2

  1. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  3. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  4. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  5. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-14

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  6. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  7. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    contaminados. Los ríos María Aguilar, Torres y Segundo, que poseen alta densidad poblacional, muestran altos niveles de contaminación prácticamente durante todo el año. El resto de los ríos estudiados muestra niveles no aptos para actividades recreativas durante el periodo de invierno, mientras que en el verano presentan niveles aceptables.Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms, chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides, heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury, or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different water usage of rivers. Water resources are important not only for pre- servation of human life but also for animal and plant preservation. Costa Rica is worldwide known as a country with an outstanding biodiversity. Even though, the Great Metropolitan Area has most of its rivers severely contaminated, according to the water quality classification Holland index. In this research, the fecal coliform content was analy- zed in 10 different rivers located in the provinces of San José, Alajuela, Heredia, Cartago, as well as Península de Osa. For the purpose of correlating fecal coliforms content with population density, tres different sampling areas were added to each river: the high level zone close to the river origin, the middle sampling area, and the lower level area closer to the river mouth. It was found that middle and high population density areas are highly contaminated with fecal coliforms. Some of them surpass the permissible maximum level permitted for recreational primary contact activities, according to national regulations. It was also determined that lower population den- sity zones, such as Tigre and Rincón rivers of the Península de

  8. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  9. Superincentive public transport contracting in the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Van de Velde, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    All suburban/regional bus services around Amsterdam City have been submitted to competitive tendering. This is done under a very innovative form of revenue-based contract that can be classified as a ‘super incentive’ contract. Payments to operators (‘subsidies’) are based on realised passenger

  10. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  12. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  13. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  14. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  15. Radiation monitoring: Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS): report covering period of 3 months 01/07/1996 to 30/09/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from ten outstations in the Manchester area for the period 01/07/1996 to 30/09/1996 are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a wind rose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose during the reporting period. Graphs of barometric pressure and temperature taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are also presented. (UK)

  16. Radiation monitoring. Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS), report covering period of 3 months 01/04/1997 to 30/06/1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from ten outstations in the Manchester area are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a windrose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose. Graphs of temperature and barometric pressure taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are presented. (Author)

  17. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geografía del poder y diseño del espacio público periférico en el Gran Concepción./ Geography of power and the design of peripheral public spaces in the Greater Concepción area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ulloa Tesser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca identificar los factores jurídico–urbanos que condicionan la morfología y gobernanza del espacio público en la periferia del Gran Concepción colocando énfasis en el conocimiento de las estructuras de poder existentes en el área de estudio. Se postula que la geografía del poder privado y público limita la soberanía de las comunidades locales sobre sus espacios públicos dificultando la toma de decisiones y su diseño. Este análisis permite caracterizar la crisis del espacio público periférico, la que se expresa en dificultades en la gestión de riesgos de desastres, conectividad centro periferia, falta de identidad urbana y de barrio y gobernabilidad. A juicio del autor, las soluciones de fondo a esta crisis, pasan por cambios profundos en la institucionalidad urbana, que corrijan las inequidades de poder en las periferias de las grandes ciudades y en especial del área de estudio./The goal of this article is to identify the legal and urban factors that influence the morphology and governance of public spaces of the Greater Concepción’s peripheral neighbourhoods, in order to unveil the “structures of power” acting on the area. The main premise of the research is that the geography of power, both public and private, restricts the local communities’ attributes to control and design their own spaces. This analysis, by exposing the difficulties in the management of risk zones, the poor connectivity conditions between central and peripheral areas, as well as the lack of urban identity and local governance, allows us to define the critical condition in which the peripheral public space of Concepción is immersed. From the author’s stand point, the only way to solve this situation is through deep institutional changes, aimed to amend the unbalance of power in the urban governance structures of Chile’s largest metropolitan areas.

  20. Study of Medical Ethics Areas of Concern in the Greater San Antonio Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    3 4 5 nosocomial infections 1 2 3 4 5 failure to provide patient education 1 2 3 4 5 failure to appropriately address patterns of substandard care 1 2...Modified Delphi Study 58 94 maternal /fetal issues at threshold of viability 95 end of life clarification to families about having directives 96 lab

  1. Perfil de risco: método multivariado de classificação sócio-econômica de microáreas urbanas - os setores censitários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Risk profile: multivariate cluster analysis of urban small areas based on socioeconomic indicators - census tracts from the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sá Carvalho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Visando desenvolver métodos de estudo de microáreas urbanas, que permitam a integração de variáveis em um perfil sócio-econômico, foi analisado o censo demográfico de 1991, por setor censitário. Estudaram-se aspectos de: saneamento, ocupação do terreno, escolaridade, domicílio, demografia e renda. A análise de componentes principais para cada tema permitiu selecionar 15 indicadores com maior poder de explicação da variância observada, com base nos quais, em nova análise, foram escolhidos os sete indicadores finais. A classificação multivariada por partição gerou cinco tipos diferentes de setores censitários, assim descritos: (A alta renda, (B renda mais baixa, (C pobre, com predomínio de casas alugadas, (D baixa escolaridade e renda, (E precariedade no saneamento básico. A análise segundo a divisão geopolítica tradicional permitiu identificar as desigualdades dentro de cada área. O método proposto permitiu a criação de índices compostos de avaliação de qualidade de vida, valendo-se de informações de fácil acesso e ampla cobertura. Além disso, contribuiu para detectar a desigualdade sócio-econômica, identificando não só as grandes regiões de pobreza, mas as microáreas de exclusão em meio à relativa riqueza.A method based on small area data analysis was developed to build a health risk classification for the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The approach uses 1991 census data and studies data pertaining to sanitation, ownership and type of housing, size and occupancy of the household, demography, schooling, and income. Principal component analysis applied over each dimension allowed for the choice of 15 variables, which summarized most of the observed variances. Additional analysis with these variables suggested that just six variables are sufficient for the construction of a classification using k-means method of multivariate cluster analysis. Five classes were obtained: (A high income; (B

  2. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  3. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  4. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  5. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  6. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  7. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  8. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  9. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  10. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  11. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  12. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  13. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  14. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  15. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  16. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  17. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  18. Land use scenarios for greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...... short period of time. The set-up and the results were discussed with a few experts from the Danish Ministry of the Environment and its value as discussion input recognized. The approach offers a lot of possibilities to discuss urban growth and spatial planning policies, even in a country with a strong...

  19. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  20. Aspectos epidemiológicos e imunitários da poliomielite em crianças menores de um ano em área da região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in children of less than one year of age in an area of Greater S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas algumas características, de interesse epidemiológico, do comportamento da poliomielite na Região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil, salientando a importância da sua ocorrência em menores de um ano. Foram analisados os resultados de um inquérito sorológico, por provas de neutralização, em gestantes atendidas em Centros de Saúde de 16 Distritos Sanitários dessa Região. Com base nessas observações, foi dado destaque para determinadas condições que propiciam a infecção por poliovírus muito precoce, das crianças da área em estudo. Foi proposta a imunização, com a vacina Salk, das gestantes nos 5º e 6º meses de gravidez ou a imunização das crianças, com vacina oral trivalente tipo Sabin, em período anterior aos dois meses de idade, ou seja, em torno do terceiro dia de vida, mas sem prejuízo da aplicação, em seguida, do esquema básico de imunização preconizada pelo Calendário de Vacinação oficial em vigor. Tais medidas visam à eliminação de possível lacuna imunitária na faixa etária de menores de um ano.Some characteristics of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in some Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were studied, special emphasis being put on its occurrence in children of less than one year of agre. Next, the results of serological investigation, performed by means of neutralization tests, on pregnant women attended by Health Centers in sixteen Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were analysed. Based on these observations the authors draw attention to certain conditions poliovirus infection in children. The immunization of pregnant women with Salk vaccine, during the fifth and sixth months of pregnancy, or, alternatively, the immunization of children with oral trivalent Sabin-type vaccine in the period before the age of two months, possibly about the third day after birth, is proposed; without, however, any change in the normal later application of the basic

  1. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  2. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  3. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  4. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  5. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  6. Unmet healthcare needs in homeless women with children in the Greater Paris area in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vuillermoz

    Full Text Available Despite their poor health status, homeless women encounter many barriers to care. The objectives of our study were to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women and to analyse associated relationships with the following factors: financial and spatial access to care, housing history, migration status, healthcare utilisation, victimization history, caring for children, social network and self-perceived health status.We used data from 656 homeless women interviewed during the ENFAMS representative survey of sheltered homeless families, conducted in the Paris region in 2013. Structural equation models (SEM were used to estimate the impact of various factors on homeless women's unmet healthcare needs.Among those interviewed, 25.1% (95%CI[21.3-29.0] had at least one unmet healthcare need over the previous year. Most had given up on visiting general practitioners and medical specialists. No association with factors related to financial access or to health insurance status was found. However, food insecurity, poor spatial health access and poor self-perceived health were associated with unmet healthcare needs. Self-perceived health appeared to be affected by victimization and depression.The lower prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women compared with women in stable housing situations suggests that homeless women have lower needs perceptions and/or lower expectations of the healthcare system. This hypothesis is supported by the results from SEM. Strategies to provide better access to care for this population should not only focus on financial interventions but also more broadly on spatial healthcare access, cultural norms, and perceptions of health. Reducing their unmet needs and improving their access to healthcare and prevention must include an improvement in their living, financial and housing conditions.

  7. Question of road traffic congestion and de-congestion in the Greater Johannesburg area: some perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transit Systems Sustainable Around the World: Getting Many Birds with one Bus, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, USA, ISBN - 0309077176 Fouracre P & Turner J, 1995. Women and Transport in Developing Countries, Transport Reviews, Volume... in the transportation equation and matrix. Insook Kang (2006:5) argues that women’s experience in urban built environment is different from men’s. Gender differentiated transport needs in GJA are intensified by the impacts of gendered economic processes...

  8. Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Brenes, Guillermo; Mora-Molina, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms), chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides), heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury), or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different wat...

  9. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed.

  10. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  11. International trends in health science librarianship Part 10: The Greater China area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyun; Chan, Julia L Y; Lam, Louisa Mei Chun; Chiu, Tzu-Heng

    2014-06-01

    This is the 10th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The next issue will report on Japan and South Korea. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  13. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  14. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  15. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  16. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  17. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  18. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  19. Conhecimento da disponibilidade e sobre o uso da ventilação não invasiva em unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos, privados e de ensino da região metropolitana de São Paulo Availability and use of noninvasive ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2006-02-01

    physiotherapists with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: On-site administration of questionnaires. RESULTS: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment was widely available and was more commonly found in private hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Such equipment was least available in public hospitals, in which the predominant method was the use of mechanical ventilators designed for invasive ventilation and adapted to noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. In private hospitals, continuous flow ventilators were more common, whereas, in teaching hospitals, ventilators specifically designed for noninvasive ventilation were typically employed. All physiotherapists felt themselves capable of initiating noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, compared with 72.6% of physicians and 33.3% of nurses. Physicians and physiotherapists presented high percentages of correct answers when asked about the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Over a one year period, more physiotherapists read articles about noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and participated in related classes than did physicians, who in turn did so more than did nurses. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment is widely available in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, although differences exist among public, private and teaching hospitals in terms of the type of equipment used. Physicians and physiotherapists exhibited considerable knowledge regarding the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. More physiotherapists felt themselves able to initiate noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and their knowledge of the subject was more current than was that of physicians or nurses.

  20. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  1. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  2. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  3. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  4. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  5. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  6. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  7. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  8. Desfechos clínicos do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando o esquema básico recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil com comprimidos em dose fixa combinada na região metropolitana de Goiânia Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    years of age treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47% reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%.

  9. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  10. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  11. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  12. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  13. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  14. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  15. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  16. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  17. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  18. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  20. Conservation of greater sage-grouse- a synthesis of current trends and future management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, John W.; Knick, Steven T.; Braun, Clait E.; Baker, William L.; Beever, Erik A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Garton, Edward O.; Hagen, Christian A.; Hanser, Steven E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Leu, Matthias; Miller, Richard F.; Naugle, David E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Pyke, David A.; Reese, Kerry P.; Schroeder, Michael A.; Stiver, San J.; Walker, Brett L.; Wisdorn, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations indicate substantial declines in many areas but relatively stable populations in other portions of the species? range. Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats neces-sary to support sage-grouse are being burned by large wildfires, invaded by nonnative plants, and developed for energy resources (gas, oil, and wind). Management on public lands, which con-tain 70% of sagebrush habitats, has changed over the last 30 years from large sagebrush control projects directed at enhancing livestock grazing to a greater emphasis on projects that often attempt to improve or restore ecological integrity. Never-theless, the mandate to manage public lands to provide traditional consumptive uses as well as recreation and wilderness values is not likely to change in the near future. Consequently, demand and use of resources contained in sagebrush land-scapes plus the associated infrastructure to sup-port increasing human populations in the western United States will continue to challenge efforts to conserve Greater Sage-Grouse. The continued widespread distribution of sage-grouse, albeit at very low densities in some areas, coupled with large areas of important sagebrush habitat that are relatively unaffected by the human footprint, sug-gest that Greater Sage-Grouse populations may be able to persist into the future. We summarize the status of sage-grouse populations and habitats, provide a synthesis of major threats and chal-lenges to conservation of sage-grouse, and suggest a roadmap to attaining conservation goals.

  1. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  2. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  3. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  4. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (pbedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  6. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  7. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  8. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  9. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  10. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  11. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  12. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  13. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  15. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  16. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  17. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  18. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  19. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  20. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  1. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  2. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  4. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  5. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre J Hovick

    Full Text Available The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003-2011 of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (0.81, indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures. Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern.

  6. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  7. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  8. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  9. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  12. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  13. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  14. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  15. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  16. Action Program for Implementing Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth; Engell, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This main report summarized the content of the three sub-report of the project, including the background for the project, the potentails for saving heat and the barriers for implementing these savings. Afterwards the report define the geographical area considered, as well as the present situation...

  17. Updating Financial Ratios: Seeking Greater Understanding, Precision, and Practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John

    1993-01-01

    Modifications to current methods of calculating and reporting financial ratios are outlined for college managers. The modified ratios, felt to be more realistic, are illustrated with applications in three areas: (1) student revenues; (2) endowment and other investment income; and (3) public and private gifts, grants, and contracts revenue. (MSE)

  18. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  19. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  20. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  1. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  2. Greater Confinement Disposal Program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for improved LLW disposal at the Savannah River Plant include Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) for the higher activity fractions of this waste. GCD practices will include waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and stabilizing the emplacement with cement. Statistical review of SRP burial records showed that about 95% of the radioactivity is associated with only 5% of the waste volume. Trigger values determined in this study were compared with actual burials in 1982 to determine what GCD facilities would be needed for a demonstration to begin in Fall 1983. Facilities selected include 8-feet-diameter x 30-feet-deep boreholes to contain reactor scrap, tritiated waste, and selected wastes from offsite

  3. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  4. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  5. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  6. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  7. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  8. Building an urban 'renaissance': fragmented services and the production of inequality in Greater Downtown Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Brian; Smit, Edske

    2016-01-01

    Downtown Detroit has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years which is in stark contrast to the economic and social situation in much of the rest of the city. This renaissance has been taking place despite the city's ability to provide good municipal services such as streetlights, security, public space and transport. This article focuses on how four areas which constitute part of Greater Downtown Detroit have relied on different combinations of actors to create and provide the services and amenities deemed necessary for capital investment and middle-class consumption. Each area has its own initiatives and actors who implement them, further fragmenting the city between its core and periphery. Renewed public spaces, private police forces and resident initiatives in middle-class neighborhoods have been created to serve specific needs of the small areas they serve. Rather than being unique, Detroit is an extreme example of fragmented and polarized urbanism which is part and parcel of contemporary cities. We argue that rather than passively reflecting existing socio-spatial divides, these private initiatives in Greater Downtown Detroit actively contribute to the production of sociospatial inequalities across the city.

  9. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  10. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  11. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf-livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40-60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into areas

  12. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Middleton, Arthur D.; Jimenez, Mike; McWhirter, Douglas; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human–wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf–livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40–60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into

  13. Assessment of greater-than-Class C waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.; Jennrich, E.A.; Merrell, G.B.

    1991-02-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A regulates the onsite disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at all DOE facilities. Among its stipulations, the Order states that ''Disposition of wastes designated as greater-than-Class C, as defined in 10 CFR 61.55 must be handled as special cases. Disposal systems for such waste must be justified by a specific performance assessment.'' Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel have undertaken a review and performance assessment of LLW disposal at its Area-G disposal facility, which is described in this report

  14. On differential radiodiagnosis of ulcerations of the greater curvature of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Nefedova, V.O.; Turovskij, B.M.; Marchenko, V.A.; Osadchij, P.A.; Konina, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problems connected with the differential diagnosis of ulcerations of the greater curvature of the stomach are considered on the base of analysis of 176 observations of ulcerated forms of cancer and 14 benign injuries localized in this area. Emphasizing the great importance of the X-ray method for such diagnosis, the authors give recommendations concerning the methods of the common X-ray examination of the stomach and the interpretation of the details of the X-ray appearance: they also point to the advisability of using pneumogastrography in some cases

  15. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  16. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  17. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  18. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  19. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  20. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  1. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  2. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  4. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  5. Analysis of scenarious for sewerage, wastewater treatment and prioritised load on environment from the Greater City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Andersen, H.S.; Dupont, R.

    2002-01-01

    plants. The effluent from the two treatment plants discharges during dry weather to Øresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden. This large system has been analysed for selected scenarios with respect to handling runoff in an optimal way in order to minimise the loads on the most sensitive receiving......The sewer system for the Greater Copenhagen area covers an area of 4460 ha contributing to the runoff. The total area serves in total 8 municipalities, however it is dominated by the areas in the City of Copenhagen proper. The catchments merge into interceptors, which feed two large treatment...... waters and optimising treatment plant performance....

  6. Analysis of scenarios for sewerage, wastewater treatment and prioritised load on environment from the Greater City of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoës, P; Andersen, H S; Dupont, R; Jacobsen, P; Rindel, K

    2002-01-01

    The sewer system for the Greater Copenhagen area covers an area of 4460 ha contributing to the runoff. The total area serves in total 8 municipalities, however it is dominated by the areas in the City of Copenhagen proper. The catchments merge into interceptors, which feed two large treatment plants. The effluent from the two treatment plants discharges during dry weather to Oresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden. This large system has been analysed for selected scenarios with respect to handling runoff in an optimal way in order to minimise the loads on the most sensitive receiving waters and optimising treatment plant performance.

  7. Genomics for greater efficiency in pigeonpea hybrid breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit K Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic genic male sterility based hybrid technology has demonstrated its immense potential in increasing the productivity of various crops, including pigeonpea. This technology has shown promise for breaking the long-standing yield stagnation in pigeonpea. There are difficulties in commercial hybrid seed production due to non-availability of field-oriented technologies such as time-bound assessment of genetic purity of hybrid seeds. Besides this, there are other routine breeding activities which are labour oriented and need more resources. These include breeding and maintenance of new fertility restorers and maintainer lines, diversification of cytoplasm, and incorporation of biotic and abiotic stress resistances. The recent progress in genomics research could accelerate the existing traditional efforts to strengthen the hybrid breeding technology. Marker based seed purity assessment, identification of heterotic groups; selection of new fertility restorers are few areas which have already been initiated. In this paper efforts have been made to identify critical areas and opportunities where genomics can play a leading role and assist breeders in accelerating various activities related to breeding and commercialization of pigeonpea hybrids.

  8. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  9. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  10. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  11. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  13. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  14. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  15. Modeling Phosphorus Transport and Cycling in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A. I.; Grace, K. A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Muller, S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Flaig, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    A solute transport model was used to predict phosphorus mobility in the northern Everglades. Over the past several decades, agricultural drainage waters discharged into the northern Everglades, have been enriched in phosphorus (P) relative to the historic rainfall-driven inputs. While methods of reducing total P concentrations in the discharge water have been actively pursued through implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), a major parallel effort has focused on the construction of a network of constructed wetlands for P removal before these waters enter the Everglades. This study describes the development of a water quality model for P transport and cycling and its application to a large constructed wetland: Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West (STA 1W), located southeast of Lake Okeechobee on the eastern perimeter of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). In STA 1W agricultural nutrients such as phosphorus (P) are removed from EAA runoff before entering the adjacent Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and the Everglades. STA 1W is divided by levees into 4 cells, which are flooded for most of the year; thus the dominant mechanism for flow and transport is overland flow. P is removed either through deposition into sediments or is taken up by plants; in either case the soils end up being significantly enriched in P. The model has been applied and calibrated to several years of water quality data from Cell 4 within STA 1W. Most existing P models have been applied to agricultural/upland systems, with only a few relevant to treatment wetlands such as STA 1W. To ensure sufficient flexibility in selecting appropriate system components and reactions, the model has been designed to incorporate a wide range of user-selectable mechanisms for P uptake and release parameters between soils and inflowing water. The model can track a large number of mobile and nonmobile components and utilizes a Godunov-style operator-splitting technique for the transported

  16. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  17. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Assessment of ASN inspections apart from BNI (Greater South West)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menechal, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled recent evolutions of the ASN's organization (the French nuclear safety authority) and its basic missions (regulation elaboration, decisions, control of nuclear activities and installations, public information), the author presents the Bordeaux ASN's department which is in charge of the south-western part of France. He indicates and comments some data illustrating the performed actions and missions. He describes the objectives and procedures of inspection which may depend on the activity (external radiotherapy, interventional radiology, research laboratories). He assesses theses inspections in terms of radioprotection organization, of risk assessment and of definition of regulated areas, of personnel classification and dosimetric follow-on, of training of exposed personnel, of medical follow-on, of radioprotection control, of training of patients to radioprotection, of source management, and of waste and effluent management

  19. Travel and urban form in the Greater Copenhagen region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    of the economic upturn – with a later point in time where the financial crisis had radically changed the economic climate. It follows from the specificity of the historical events that an analysis of what happened to urban form and transport over the financial crisis is to be seen as a case study......Research into the associations between urban form and travel in the capital areal has focussed on subcenters and the stability of urban form correlates over time. A trend towards de-concentration and formation of subcenters in metropolitan areas has been acknowledged for decades. Studies have...... analyzed the new urban structure by identifying subcenters and their land value impacts. Others have focused on subcenters as a location attribute or ‘intervention’ that affects travel patterns and therefore may be employed in the context of urban and transportation demand management. The research has...

  20. The outcome of endoscopy for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, James; Fary, Camdon; Tran, Phong

    2016-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), previously referred as trochanteric bursitis, is a debilitating condition characterised by chronic lateral hip pain. The syndrome is thought to relate to gluteal tendinopathy, with most cases responding to non-operative treatment. A number of open and endoscopic surgical techniques targeting the iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa and gluteal tendons have, however, been described for severe recalcitrant cases. We report the outcomes of one such endoscopic approach here. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients (57 operations) who had undergone endoscopic longitudinal vertical iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy. Inclusion criteria included diagnosed GTPS with a minimum of six months of non-operative treatment. Exclusion criteria included concomitant intra- or extra-articular hip pathology and previous hip surgery including total hip arthroplasty. Outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, Oxford hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). The series included 42 females and 7 males with a mean age of 65.0 years (26.7-88.6). Mean follow-up time was 20.7 months (5.3-41.2). Eight patients had full thickness gluteal tendon tears, of which 7 were repaired. Adjuvant PRP was injected intraoperatively in 38 of 57 operations (67.2 %). At follow-up, overall mean Visual Analogue Scale values had decreased from 7.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.001), Oxford hip Scores had increased from 20.4 to 37.3 (p < 0.001) and iHOT-33 scores had increased from 23.8 to 70.2 (p < 0.001). Of the 57 operations performed, patients reported feeling very satisfied with the surgical outcome in 28 operations (49.1 %), satisfied in 17 operations (29.8 %) and less than satisfied in 12 operations (21.1 %). While the majority of patients with GTPS will improve with non-operative management, endoscopic iliotibial band release, trochanteric bursectomy and gluteal tendon repair is a safe and effective treatment for severe

  1. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  2. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  3. Pharmaceutical consumption and residuals potentially relevant to nutrient cycling in Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Sinar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling nutrients form sanitary wastes back into agricultural ecosystems offers an option to alleviate soil depletion in regions where the use of mineral fertiliser is limited. Exemplary nutrient and water cycling approaches, including collection, treatment and use of human urine, are established at Valley View University (VVU in Greater Accra, Ghana.Concerns have been recently raised in regard to fate and impact of pharmaceutical residues in soils and interlinked environment. To evaluate in how far emerging knowledge can be transposed onto VVU, urban and rural environments in Greater Accra, spatial disease occurrence and drug consumption patterns were studied. Malaria has been found to represent the most severe health burden in Ghana, but there is also a high prevalence of infectious diseases. Drugs consumed in great quantities and in respect to their residual loads potentially problematic in the environment belong to therapeutic groups of: antibiotics, analgesics, drugs for diabetes, antimalarials, cardiovascular drugs and anthelmintics. Drug consumption revealed to be highest in urban and lowest in rural areas. At VVU the range of consumed drugs is comparable to urban areas except for the negligible use of diabetes and cardiovascular medication as well as contraceptives.

  4. The development of landscape-scale ecological units and their application to the greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry E. Laing; David Gori; James T. Jones

    2005-01-01

    The multi-partner Greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning effort involves over 500,000 acres of public and private lands. This large area supports distinct landscapes that have evolved with fire. Utilizing GIS as a tool, the United States Forest Service (USFS), General Ecosystem Survey (GES), and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) State Soil Geographic...

  5. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  6. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    a cautious approach and formally describe the Rubeho and Udzungwa greater double-collared sunbird population as a subspecies of Cinnyris whytei. This new sunbird taxon has been recorded only above 1700 m in scrub on the forest/grassland ecotone in a very restricted area in the Rubeho and Udzungwa Highlands...

  7. Violence in social networks: an exploration of the online expressions of teens from marginalized areas of Greater Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las expresiones online de violencia ejercida o padecida por las y los adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indagan cuatro fenómenos específicos: las amenazas, los “bondis”, el cyberbullying y los duelos, para lo cual se realizaron veinte entrevistas en profundidad y 3.000 observaciones virtuales de perfiles de la red social Facebook entre 2013 y 2014. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que la mayoría de las expresiones de violencia se enmarcan en una dinámica offline-online. Asimismo, se ofrece evidencia empírica a partir de la cual es posible afirmar que las expresiones de violencia de estos adolescentes se despliegan en torno a la cultura del “aguante”. El artículo se pregunta si en la plataforma icónica del “me gusta” estas expresiones resultan implícitamente funcionales a la red social o si, por el contrario, permiten desplazamientos y reapropiaciones significativas de los usuarios. En definitiva, se abren nuevos interrogantes acerca de la utilización de estas herramientas por parte de adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados y se propone complejizar los enfoques en torno a estos fenómenos.

  8. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. The Effects of the Soledad Canyon Mine on the Aggregate Industry in the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    .... In conducting this study, we assume that the mine operates between 2003 and 2022 and analyze how the mine would affect the costs of transporting aggregate, economic profits in the industry, the price...

  10. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Brazilian Air Force has been testing a new surveillance system called Sistema de Vigilancia da Amazonia (SIVAM), designed to...2000 Online Database, 23 April 1998 and “Plan de seguridad para la triple frontera,” Ser en el 2000 Online Database, 01 June...Plan de seguridad para la triple frontera,” Ser en el 2000 Online Database, 01 June 1998. 64 Robert Devlin, Antoni Estevadeordal

  11. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandoval, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... With many U.S. and Latin American citizens' focus on economic domestic issues, FTAA talks have been widely contested among non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, labor and social groups...

  12. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandoval, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...) and its impact on cooperative security in the Western Hemisphere. Similar to the l990s, when the U.S. government debated the pros and cons of the NAFTA, the United States now faces a debate over passage and implementation of the FTAA...

  13. Potential Hydrodynamic Loads on Coastal Bridges in the Greater New York Area due to Extreme Storm Surge and Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-18

    This project makes a computer modeling study on vulnerability of coastal bridges in New York City (NYC) metropolitan region to storm surges and waves. Prediction is made for potential surges and waves in the region and consequent hydrodynamic load an...

  14. Combat Veterans with PTSD after Mild TBI Exhibit Greater ERPs from Posterior-medial Cortical Areas While Appraising Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    E.W., Karl , A., 2013. Meta-analytic review of P3 components in posttraumatic stress disorder and their clinical utility. Clin. EEG Neurosci.. Jorge...Weiner, J., Marx , C.E., Cernak, I., McCarthy, G., Group, M.W., 2012. Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and

  15. The quest for the perfect model: Pre World War 1. Military land use modeling of the Greater Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    the rotational system. At first the survey campaign seems to be going very well, but relative quickly did the military run into problems. The rapid urbanization of the landscape north of Copenhagen meant, that farming did not take place and at the island of Amager southwest of Copenhagen the farmers didn’t use......Anthropogenic land use practices are the single most important factor in the changing European landscapes. Respectively much attention has been devoted within Landscape Ecology to analyze changing patterns of land use and develop research strategies to understand the processes behind these changes...... and to inform policy makers. Models are used as an important tool in this research partly due to the revolution in information technologies during the last 30 years, which has made modeling more widespread in the research community. However modeling human decision making in form of land use practices...

  16. Social contexts and HIV vulnerabilities among South Asian women in the greater Toronto area: Examining social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Roula; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen; Loutfy, Mona

    2018-02-01

    We explored how social norms interact with beliefs and social structures (power relations, emotional relations, and gendered division of labor) to influence the experiences of South Asian women with HIV in Canada. The first author conducted semi-structured interviews, and identified five themes using thematic analysis: connection to community/religious institutions, family honor, and restrained/prohibited discussion of sexuality. These norms reproduce hegemonic masculinity; constrain women's social, relational, and economic power; and elevate HIV vulnerability. We present findings to challenge hegemonic masculinity at the international level, and of developing strategies to address both interfamily gender-based violence and racism faced by the South Asians in Canada.

  17. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not detected in the milk samples from Ada even though it was detected in the milk samples from Accra. p,p'-DDE was recorded in all the individual milk samples from Accra. p,p'-DDE was detected in 90.5% of the milk samples from Ada. Gamma -HCH was detected in 95.2% of the milk samples from Ada. With the exception of the mean concentrations of endosulfan sulfate from Accra and Ada which are 99.052 µg/kg fat and 63.803 µg/kg fat respectively. The mean concentrations of all the other organochlorine pesticides detected were below the internationally recognized maximum residue limit. (author)

  18. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Seasonality in African Students Living in the Greater Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of seasonality in a vulnerable population, i.e., African students who migrated to a temperate climate. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, we hypothesized lower mood and energy, and higher appetite and weight, in fall/winter than in spring/summer. Four cohorts of African students attending a year-long nursing school program without vacation in Washington, D.C., were assessed monthly for 1 year. Forty-three subjects (mean age = 33.46 ± 6.25, consisting of predominantly females (76.7%, completed the study. The cohorts began their academic program in different seasons (one each in winter, spring, summer, and fall, inherently minimizing confounding influences on seasonality, such as academic and immigration stress, as well as allowing adjustment for an order effect. At each assessment, students completed three 100-mm visual analog scales for mood, energy, and appetite, and were weighed on a digital scale. For each standardized dependent variable, a repeated measure ANOVA was used and, if a significant effect of month was identified, averages for spring/summer and fall/winter were compared using paired ttests. In addition, a mixed model for repeated measures was applied to raw (nonstandardized data. Body weight was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer (p < 0.01. No seasonal differences in mood, energy, or appetite were found. Benefiting from certain unique features of our cohorts allowing adjustment for order effects, this is the first study to identify a seasonal variation in body weight with a peak in winter using longitudinal monthly measurements.

  19. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Building Collection Infrastructure for Composting: Success in the Greater Worcester, Massachusetts Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  20. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    The ore deposits described in this bulletin are distributed through a region of about 3,000 square miles surrounding the city of Helena, Mont. In general the surface of this region is mountainous, but it includes several large intermontane valleys. Large areas in the northern and eastern parts of the region sire underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Algonkian Belt series, and on the northeast and southwest the Belt rocks are overlain without any noticeable angular unconformity by Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds. Oligocene, Miocene, and possibly Pliocene sediments, composed chiefly of volcanic ash and land waste of local origin, occupy large areas in the intermontane valleys and lie unconformably upon Cretaceous and older rocks. A thin veneer of Pleistocene and Recent alluvium generally overspreads the Tertiary. In the extreme northern part of the region are large deposits of glacial drift that represent two stages of the Pleistocene. The principal igneous body of the region is the northern part of the early Tertiary or late Cretaceous Boulder batholitb of quartz monzonite. The main exposure of this body occupies an area of nearly 1,200 square miles and extends southward beyond the limits of the particular region considered. Smaller areas of similar rocks are clustered around this exposure. Most of the exposures probably represent bodies that are connected in depth to form a single mass. The late Cretaceous and older sedimentary rocks are involved in a series of northwestward-trending folds. Along the east side of the region overthrust faults related to the great Lewis overthrust of Glacier National Park cause Belt rocks to overlie rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Large normal faults occur near Marysville and faults of moderate displacement near Helena. The Tertiary beds are slightly deformed by folds and faults that are unrelated to the structure of the older rock. The geologic history of the region includes two contrasting periods, the earlier of which was

  1. China's soaring vehicle population: Even greater than forecasted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunshi; Teter, Jacob; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    China's vehicle population is widely forecasted to grow 6-11% per year into the foreseeable future. Barring aggressive policy intervention or a collapse of the Chinese economy, we suggest that those forecasts are conservative. We analyze the historical vehicle growth patterns of seven of the largest vehicle producing countries at comparable times in their motorization history. We estimate vehicle growth rates for this analogous group of countries to have 13-17% per year-roughly twice the rate forecasted for China by others. Applying these higher growth rates to China results in the total vehicle fleet reaching considerably higher volumes than forecasted by others, implying far higher global oil use and carbon emissions than projected by the International Energy Agency and others. - Highlights: → We use large, car-producing countries as models in forecasting vehicle ownership in China. → We find that vehicle growth rates in China could be twice as high as forecasted by others (including IEA). → Motorization is occurring quickly across all regions in China, not just the richer coastal areas.

  2. Cancer vaccine development: Designing tumor cells for greater immunogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Erica N.; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Paulos, Simon A.; Palaniappan, Ravi; D’Souza, Martin; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccine development is one of the most hopeful and exhilarating areas in cancer research. For this reason, there has been a growing interest in the development and application of novel immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer with the focus being on stimulating the immune system to target tumor cells specifically while leaving normal cells unharmed. From such research has emerged a host of promising immunotherapies such as dendritic cell-based vaccines, cytokine therapies and gene transfer technology. These therapies seek to counteract the poor immunogenicity of tumors by augmenting the host’s immune system with a variety of immunostimulatory proteins such as cytokines and costimulatory molecules. While such therapies have proven effective in the induction of anti-tumor immunity in animal models, they are less than optimal and pose a high risk of clinical infeasibility. Herein, we further discuss these immunotherapies as well as a feasible and efficient alternative that, in pre-clinical animal models, allows for the expression of specific immunostimulatory molecules on the surface of tumor cells by a novel protein transfer technology. PMID:20036822

  3. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  4. The influence of late Miocene exhumation on the petroleum systems of the greater Caucasus foreland basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andy, A.; Colin, D.; Sally, H.; Simon, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Northwards impingement of Arabia during the Cenozoic led to the inversion of the Mesozoic Greater Caucasus Basin and the associated development of areas of enhanced subsidence. However, there is great debate regarding the timing of initiation of thrusting and uplift in the Caucasus region.Traditionally, ages ranging from Middle Eocene through to Middle Miocene have been proposed.More recently. It has become clear that although deformation and flexural subsidence may have initiated during the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift and exhumation did not begin until the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift event have been identified.The late Miocene to Pliocene event influenced a broad region and had important implications for reservoir rock deposition and the generation,migration,trapping and preservation of hydrocarbons in the surrounding basins (e.g. Indolo-Kuban,Terek-Caspian, South Caspian, Kura-Kartli, Rion, Black Sea).One area of particular interest is the development of the Stavropol Arch through time,since foreland basins are presently restricted to the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian Sub-basins.The Stavropol Arch lies immediately north of the central, most elevated parts of the Caucasus Mountains and separates the main areas of enhanced foreland subsidence.Although in most palaeogeographic reconstructions of the area, the Stavropol Arch is shown as an uplifted massif during much of the Mesozoic and Lower Cenozoic, it seems likely from recent studies that it is a feature of Late Miocene to Pliocene exhumation.One major potential implication is that an Oligocene to Miocene (foreland) succession developed in a major basin across the whole region north of the Greater Caucasus.Much of this was subsequently eroded from the Stavropol Arch during uplift and exhumation, separating the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian foreland basins.From qualitative section balancing we

  5. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species — including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5-km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  6. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Legodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  7. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  8. Urban-rural solar radiation loss in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaa, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study for measured global solar radiation, G, during the period (1969-2006) and the corresponding global radiation loss in the atmosphere, R L %, over urban and rural districts in Greater Cairo region have been performed. The climatic variabilities of G radiation at the urban and rural sites are also investigated and discussed. Monthly, seasonal and annual mean values of extraterrestrial radiation, Go, and R L % during four successive periods, (1969-1978), (1979-1988), (1989-1998) and (1999-2006) at the above two sites have been calculated and investigated. The results revealed that urban area was always received lower amount of solar radiation due to urbanization factors. The yearly mean values of G radiation were distinctly decreased from maximum value 21.93 and 22.62 MJ m -2 during 1970 year to minimum value 17.57 and 17.87 MJ m -2 during 2004 and 2006 years with average decrease rate 0.09 and 0.10 MJ m -2 per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. Also, the seasonal and annual mean anomalies of G radiation have been also gradually decreased from maximum values during the eldest period (1969-1978) to minimum values during the recent period (1999-2006). R L % over the urban area was always higher than that rural area. The urban-rural R L % differences range from 0.61% in 1999 year to 4.19% in 2002 year and 2.20% as average value. The yearly mean of R L % values distinctly gradually increase from minimum value 29.47% and 27.28% during 1970 year to maximum value 43.50% and 42.60% during 2004 and 2006 years with average increase rate 0.28% and 0.32% per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. The minimum value of R L % (26.88%) occurred at rural area during summer season of the eldest period (1969-1978) while the maximum value of R L % (51.27%) occurred at the urban area during winter season of the last recent urbanized period (1999-2006). The linear trend of the yearly variations of R L % revealed that G values will reach zero

  9. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  10. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  11. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  12. Revisiting Darwin's hypothesis: Does greater intraspecific variability increase species' ecological breadth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Colby B; Enquist, Brian J; Ebersole, James J; Smith, Marielle N; Henderson, Amanda N; Sloat, Lindsey L

    2014-01-01

    Darwin first proposed that species with larger ecological breadth have greater phenotypic variation. We tested this hypothesis by comparing intraspecific variation in specific leaf area (SLA) to species' local elevational range and by assessing how external (abiotic) filters may influence observed differences in ecological breadth among species. Understanding the patterns of individual variation within and between populations will help evaluate differing hypotheses for structuring of communities and distribution of species. We selected 21 species with varying elevational ranges and compared the coefficient of variation of SLA for each species against its local elevational range. We examined the influence of external filters on local trait composition by determining if intraspecific changes in SLA with elevation have the same direction and similar rates of change as the change in community mean SLA value. In support of Darwin's hypothesis, we found a positive relationship between species' coefficient of variation for SLA with species' local elevational range. Intraspecific changes in SLA had the same sign, but generally lower magnitude than the community mean SLA. The results indicate that wide-ranging species are indeed characterized by greater intraspecific variation and that species' phenotypes shift along environmental gradients in the same direction as the community phenotypes. However, across species, the rate of intraspecific trait change, reflecting plastic and/or adaptive changes across populations, is limited and prevents species from adjusting to environmental gradients as quickly as interspecific changes resulting from community assembly.

  13. The contribution of 14C AMS dating to the Greater Angkor archaeological project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Barbetti, M.; Fletcher, R.; Hua, Q.; Chhem, R.K.; Pottier, C.; Watanasak, M.

    2004-01-01

    For well over five centuries, the Khmer kingdom ruled over a vast territory, including most of what is now known as Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. Between the 9th and 14th century AD, the Khmer Kings developed the Angkor area into a remarkable administrative and religious centre for their society. According to new estimates by the Greater Angkor Project, the entire urban complex of the capital city covered about 1000 square km making it probably the largest archaeological site in the world. Great stone temples and some other monumental structures and earthworks are the only visible remains of this fascinating civilisation. Thankfully, there is a substantial on-going multinational effort to preserve and restore what is left and in 1992 UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation) declared Angkor a World Heritage Site. This paper presents two particular aspects of the Greater Angkor Project where radiocarbon dating by AMS specifically added to our knowledge of the history of this ancient capital city

  14. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  15. Monitoring Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem wetlands: Can long-term monitoring help us understand their future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra; Thoma, David; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), changes in the drying cycles of wetlands have been documented. Wetlands are areas where the water table is at or near the land surface and standing shallow water is present for much or all of the growing season. We discuss how monitoring data can be used to document variation in annual flooding and drying patterns of wetlands monitored across Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, investigate how these patterns are related to a changing climate, and explore how drying of wetlands may impact amphibians. The documented declines of some amphibian species are of growing concern to scientists and land managers alike, in part because disappearances have occurred in some of the most protected places. These disappearances are a recognized component of what is being described as Earth’s sixth mass extinction.

  16. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  17. Monitoring changes in Greater Yellowstone Lake water quality following the 1988 wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.; Vande Castle, John D.; Brass, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The fires that burned the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) during the summer of 1988 were the largest ever recorded for the region. Wildfire can have profound indirect effects on associated aquatic ecosystems by increased nutrient loading, sediment, erosion, and runoff. Satellite remote sensing and water quality sampling were used to compare pre- versus post-fire conditions in the GYA's large oliotrophic (high transparency, low productivity) lakes. Inputs of suspended sediment to Jackson Lake appear to have increased. Yellowstone Lake has not shown any discernable shift in water quality. The insights gained separately from the Landsat Thematic and NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote sensing systems, along with conventional in-situ sampling, can be combined into a useful water quality monitoring tool.

  18. Air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris: exploring sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Canal, D J; Chardon, B; Lefranc, A; Gremy, I

    2005-01-01

    The subject of sex and gender differences is relevant to the study of health effects of environmental exposures. In this study the authors aim at assessing the differences that may exist between males and females regarding short-term air pollution health effects. They studied the short-term relationships between air pollution levels and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris area for patients older than 15 years between 2000 and 2003. They also conducted time series analyses by using generalized additive models. For an increase of 10 microg/m3 in the air pollutant levels, the increase in relative risk of hospitalization was higher for males than for females and was significant only for males. These differences may not result solely from differences in biological susceptibility to air pollution because other factors related to gender (differences in individual exposures, in health care management, and so on) may play a role.

  19. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: Relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy; Gustafson, K. Ben; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) population abundance in the sagebrush steppe of the American West has increased threefold during the previous four decades, largely as a result of unintended resource subsidies from human land-use practices. This is concerning because ravens frequently depredate nests of species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse). Grazing by livestock in sagebrush ecosystems is common practice on most public lands, but associations between livestock and ravens are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify the effects of livestock on raven occurrence while accounting for landscape characteristics within human-altered sagebrush steppe habitat, particularly in areas occupied by breeding sage-grouse. Using data from southeastern Idaho collected during spring and summer across 3 yr, we modeled raven occurrence as a function of the presence of livestock while accounting for multiple landscape covariates, including land cover features, topographical features, and proximity to sage-grouse lek sites (breeding grounds), as well as site-level anthropogenic features. While accounting for landscape characteristics, we found that the odds of raven occurrence increased 45.8% in areas where livestock were present. In addition, ravens selected areas near sage-grouse leks, with the odds of occurrence decreasing 8.9% for every 1-km distance, increase away from the lek. We did not find an association between livestock use and distance to lek. We also found that ravens selected sites with relatively lower elevation containing increased amounts of cropland, wet meadow, and urbanization. Limiting raven access to key anthropogenic subsidies and spatially segregating livestock from sage-grouse breeding areas would likely reduce exposure of predatory ravens to sage-grouse nests and chicks.

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution and variation of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Fan, W.; Liu, S.; Ren, H.; Xu, X.

    2017-12-01

    GPP (Gross Primary Productivity) is an important index to reflect the productivity of plants because it refers to the organic accumulated by green plants on land through assimilating the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by photosynthesis and a serial of physiological processes in plants. Therefore, GPP plays a significant role in studying the carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem and plants' reaction to global climate change. Remote sensing provides an efficient way to estimate GPP at regional and global scales and its products can be used to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of terrestrial ecosystem.As the Greater Khingan Mountains is the only bright coniferous forest of cool temperate zone in China and accounts for about 30% of the forest in China. This region is sensitive to climate change, but its forest coverage presented a significant variation due to fire disasters, excessive deforestation and so on. Here, we aimed at studying the variation pattern of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains and further found impact factors for the change in order to improve the understanding of what have and will happen on plants and carbon cycle under climate change.Based on GPP product from the GLASS program, we first studied spatial distribution of plants in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015. With a linear regression model, seasonal and inter-annual GPP variability were explored on pixel and regional scale. We analyzed some climatic factors (e.g. temperature and precipitation) and terrain in order to find the driven factors for the GPP variations. The Growing Season Length (GSL) was also regarded as a factor and was retrieved from GIMMS 3g NDVI datasets using dynamic threshold method. We found that GPP in study area linearly decreased with the increasing elevation. Both annual accumulated GPP (AAG) and maximum daily GPP (during mid-June to mid-July) gained obvious improvement over the past 34 years under climate warming and drying (Fig.1 and Fig.2). Further

  1. Greater Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  2. Greater Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P

    1986-03-01

    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%.

  3. Preliminary analysis of Greater Sage-grouse reproduction in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Lockyer, Zachary B.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Sweeney, Joelle M.; Johnson, Valerie M.; Meshriy, Matthew G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Delehanty, David J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between habitat selection and population vital rates of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse), recently designated as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act, within the Great Basin are not well-understood. The growing development of renewable energy infrastructure within areas inhabited by sage-grouse is thought to influence predator and vegetation communities. For example, common ravens (Corvus corax), a synanthropic sage-grouse nest predator, are increasing range-wide and select transmission lines and other tall structures for nesting and perching. In the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, we collected preliminary information of space-use, habitat selection, and population vital rates during the nesting and brood-rearing period over two years on 56 sage-grouse. Additionally, videography at nest sites (n = 22) was used to identify sage-grouse nest predators. The study area is a potential site for renewable energy developments (i.e., wind and solar), and we plan to continue monitoring this population using a before-after-control-impact study design. The results reported here are preliminary and further data are required before conclusions can be drawn from this population of sage-grouse.

  4. The relationship between age, rotator cuff integrity, and osseous microarchitecture of greater tuberosity: Where should we put anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholinne, Erica; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Jung; Park, So Hyun; Jeon, In-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of the greater tuberosity with or without rotator cuff tear and to obtain optimum location for anchor screw insertion for rotator cuff repair. Twenty-five humeral heads were harvested from 13 male cadavers of mean age 58.4 years, including 6 humeri with rotator cuff tear and 19 intact humeri. Six regions of interest (proximal, intermediate, and distal zones of the superficial and deep regions) were divided into the anterior (G1), middle (G2), and posterior (G3) areas of the greater tuberosity. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were evaluated. Total trabecular bone volume was greater in subjects 50 years old but did not differ significantly in subjects with and without rotator cuff tear. Cortical thickness in both intact and torn rotator cuff groups was significantly greater in the proximal and intermediate zones than in the distal zone. Cortical thickness was related to anatomic location rather than age or cuff tear. The optimal location for anchor screw insertion during rotator cuff repair is either the proximal or intermediate region of the greater tuberosity. Age has more influence in terms of trabecular bone volume loss than rotator cuff integrity. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Seasonal Habitat Use by Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on a Landscape with Low Density Oil and Gas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mindy B; Rossi, Liza G; Apa, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem has led to concern about a variety of sagebrush obligates including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Given the increase of energy development within greater sage-grouse habitats, mapping seasonal habitats in pre-development populations is critical. The North Park population in Colorado is one of the largest and most stable in the state and provides a unique case study for investigating resource selection at a relatively low level of energy development compared to other populations both within and outside the state. We used locations from 117 radio-marked female greater sage-grouse in North Park, Colorado to develop seasonal resource selection models. We then added energy development variables to the base models at both a landscape and local scale to determine if energy variables improved the fit of the seasonal models. The base models for breeding and winter resource selection predicted greater use in large expanses of sagebrush whereas the base summer model predicted greater use along the edge of riparian areas. Energy development variables did not improve the winter or the summer models at either scale of analysis, but distance to oil/gas roads slightly improved model fit at both scales in the breeding season, albeit in opposite ways. At the landscape scale, greater sage-grouse were closer to oil/gas roads whereas they were further from oil/gas roads at the local scale during the breeding season. Although we found limited effects from low level energy development in the breeding season, the scale of analysis can influence the interpretation of effects. The lack of strong effects from energy development may be indicative that energy development at current levels are not impacting greater sage-grouse in North Park. Our baseline seasonal resource selection maps can be used for conservation to help identify ways of minimizing the effects of energy development.

  6. Assessing the Wave Energy Potential of Jamaica, a Greater Antilles Island, through Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, A. P., Jr.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Taylor, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally wave energy has been on the rise as a result of the impacts of climate change and continuous fluctuation in oil prices. The water's inertia provides waves with greater stability than that of other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Jamaica is part of the Greater Antilles Arc and has over 1000 km of coast line with an abundance of shallow water approximately 80% within a 50km band. This configuration provides a wealth of sites for wave exploitation even in minimal wave energy conditions. Aside from harnessing the oceans waves converters can be viewed as a tool for protection of coastal areas against natural marine occurrences. Jamica has done extensive studies where solar, hydro and wind resouces are concerned. However, there has been no studies done to date on the country's wave energy resources.The aim of this study is to bridge this gap by characterizing Jamaica's wave energy resources generating in a half-closed Caribbean Sea using data available from: buoys, altimetric satellite, and numerical model. Available data has been used to assess the available resource on the coastal area for the last 12 years. Statistical analysis of the available energy is determined using the sea state (Hs, Tp and Dir) and the atmospheric forcing (10m-wind, atmospheric pressure, sea-air temperature) relating to the season.The chain of dynamical model is presented (WW3-SWAN-SWASH), allowing for the tracking of the propagation of the wave energy from an offshore region to nearshore zone along with their interaction with areas of shallow depth. This will provide a better assessment of the energy and the quality of the waves closer to the electrical grid.Climate prediction is used to estimate the sea state and wave energy exploitable up to 2100. An analysis of the possible usage of the available coastal resource up to 2100. The main results present small but exploitable resources with seasonal variability in the energy available but not wave direction.

  7. Cyclists Have Greater Chondromalacia Index Than Age-Matched Controls at the Time of Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V; Howse, Elizabeth A; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical symptoms and intraoperative pathology associated with hip pain in the cyclist compared with a matched hip arthroscopy surgical group. In an institutional review board-approved study, we retrospectively reviewed a prospective database of 1,200 consecutive hip arthroscopy patients from 2008 to 2015. Adult patients were identified who reported cycling as a major component of their activity. Patients were age, gender, and body mass index matched to a control, noncycling group. Pain symptoms, preoperative examinations, radiographic and operative findings were compared. Primary outcome variables included the femoral and acetabular Outerbridge chondromalacia grade. Additional outcome measurements included the involved area and the chondromalacia index (CMI; the product of the Outerbridge chondromalacia grade and surface area [mm 2  × severity]). A total of 167 noncyclists were matched to the cycling group (n = 16). Cyclists had significantly greater femoral head chondromalacia grade (2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.5] v 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.6], P = .043), femoral head chondromalacia area (242 mm 2 [95% CI, 191-293 mm 2 ] v 128 mm 2 [95% CI, 113-141 mm 2 ], P chondromalacia than a matched group of noncyclists. Cycling activity positively correlated with the presence of femoral chondromalacia with clinically significant gait alterations. These data support the hypothesis that cyclists with hip pain have more chondral pathology than a similar group of other patients with hip pain. Ultimately, cyclists with hip pain should be identified as higher risk for more advanced chondral damage. Level III, case-control study, therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Cain, Steven L.; Tyers, Daniel B.; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  9. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: Habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed empirical models predicting both species occurrence and fitness across a landscape are necessary to understand processes related to population persistence. Failure to consider both occurrence and fitness may result in incorrect assessments of habitat importance leading to inappropriate management strategies. We took a two-stage approach to identifying critical nesting and brood-rearing habitat for the endangered Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta at a landscape scale. First, we used logistic regression to develop spatial models predicting the relative probability of use (occurrence) for Sage-Grouse nests and broods. Secondly, we used Cox proportional hazards survival models to identify the most risky habitats across the landscape. We combined these two approaches to identify Sage-Grouse habitats that pose minimal risk of failure (source habitats) and attractive sink habitats that pose increased risk (ecological traps). Our models showed that Sage-Grouse select for heterogeneous patches of moderate sagebrush cover (quadratic relationship) and avoid anthropogenic edge habitat for nesting. Nests were more successful in heterogeneous habitats, but nest success was independent of anthropogenic features. Similarly, broods selected heterogeneous high-productivity habitats with sagebrush while avoiding human developments, cultivated cropland, and high densities of oil wells. Chick mortalities tended to occur in proximity to oil and gas developments and along riparian habitats. For nests and broods, respectively, approximately 10% and 5% of the study area was considered source habitat, whereas 19% and 15% of habitat was attractive sink habitat. Limited source habitats appear to be the main reason for poor nest success (39%) and low chick survival (12%). Our habitat models identify areas of protection priority and areas that require immediate management attention to enhance recruitment to secure the viability of this population. This novel

  10. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  11. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  12. Why shorter half-times of repair lead to greater damage in pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed brachytherapy consists of replacing continuous irradiation at low dose-rate with a series of medium dose-rate fractions in the same overall time and to the same total dose. For example, pulses of 1 Gy given every 2 hr or 2 Gy given every 4 hr would deliver the same 70 Gy in 140 hr as continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. If higher dose-rates are used, even with gaps between the pulses, the biological effects are always greater. Provided that dose rates in the pulse do not exceed 3 Gy/hr, and provided that pulses are given as often as every 2 hr, the inevitable increases of biological effect are no larger than a few percent (of biologically effective dose or extrapolated response dose). However, these increases are more likely to exceed 10% (and thus become clinically significant) if the half-time of repair of sublethal damage is short (less than 1 hr) rather than long. This somewhat unexpected finding is explained in detail here. The rise and fall of Biologically Effective Dose (and hence of Relative Effectiveness, for a constant dose in each pulse) is calculated during and after single pulses, assuming a range of values of T 1/2 , the half-time of sublethal damage repair. The area under each curve is proportional to Biologically Effective Dose and therefore to log cell kill. Pulses at 3 Gy/hr do yield greater biological effect (dose x integrated Relative Effectiveness) than lower dose-rate pulses or continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. The contrast is greater for the short T 1/2 of 0.5 hr than for the longer T 1/2 of 1.5 hr. More biological damage will be done (compared with traditional low dose rate brachytherapy) in tissues with short T 1/2 (0.1-1 hr) than in tissues with longer T 1/2 values. 8 refs., 3 figs

  13. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  14. Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, C; Parsons, C; Godfrey, K; Robinson, S; Harvey, N C; Inskip, H; Cooper, C; Baird, J

    2016-03-01

    A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years. Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years. The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in

  15. Inter-comparison of interpolated background nitrogen dioxide concentrations across Greater Manchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S. J.; Walsh, T.

    There are many modelling methods dedicated to the estimation of spatial patterns in pollutant concentrations, each with their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. The derivation of a surface of air quality values from monitoring data alone requires the conversion of point-based data from a limited number of monitoring stations to a continuous surface using interpolation. Since interpolation techniques involve the estimation of data at un-sampled points based on calculated relationships between data measured at a number of known sample points, they are subject to some uncertainty, both in terms of the values estimated and their spatial distribution. These uncertainties, which are incorporated into many empirical and semi-empirical mapping methodologies, could be recognised in any further usage of the data and also in the assessment of the extent of an exceedence of an air quality standard and the degree of exposure this may represent. There is a wide range of available interpolation techniques and the differences in the characteristics of these result in variations in the output surfaces estimated from the same set of input points. The work presented in this paper provides an examination of uncertainties through the application of a number of interpolation techniques available in standard GIS packages to a case study nitrogen dioxide data set for the Greater Manchester conurbation in northern England. The implications of the use of different techniques are discussed through application to hourly concentrations during an air quality episode and annual average concentrations in 2001. Patterns of concentrations demonstrate considerable differences in the estimated spatial pattern of maxima as the combined effects of chemical processes, topography and meteorology. In the case of air quality episodes, the considerable spatial variability of concentrations results in large uncertainties in the surfaces produced but these uncertainties vary widely from area to area

  16. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions

  17. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  18. Anatomical basis for simultaneous block of greater and third occipital nerves, with an ultrasound-guided technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Ken; Usui, Yosuke; Higashi, Naoko; Nakamoto, Tatsuo; Shimbori, Hironobu; Terada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Ueta, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Yusuke; Sawanobori, Yasushi; Okuda, Yasuhisa; Matsuno, Kenjiro

    2017-11-13

    In some headache disorders, for which the greater occipital nerve block is partly effective, the third occipital nerve is also suggested to be involved. We aimed to establish a simple technique for simultaneously blocking the greater and third occipital nerves. We performed a detailed examination of dorsal neck anatomy in 33 formalin-fixed cadavers, and deduced two candidate target points for blocking both the greater and third occipital nerves. These target points were tested on three Thiel-fixed cadavers. We performed ultrasound-guided dye injections into these points, examined the results by dissection, and selected the most suitable injection point. Finally, this target point was tested in three healthy volunteers. We injected 4 ml of local anesthetic and 1 ml of radiopaque material at the selected point, guided with a standard ultrasound system. Then, the pattern of local anesthetic distribution was imaged with computed tomography. We deduced that the most suitable injection point was the medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle at the C1 level of the cervical vertebra. Both nerves entered this muscle, in close proximity, with little individual variation. In healthy volunteers, an anesthetic injected was confined to the muscle and induced anesthesia in the skin areas innervated by both nerves. The medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle is a suitable landmark for blocking the greater and third occipital nerves simultaneously, by which occipital nerve involvement in various headache disorders may be rapidly examined and treated.

  19. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  20. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    , or sedimentation rates and (3) diagenetic history (Makhloufi et al., 2017). A detail structural characterization of the basin using 2D seismic data reveals the existence of several wrench fault zones and intra-basinal thrusts across the basin, which could act as hydraulic conduits and play a key role in connecting the most productive reservoir facies. To understand the propagation of these heterogeneous reservoirs, rock types are currently defined and will be integrated into 3D geological models. This integrated study allows us to understand better the distribution and properties of productive reservoir facies as well as hydraulic connectivity zones within the study area. This provides consistent knowledge for future geothermal exploration steps toward the successful development of this sustainable energy resource in the Greater Geneva Basin. Brentini et al. 2017 : Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin: integration of geological data in the new Information System. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria Clerc et al. 2016 : Structural Modeling of the Geneva Basin for Geothermal Ressource Assessment. Abstract, 14th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland Makhloufi et al. 2017 : Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France) : impact of diagenesis on reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate sediments. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria Moscariello, A. 2016 : Geothermal exploration in SW Switzerland, Proceeding , European Geotermal Congress 2016, Strasbourg, France

  1. Annual survival rate estimate of satellite transmitter–marked eastern population greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David E.; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Several surveys have documented the increasing population size and geographic distribution of Eastern Population greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida since the 1960s. Sport hunting of this population of sandhill cranes started in 2012 following the provisions of the Eastern Population Sandhill Crane Management Plan. However, there are currently no published estimates of Eastern Population sandhill crane survival rate that can be used to inform harvest management. As part of two studies of Eastern Population sandhill crane migration, we deployed solar-powered global positioning system platform transmitting terminals on Eastern Population sandhill cranes (n  =  42) at key concentration areas from 2009 to 2012. We estimated an annual survival rate for Eastern Population sandhill cranes from data resulting from monitoring these cranes by using the known-fates model in the MARK program. Estimated annual survival rate for adult Eastern Population sandhill cranes was 0.950 (95% confidence interval  =  0.885–0.979) during December 2009–August 2014. All fatalities (n  =  5) occurred after spring migration in late spring and early summer. We were unable to determine cause of death for crane fatalities in our study. Our survival rate estimate will be useful when combined with other population parameters such as the population index derived from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fall survey, harvest, and recruitment rates to assess the effects of harvest on population size and trend and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies.

  2. Adverse child health impacts resulting from food adulterations in the Greater China Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai Chin; Chow, Chin Fung

    2017-09-01

    Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: (1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and (2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and melamine, are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer. To detect food adulteration and to avoid further harm caused by food adulteration, simple screening methods have been developed, and they have recently emerged as a new focus area for research. This article also summarizes the simple screening methods used to analyse the aforementioned food adulterants and reports how governments reacted to the recent food incidents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and management practices for dogs in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Ama Mawuko Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariosis and ancylostomosis remain the most important parasitic infections affecting companion animals worldwide and pose a risk to animal and human health. Information on these infections in dogs in Ghana is inadequate. A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths infections and management practices of dogs in the Greater Accra Region (GAR of Ghana. Faecal samples were obtained from 380 dogs from communities in 11 out of 16 districts in the GAR. Coprological examination of the samples was performed using the modified McMaster technique. Management practices for control of helminths in dogs were assessed through questionnaire interviews of the dog owners. Most dogs (70.7% were kept for security reasons and were not housed (61.8%. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 62.6%. Hookworm eggs were found in 178 (46.8% dogs, Toxocara canis eggs in 22 (5.8% and mixed infections of hookworms and T. canis in 38 (10.0%. Dipylidium caninum was found in 51 (13.4% dogs, while Isospora species was in 33 (8.5% dogs. Most households (68%; 133/194 of the sampled dogs had at least a child below the age of 5 years. Hookworm, T. canis and D. caninum were the zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths prevalent in dogs in the study area. Lack of housing for dogs creates ideal conditions for infection and spread of the zoonotic parasites.

  4. Alpine plant distribution and thermic vegetation indicator on Gloria summits in the central Greater Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, K.; Abdaladze, O.; Nakhutsrishvili, G

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of plant species within alpine areas is often directly related to climate or climate-influenced ecological factors. Responding to observed changes in plant species, cover and composition on the GLORIA summits in the Central Caucasus, an extensive setup of 1m * 1m permanent plots was established at the treeline-alpine zones and nival ecotone (between 2240 and 3024 m a.s.l.) on the main watershed range of the Central Greater Caucasus nearby the Cross Pass, Kazbegi region, Georgia. Recording was repeated in a representative selection of 64 quadrates in 2008. The local climatic factors - average soil T degree C and growing degree days (GDD) did not show significant increasing trends. For detection of climate warming we used two indices: thermic vegetation indicator S and thermophilization indicator D. They were varying along altitudinal and exposition gradients. The thermic vegetation indicator decrease in all monitoring summits. The abundance rank of the dominant and endemic species did not change during monitoring period. (author)

  5. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Botwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity concentrations (Bq kg−1 dw were 34 for 238U, 210 for 210Pb, 14 for 226Ra, 30 for 232Th, 29 for 228Ra, 31 for 228Th, 320 for 40K, and 1.5 for 137Cs. Large 238U/226Ra disequilibria were observed in the harbour sediments and a complex dynamics of several mixed sources of sediments within the Tema Harbour can be inferred from the spatial variations in the radioactivity concentrations. The estimated total absorbed dose rate in air (D, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE indicated no significant radiological risks from the sediment radioactivity concentrations. Application of the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants Assessment and Management tool (ERICA confirmed that the potential dose rates to biota from the sediment radioactivity concentrations are unlikely to pose appreciable ecological risks. The radioactivity levels are compared with levels reported in sediments from other coastal areas of the world.

  6. Contribution of land use changes to meteorological parameters in Greater Jakarta: Case 17 January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto, D. E.; Pawitan, H.; Hidayat, R.; Aldrian, E.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of land use changes on meteorological parameters during a heavy rainfall event on 17 January 2014 in Greater Jakarta (GJ) was examined using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This study performed two experimental simulation methods. The first WRF simulation uses default land use (CTL). The second simulation applies the experiment by changing the size of urban and built-up land use (SCE). The Global Forecast System (GFS) data is applied to provide more realistic initial and boundary conditions for the nested model domains (3 km, 1 km). The simulations were initiated at 00:00 UTC January 13, 2014 and the period of modeling was equal to six days. The air temperature and the precipitation pattern in GJ shows a good agreement between the observed and simulated data. The results show a consistent significant contribution of urban development and accompany land use changes in air temperature and precipitation. According to the model simulation, urban and built-up land contributed about 6% of heavy rainfall and about 0.2 degrees of air temperatures in the morning. Simulations indicate that new urban developments led to an intensification and expansion of the rain area. The results can support the decision-making of flooding and watershed management.

  7. Greater Vancouver regional district air quality management plan : implementation status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In December 1994, an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District. The AQMP included ways to improve air quality in the region, leading to reduced emissions from commercial and industrial operations. This Plan encourages cooperation with the various communities affected to achieve clean air lifestyles and manage emissions from human activity to enhance human health and the integrity of the environment. The reduction of total emissions of the common air contaminants sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds by 38 per cent is the stated aim of the AQMP. Five years of planning resulted in the formulation of the AQMP. The issues addressed were assigned one of four priorities as follows: priority 1 deals with ground level ozone and fine particulate, priority 2 looks at visibility, hazardous air pollutants, and global climate change, priority 3 concerns odour, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acidic deposition, and nitrogen dioxide, and priority 4 contains total suspended particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. A total of 54 Emission Reduction Measures were established, and the document reviewed them. Progress is being made in all areas. 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Effects of spring conditions on breeding propensity of Greater Snow Goose females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed, E. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding propensity, defined as the probability that a sexually mature adult will breed in a given year, is an important determinant of annual productivity. It is also one of the least known demographic parameters in vertebrates. We studied the relationship between breeding propensity and conditions on spring staging areas (a spring conservation hunt and the breeding grounds (spring snow cover in Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica, a long distance migrant that breeds in the High Arctic. We combined information from mark–recapture, telemetry, and nest survey data to estimate breeding propensity over a 7– year period. True temporal variation in breeding propensity was considerable (mean: 0.574 [95% CI considering only process variation: 0.13 to 1.0]. Spring snow cover was negatively related to breeding propensity (bsnow=-2,05 ± 0,96 SE and tended to be reduced in years with a spring hunt (b = -0,78 ± 0,35. Nest densities on the breeding colony and fall ratios of young:adults were good indices of annual variation in breeding propensity, with nest densities being slightly more precise. These results suggest that conditions encountered during the pre-breeding period can have a significant impact on productivity of Arctic-nesting birds

  9. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  10. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-04-01

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, US. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from both bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one found in local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another found mainly in elk and a bison from Wyoming, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  11. Frequency of gamma-ray bursts greater than 3 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, G.H.; Wood, K.; Meekins, J.; Yantis, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented for gamma-ray burst observations with the Large Area Sky Survey instrument on HEAD-1. It is noted that during the time HEAD-1 was operational, the instrument detected at least 12 confirmed gamma-ray bursts with intensities greater than 3 microerg/sq cm and identified six additional unconfirmed bursts. The rates of gamma-ray bursts are estimated to be about 125 per yr for intensities greater than 3 microserg/sq cm and approximately 50 per yr for intensities preater than 10 microerg/yr. The data are shown to yield a log N - log S relation for gamma-ray bursts that is consistent with a spherical distrubution of sources within the Galaxy and having a broad range of intrinsic luminosities

  12. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  13. Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Jinxun; Dahal, Devendra; Young, Claudia; Davis, Brian; Sohl, Terry L; Hawbaker, Todd J; Sleeter, Ben; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the concurrent change in wildfire events and land use comprehensively affect carbon dynamics in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The purpose of this study was to project the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) under these changes from 2006 to 2050. We selected three emission scenarios and produced simulations with the CENTURY model using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) for each scenario. We also incorporated projected land use change and fire occurrence into the carbon accounting. The three GCMs showed increases in maximum and minimum temperature, but precipitation projections varied among GCMs. Total ecosystem carbon increased steadily from 7,942 gC/m 2 in 2006 to 10,234 gC/m 2 in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 53 gC/m 2 /year. About 56.6% and 27% of the increasing rate was attributed to total live carbon and total soil carbon, respectively. Net Primary Production (NPP) increased slightly from 260 gC/m 2 /year in 2006 to 310 gC/m 2 /year in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 1.22 gC/m 2 /year. Forest clear-cutting and fires resulted in direct carbon removal; however, the rate was low at 2.44 gC/m 2 /year during 2006-2050. The area of clear-cutting and wildfires in the GYE would account for 10.87% of total forested area during 2006-2050, but the predictive simulations demonstrated different spatial distributions in national forests and national parks. The GYE is a carbon sink during 2006-2050. The capability of vegetation is almost double that of soil in terms of sequestering extra carbon. Clear-cutting and wildfires in GYE will affect 10.87% of total forested area, but direct carbon removal from clear-cutting and fires is 109.6 gC/m 2 , which accounts for only 1.2% of the mean ecosystem carbon level of 9,056 gC/m 2 , and thus is not significant.

  14. The impact of visual air quality on tourism revenues in Greater Vancouver and the Lower Fraser Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, R. [Environment Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Roberge, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Greater Vancouver area has been experiencing common episodes of poor visibility as a result of urban and agricultural sources of emissions. A study was conducted to determine the response of tourists in the Vancouver and Lower Fraser Valley Regions to visible air quality and to estimate the potential losses in tourist revenue due to poor visibility episodes. This was accomplished using an interactive survey of tourists in 1999. The results were statistically analyzed to develop visibility response functions. A simple economic model based on the visibility response function was then created to predict losses in tourist revenue. The group of tourists were shown four photographic slides of the Valley and Vancouver area depicting various stages of degradation in visibility. They were asked to rate each slide as either acceptable or unacceptable (if they would not make a return visit). Unacceptability rates for the four camera locations were statistically analyzed. The effect of clouds and the measurable visibility parameter was examined. The model predicts future tourist revenue losses in the amount of $7.45 million for the Greater Vancouver Area and $1.32 million in the Fraser Valley. It was recommended that further research should be conducted with more camera locations to provide a wider variety of viewpoints for assessment. This study can provide direction in setting policies to improve visibility in the region. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  15. Equating spatial summation in visual field testing reveals greater loss in optic nerve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloniatis, Michael; Khuu, Sieu K

    2016-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that visual field assessment in ocular disease measured with target stimuli within or close to complete spatial summation results in larger threshold elevation compared to when measured with the standard Goldmann III target size. The hypothesis predicts a greater loss will be identified in ocular disease. Additionally, we sought to develop a theoretical framework that would allow comparisons of thresholds with disease progression when using different Goldmann targets. The Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA) 30-2 grid was used in 13 patients with early/established optic nerve disease using the current Goldmann III target size or a combination of the three smallest stimuli (target size I, II and III). We used data from control subjects at each of the visual field locations for the different target sizes to establish the number of failed points (events) for the patients with optic nerve disease, as well as global indices for mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). The 30-2 visual field testing using alternate target size stimuli showed that all 13 patients displayed more defects (events) compared to the standard Goldmann III target size. The median increase for events was seven additional failed points: (range 1-26). The global indices also increased when the new testing approach was used (MD -3.47 to -6.25 dB and PSD 4.32 to 6.63 dB). Spatial summation mapping showed an increase in critical area (Ac) in disease and overall increase in thresholds when smaller target stimuli were used. When compared to the current Goldmann III paradigm, the use of alternate sized targets within the 30-2 testing protocol revealed a greater loss in patients with optic nerve disease for both event analysis and global indices (MD and PSD). We therefore provide evidence in a clinical setting that target size is important in visual field testing. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  17. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure in a distinct population segment of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) within the Bi-State Management Zone (area along the border between Nevada and California) are geographically isolated on the southwestern edge of the species’ range. Previous research demonstrated that this population is genetically unique, with a high proportion of unique mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and with significant differences in microsatellite allele frequencies compared to populations across the species’ range. As a result, this population was considered a distinct population segment (DPS) and was recently proposed for listing as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. A more comprehensive understanding of the boundaries of this genetically unique population (where the Bi-State population begins) and an examination of genetic structure within the Bi-State is needed to help guide effective management decisions. We collected DNA from eight sampling locales within the Bi-State (N = 181) and compared those samples to previously collected DNA from the two most proximal populations outside of the Bi-State DPS, generating mtDNA sequence data and amplifying 15 nuclear microsatellites. Both mtDNA and microsatellite analyses support the idea that the Bi-State DPS represents a genetically unique population, which has likely been separated for thousands of years. Seven mtDNA haplotypes were found exclusively in the Bi-State population and represented 73 % of individuals, while three haplotypes were shared with neighboring populations. In the microsatellite analyses both STRUCTURE and FCA separate the Bi-State from the neighboring populations. We also found genetic structure within the Bi-State as both types of data revealed differences between the northern and southern part of the Bi-State and there was evidence of isolation-by-distance. STRUCTURE revealed three subpopulations within the Bi-State consisting of the northern Pine Nut Mountains (PNa), mid Bi-State, and White Mountains (WM) following a

  18. Greater sage-grouse science (2015–17)—Synthesis and potential management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Tull, John C.; Carr, Natasha B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Bargsten, Travis D.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Coates, Peter S.; Crist, Michele R.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Ellsworth, Ethan A.; Foster, Lee J.; Herren, Vicki A.; Miller, Kevin H.; Moser, Ann; Naeve, Robin M.; Prentice, Karen L.; Remington, Thomas E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Truex, Richard L.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wilson, Dereck C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2018-02-15

    Strategy Actionable Science Plan Team, 2016).In October 2017, after a review of the 2015 Federal plans relative to State sage-grouse plans, in accordance with Secretarial Order 3353, the BLM issued a notice of intent to consider whether to amend some, all, or none of the 2015 land use plans. At that time, the BLM requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to inform this effort through the development of an annotated bibliography of sage-grouse science published since January 2015 and a report that synthesized and outlined the potential management implications of this new science. Development of the annotated bibliography resulted in the identification and summarization of 169 peer-reviewed scientific publications and reports. The USGS then convened an interagency team (hereafter referred to as the “team”) to develop this report that focuses on the primary topics of importance to the ongoing management of sage-grouse and their habitats.The team developed this report in a three-step process. First, the team identified six primary topic areas for discussion based on the members’ collective knowledge regarding sage-grouse, their habitats, and threats to either or both. Second, the team reviewed all the material in the “Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Research on Greater Sage-Grouse Published since January 2015” to identify the science that addressed the topics. Third, team members discussed the science related to each topic, evaluated the consistency of the science with existing knowledge before 2015, and summarized the potential management implications of this science. The six primary topics identified by the team were:Multiscale habitat suitability and mapping toolsDiscrete anthropogenic activitiesDiffuse activitiesFire and invasive speciesRestoration effectivenessPopulation estimation and genetics

  19. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher C.; Rumble, Mark A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this region of their distribution. We evaluated factors influencing greater sage-grouse winter habitat use in North Dakota during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 and in South Dakota during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. We captured and radio-marked 97 breeding-age females and 54 breeding-age males from 2005 to 2007 and quantified habitat selection for 98 of these birds that were alive during winter. We collected habitat measurements at 340 (177 ND, 163 SD) sage-grouse use sites and 680 random (340 each at 250 m and 500 m from locations) dependent sites. Use sites differed from random sites with greater percent sagebrush cover (14.75% use vs. 7.29% random; P 2 use vs. 0.94 plants/m2 random; P ≤ 0.001), but lesser percent grass cover (11.76% use vs. 16.01% random; P ≤ 0.001) and litter cover (4.34% use vs. 5.55% random; P = 0.001) and lower sagebrush height (20.02 cm use vs. 21.35 cm random; P = 0.13) and grass height (21.47 cm use vs. 23.21 cm random; P = 0.15). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate winter habitat selection by sage-grouse on continuous scales. The model sagebrush cover + sagebrush height + sagebrush cover × sagebrush height (wi = 0.60) was the most supported of the 13 models we considered, indicating that percent sagebrush cover strongly influenced selection. Logistic odds ratios indicated that the probability of selection by sage-grouse increased by 1.867 for every 1% increase in sagebrush cover (95% CI = 1.627–2.141) and by 1.041 for every 1 cm increase in sagebrush height (95% CI = 1.002–1.082). The

  20. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  1. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rådbo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41 where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas.

  2. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  3. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  4. Perceptions and practices regarding herbal medicine prescriptions among physicians in Greater Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala Aeddine, Nada; Khayat, Mohamed; Alawieh, Hanaa; Adibilly, Siham; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    This survey aimed at assessing the perceptions of physicians regarding the appropriateness of prescribing herbal medicines (HM), their prescribing patterns and their knowledge regarding the interaction between HM and conventional drugs. No data are currently available in Lebanon concerning the frequency of HM prescription and indications. HM poorly prescribed can affect the overall quality of health among patients taking conventional drugs. This descriptive survey study was conducted in the Greater Beirut area in Lebanon during May-June 2009. All Primary Health Care (PHC) physicians in private community-based solo practice were identified from the Lebanese Order of Physicians listing, contacted and invited to participate. Those who agreed had to complete a pre-piloted face-to-face questionnaire. Of two hundred twelve participating physicians, 45% routinely prescribed HM to their patients. Between 64 to 67% prescribers believed that HM have more benefits, faster results and fewer side effects than conventional drugs. In addition, 58% thought that HM were less expensive, and 76% that they were easier to take than conventional drugs. More importantly, in a series of eight questions concerning the physicians' knowledge about the possible mechanism of drug-herb interactions, the general tendency was towards poor knowledge. A good percentage of PHC physicians who routinely prescribe HM do not know their mechanism of action or their possible interactions with the conventional drugs. Knowledge about mechanism of drug-herb interactions should be an integral part of the medical curriculum. The knowledge about HM should be an integral part of the medical curriculum as they are frequently prescribed by PHC physicians.

  5. A first approximation for modeling the liquid diffusion pathway at the greater confinement disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olague, N.E.; Price, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The greater confinement disposal (GCD) project is an ongoing project examining the disposal of orphan wastes in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. One of the major tasks for the project is performance assessment. With regard to performance assessment, a preliminary conceptual model for ground-water flow and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment at the GCD facilities has been developed. One of the transport pathways that has been postulated is diffusion of radionuclides in the liquid phase upward to the land surface. This pathway is not usually considered in a performance assessment, but is included in the GCD conceptual model because of relatively low recharge estimates at the GCD site and the proximity of the waste to the land surface. These low recharge estimates indicate that convective flow downward to the water table may be negligible; thus, diffusion upward to the land surface may then become important. As part of a preliminary performance assessment which considered a basecase scenario and a climate-change scenario, a first approximation for modeling the liquid-diffusion pathway was formulated. The model includes an analytical solution that incorporates both diffusion and radioactivity decay. Overall, these results indicate that, despite the configuration of the GCD facilities that establishes the need for considering the liquid-diffusion pathway, the GCD disposal concept appears to be a technically feasible method for disposing of orphan wastes. Future analyses will consist of investigating the underlying assumptions of the liquid-diffusion model, refining the model is necessary, and reducing uncertainty in the input parameters. 11 refs., 6 figs

  6. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Lizard activity and abundance greater in burned habitat of a xeric montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Kevin L.; Moore, Clinton; Johnson, Kristine D.; Maerz, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Restoring the natural or historical state of ecosystems is a common objective among resource managers, but determining whether desired system responses to management actions are occurring is often protracted and challenging. For wildlife, the integration of mechanistic habitat modeling with population monitoring may provide expedited measures of management effectiveness and improve understanding of how management actions succeed or fail to recover populations. Southern Appalachia is a region of high biodiversity that has undergone dramatic change as a result of human activities such as historic logging, exotic invasions, and alteration of disturbance regimes—including reduction in application of fire. Contemporary efforts to restore fire-maintained ecosystems within southern Appalachian forests require tools to assess the effects of fire management practices on individual animal fitness and relate them to corresponding influences on species abundance. Using automated sensing equipment, we investigated the effects of burned forests on reptile habitat suitability within the western portion of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. Specifically, we used microclimate measurements to model northern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus diurnal activity budgets in unburned and variable burn age (3–27-y) forest stands. We estimated northern fence lizard occurrence and abundance along transects through burned and unburned forests. Burned forest stands had microclimates that resulted in longer modeled daily activity periods under most conditions during summer. S. undulatus abundance was 4.75 times greater on burned stands compared to paired unburned stands, although the relationship between burn age and abundance was not well determined. Results suggest the more open habitat structure of burned areas within these xeric pine–oak forests may benefit S. undulatus.

  8. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  9. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  10. Late Triassic sedimentary records in the northern Tethyan Himalaya: Tectonic link with Greater India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic flysch sediments (Nieru Formation and Langjiexue Group exposed in the Eastern Tethyan Himalayan Sequence are crucial for unraveling the controversial paleogeography and paleotectonics of the Himalayan orogen. This work reports new detrital zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for clastic rocks from flysch strata in the Shannan area. The mineral modal composition data suggest that these units were mainly sourced from recycled orogen provenances. The chemical compositions of the sandstones in the strata are similar to the chemical composition of upper continental crust. These rocks have relatively low Chemical Index of Alteration values (with an average of 62 and Index of Compositional Variability values (0.69, indicating that they experienced weak weathering and were mainly derived from a mature source. The geochemical compositions of the Upper Triassic strata are similar to those of graywackes from continental island arcs and are indicative of an acidic-intermediate igneous source. Furthermore, hornblende and feldspar experienced decomposition in the provenance, and the sediment became enriched in zircon and monazite during sediment transport. The detrital zircons in the strata feature two main age peaks at 225–275 Ma and 500–600 Ma, nearly continuous Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic ages, and a broad inconspicuous cluster in the Tonian–Stenian (800–1200 Ma. The detrital zircons from the Upper Triassic sandstones in the study area lack peaks at 300–325 Ma (characteristic of the Lhasa block and 1150–1200 Ma (characteristic of the Lhasa and West Australia blocks. Therefore, neither the Lhasa block nor the West Australia blocks likely acted as the main provenance of the Upper Triassic strata. Newly discovered Permian–Triassic basalt and mafic dikes in the Himalayas could have provided the 225–275 Ma detrital zircons. Therefore, Indian and Himalayan units were the main provenances of the flysch

  11. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 151 soil samples and 135 canine faecal samples were collected from 7 public sandpits and 12 public parks, over a 4 month-period. Soil samples were tested by a modified centrifugation and sedimentation/flotation technique and faecal samples were tested by an adaptation of the Cornell-Wisconsin method. Molecular analysis and sequencing were performed to discriminate Toxocara species in the soil. Overall, 85.7% of the sandpits (6/7) and 50.0% of the parks (6/12) were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The molecular analysis of soil samples showed that, 85.5% of the sandpits and 34.4% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara cati eggs. Faecal analysis showed that 12.5% of the sandpits and 3.9% of the parks contained Toxocara canis eggs. In total, 53.0% of soil and 5.9% of faecal samples were positive for Toxocara spp. Additionally, 56.0% of the eggs recovered from the samples were embryonated after 60 days of incubation, therefore considered viable and infective. The average density was 4.2 eggs per hundred grams of soil. Public parks and playground sandpits in the Lisbon area were found to be heavily contaminated with T. cati eggs, representing a serious menace to public health as the studied areas represent common places where people of all ages, particularly children, recreate. This study sounds an alarm bell regarding the necessity to undertake effective measures such as reduction of stray animals, active faecal

  12. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  13. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  14. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  15. Hierarchical population structure in greater sage-grouse provides insight into management boundary delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd B. Cross; David E. Naugle; John C. Carlson; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population structure is important for guiding ongoing conservation and restoration efforts. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a species of concern distributed across 1.2 million km2 of western North America. We genotyped 1499 greater sagegrouse from 297 leks across Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota using a 15 locus...

  16. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  17. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  18. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  19. Fire patterns in the range of the greater sage-grouse, 1984-2013 — Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-09-10

    Fire ranks among the top three threats to the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) throughout its range, and among the top two threats in the western part of its range. The national research strategy for this species and the recent U.S. Department of the Interior Secretarial Order 3336 call for science-based threats assessment of fire to inform conservation planning and fire management efforts. The cornerstone of such assessments is a clear understanding of where fires are occurring and what aspects of fire regimes may be shifting outside of their historical range of variation. This report fulfills this need by describing patterns of fire area, fire size, fire rotation, and fire season length and timing from 1984 to 2013 across the range of the greater sage-grouse. This information need is further addressed by evaluating the ecological and management implications of these fire patterns. Analyses are stratified by major vegetation types and the seven greater sage-grouse management zones, delineated regionally as four western and three eastern management zones. Soil temperature and moisture indicators of resilience to fire and resistance to cheatgrass invasion, and the potential for establishment of a grass/fire cycle, are used as unifying concepts in developing fire threat assessments for each analysis strata.

  20. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldekoa, Joana; Medici, Chiara; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Marcé, Rafael; Barceló, Damià; Francés, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results

  1. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldekoa, Joana, E-mail: joaalma2@cam.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Medici, Chiara [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Marcé, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Francés, Félix [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  2. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  3. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  4. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  5. Beaver Activity, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream Scales in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) have been part of the fluvial and riparian landscape across much of North America since the Pleistocene, increasing channel habitat complexity and expanding riparian landscapes. The fur trade, however, decimated beaver populations by the 1840s, and other human activities have limited beaver in many areas, including parts of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Understanding fluctuations in beaver occupation through the Holocene will aid in understanding the natural range of variability in beaver activity as well as climatic and anthropogenic impacts to fluvial systems. We are developing a detailed chronology of beaver-assisted sedimentation and overall fluvial activity for Odell and Red Rock Creeks (basin areas 83 and 99 km2) in Centennial Valley (CV), Montana, to augment related studies on the long-term effects of beaver on smaller GYE fluvial systems (basin areas 0.1-50 km2). In developing the CV chronology, we use the presence of concentrations of beaver-chewed sticks as a proxy for beaver occupancy. Beaver-stick deposits are found in paleochannel and fluvial terrace exposures. The relative ages of exposures were determined by elevation data from airborne LiDAR and ground surveys. Numerical ages were obtained from 36 14C ages (~30 more are pending) of beaver-stick wood collected during investigation of the stratigraphy. Most beaver-stick deposits are associated with ~ 1 meter of fine-grained sediment, interpreted as overbank deposits, commonly overlying gravelly sand or pebble gravel channel deposits which is consistent with enhanced overbank sedimentation associated with active beaver dams in CV streams. The CV deposits differ from those on smaller GYE streams where beaver-stick deposits are associated with abandoned dams (berms), infilled ponds and laminated sediments. The lack of pond-related deposition associated with CV beaver-stick deposits is consistent with frequent dam breaching (≤ 5 years) in the modern channel of Odell

  6. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  7. Assessing Climate Vulnerabilities of Food Distribution Center Sites in Greater Boston and Their Regional Implications: Climate Adaptation Planning in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, A.; Watson, C.; Douglas, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Metro Boston region, an area whose civic leaders have been at the forefront of climate resilience initiatives in recent years, is finalizing a flood vulnerability assessment of food distribution center sites located north of Boston, with the support of the University of Massachusetts Boston and the American Geophysical Union's Thriving Earth Exchange program. The community-scientist collaboration emerged because of the need for more local analyses of the area to inform climate resiliency policy and planning actions for the region. A significant amount of the metro region's food supply passes through two major distribution centers in the cities of Everett and Chelsea, just north of the Mystic River. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), on behalf of the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce, is working with Chris Watson and Ellen Douglas of UMass Boston to build on existing analyses of the region's food system and climate vulnerabilities and to develop a report identifying flood risk exposure to the sites. The analysis brings in dynamic modeling techniques that incorporate storm surge and sea level rise projections under different climate scenarios, and aims to align methodologies with those of other regional analyses, such as Climate Ready Boston and the City of Cambridge's Vulnerability Assessment. The study is helping to inform MAPC's and the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce's understanding of this critical food distribution infrastructure, illustrate the larger regional implications of climate impacts on food distribution in the Greater Boston area, and guide the development of site-specific strategies for addressing identified vulnerabilities.

  8. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  9. Climate Change Transforms Fire Regimes but Does not Eliminate Forest Carbon Sequestration in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, P. D.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Berryman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Annual area burned in the Rocky Mountains varies with climatic conditions. However, projecting long-term changes in wildfire presents an enduring challenge because climate also constrains vegetation and fuel availability. We combined an aridity-threshold fire model with the Landis-II dynamic landscape vegetation model (NECN extension) to project climate change impacts on vegetation, area burned, and ecosystem carbon balance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). We developed a fire model that relates drought stress to area burned by quantifying an aridity threshold separating large and small years in 15 ecoregions in the Intermountain West. A significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.97) exists between mean fire-season aridity and ecoregion-specific aridity thresholds. We simulated vegetation and fire dynamics in the GYE at 250 m spatial resolution with Landis-II, using projections from five climate models and two emissions scenarios for the period 1980-2100 AD. We determined if each simulation year exceeded the regional aridity threshold, then randomly drew the number of fires and size of individual fires from fire-size distributions from large or small fire years. Burned area increases dramatically in most climate scenarios, especially after 2060, when most years exceed the aridity threshold. Productivity gains due to rising temperatures partially offset biomass lost to fire, but C stocks plateau or decline after 2060 in most simulations as burned area increases, and drought stress causes post-fire regeneration to decline at low elevations. However, species level changes (e.g. expansion by drought-tolerant Pseuodotsuga menziesii) help maintain productivity in sites where water becomes limiting. Fire-adapted Pinus contorta occupies less total area, but a greater proportion of remaining forests, and Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa significantly decline. Although fire and climate change will alter species distributions and forest structure, our results

  10. Use of locking plates for fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison K. Tetreault, BA

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Locking plate technology is a successful method of fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with THA. Postoperative trochanteric pain and reoperation for hardware-related issues remain a challenge.

  11. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, A; Basso, L; Di Giacomo, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Basile, U; De Toma, G

    2003-12-01

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.

  12. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  13. On Graceful Spider Graphs with at Most Four Legs of Lengths Greater than One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graceful labeling of a tree T with n edges is a bijection f:V(T→{0,1,2,…,n} such that {|f(u-f(v|:uv∈E(T} equal to {1,2,…,n}. A spider graph is a tree with at most one vertex of degree greater than 2. We show that all spider graphs with at most four legs of lengths greater than one admit graceful labeling.

  14. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Smith, Douglas W

    2010-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50000-100000 individuals for moderate persistence (> 50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding adjustments

  15. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz; Sombilla, Mercedita A.; Cueno, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to generate

  16. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, E.S.; Cross, P.C.; Smith, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50 000-100 000 individuals for moderate persistence (>50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding

  17. Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Ahmed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess surface and groundwater quality of the greater Chittagong (Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar districts and Chittagong Hill Tracts (Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban districts of Bangladesh. To study the various physicochemical and microbiological parameters, surface water samples from the Karnafuli, Halda, Sangu, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Naf, Kasalong, Chingri and Mayani Rivers, Kaptai Lake and groundwater samples from almost every Upazilas, smaller administrative unit of Bangladesh, were collected and analyzed. The statistical methods of sampling were used for collecting samples. Samples were preserved using suitable preservation methods. Water samples from the freshwater resources were collected from different points and tide conditions and at different seasons for continuous monitoring during the hydrological years 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed for the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, total solids (TS, dissolved oxygen (DO, transparency, acidity, dissolved carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, ammonia-N, hydrogen sulfide, sulphate-S, o-phosphate-P, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total nitrite and nitrate-N, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium using the procedure outlined in the standard methods. Average values of maximum physicochemical and microbiological parameters studied for the Karnafuli River were found higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline. The maximum water quality parameters of Kaptai Lake and other Rivers of Chittagong region were existed within the permissible limits of WHO guideline. The data showed the water quality slightly differs in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon than monsoon season. The concentration of different constituents of most of

  18. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz [Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines); Sombilla, Mercedita A. [Southeast Asian Center for Graduate Studies and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), Consulting Services Department, 4031 College, Laguna (Philippines); Cueno, Sarah L. [Agricultural Economist and Regional Program Coordinator Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program Working Group on Agriculture, Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to

  19. Corroborating a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo from historical intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R.; Toda, S.

    2006-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past observations of shaking. For this we analyzed 10,000 intensity observations recorded during AD 1600-2000 in a 350 x 350 km area centered on Tokyo in a Geographic Information System. A frequency-intensity curve is found for each 5 x 5 km cell, and from this the probability of exceeding any intensity level can be estimated. The principal benefits of this approach is that it builds the fewest possible assumptions into a probabilistic seismic forecast, it includes site and source effects without imposing this behavior, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The cost is that we must abandon any attempt to make a time-dependent forecast, which could be quite different. We believe the method is suitable to many applications of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and to other regions. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA>=6 shaking (roughly equivalent to PGA>=0.9 g or MMI=IX-X) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba, the range reflecting spatial variability and curve-fitting alternatives. The strongest shaking is forecast along the margins of Tokyo Bay, within the river sediments extending northwest from Tokyo, and at coastal sites near the plate boundary faults. We also produce long- term exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and short-term hazard maps associated with hypothetical catastrophe bonds. Our results for greater Tokyo resemble our independent Poisson probability developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis, as well as

  20. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wojciechowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. materials and methods. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. results: 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor – 67%, living conditions – 18.4% and health– 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. conclusions. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  1. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  3. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

  4. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  5. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  6. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  7. Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K.; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity

  8. Modeling a Spatio-Temporal Individual Travel Behavior Using Geotagged Social Network Data: a Case Study of Greater Cincinnati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedimoghaddam, M.; Kim, C.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding individual travel behavior is vital in travel demand management as well as in urban and transportation planning. New data sources including mobile phone data and location-based social media (LBSM) data allow us to understand mobility behavior on an unprecedented level of details. Recent studies of trip purpose prediction tend to use machine learning (ML) methods, since they generally produce high levels of predictive accuracy. Few studies used LSBM as a large data source to extend its potential in predicting individual travel destination using ML techniques. In the presented research, we created a spatio-temporal probabilistic model based on an ensemble ML framework named "Random Forests" utilizing the travel extracted from geotagged Tweets in 419 census tracts of Greater Cincinnati area for predicting the tract ID of an individual's travel destination at any time using the information of its origin. We evaluated the model accuracy using the travels extracted from the Tweets themselves as well as the travels from household travel survey. The Tweets and survey based travels that start from same tract in the south western parts of the study area is more likely to select same destination compare to the other parts. Also, both Tweets and survey based travels were affected by the attraction points in the downtown of Cincinnati and the tracts in the north eastern part of the area. Finally, both evaluations show that the model predictions are acceptable, but it cannot predict destination using inputs from other data sources as precise as the Tweets based data.

  9. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  10. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ''unpackaged'' volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste

  12. Serum lutein response is greater from free lutein than from esterified lutein during 4 weeks of supplementation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, Edward P; Norkus, Katherine L; Dharmarajan, T S; Schierle, Joseph; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Current data suggest great variability in serum response following lutein ingestion from various sources. To compare the relative serum response during supplementation with free lutein (fL) and lutein esters (Le). 72 volunteers (23-52 years; body mass index [BMI] >20 and lutein lutein or 27 mg of lutein ester (equivalent to 13.5 mg free lutein), respectively. Fasting blood was obtained at baseline and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of supplementation. Supplements were consumed with standard portions of dry, ready-to-eat cereal and 2% cow's milk. Absolute changes in serum lutein, per mg daily dose, were significantly greater in fL vs. Le after 21 days (p  =  0.0012) and remained so after 28 days (p  =  0.0011) of supplementation. Serum lutein Area Under the Curve [AUC((day 0-28))] response was 17% greater for fL vs. Le (p  =  0.0187). Regression models were used and determined that (1) baseline serum lutein levels and (2) the form of lutein ingested (fL > Le) influence the serum lutein response during supplementation, while subject age, gender, BMI, and serum lipids do not affect serum response. These results suggest that the relative serum lutein response will be significantly greater from supplements containing free lutein than from supplements containing lutein esters. These findings should be useful for future clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of lutein supplementation in the prevention of or protection against age-related macular degeneration and/or cataracts.

  13. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  14. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  15. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Gender differences in commuting behavior: Women's greater sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo Sanchez, M.I.; Maeso Gonzalez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Women's greater sensitivity to changes in their environment is one of the most distinguishing features between both genders. This article raises women's greater sensitivity to the different variables which influence their commuting modal choice. In order to do this, gender gaps detected in the choice of means of transport in commuting trips with respect to the decision factors such as age, education level, driver's license, private transport access; location, household size and net income, are quantified.The results show a greater female sensitivity to the different variables that affect their modal choice, which helps to better understand the different mobility patterns and it is useful for planning measures favoring sustainable mobility policies and equity. (Author)

  17. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  18. Pinogram : a pine growth area model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leersnijder, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Ideas about forest and forestry in the Netherlands have changed in recent years, partly because nature and recreation are in greater demand, partly because of growing environmental problems (air pollution, global warming) and partly because of the decrease in forest area worldwide. This has

  19. MRI and US of gluteal tendinopathy in greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Andrew; Van der Vliet, Andrew [Regional Imaging Border, Albury, NSW (Australia); Zadow, Steven [Dr Jones and Partners Medical Imaging, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is commonly due to gluteus minimus or medius injury rather than trochanteric bursitis. Gluteal tendinopathy most frequently occurs in late-middle aged females. In this pictorial review the pertinent MRI and US anatomy of the gluteal tendon insertions on the greater trochanter and the adjacent bursae are reviewed. The direct (peritendinitis, tendinosis, partial and complete tear) and indirect (bursal fluid, bony changes and fatty atrophy) MRI signs of gluteal tendon injury are illustrated. The key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater scaup (Aythya marila) remained relatively stable during a period when populations of lesser scaup (A. affinis) have declined from historic levels. To assist in describing these differences in population trends, from 1991 through 2000, we studied the survival, nesting ecology, and productivity of greater scaup on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, to develop a model of population dynamics. We located nests, radio-marked females for renesting studies, estimated duckling survival, and leg-banded females to examine nest site fidelity and annual survival.

  1. BILATERAL ANTERIOR DISLOCATION OF SHOULDER WITH GREATER TUBEROSITY FRACTURE DUE TO HYPONATREMIA : A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a rare presentation of bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder with associated fracture of greater tuberosity in a 38 year old male due to minor trauma which he sustained secondary to hyponatremia induced irritability. There was no associ ated rotator cuff tear which is often associated with BADS which makes this presentation unique. Unilateral dislocation of shoulder is a common condition which is frequently encountered in emergency trauma department. Anterior dislocation is more common th an posterior dislocation. However, simultaneous bilateral shoulder dislocations are usually posterior. Bilateral anterior dislocations with fractures of the greater tuberosity are even rarer and are usually associated with trauma or seizures

  2. Excerpt from Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Saldívar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available José David Saldívar’s work, excerpted from Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico, focuses on Américo Paredes, whom he refers to as a “proto-Chicano.” Here he discusses Paredes’s columns written from Asia for the United States Army magazine Stars and Stripes and how his experience in Asia between 1945 and 1950 crossed with and informed his evolving viewpoint on US–Mexican borderlands and his “outernationalist” envisioning of a “Greater Mexico.”

  3. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Mora, Camilo; Lotze, Heike K; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy; McClenachan, Loren; Arias-Castro, Ery; Myers, Ransom A

    2010-08-05

    In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  4. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Ward-Paige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  5. Linking well-being with cultural revitalization for greater cognitive justice in conservation: lessons from Venezuela in Canaima National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iokiñe Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, conservation policies have often suppressed nonscientific forms of knowledge and ways of knowing nature, along with the social practices of the groups that are informed by such knowledge. Reversing this process of epistemic supremacy is crucial both for achieving greater cognitive justice in conservation areas and ensuring that conservation aims are achieved. Doing so, however, is not an easy task. In situations of cultural violence, hidden environmental knowledge is not easily made visible unless adequate conditions for it to emerge are created. I show that one way forward is by conservation engaging with the well-being agendas of indigenous people, in particular, with the construction of their life plans. This discussion is illustrated through a case study in Canaima National Park, Venezuela, where over the last 20 years, social-ecological research has been studying existing conflicts over the use of fire while supporting the development of Pemon (the indigenous peoples in this area Life Plans. Assisting in the development of life plans through participatory historical reconstructions, territorial self-demarcation processes, and facilitation of community reflexivity about its social-ecological changes and desired future has been decisive for the Pemon, and has revealed fire management knowledge that challenges conventional explanations of landscape change that simplistically place the blame for such changes on the local use of fire. This local knowledge, combined with results from studies of Pemon fire regimes, fire behavior ecology, and paleoecological research, now informs a counter narrative of landscape change that is influencing a shift in environmental discourse and policy-making toward an intercultural fire management approach. By documenting how social-ecological research has engaged with the Pemon Life Plan processes, I show the important role that cultural revitalization plays in making hidden and silenced local

  6. Mechanisms of greater cardiomyocyte functions on conductive nanoengineered composites for cardiovascular applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout DA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David A Stout,1,2 Jennie Yoo,2 Adriana Noemi Santiago-Miranda,3 Thomas J Webster1,41School of Engineering, 2Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagües, PR, 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: Recent advances in nanotechnology (materials with at least one dimension between 1 nm and 100 nm have led to the use of nanomaterials in numerous medical device applications. Recently, nanomaterials have been used to create innovative biomaterials for cardiovascular applications. Specifically, carbon nanofibers (CNF embedded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA have been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth compared with conventional polymer substrates, but the mechanisms involved in such events remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the basic mechanism of cell growth on these novel nanocomposites.Methods: CNF were added to biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio to increase the conductivity, mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of pure PLGA. For this reason, different PLGA to CNF ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 wt% with different PLGA densities (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 g/mL were used, and their compatibility with cardiomyocytes was assessed.Results: Throughout all the cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T, connexin-43, and alpha-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA. Adhesion and proliferation experiments indicated that a PLGA density of 0.025 g/mL with a PLGA to CNF ratio of 75:25 and 50:50 (wt% promoted the best overall cell growth, ie, a 55% increase in cardiomyocyte density after 120 hours compared with pure PLGA and a 75% increase compared with the control at the same time point for 50:50 (wt%. The PLGA:CNF materials were conductive, and their conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNF

  7. Health Service Areas (HSAs) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.

  8. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  9. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  10. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to evaluate functions without disclosing the private inputs. Secure comparisons (testing equality and greater-than) are important primitives required by many MPC applications. We propose two equality tests for ℓ-bit values with O(1) online...

  11. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  12. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  13. Landscape restoration for greater sage-grouse: implications for multiscale planning and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Mary M. Rowland; Miles A. Hemstrom; Barbara C. Wales

    2005-01-01

    Habitats and populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined throughout western North America in response to a myriad of detrimental land uses. Successful restoration of this species' habitat, therefore, is of keen interest to Federal land agencies who oversee management of most remaining habitat. To illustrate the...

  14. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  15. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  16. Microhabitat selection of brood-rearing sites by greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojcik

    2015-01-01

    Declines in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) populations could be attributed to low chick survival, which may be influenced by the availability of food and cover at sites used by females rearing broods. Habitat attributes important to broods may vary regionally; thus, it is necessary to understand factors affecting...

  17. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson; Mark A. Rumble; Nicholas W. Kaczor; Robert W. Klaver; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Kent C. Jensen

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this...

  18. Lek ecology of male greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshia Lynn Fremgen

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter "sage-grouse") have experienced range-wide population declines for several decades, and as a result they were considered warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act in 2010. Therefore, wildlife managers need to understand how sage-grouse breeding behavior influences long-term reproductive...

  19. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  20. Greater support and debriefing may help student midwives to process traumatic birth experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Kitson-Reynolds, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Implications for practice and researchIncorporating resilience training and a multidisciplinary debriefing approach within clinical and academic environments would develop a culture of support and compassion for the workforce and ultimately effective care for women using maternity services. Further research surrounding the effectiveness of resilience education for student midwives is required to elicit greater understanding of the effect on woman-centred care.

  1. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  2. Optimal wildlife management in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem: A spatiotemporal model of disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    South of Yellowstone National Park there are twenty-three sites where elk herds are provided supplementary feeding during the winter and spring months. Supplementary feeding of elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has been practiced since the early twentieth century, but the practice has b...

  3. DOD Financial Management: Greater Visibility Needed to Better Assess Audit Readiness for Property, Plant, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and compliance with... Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-383, a report to congressional committees May 2016 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Greater Visibility... Accounting Standards Advisory Board FIAR Financial Improvement and Audit Readiness IUS internal-use software NDAA National Defense Authorization Act

  4. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  5. Single versus double row suture anchor fixation for greater tuberosity fractures - a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppel, Gernot; Saier, Tim; Martetschläger, Frank; Plath, Johannes E; Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Henschel, Julia; Winkler, Martin; Augat, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Fractures of the humeral greater tuberosity (GT) are a frequent injury progressively treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Yet, no biomechanical study has been performed comparing fixation strength of arthroscopic single- (SR) vs. double row (DR) fixation. Standardized fractures of the greater tuberosity were created in 12 fresh frozen proximal humeri. After random assignation to the SR or DR group the fixed humeri were tested applying cyclic loading to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon. Load to failure and fragment displacement were assessed by means of an electrodynamic material testing machine using an optical tracking system. Load to failure values were higher in the DR group (649 N; ±176) than in the SR group (490 N; ±145) however without statistical significance (p = .12). In greater tuberosity displacement of 3-5 mm surgical treatment is recommended. The fixing constructs in this study did not reach displacement landmarks of 3 or 5 mm before construct failure as shown in previous studies. Thus the applied traction force (N) at 1 mm displacement was analyzed. In the SR group the load at 1 mm displacement was 277 N; ±46 compared to 260 N; ±62 in the DR group (p = .65). The results suggest that both techniques are viable options for refixation of greater tuberosity fractures. Laboratory study.

  6. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony L. Westerling; Monica G. Turner; Erica A. H. Smithwick; William H. Romme; Michael G. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated...

  7. Greater Engagement among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2016-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…

  8. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  9. Minister wants age balance to play greater role in redundancy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004, the Dutch Minister of Social Affairs proposed changes to the statutory rules on selection for redundancy, with less emphasis on the last in, first out seniority-based principle and a greater focus on distributing the redundancies between employees of different ages. The social partners

  10. Holistic Analysis of the Urban Water Systems in Greater Cincinnati Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water and wastewater systems with two utilities in Greater Cincinnati region were evaluated as a case study to elucidates a bigger picture of a typical centralized urban water system. Two different integrated assessment metrics were used to analyze the same system. LCA an...

  11. Evidence for radiations of cheilanthoid ferns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Rohwer, Jens G.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) of southern Africa is characterised by large, endemic radiations of flowering plants, the so-called ‘Cape Clades’, but it is unknown whether such radiations are also found in non-angiosperms. We hypothesise that GCFR-endemic lineages exist in the xeric...

  12. Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Data Base user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Greater-than-Class-C Low-level Waste (GTCC LLW) Data Base characterizes GTCC LLW using low, base, and high cases for three different scenarios: unpackaged, packaged, and concentration averages. The GTCC LLW Data Base can be used to project future volumes and radionuclide activities. This manual provides instructions for users of the GTCC LLW Data Base

  13. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Lowell Suring; Cara W. Meinke

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella...

  14. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  15. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  16. A Formalization of the Greater Fools Theory with Dynamic Epistemic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lee, Hanna Sofie

    2017-01-01

    The greater fools explanation of financial bubbles says that traders are willing to pay more for an asset than they deem it worth, because they anticipate they might be able to sell it to someone else for an even higher price. As agents’ beliefs about other agents’ beliefs are at the heart...

  17. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Munday, Dawn K.; Whelan, Mick J.; Holt, Martin S.; Fox, Katharine K.; Morris, Gerard; Young, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  18. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Munday, Dawn K. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Whelan, Mick J. [Department of Natural Resources, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Holt, Martin S. [ECETOC, Ave van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Box 6, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Fox, Katharine K. [85 Park Road West, Birkenhead, Merseyside CH43 8SQ (United Kingdom); Morris, Gerard [Environment Agency, Phoenix House, Global Avenue, Leeds LS11 8PG (United Kingdom); Young, Andrew R. [Wallingford HydroSolutions Ltd, Maclean building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  19. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  20. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  1. MR Neurography of Greater Occipital Nerve Neuropathy: Initial Experience in Patients with Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L; Dessouky, R; Xi, Y; Amirlak, B; Chhabra, A

    2017-11-01

    MR imaging of peripheral nerves (MR neurography) allows improved assessment of nerve anatomy and pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with unilateral occipital neuralgia using MR neurography and to assess the differences in greater occipital nerve signal and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. In this case-control evaluation using MR neurography, bilateral greater occipital nerve caliber, signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratios, and contrast-to-noise ratios were determined by 2 observers. Among 18 subjects with unilateral occipital migraines, the average greater occipital nerve diameter for the symptomatic side was significantly greater at 1.77 ± 0.4 mm than for the asymptomatic side at 1.29 ± 0.25 mm ( P = .001). The difference in nerve signal intensity between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides was statistically significant at 269.06 ± 170.93 and 222.44 ± 170.46, respectively ( P = .043). The signal-to-noise ratios on the symptomatic side were higher at 15.79 ± 4.59 compared with the asymptomatic nerve at 14.02 ± 5.23 ( P = .009). Contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher on the symptomatic side than on the asymptomatic side at 2.57 ± 4.89 and -1.26 ± 5.02, respectively ( P = .004). Intraobserver performance was good to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.68-0.93), and interobserver performance was fair to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.54-0.81). MR neurography can be reliably used for the diagnosis of greater occipital nerve neuropathy in patients with unilateral occipital migraines with a good correlation of imaging findings to the clinical presentation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adeniyi adeyemi

    Land surface temperature (LST) is measured by the surface energy balance, .... climatic and environmental conditions (Cheng et al., 2006). ..... urban areas have generally resulted in a high reflection and emission of solar radiation and greater.

  3. Massage therapy during early postnatal life promotes greater lean mass and bone growth, mineralization, and strength in juvenile and young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Miller, S; Shaw, J; Moyer-Mileur, L

    2009-01-01

    The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.

  4. Evaluating greater sage-grouse seasonal space use relative to leks: Implications for surface use designations in sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anthropogenic structures, especially those related to energy resources, in sagebrush ecosystems is an important concern among developers, conservationists, and land managers in relation to greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. Sage-grouse are dependent on sagebrush ecosystems to meet their seasonal life-phase requirements, and research indicates that anthropogenic structures can adversely affect sage-grouse populations. Land management agencies have attempted to reduce the negative effects of anthropogenic development by assigning surface use (SU) designations, such as no surface occupancy, to areas around leks (breeding grounds). However, rationale for the size of these areas is often challenged. To help inform this issue, we used a spatial analysis of sage-grouse utilization distributions (UDs) to quantify seasonal (spring, summer and fall, winter) sage-grouse space use in relation to leks. We sampled UDs from 193 sage-grouse (11,878 telemetry locations) across 4 subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS, bordering California and Nevada) during 2003–2009. We quantified the volume of each UD (vUD) within a range of areas that varied in size and were centered on leks, up to a distance of 30 km from leks. We also quantified the percentage of nests within those areas. We then estimated the diminishing gains of vUD as area increased and produced continuous response curves that allow for flexibility in land management decisions. We found nearly 90% of the total vUD (all seasons combined) was contained within 5 km of leks, and we identified variation in vUD for a given distance related to season and migratory status. Five kilometers also represented the 95th percentile of the distribution of nesting distances. Because diminishing gains of vUD was not substantial until distances exceeded 8 km, managers should consider the theoretical optimal distances for SU designation

  5. Assessment of the structural shielding integrity of some selected computed tomography facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, A.

    2010-01-01

    The structural shielding integrity was assessed for four of the CT facilities at Trust Hospital, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, the 37 Military Hospital and Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. From the shielding calculations, the concrete wall thickness computed are 120, 145, 140 and 155mm, for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. 37 Military, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively using Default DLP values. The wall thickness using Derived DLP values are 110, 110, 120 and 168mm for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd, 37 Military Hospital, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively. These values are within the accepted standard concrete thickness of 102- 152mm prescribed by the National Council of Radiological Protection and measurement. The ultrasonic pulse testing indicated that all the sandcrete walls are of good quality and free of voids since pulse velocities estimated were approximately equal to 3.45km/s. an average dose rate measurement for supervised areas is 3.4 μSv/wk and controlled areas is 18.0 μSv/wk. These dose rates were below the acceptable levels of 100 μSv per week for the occupationally exposed and 20 μSv per week for members of the public provided by the ICRU. The results mean that the structural shielding thickness are adequate to protect members of the public and occupationally exposed workers (au).

  6. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  7. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  8. Land Cover Mapping Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Greater Cairo Region—Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Megahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study modeled the urban growth in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR, one of the fastest growing mega cities in the world, using remote sensing data and ancillary data. Three land use land cover (LULC maps (1984, 2003 and 2014 were produced from satellite images by using Support Vector Machines (SVM. Then, land cover changes were detected by applying a high level mapping technique that combines binary maps (change/no-change and post classification comparison technique. The spatial and temporal urban growth patterns were analyzed using selected statistical metrics developed in the FRAGSTATS software. Major transitions to urban were modeled to predict the future scenarios for year 2025 using Land Change Modeler (LCM embedded in the IDRISI software. The model results, after validation, indicated that 14% of the vegetation and 4% of the desert in 2014 will be urbanized in 2025. The urban areas within a 5-km buffer around: the Great Pyramids, Islamic Cairo and Al-Baron Palace were calculated, highlighting an intense urbanization especially around the Pyramids; 28% in 2014 up to 40% in 2025. Knowing the current and estimated urbanization situation in GCR will help decision makers to adjust and develop new plans to achieve a sustainable development of urban areas and to protect the historical locations.

  9. Self-Organization, Urban Transformation, and Spatial Planning in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovi Dzulhijjah Rahmawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi peran sistem perencanaan tata ruang dalam menghadapi proses perorganisasian diri, sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh transformasi perkotaan yang kompleks di wilayah Jakarta. Wilayah Jakarta adalah salah satu wilayah megapolitan di Asia Tenggara yang mengalami proses transformasi yang cepat. Sangat disayangkan bahwa sistem perencanaan tata ruang yang ada sekarang di wilayah Jakarta belum mampu merespon transformasi kota secara non-linier. Kekurangan ini terbukti dari ketidaksinkronan antara dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang dan perubahan tata guna lahan perkotaan yang diperkuat dengan proses pengorganisasian diri. Perbedaan antara situasi empiris dan dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang yang ada telah menghasilkan ketidakcocokan antara sistem perencanaan tata ruang dengan sistem tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta. Ketidakcocokan ini terjadi karena sistem perencanaan tata ruang saat ini tidak mempertimbangkan ketidakpastian di masa depan. Situasi ini mengindikasikan adanya ‘fuzziness’ dalam implementasi sistem dan proses perencanaan tata ruang, sementara transformasi perkotaan telah berkembang sedemikian kompleksnya dan membutuhkan respon yang cepat dan tepat. Untuk dapat merespon ketidakcocokan ini, sistem perencanaan tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta harus lebih memperhatikan sistem perkotaan yang berkembang dalam proses yang tidak linear.Kata kunci. Pengorganisasian diri, transformasi perkotaan, ketidaklinieran, sistem perencanaan, Megapolitan Jakarta. This study aimed to identify the role of spatial planning in facing self-organizing processes as evidenced by a complex urban transformation in Greater Jakarta. Greater Jakarta is one of the mega urban-regions in Southeast Asia that are undergoing a rapid urban transformation process. This urban transformation has been developing through a non-linear transition. Unfortunately, the current spatial planning system in Greater Jakarta is not yet adequately

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  11. Better, Sooner, More Convenient? The reality of pursuing greater integration between primary and secondary healthcare providers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg; Gauld, Robin; MacRae, Jayden

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the results of evaluations of two business plans developed in response to a policy initiative which aimed to achieve greater integration between primary and secondary health providers in New Zealand. We employ the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to inform our analysis. The Better, Sooner, More Convenient policy programme involved the development of business plans and, within each business plan, a range of areas of focus and associated work-streams. The evaluations employed a mixed method multi-level case study design, involving qualitative face-to-face interviews with front-line staff, clinicians and management in two districts, one in the North Island and the other in the South Island, and an analysis of routine data tracked ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Two postal surveys were conducted, one focussing on the patient care experiences of integration and care co-ordination and the second focussing on the perspectives of health professionals in primary and secondary settings in both districts. Both evaluations revealed non-significant changes in ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentation rates and slow uneven progress with areas of focus and their associated work-streams. Our evaluations revealed a range of implementation issues, the barriers and facilitators to greater integration of healthcare services and the implications for those who were responsible for putting policy into practice. The business plans were shown to be overly ambitious and compromised by the size and scope of the business plans; dysfunctional governance arrangements and associated accountability issues; organisational inability to implement change quickly with appropriate and timely funding support; an absence of organisational structural change allowing parity with the policy objectives; barriers that were encountered because of inadequate attention to organisational

  12. Better, Sooner, More Convenient? The reality of pursuing greater integration between primary and secondary healthcare providers in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Lovelock

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article focuses on the results of evaluations of two business plans developed in response to a policy initiative which aimed to achieve greater integration between primary and secondary health providers in New Zealand. We employ the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to inform our analysis. The Better, Sooner, More Convenient policy programme involved the development of business plans and, within each business plan, a range of areas of focus and associated work-streams. Methods: The evaluations employed a mixed method multi-level case study design, involving qualitative face-to-face interviews with front-line staff, clinicians and management in two districts, one in the North Island and the other in the South Island, and an analysis of routine data tracked ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Two postal surveys were conducted, one focussing on the patient care experiences of integration and care co-ordination and the second focussing on the perspectives of health professionals in primary and secondary settings in both districts. Results: Both evaluations revealed non-significant changes in ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentation rates and slow uneven progress with areas of focus and their associated work-streams. Our evaluations revealed a range of implementation issues, the barriers and facilitators to greater integration of healthcare services and the implications for those who were responsible for putting policy into practice. Conclusion: The business plans were shown to be overly ambitious and compromised by the size and scope of the business plans; dysfunctional governance arrangements and associated accountability issues; organisational inability to implement change quickly with appropriate and timely funding support; an absence of organisational structural change allowing parity with the policy objectives; barriers that were

  13. Earth's magnetic field as a radiator to detect cosmic ray electrons of energy greater than 10 to the 12th power eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    The synchrotron emission by electrons of energy greater than a few TeV in Earth's magnetic field was examined. An omnidirectional detector, it is shown, can be satisfactorily used to estimate the energy. The collecting power of the detector, it is also shown, is a sensitive function of the area of the detector, the energy of electron, and the number of photons required to identify an electron. The event rate expected was calculated using an ideal balloon-borne detector.

  14. On population growth near protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the first, and often only, line of defense in efforts to conserve biodiversity. They might be detrimental or beneficial to rural communities depending on how they alter economic opportunities and access to natural resources. As such, protected areas may attract or repel human settlement. Disproportionate increases in population growth near protected area boundaries may threaten their ability to conserve biodiversity.Using decadal population datasets, we analyze population growth across 45 countries and 304 protected areas. We find no evidence for population growth near protected areas to be greater than growth of rural areas in the same country. Furthermore, we argue that what growth does occur near protected areas likely results from a general expansion of nearby population centers.Our results contradict those from a recent study by Wittemyer et al., who claim overwhelming evidence for increased human population growth near protected areas. To understand the disagreement, we re-analyzed the protected areas in Wittemyer et al.'s paper. Their results are simply artifacts of mixing two incompatible datasets. Protected areas may experience unusual population pressures near their edges; indeed, individual case studies provide examples. There is no evidence, however, of a general pattern of dispropo