WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater up-front costs

  1. Application of up-front licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S.D.; Snell, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    AECL has been pioneering 'up-front' licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Application of up-front licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, S D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Snell, V G [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    AECL has been pioneering `up-front` licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Up front in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A picture is drawn of the current supply side of the front-end fuel cycle production capacities in the CIS. Uranium production has been steadily declining, as in the West. Market realities have been reflected in local costs of production since the break-up of the former Soviet Union and some uneconomic mines have been closed. In terms of actual production, Kazakhstan, Russia and Uzbekistan, remain among the top five uranium producers in the world. Western government action has been taken to restrict the market access for natural uranium from the CIS. Reactors in the CIS continue to be supplied with fabricated fuel solely by Russian, though Western fuel fabricators have reduced Russian supplies to Eastern Europe. Russia's current dominance in conversion and enrichment services in both the CIS and Eastern Europe is likely to continue as long as the present surplus low enriched uranium stocks last and surplus production capacity exists. Market penetration in the West has been limited by government action but Russia in 1993 still held about 20% of the world's conversion market and nearly 19% of the enrichment market. (6 figures, 2 tables, 4 references) (UK)

  4. How I treat CLL up front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribben, John G

    2010-01-14

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains incurable, over the past decade there have been major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of CLL and in the treatment of this disease. This has led to greatly increased response rates and durations of response but not yet improved survival. Advances in the use of prognostic factors that identify patients at high risk for progression have led us to the question whether there is still a role for a "watch and wait" approach in asymptomatic high-risk patients or whether they should be treated earlier in their disease course. Questions remain, including, what is the optimal first-line treatment and its timing and is there any role of maintenance therapy or stem cell transplantation in this disease? CLL is a disease of the elderly and not all patients are eligible for aggressive up-front chemoimmunotherapy regimens, so what is the optimal treatment approach for more frail elderly patients? It is highly likely that our treatment approaches will continue to evolve as the results of ongoing clinical trials are released and that further improvements in the outcome of this disease will result from identification of therapies that target the underlying pathophysiology of CLL.

  5. Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Laraia, Michele; ); LaGuardia, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    The NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG), in collaboration with the IAEA Waste Technology Section and the EC Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, has recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries - Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Its findings are to be published in an OECD/NEA report entitled Cost Estimation for Decommissioning: An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements. This booklet highlights the findings contained in the full report. (authors)

  6. Pharmacoeconomic impact of up-front use of plerixafor for autologous stem cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara S; Renteria, Anne S; Steinberg, Amir; Banoff, Karen; Isola, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Stem cell collection can be a major component of overall cost of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Plerixafor is an effective agent for mobilization; however, it is often reserved for salvage therapy because of its high cost. We present data on the pharmacoeconomic impact of the use of plerixafor as an up-front mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Patients with MM who underwent ASCT between January 2008 and April 2011 at the Mount Sinai Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. In April 2010, practice changes were instituted for patients with MM to delay initiation of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support from day 0 to day +5 and to add plerixafor to G-CSF as an up-front autologous mobilization. Targets of collection were 5-10 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Of 50 adults with MM who underwent ASCT, 25 received plerixafor/filgrastim and 25 received G-CSF alone as an up-front mobilization. Compared with the control, plerixafor mobilization yielded higher CD34(+) cell content (16.1 versus 8.4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg; P = 0.0007) and required fewer sessions of apheresis (1.9 versus 3.1; P = 0.0001). In the plerixafor group, the mean number of plerixafor doses required per patient was 1.8. Although the overall cost of medications was higher in the plerixafor group, the cost for blood products and overall cost of hospitalization were similar between the two groups. Up-front use of plerixafor is an effective mobilization strategy in patients with MM and does not have a substantial pharmacoeconomic impact in overall cost of hospitalization combined with the apheresis procedure. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  8. Effect of high up front charges on access to surgery for poor patients at a public hospital in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Will; Chavez, Augustine S; Skipper, Betty; Kaufman, Arthur

    2006-06-23

    A public hospital in New Mexico required collection of 50% of estimated costs prior to elective surgeries for self-pay patients. This study assesses the impact of this policy on access to elective surgical procedures. Chi-square tests determined if there was a statistically significant difference between the number of self-pay and insured patient cancellations for financial reasons. A multivariate binomial regression model was used to calculate risk ratios and confidence limits for effects of race/ethnicity, and insurance status, controlling for gender, on these cancellations. Of the 667 cancellations, there were 99 self-pay and 568 insured patients. Cancellations for financial reasons occurred in 55.6% of self-pay and 9.3% of insured patients (p pay 50% up front accounted for 76.4% of self-pay patient cancellations for financial reasons. Self-pay, non-Hispanic whites and minority race/ethnicities were 8.76 and 8.61 times more likely to cancel for financial reasons, respectively, than insured non-Hispanic whites. Self-pay patients, regardless of race/ethnicity, have elective surgical procedures cancelled for financial reasons significantly more often than insured patients. The hospital's 50% up-front payment policy represents a significant financial barrier to accessing elective surgical procedures for self-pay patients.

  9. Licensing Uncertain Patents: Per-Unit Royalty vs Up-Front Fee

    OpenAIRE

    Encaoua , David; Lefouili , Yassine

    2008-01-01

    ED EPS; In this paper we examine the implications of uncertainty over patent validity on patentholders' licensing strategies. Two licensing mechanisms are examined: per-unit royalty and up-front fee.We provide conditions under which uncertain patents are licensed in order to avoid patent litigation. It is shown that while it is possible for the patentholder to reap som e "extra profit" by selling an uncertain patent under the pure per-unit royalty regime, the opportunity to do so does not exi...

  10. Effect of high up front charges on access to surgery for poor patients at a public hospital in New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skipper Betty

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public hospital in New Mexico required collection of 50% of estimated costs prior to elective surgeries for self-pay patients. This study assesses the impact of this policy on access to elective surgical procedures. Methods Chi-square tests determined if there was a statistically significant difference between the number of self-pay and insured patient cancellations for financial reasons. A multivariate binomial regression model was used to calculate risk ratios and confidence limits for effects of race/ethnicity, and insurance status, controlling for gender, on these cancellations. Results Of the 667 cancellations, there were 99 self-pay and 568 insured patients. Cancellations for financial reasons occurred in 55.6% of self-pay and 9.3% of insured patients (p Conclusion Self-pay patients, regardless of race/ethnicity, have elective surgical procedures cancelled for financial reasons significantly more often than insured patients. The hospital's 50% up-front payment policy represents a significant financial barrier to accessing elective surgical procedures for self-pay patients.

  11. Clean air benefits and costs in the GVRD [Greater Vancouver Regional District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gislason, G.; Martin, J.; Williams, D.; Caton, B.; Rich, J.; Rojak, S.; Robinson, J.; Stuermer, A. von

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia. An analysis was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of an innovative plan to reduce the emissions of five primary pollutants in the GVRD: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulates, and CO. The study adopts a damage function approach in which the benefits of reduced emissions are given by the averted damages to human health, crops, and so on. Under a base case scenario, motor vehicle emission controls and additional measures proposed in the region's air quality management plan (AQMP) are projected to lead to emission reductions of 873,000 tonnes in the GVRD by the year 2020, compared to the emission level projected without intervention. The AQMP is projected to avert over its life some 2,800 premature deaths, 33,000 emergency room visits, 13 million restricted activity days, and 5 million symptoms. Crop losses due to ozone are projected to decrease by 1-4%/y over the next several decades due to the AQMP. Damage averted to materials and property per tonne of pollutant reduced ranges from $30 for VOC to $180 for particulates. Under base-case conservative assumptions, the AQMP generates $5.4 billion in benefits and $3.8 billion in costs, nearly 2/3 of which are paid by the industrial and commercial sectors. 1 tab

  12. Benefit-cost-risk analysis of alternatives for greater-confinement disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seven alternatives are included in the analysis: near-surface disposal; improved waste form; below-ground engineered structure; augered shaft; shale fracturing; shallow geologic repository; and high-level waste repository. These alternatives are representative generic facilities that span the range from low-level waste disposal practice to high-level waste disposal practice, tentatively ordered according to an expected increasing cost and/or effectiveness of confinement. They have been chosen to enable an assessment of the degree of confinement that represents an appropriate balance between public health and safety requirements and costs rather than identification of a specific preferred facility design. The objective of the analysis is to provide a comparative ranking of the alternatives on the basis of benefit-cost-risk considerations

  13. Greater healthcare utilization and costs among Black persons compared to White persons with aphasia in the North Carolina stroke belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles; Hardy, Rose Y; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2017-05-15

    To examine racial differences in healthcare utilization and costs for persons with aphasia (PWA) being treated in acute care hospitals in North Carolina (NC). NC Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database (HCUP-SID) data from 2011-2012 were analyzed to examine healthcare utilization and costs of care for stroke patients with aphasia. Analyses emphasized length of stay, charges and cost of general hospital services. Generalized linear models (GLM) were constructed to determine the impact of demographic characteristics, stroke/illness severity, and observed hospital characteristics on utilization and costs. Hospital fixed effects were included to yield within-hospital estimates of disparities. GLM models demonstrated that Blacks with aphasia experienced 1.9days longer lengths of stay compared to Whites with aphasia after controlling for demographic characteristics, 1.4days controlling for stroke/illness severity, 1.2days controlling for observed hospital characteristics, and ~1 extra day controlling for unobserved hospital characteristics. Similarly, Blacks accrued ~$2047 greater total costs compared to Whites after controlling for demographic characteristics, $1659 controlling for stroke/illness severity, $1338 controlling for observed hospital characteristics, and ~$1311 greater total costs after controlling for unobserved hospital characteristics. In the acute hospital setting, Blacks with aphasia utilize greater hospital services during longer hospitalizations and at substantially higher costs in the state of NC. A substantial portion of the adjusted difference was related to the hospital treating the patient. However, even after controlling for the hospital, the differences remained clinically and statistically significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaas Reyns

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium. We compared a business as usual (BAU scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other

  15. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaer, Jim; De Smet, Lieven; Devos, Koen; Huysentruyt, Frank; Robertson, Peter A.; Verbeke, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS) require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium). We compared a business as usual (BAU) scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other IAS. PMID

  16. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  17. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report

  18. Synergy effects of fluoxetine and variability in temperature lead to proportionally greater fitness costs in Daphnia: A multigenerational test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Miguel; Inocentes, Núrya; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Oliveira, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability in water temperature is predicted to impose disproportionally greater fitness costs than mean increase in temperature. Additionally, water contaminants are currently a major source of human-induced stress likely to produce fitness costs. Global change models forecast an increase in these two human-induced stressors. Yet, in spite the growing interest in understanding how organisms respond to global change, the joint fitness effects of water pollution and increased variability in temperature remain unclear. Here, using a multigenerational design, we test the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of fluoxetine, a human medicine commonly found in freshwater systems, causes increased lifetime fitness costs, when associated with increased variability in temperature. Although fluoxetine and variability in temperature elicited some fitness cost when tested alone, when both stressors acted together the costs were disproportionally greater. The combined effect of fluoxetine and variability in temperature led to a reduction of 37% in lifetime reproductive success and a 17.9% decrease in population growth rate. Interestingly, fluoxetine and variability in temperature had no effect on the probability of survival. Freshwater systems are among the most imperilled ecosystems, often exposed to multiple human-induced stressors. Our results indicate that organisms face greater fitness risk when exposed to multiple stressors at the same time than when each stress acts alone. Our study highlights the importance of using a multi-generational approach to fully understand individual environmental tolerance and its responses to a global change scenario in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations for greater confinement disposal compared to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Lester, D.H.; Robertson, L.D.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stoddard, J.A.; Dickman, P.T.

    1984-09-01

    A limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations of greater confinement disposal (GCD) compared to shallow land burial (SLB) are presented. This study is limited to an analysis of the postclosure phase of hypothetical GCD and SLB facilities. Selected release scenarios are used which bound the range of risks to a maximally exposed individual and a hypothetical population. Based on the scenario assessments, GCD had a significant risk advantage over SLB for normal exposure pathways at both humid and arid sites, particularly for the human intrusion scenario. Since GCD costs are somewhat higher than SLB, it is necessary to weigh the higher costs of GCD against the higher risks of SLB. In this regard, GCD should be pursued as an alternative to SLB for certain types of low-level waste, and as an alternative to processing for wastes requiring improved stabilization or higher integrity packaging to be compatible with SLB. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, GCD might diminish public apprehension regarding the disposal of wastes perceived to be too hazardous for SLB. Second, GCD may be a relatively cost-effective alternative to various stabilization and packaging schemes required to meet 10 CFR 61 near-surface requirements as well as being a cost-effective alternative to deep geologic disposal. Radionuclide transport through the biosphere and resultant dose consequences were determined using the RADTRAN radionuclide transport code. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  20. From Streams to Lumps: Transforming Long-Term Incentives into Up-Front Financing for New Nuclear Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Glenn R.

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is an important development in the financing of new nuclear capacity in the near- to mid-term in the U.S.A. Key features of the Act, including production tax credits, loan guarantees, funding support, and 'standby support', are intended to provide significant incentives for new nuclear development, construction, and operation. There is a mismatch, however, between the nature and extent of incentives being offered and what is needed to spur nuclear plant deployment in light of power market uncertainty, utility investor wariness, and the need to raise significant capital before a nuclear construction project can be launched. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of financial tools and techniques. The paper considers various ways in which long-term streams of subsidies can be transformed into up-front financing for new nuclear capacity. Securing and related financial structures are among the mechanisms considered for potentially bridging the temporal gap between flows of financial benefits conferred legislatively and lumps of capital required by developers and investors in advance of a construction program. (authors)

  1. The ability of land owners and their cooperatives to leverage payments greater than opportunity costs from conservation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner’s willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners’ WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness,which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for land owners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation.

  2. Early or Up-Front Radiotherapy Improved Survival of Localized Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal-Type in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Meijuan; Jiang Yu; Liu Weiping; Li Zhiping; Li Mei; Zhou Lin; Xu Yong; Yu Chunhua; Li Qiu; Peng Feng; Liu Jiyan; Luo Feng; Lu You

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of early or up-front radiotherapy (RT), the optimal RT dose required to achieve appropriate treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients were reviewed. Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy (CT) alone, 9 patients received RT alone, and 65 patients were given combined modality treatment of CT and RT (CMT). Of those 74 patients receiving RT, 31 patients were given up-front RT, whereas CT was the initial therapy for 43 patients and 41 of those 43 patients received early RT. Results: Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 52.3% and 39.2%, respectively. RT was the only independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS at both the univariate and multivariate level. The 5-year OS and DFS were better in patients receiving ≥54 Gy of RT as compared with that of <54 Gy (5-year OS 75.5% vs. 46.1%, p = 0.019; 5-year DFS 60.3% vs. 33.4%, p = 0.004). Up-front RT presented better survival in Stage I patients when compared with that of initial CT followed by early RT (5-year OS 90.0% vs. 48.9%, p = 0.012; 5-year DFS 78.7% vs. 39.9%, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Early or up-front RT had an essential role in improved OS and DFS in patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. The recommended tumor dose was at least 54 Gy. Up-front RT may yield more benefits on survival in patients with Stage I disease

  3. Trouble Sleeping Associated With Lower Work Performance and Greater Health Care Costs: Longitudinal Data From Kansas State Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationships between employees' trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and health care expenditures over a 2-year period. Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) data set from 2008 to 2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and health care costs as the outcomes. EWP participants (N = 11,698 in 2008; 5636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all P work performance ratings (all P health care costs (P work attendance, work performance, and health care costs.

  4. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Development cost is the Contractor cost of up-front planning, engineering, prototyping, and testing of a... contractual arrangement and the justification for its use; and (ii) A detailed cost/price estimate and...

  5. Trouble Sleeping Associated with Lower Work Performance and Greater Healthcare Costs: Longitudinal Data from Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between employees’ trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare expenditures over a two year period. Methods Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) dataset from 2008–2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare costs as the outcomes. Results EWP participants (N=11,698 in 2008; 5,636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all p performance ratings (all p performance, and healthcare costs. PMID:26461857

  6. Dark respiration of leaves and traps of terrestrial carnivorous plants: are there greater energetic costs in traps?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2010), s. 121-124 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Aerobic respiration * metabolic costs * trap specialization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.685, year: 2010

  7. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.5 What is...

  8. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  9. Integrating multiple publics into the strategic plan. The best plans can be derailed without comprehensive up-front research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Kleimenhagen, A K; Naidu, G M

    1996-01-01

    The mission of a health care organization represents its vision for the future. The authors present an approach used to develop an organizational mission for a large multispecialty physician clinic. In implementing the strategic planning process, research objectives must be clearly stated that identify in advance how the data will be used. Failure to integrate strategic data from all relevant publics will likely result in a mission statement that misses the significant interests of one or more stakeholders and reduces the effectiveness of the strategic planning process. Although costly, comprehensive research can uncover some surprising differences in perception that, if ignored, might complete defeat strategic planning efforts.

  10. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  11. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plerixafor mobilization leads to a lower ratio of CD34+ cells to total nucleated cells which results in greater storage costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Adamski, Jill; Sell, Mary; Cunningham, Kathleen; Eisenmann, Christa; Magee, Deborah; Stadtmauer, Edward A; O'Doherty, Una

    2010-01-01

    Plerixafor (Mozobil, AMD3100) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes more CD34+ cells/kg compared to G-CSF alone. Given that plerixafor enhances mobilization of multiple white blood cell lineages, we determined if more storage space is required for products collected from patients mobilized with plerixafor. A review of the medical records of 15 patients mobilized with chemotherapy and G-CSF (control) and 14 patients mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF (plerixafor) was performed. Data on demographics, baseline characteristics, CD34+ cells/kg, total nucleated cells, total mononuclear cells, total apheresis sessions, and total bags for storage were collected. Mean values were determined and compared using Student's t-test. We found that the proportion of CD34+ cells among total nucleated cells was less in the plerixafor group compared to the control group (P = 0.0427). More nucleated cells (10.7 x 10(10) vs. 7.1 x 10(10), P =0.0452) and mononuclear cells (9.7 x 10(10) vs. 5.9 x 10(10), P = 0.0059) were mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF. However, there was no significant difference in CD34+ cells/kg, total CD34+ cells or the proportion of mononuclear cells among total nucleated cells between the two groups. More storage bags were required for the plerixafor group compared to the control group (15 vs. 9, P = 0.0299). Mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF resulted in a smaller proportion of CD34+ cells collected and a greater number of storage bags. An increase in the number of bags required for stem cell storage may be logistically problematic and will also lead to increased costs for storage of stem cells.

  13. A participatory decision support tool to access costs and benefits or tourism development scenarios : application of the ADAPTIVE model to Greater Giyani, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Tassone, V.C.; Grafakos, S.; Groot, de R.S.; Luttik, J.

    2007-01-01

    The tourism industry represents a thriving business and offers many opportunities for tourism development all around the world. Each development will have its economic, socio-cultural and ecological costs and benefits. Many of these are difficult to assess and to value, which often leads to

  14. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  15. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  16. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  17. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39–79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom–based supermarket comparison website. Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed. PMID:25926505

  18. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-07-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website. Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed.

  19. A cost modelling system for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeh, Daniel; Ellman, Jeremy; Keogh, Shelagh

    2014-01-01

    An advance in technology unlocks new opportunities for organizations to increase their productivity, efficiency and process automation while reducing the cost of doing business as well. The emergence of cloud computing addresses these prospects through the provision of agile systems that are scalable, flexible and reliable as well as cost effective. Cloud computing has made hosting and deployment of computing resources cheaper and easier with no up-front charges but pay per-use flexible payme...

  20. Phase II Pilot Study of Bevacizumab in Combination with Temozolomide and Regional Radiation Therapy for Up-Front Treatment of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme: Interim Analysis of Safety and Tolerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Albert; Filka, Emese; McGibbon, Bruce; Nghiemphu, Phioanh Leia; Graham, Carrie; Yong, William H.; Mischel, Paul; Liau, Linda M.; Bergsneider, Marvin; Pope, Whitney; Selch, Michael; Cloughesy, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess interim safety and tolerability of a 10-patient, Phase II pilot study using bevacizumab (BV) in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) and regional radiation therapy (RT) in the up-front treatment of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: All patients received standard external beam regional RT of 60.0 Gy in 30 fractions started within 3 to 5 weeks after surgery. Concurrently TMZ was given daily at 75 mg/m 2 for 42 days during RT, and BV was given every 2 weeks at 10 mg/kg starting with the first day of RT/TMZ. After a 2-week interval upon completion of RT, the post-RT phase commenced with resumption of TMZ at 150 to 200 mg/m 2 for 5 days every 4 weeks and continuation of BV every 2 weeks. Results: For these 10 patients, toxicities were compiled until study discontinuation or up to ∼40 weeks from initial study treatment for those remaining on-study. In terms of serious immediate or delayed neurotoxicity, 1 patient developed presumed radiation-induced optic neuropathy. Among the toxicities that could be potentially treatment related, relatively high incidences of fatigue, myelotoxicity, wound breakdown, and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism were observed. Conclusion: The observed toxicities were acceptable to continue enrollment toward the overall target group of 70 patients. Preliminary efficacy analysis shows encouraging mean progression-free survival. At this time data are not sufficient to encourage routine off-label use of BV combined with TMZ/RT in the setting of newly diagnosed glioblastoma without longer follow-up, enrollment of additional patients, and thorough efficacy assessment

  1. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  2. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  3. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  4. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  5. The greater picture

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Strike of the European civil servants Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, who attended a conference of Staff Committees of European Agencies in Brussels, participated in the strike of the European civil servants on 8th November. Indeed, more than 500 people were demonstrating in front of the Commission against the attacks on their working conditions.  By solidarity, our representatives joined them. The governments of the richest countries want large cuts in the Union European budget, especially in the administration costs, cuts of up to 15 billion, presently the European parliament does not follow. This could result in pension fund reforms, going from 1/3 2/3 repartition of the contributions to 1/2 1/2, which is unacceptable especially for low salaries. Besides, reduction of staff of 5 %, or even 15 % is seriously considered. 2004 saw already a diminution of the working conditions at the Union European, will 2013 make even more damages? The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committe...

  6. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Modeling fuel treatment impacts on fire suppression cost savings: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    High up-front costs and uncertain return on investment make it difficult for land managers to economically justify large-scale fuel treatments, which remove trees and other vegetation to improve conditions for fire control, reduce the likelihood of ignition, or reduce potential damage from wildland fire if it occurs. In the short-term, revenue from harvested forest...

  8. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  9. Top–down and Bottom–up: Front to Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadal, Marcos; Skov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Refers to: Matthew Pelowski, Patrick S. Markey, Michael Forster, Gernot Gerger, Helmut Leder: Move me, astonish me… delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological...

  10. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  11. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  12. Challenges and considerations for planning toward sustainable biodiesel development in developing countries: Lessons from the Greater Mekong Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukkasi, Sittha; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Ellis, Wyn; Grimley, Simon; Jai-In, Samai

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development. Nonetheless, the complex nature of biodiesel development makes it susceptible to exogenous problems that could hinder sustainable development. To ensure that biodiesel development actually leads to a sustainable path, all possible issues and challenges need to be identified and analyzed up front, so that they can be prepared for and handled in the planning and management stages. Building upon lessons learned from biodiesel developments in the Greater Mekong Subregion, this work examines biodiesel development in developing countries in the aspects of policy, governance, management, infrastructure, technology, feedstock, impacts on the rural poor and local livelihood, climate change, and the environment. Issues within each aspect are also analyzed in the context of developing countries. As a result, this review can serve as a guideline for ensuring that biodiesel development contributes toward sustainable development in developing countries. (author)

  13. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  14. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  15. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  17. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  18. Cost and risk reduction using upfront licensing in Canada. Annex 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the use of 'up-front' licensing in Canada - how licensing requirements are defined, and met - in advance of a project commitment. The approach to licensing in Canada has allowed flexibility in development of new designs. Since licensing was originally risk-based, and current regulatory policy allows cost-benefit considerations as part of the decision making, risk can be and should be used in novel circumstances as a licensing tool. Since the licensing framework is non-prescriptive, innovative approaches to design can be introduced and dispositioned without changing the legal structure. This flexibility has been used in several up-front licensing reviews: a small urban heating reactor, repeat CANDU 6 generating station units, and the single unit CANDU 9 generating station. In the future we expect to apply it to advanced designs, as an essential part of risk reduction and customer confidence in the product. The important lessons learned in Canada include: Up-front licensing is essential to reduce the risk of licensing-related delays once a project has been committed. It requires a significant investment in time and effort from both the designer and the regulator; The most effective scope for up-front licensing is for the regulator to thoroughly assess novel concepts, test the design against changed domestic requirements, and follow-up on known difficult areas; and for the designer to ensure foreign requirements are incorporated. There is little benefit in certifying the design in detail; Although it would be satisfying to have legally-binding certification, in the end there can be no legal obligation on the regulator, and agreement is pursued on the basis of good faith that the regulator will not make arbitrary decisions and that the designer will meet agreed targets or requirements; In almost all circumstances, issues will arise that are beyond the current 'rules', however expressed. Rather than rushing to create new rules, one reaches a

  19. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  1. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  2. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  3. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  4. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  5. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  6. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  7. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  8. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  9. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  10. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  11. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  12. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  13. Small Habitat Commonality Reduces Cost for Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Lepsch, Roger; Martin, John; Howard, Robert; Rucker, Michelle; Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Howe, Scott; Mary, Natalie; Nerren, Philip (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Most view the Apollo Program as expensive. It was. But, a human mission to Mars will be orders of magnitude more difficult and costly. Recently, NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) mapped out a step-wise approach for exploring Mars and the Mars-moon system. It is early in the planning process but because approximately 80% of the total life cycle cost is committed during preliminary design, there is an effort to emphasize cost reduction methods up front. Amongst the options, commonality across small habitat elements shows promise for consolidating the high bow-wave costs of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) while still accommodating each end-item's functionality. In addition to DDT&E, there are other cost and operations benefits to commonality such as reduced logistics, simplified infrastructure integration and with inter-operability, improved safety and simplified training. These benefits are not without a cost. Some habitats are sub-optimized giving up unique attributes for the benefit of the overall architecture and because the first item sets the course for those to follow, rapidly developing technology may be excluded. The small habitats within the EMC include the pressurized crew cabins for the ascent vehicle,

  14. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  15. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  16. The cost of electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Kan, J.; Szynkarczuk, J.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Electrocoagulation could be an attractive and suitable method for separating solids from waste water. The electrocoagulation of kaolinite and bentonite suspensions was studied in a pilot electrocoagulation unit to assess the cost and efficiency of the process. Factors affecting cost such as the formation of passivation layers on electrode plates and the recirculation and concentration of sodium chloride were examined. Colorimetry was used to analyze aluminum content in the suspension. The results were used to calculate the cost due to consumption of electrode material (aluminium) during the process. Total cost was assumed to comprise the energy cost and the cost of electrode material. Comparison was based on the settling properties of the treated product: turbidity, settling rate, and cake height. In most cases, aluminium efficiency averaged around 200% and material cost accounted for 80% of total cost. Although higher concentrations of sodium chloride could only slightly increase aluminium efficiency and electrode efficiency, the higher concentrations resulted in much greater total cost, due to the greater current generated by the increased suspension conductivity, which in turn dissolved a larger amount of aluminium. The recirculation loop increased the flow rate by 3-10 times, enhancing the mass transport between the electrodes and resulting in lower cost and better settling properties. Over the course of two months the electrodes coatings became thicker while efficiency decreased. The electrode efficiency was found to be as high as 94% for virgin electrodes and as low as 10% after two months. 8 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  18. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  20. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  1. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  2. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  3. « Le nez dans le micro ». Répercussions du travail sous commande vocale dans les entrepôts de la grande distribution alimentaire “Up front and close”. The impact of voice guidance systems in large food distribution warehouses “Estar pegado al micrófono”. Repercusiones del trabajo de activación por voz en los almacenes de la distribución alimentaria masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaborieau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans les entrepôts de la grande distribution alimentaire, l’introduction d’un nouvel outil de travail, le guidage par commande vocale, a considérablement modifié le travail des préparateurs de commande. Auparavant caractérisée par l’absence d’enchaînement et la possibilité de prendre de l’avance, l’activité de préparation a évolué vers une temporalité restrictive comparable à celle d’un ouvrier sur chaîne. Sous guidage vocal, « le nez dans le micro », le savoir-faire des préparateurs est réduit à un engagement physique. L’usage du corps constitue alors une ressource en tant mode d’appropriation du sens au travail, mais également un rempart lorsque des pathologies font apparaître les limites de l’intensification.Order picker operations in large food distribution warehouses have been considerably changed by a introduction of a new tool – voice guidance systems. Where the work used to be characterized by a lack of fixed sequencing and the impossibility for operatives of getting ahead of schedule, preparation activities have evolved towards more restrictive temporalities comparable to production line workers’ experience. With “up front and close” vocal guidance, order pickers’ skill is limited to their physical engagement, now considered a resource (i.e. a mode for appropriating the meaning of work but also a bulwark against the pathologies that arise as the general intensification drive reaches its limits.En los almacenes de la distribución alimentaria a gran escala, la introducción de una nueva herramienta de trabajo, el guiado activado por voz, ha transformado considerablemente el trabajo de los preparadores de pedidos. La actividad de preparación, antes caracterizada por la ausencia de secuenciación y por la posibilidad que el trabajador tenía de ganar tiempo, ha evolucionado hacia una temporalidad restrictiva comparable a la de un obrero en una cadena. Con el guiado activado por voz, al

  4. 24 CFR 257.120 - Appreciation sharing or up-front payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act, the amount of the appreciation in value of a property securing an H4H program mortgage that... appreciation may be established to the satisfaction of FHA: (1) In the case of— (i) A sale of the property to...'s interest in appreciation. Upon sale or disposition of a property securing an H4H program mortgage...

  5. Up Front, in Hope: The Value of Early Intervention for Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Maureen; Kleinfeld, Judith Smilg

    2002-01-01

    Differentiates fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) from fetal alcohol effects (FAE) and discusses difficulties in diagnosing these conditions. Describes the effects of FAS/FAE on young children, detailing impact on sensory processing, focusing attention, and cognitive development in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Presents suggestions for caregivers…

  6. 24 CFR 203.280 - One-time or Up-front MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums-One-Time... endorsement of the mortgage for insurance, pay to the Commissioner for the account of the mortgagor, in a...

  7. Metabolic cost of running is greater on a treadmill with a stiffer running platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; McKerrow, Alexander D; Kohn, Tertius A

    2017-08-01

    Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO 2max ). The stiffer treadmill elicited higher oxygen consumption (C: 46.7 ± 3.8; Q: 50.1 ± 4.3 ml·kg -1 · min -1 ), energy expenditure (C: 16.0 ± 2.5; Q: 17.7 ± 2.9 kcal · min -1 ), carbohydrate oxidation (C: 9.6 ± 3.1; Q: 13.0 ± 3.9 kcal · min -1 ), heart rate (C: 155 ± 16; Q: 163 ± 16 beats · min -1 ) and rating of perceived exertion (C: 13.8 ± 1.2; Q: 14.7 ± 1.2), but lower fat oxidation (C: 6.4 ± 2.3; Q: 4.6 ± 2.5 kcal · min -1 ) (all analysis of variance treadmill comparisons P running depending on the running platform stiffness.

  8. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  9. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    experience a cost breach. In our medical example, we could use survival analysis to identify risk fac- tors, such as obesity , that might indicate a greater... exogenous variables on the probability of a dichotomous outcome, such as whether or not a cost breach occurs in any given program year. Logit is

  10. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  11. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  12. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  13. Distribution costs -- the cost of local delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winger, N.; Zarnett, P.; Carr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the power transmission system in the province of Ontario is owned and operated as a regulated monopoly by Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC). Local distribution systems deliver to end-users from bulk supply points within a service territory. OHSC distributes to approximately one million, mostly rural customers, while the approximately 250 municipal utilities together serve about two million, mostly urban customers. Under the Energy Competition Act of 1998 local distribution companies will face some new challenges, including unbundled billing systems, a broader range of distribution costs, increased costs, made up of corporate taxes or payments in lieu of taxes and added costs for regulatory affairs. The consultants provide a detailed discussion of the components of distribution costs, the three components of the typical budget process (capital expenditures, (CAPEX), operating and maintenance (O and M) and administration and corporate (GA and C), a summary of some typical distribution costs in Ontario, and the estimated impacts of the Energy Competition Act (ECA) compliance on charges and rates. Various mitigation strategies are also reviewed. Among these are joint ventures by local distribution companies to reduce ECA compliance costs, re-examination of controllable costs, temporary reduction of the allowable return on equity (ROE) by 50 per cent, and/or reducing the competitive transition charge (CTC). It is estimated that either one of these two reductions could eliminate the full amount of the five to seven per cent uplift in delivered energy service costs. The conclusion of the consultants is that local distribution delivery charges will make up a greater proportion of end-user cost in the future than it has in the past. An increase to customers of about five per cent is expected when the competitive electricity market opens and unbundled billing begins. The cost increase could be mitigated by a combination of actions that would be needed for about

  14. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  15. Cost analysis of establishing a relationship between a surgical program in the US and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Quyen D; Nguyen, Thu; Nguyen, Phuong; Ho, Hung S

    2012-01-01

    "Twinning" refers to a constructive partnership between hospitals in developed and developing nations. Such an effort may contribute immensely to capacity building for the developing nation, but one of the reasons given for the lack of sustainability is cost. We share a detailed operating cost analysis of our recent experience with an institution in Vietnam. We were awarded a 1-year $54,000 grant from the Vietnam Education Foundation (VEF) to conduct a live tele-video conferencing course on the "Fundamentals of Clinical Surgery" with Thai Binh Medical University (TBMU). In-country lectures as well as an assessment of the needs at TBMU were performed. Total financial assistance and expenditures were tabulated to assess up-front infrastructure investment and annual cost required to sustain the program. The total amount of direct money ($66,686) and in-kind services ($70,276) was $136,962. The initial infrastructure cost was $41,085, which represented 62% of the direct money received. The annual cost to sustain the program was approximately $11,948. We concluded that the annual cost to maintain a "twinning" program was relatively low, and the efforts to sustain a "twinning" program were financially feasible and worthwhile endeavors. "Twinning" should be a critical part of the surgical humanitarian volunteerism effort.

  16. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  17. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  18. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  19. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  20. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  1. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  2. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  3. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    and use genetic algorithms to explore results. A strong business case occurs when viable paths are identified for an affordable up-front investment, and these paths can credibly achieve affordable, responsive operations, characterized by smaller direct touch labor efforts at the wing level from flight to flight. The results supporting this approach, its potential, and its conclusions are presented here.

  4. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    and use genetic algorithms to explore results. A strong business case occurs when viable paths are identified for an affordable up-front investment, and these paths can credibly achieve affordable, responsive operations, characterized by smaller direct touch labor efforts at the wing level from flight to flight. The results supporting this approach, its potential, and its conclusions are presented here.

  5. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  6. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  7. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  8. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  9. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  10. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  11. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  12. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  13. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  14. Social costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    There have been many studies over the past 20 years which have looked at the environmental and other impacts of energy production, conversion and use. A number of these have attempted to put a monetary value to the external costs which are not reflected in the prices charged for energy. The topic has received increased attention recently as a direct result of the recognition of the potentially large social costs that might arise from the depletion of the ozone layer, the consequences of global warming and the continued releases of acid gases from fossil fuel combustion. The determination of external costs was attempted in the report for the European Economic Community, EUR11519, ''Social Costs of Energy Consumption'', by O Hohmeyer. Due to its official sponsorship, this report has been afforded greater respect than it deserves and is being used in some quarters to claim that the external costs of nuclear power are high relative to those of fossil fuels. The remainder of this note looks at some of the serious deficiencies of the document and why its conclusions offer no meaningful guidance to policy makers. So far as the present author is aware no serious criticism of the Hohmeyer study has previously appeared. (author)

  15. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  16. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  17. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  18. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  19. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  20. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  1. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  2. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  3. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of emergency contraception options over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; Tak, Casey R; Sanders, Jessica N; Turok, David K; Schwarz, Eleanor B

    2018-05-01

    The copper intrauterine device is the most effective form of emergency contraception and can also provide long-term contraception. The levonorgestrel intrauterine device has also been studied in combination with oral levonorgestrel for women seeking emergency contraception. However, intrauterine devices have higher up-front costs than oral methods, such as ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel. Health care payers and decision makers (eg, health care insurers, government programs) with financial constraints must determine if the increased effectiveness of intrauterine device emergency contraception methods are worth the additional costs. We sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 emergency contraception strategies-ulipristal acetate, oral levonorgestrel, copper intrauterine device, and oral levonorgestrel plus same-day levonorgestrel intrauterine device-over 1 year from a US payer perspective. Costs (2017 US dollars) and pregnancies were estimated over 1 year using a Markov model of 1000 women seeking emergency contraception. Every 28-day cycle, the model estimated the predicted number of pregnancy outcomes (ie, live birth, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, or induced abortion) resulting from emergency contraception failure and subsequent contraception use. Model inputs were derived from published literature and national sources. An emergency contraception strategy was considered cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ie, the cost to prevent 1 additional pregnancy) was less than the weighted average cost of pregnancy outcomes in the United States ($5167). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and probability of being the most cost-effective emergency contraception strategy were calculated from 1000 probabilistic model iterations. One-way sensitivity analyses were used to examine uncertainty in the cost of emergency contraception, subsequent contraception, and pregnancy outcomes as well as the model probabilities. In 1000 women

  5. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  6. The economic costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    At a recent symposium, the economic costs of nuclear power were examined in four lectures which considered; (1) The performance of different types, size and ages of nuclear power plants. (2) The comparison between coal and nuclear power costs based on the principle of net effective cash. (3) The capital requirements of a nuclear programme. (4) The comparative costs, now and in the future, of coal-fired and nuclear plants. It is concluded that uncertainties seem to get greater rather than smaller with time probably due to the high and fluctuating world inflation rates and the great uncertainty about world economic performance introduced by the politicising of world oil supplies. (UK)

  7. Public power costs less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.

    1993-01-01

    The reasons why residential customers of public power utilities paid less for power than private sector customers is discussed. Residential customers of investor-owned utilities (IOU's) paid average rates that were 28% above those paid by customers by possibly owned systems during 1990. The reasons for this disparity are that management costs faced by public power systems are below those of private power companies, indicating a greater efficiency of management among public power systems, and customer accounts expenses averaged $33.00 per customer for publicly owned electric utilities compared to $39.00 per customer for private utilities

  8. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  9. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  10. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  11. [Relating costs to activities in hospitals. Use of internal cost accounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavem, K

    1995-01-10

    During the last few years hospital cost accounting has become widespread in many countries, in parallel with increasing cost pressure, greater competition and new financing schemes. Cost accounting has been used in the manufacturing industry for many years. Costs can be related to activities and production, e.g. by the costing of procedures, episodes of care and other internally defined cost objectives. Norwegian hospitals have lagged behind in the adoption of cost accounting. They ought to act quickly if they want to be prepared for possible changes in health care financing. The benefits can be considerable to a hospital operating in a rapidly changing health care environment.

  12. Cost restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the cost restructuring of the petroleum industry. This current decade is likely to be one of the most challenging for the petroleum industry. Though petroleum remains among the world's biggest businesses, news of consolidations, restructuring, and layoffs permeates the oil patch from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Isles. The recessionary economy has accelerated these changes, particularly in the upstream sector. Today, even the best-managed companies are transforming their cost structures, and companies that fail to do likewise probably won't survive as independent companies. Indeed, significant consolidation took place during the 1980s. More consolidations can be expected in this decade for companies that do not adapt to the economic realities of the mature business

  13. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  14. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  15. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  16. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  17. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  18. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  19. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  20. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  2. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  3. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  4. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  5. Cost effectiveness of meniscal allograft for torn discoid lateral meniscus in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gold, Heather T

    2016-09-01

    A discoid meniscus is more prone to tears than a normal meniscus. Patients with a torn discoid lateral meniscus are at increased risk for early onset osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Optimal management for this condition is controversial given the up-front cost difference between the two treatment options: the more expensive meniscal allograft transplantation compared with standard partial meniscectomy. We hypothesize that meniscal allograft transplantation following excision of a torn discoid lateral meniscus is more cost-effective compared with partial meniscectomy alone because allografts will extend the time to TKA. A decision analytic Markov model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of two treatments for symptomatic, torn discoid lateral meniscus: meniscal allograft and partial meniscectomy. Probability estimates and event rates were derived from the scientific literature, and costs and benefits were discounted by 3%. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to test model robustness. Over 25 years, the partial meniscectomy strategy cost $10,430, whereas meniscal allograft cost on average $4040 more, at $14,470. Partial meniscectomy postponed TKA an average of 12.5 years, compared with 17.30 years for meniscal allograft, an increase of 4.8 years. Allograft cost $842 per-year-gained in time to TKA. Meniscal allografts have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in patients with discoid lateral meniscus tears. Though more costly, meniscal allografts may be more effective than partial meniscectomy in delaying TKA in this model. Additional future long term clinical studies will provide more insight into optimal surgical options.

  6. Alternatives for packaging and transport of greater-than-class C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-06-01

    Viable methods for packaging greater-than-class C (GTCC) low-level wastes and for transporting those wastes from the waste generator sites or from an eastern interim storage site to the Yucca Mountain repository site have been identified and evaluated. Estimated costs for packaging and transporting the population of GTCC wastes expected to be accumulated through the year 2040 have been developed for three waste volume scenarios, for two preferred packaging methods for activated metals from reactor operations and from reactor decommissioning, and for two packaging density assumptions for the activated metals from reactor decommissioning. 7 refs. 7 tabs

  7. Activity of the greater padloper, Homopus femoralis (Testudinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or imminent rain, perhaps to avoid avian predators or physiological costs of water and food shortages. Future studies might locate active tortoises in the highest rainfall months, and use telemetry to identify activity patterns throughout the year. Key words: behaviour, ecology, Karoo, morphology, predation, reptile, tortoise.

  8. Forestry-related pathways for the movement of exotic plant pests into and within the greater Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Newton; Heike Meissner; Andrea. Lemay

    2011-01-01

    Forests of the Greater Caribbean Region (GCR) are important ecologically and economically. These unique ecosystems are under increasing pressure from exotic pests, which may cause extensive environmental damage and cost billions of dollars in control programs, lost production, and forest restoration.

  9. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  10. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  11. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  12. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  14. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  15. Computer Aided Design of a Low-Cost Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYEDA MARIA KHATOON ZAIDI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of robots or robotic systems for painting parts is becoming increasingly conventional; to improve reliability, productivity, consistency and to decrease waste. However, in Pakistan only highend Industries are able to afford the luxury of a robotic system for various purposes. In this study we propose an economical Painting Robot that a small-scale industry can install in their plant with ease. The importance of this robot is that being cost effective, it can easily be replaced in small manufacturing industries and therefore, eliminate health problems occurring to the individual in charge of painting parts on an everyday basis. To achieve this aim, the robot is made with local parts with only few exceptions, to cut costs; and the programming language is kept at a mediocre level. Image processing is used to establish object recognition and it can be programmed to paint various simple geometries. The robot is placed on a conveyer belt to maximize productivity. A four DoF (Degree of Freedom arm increases the working envelope and accessibility of painting different shaped parts with ease. This robot is capable of painting up, front, back, left and right sides of the part with a single colour. Initially CAD (Computer Aided Design models of the robot were developed which were analyzed, modified and improved to withstand loading condition and perform its task efficiently. After design selection, appropriate motors and materials were selected and the robot was developed. Throughout the development phase, minor problems and errors were fixed accordingly as they arose. Lastly the robot was integrated with the computer and image processing for autonomous control. The final results demonstrated that the robot is economical and reduces paint wastage.

  16. Computer aided design of a low-cost painting robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.; Janejo, F.; Mujtaba, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of robots or robotic systems for painting parts is becoming increasingly conventional; to improve reliability, productivity, consistency and to decrease waste. However, in Pakistan only highend Industries are able to afford the luxury of a robotic system for various purposes. In this study we propose an economical Painting Robot that a small-scale industry can install in their plant with ease. The importance of this robot is that being cost effective, it can easily be replaced in small manufacturing industries and therefore, eliminate health problems occurring to the individual in charge of painting parts on an everyday basis. To achieve this aim, the robot is made with local parts with only few exceptions, to cut costs; and the programming language is kept at a mediocre level. Image processing is used to establish object recognition and it can be programmed to paint various simple geometries. The robot is placed on a conveyer belt to maximize productivity. A four DoF (Degree of Freedom) arm increases the working envelope and accessibility of painting different shaped parts with ease. This robot is capable of painting up, front, back, left and right sides of the part with a single colour. Initially CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of the robot were developed which were analyzed, modified and improved to withstand loading condition and perform its task efficiently. After design selection, appropriate motors and materials were selected and the robot was developed. Throughout the development phase, minor problems and errors were fixed accordingly as they arose. Lastly the robot was integrated with the computer and image processing for autonomous control. The final results demonstrated that the robot is economical and reduces paint wastage. (author)

  17. [Cost effectiveness of workplace smoking policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Tamara; van den Borne, Inge

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the motivations of companies to set out a policy for controlling smoking, the economic benefits for the company resulting from such a policy and the costs, broken down by European Union countries. The literature on the costs of implementing a policy related to smoking at the workplace is reviewed. The main objective of policies related to smoking at the workplace is that of safeguarding employees from environmental tobacco smoke. Other reasons are cutting costs, improving the company image, and reducing absenteeism, occupational accidents, internal quarrels and extra costs due to cigarette smoking, protection against environmental tobacco smoke does not entail any higher costs for companies, and economic advantages are visible. The benefits are by far greater than the costs involved, particularly on a long-range basis, and seem to be greater when smoking at the workplace is completely prohibited and no smoking areas are set.

  18. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  19. Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben

    2003-03-01

    Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.

  20. Design to Cost and Life Cycle Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MANAGEMENT TASK ORIENTATED COST STRUCTURE 5. COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION INIFRA 2. COSTS DURING DEVELOPMENT -6. COSTS OF TRAINING 3. COSTS DURING TESi ...de r~duction des coats, ii faut disponer de ?!vyenr. performants d’eetimation des coats en main-d’oeuvre et en applrvininrinesent. Cam moyenm doivent

  1. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  2. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  5. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  6. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  7. The Psychology of Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation for large (and even not so large) government programs is a challenge. The number and magnitude of cost overruns associated with large Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs highlight the difficulties in developing and promulgating accurate cost estimates. These overruns can be the result of inadequate technology readiness or requirements definition, the whims of politicians or government bureaucrats, or even as failures of the cost estimating profession itself. However, there may be another reason for cost overruns that is right in front of us, but only recently have we begun to grasp it: the fact that cost estimators and their customers are human. The last 70+ years of research into human psychology and behavioral economics have yielded amazing findings into how we humans process and use information to make judgments and decisions. What these scientists have uncovered is surprising: humans are often irrational and illogical beings, making decisions based on factors such as emotion and perception, rather than facts and data. These built-in biases to our thinking directly affect how we develop our cost estimates and how those cost estimates are used. We cost estimators can use this knowledge of biases to improve our cost estimates and also to improve how we communicate and work with our customers. By understanding how our customers think, and more importantly, why they think the way they do, we can have more productive relationships and greater influence. By using psychology to our advantage, we can more effectively help the decision maker and our organizations make fact-based decisions.

  8. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  9. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  10. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  11. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Greater Confinement Disposal Program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for improved LLW disposal at the Savannah River Plant include Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) for the higher activity fractions of this waste. GCD practices will include waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and stabilizing the emplacement with cement. Statistical review of SRP burial records showed that about 95% of the radioactivity is associated with only 5% of the waste volume. Trigger values determined in this study were compared with actual burials in 1982 to determine what GCD facilities would be needed for a demonstration to begin in Fall 1983. Facilities selected include 8-feet-diameter x 30-feet-deep boreholes to contain reactor scrap, tritiated waste, and selected wastes from offsite

  13. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  14. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  15. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  16. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  17. Comparison of the costs of nonoperative care to minimally invasive surgery for sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis in a United States commercial payer population: potential economic implications of a new minimally invasive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Polly, David W; Knight, Tyler; Schneider, Karen; Holt, Tim; Cummings, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is common and treatment costly with substantial lost productivity and lost wages in the working-age population. Chronic low back pain originating in the sacroiliac (SI) joint (15%–30% of cases) is commonly treated with nonoperative care, but new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) options are also effective in treating SI joint disruption. We assessed whether the higher initial MIS SI joint fusion procedure costs were offset by decreased nonoperative care costs from a US commercial payer perspective. Methods An economic model compared the costs of treating SI joint disruption with either MIS SI joint fusion or continued nonoperative care. Nonoperative care costs (diagnostic testing, treatment, follow-up, and retail pharmacy pain medication) were from a retrospective study of Truven Health MarketScan® data. MIS fusion costs were based on the Premier’s Perspective™ Comparative Database and professional fees on 2012 Medicare payment for Current Procedural Terminology code 27280. Results The cumulative 3-year (base-case analysis) and 5-year (sensitivity analysis) differentials in commercial insurance payments (cost of nonoperative care minus cost of MIS) were $14,545 and $6,137 per patient, respectively (2012 US dollars). Cost neutrality was achieved at 6 years; MIS costs accrued largely in year 1 whereas nonoperative care costs accrued over time with 92% of up front MIS procedure costs offset by year 5. For patients with lumbar spinal fusion, cost neutrality was achieved in year 1. Conclusion Cost offsets from new interventions for chronic conditions such as MIS SI joint fusion accrue over time. Higher initial procedure costs for MIS were largely offset by decreased nonoperative care costs over a 5-year time horizon. Optimizing effective resource use in both nonoperative and operative patients will facilitate cost-effective health care delivery. The impact of SI joint disruption on direct and indirect costs to commercial insurers, health

  18. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  19. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  20. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  1. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  2. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  3. Translational database selection and multiplexed sequence capture for up front filtering of reliable breast cancer biomarker candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik L Ståhl

    Full Text Available Biomarker identification is of utmost importance for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we make use of a translational database selection strategy, utilizing data from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA on differentially expressed protein patterns in healthy and breast cancer tissues as a means to filter out potential biomarkers for underlying genetic causatives of the disease. DNA was isolated from ten breast cancer biopsies, and the protein coding and flanking non-coding genomic regions corresponding to the selected proteins were extracted in a multiplexed format from the samples using a single DNA sequence capture array. Deep sequencing revealed an even enrichment of the multiplexed samples and a great variation of genetic alterations in the tumors of the sampled individuals. Benefiting from the upstream filtering method, the final set of biomarker candidates could be completely verified through bidirectional Sanger sequencing, revealing a 40 percent false positive rate despite high read coverage. Of the variants encountered in translated regions, nine novel non-synonymous variations were identified and verified, two of which were present in more than one of the ten tumor samples.

  4. Final analysis of survival outcomes in the phase 3 FIRST trial of up-front treatment for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Thierry; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Dispenzieri, Angela; Catalano, John V; Belch, Andrew; Cavo, Michele; Pinto, Antonello; Weisel, Katja; Ludwig, Heinz; Bahlis, Nizar J; Banos, Anne; Tiab, Mourad; Delforge, Michel; Cavenagh, Jamie D; Geraldes, Catarina; Lee, Je-Jung; Chen, Christine; Oriol, Albert; De La Rubia, Javier; White, Darrell; Binder, Daniel; Lu, Jin; Anderson, Kenneth C; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Perrot, Aurore; Arnulf, Bertrand; Qiu, Lugui; Roussel, Murielle; Boyle, Eileen; Manier, Salomon; Mohty, Mohamad; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Leleu, Xavier; Ervin-Haynes, Annette; Chen, Guang; Houck, Vanessa; Benboubker, Lotfi; Hulin, Cyrille

    2018-01-18

    This FIRST trial final analysis examined survival outcomes in patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS; primary comparison: Rd continuous vs MPT). Overall survival (OS) was a key secondary endpoint (final analysis prespecified ≥60 months' follow-up). Patients were randomized to Rd continuous (n = 535), Rd18 (n = 541), or MPT (n = 547). At a median follow-up of 67 months, PFS was significantly longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.79; P < .00001) and was similarly extended vs Rd18. Median OS was 10 months longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (59.1 vs 49.1 months; HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.92; P = .0023), and similar with Rd18 (62.3 months). In patients achieving complete or very good partial responses, Rd continuous had an ≈30-month longer median time to next treatment vs Rd18 (69.5 vs 39.9 months). Over half of all patients who received second-line treatment were given a bortezomib-based therapy. Second-line outcomes were improved in patients receiving bortezomib after Rd continuous and Rd18 vs after MPT. No new safety concerns, including risk for secondary malignancies, were observed. Treatment with Rd continuous significantly improved survival outcomes vs MPT, supporting Rd continuous as a standard of care for patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00689936 and EudraCT as 2007-004823-39. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Up-front PET/CT changes treatment intent in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Max; Nielsen, Anne L.; Johansen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    underwent CXR/MRI and PET/CT before diagnostic biopsy. An ordinary MDTC using all available imaging was conducted as per standard practice. After at least 3 months (to eliminate recall bias in the team), the first project MDTC was conducted, based on either CXR/MRI or PET/CT, and the tumor board drew...... conclusions regarding treatment. After an additional 3 months, a second project MDTC was conducted using the complementary imaging modality. Results: A total of 307 patients were included. Based on CXR/MRI, 303 patients (99%) were recommended for curative treatment and only four patients (1%) for palliative...

  6. Up-front PET/CT changes treatment intent in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Max; Godballe, Christian; Nielsen, Anne L.; Thomassen, Anders; Johansen, Joergen; Gyldenkerne, Niels; Soerensen, Jens A.; Diaz, Anabel; Asmussen, Jon T.; Gerke, Oke; Doessing, Helle; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2018-01-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we wanted to examine the differences in overall treatment decisions, i.e. curative versus palliative treatment intent, reached by a multidisciplinary team conference (MDTC) based on 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or chest X-ray + MRI of the head and neck (CXR/MRI). This was a prospective blinded cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified primary HNSCC were invited to participate. All included patients underwent CXR/MRI and PET/CT before diagnostic biopsy. An ordinary MDTC using all available imaging was conducted as per standard practice. After at least 3 months (to eliminate recall bias in the team), the first project MDTC was conducted, based on either CXR/MRI or PET/CT, and the tumor board drew conclusions regarding treatment. After an additional 3 months, a second project MDTC was conducted using the complementary imaging modality. A total of 307 patients were included. Based on CXR/MRI, 303 patients (99%) were recommended for curative treatment and only four patients (1%) for palliative treatment. Based on PET/CT, the MDTC concluded that 278 (91%) patients were suitable for curative treatment and 29 (9%) patients for palliative treatment. The absolute difference of 8% was statistically significant (95% CI: 4.8%-11.5%, p < 0.001). A PET/CT-based imaging strategy significantly changed the decisions regarding treatment intent made by a MDTC for patients diagnosed with HNSCC, when compared with the standard imaging strategy of CXR/MRI. (orig.)

  7. Up-front PET/CT changes treatment intent in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Max; Godballe, Christian [Odense University Hospital, Department of ORL - Head and Neck Surgery, Odense (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Department of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Anne L.; Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Johansen, Joergen; Gyldenkerne, Niels [Odense University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Odense (Denmark); Soerensen, Jens A. [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark); Odense University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense (Denmark); Diaz, Anabel; Asmussen, Jon T. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Odense (Denmark); Gerke, Oke [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Centre of Health Economics Research, Odense (Denmark); Doessing, Helle; Bjoerndal, Kristine [Odense University Hospital, Department of ORL - Head and Neck Surgery, Odense (Denmark); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2018-04-15

    In patients with newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we wanted to examine the differences in overall treatment decisions, i.e. curative versus palliative treatment intent, reached by a multidisciplinary team conference (MDTC) based on 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or chest X-ray + MRI of the head and neck (CXR/MRI). This was a prospective blinded cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified primary HNSCC were invited to participate. All included patients underwent CXR/MRI and PET/CT before diagnostic biopsy. An ordinary MDTC using all available imaging was conducted as per standard practice. After at least 3 months (to eliminate recall bias in the team), the first project MDTC was conducted, based on either CXR/MRI or PET/CT, and the tumor board drew conclusions regarding treatment. After an additional 3 months, a second project MDTC was conducted using the complementary imaging modality. A total of 307 patients were included. Based on CXR/MRI, 303 patients (99%) were recommended for curative treatment and only four patients (1%) for palliative treatment. Based on PET/CT, the MDTC concluded that 278 (91%) patients were suitable for curative treatment and 29 (9%) patients for palliative treatment. The absolute difference of 8% was statistically significant (95% CI: 4.8%-11.5%, p < 0.001). A PET/CT-based imaging strategy significantly changed the decisions regarding treatment intent made by a MDTC for patients diagnosed with HNSCC, when compared with the standard imaging strategy of CXR/MRI. (orig.)

  8. The Potential Impact of Up-Front Drug Sensitivity Testing on India's Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva

    Full Text Available In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB. The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST. Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies. Here we use a mathematical model of TB transmission, calibrated to the TB epidemic in India, to explore the potential impact of a major national scale-up of rapid DST. To inform key parameters in a clinical setting, we take GeneXpert as an example of a technology that could enable such scale-up. We draw from a recent multi-centric demonstration study conducted in India that involved upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of all TB suspects.We find that widespread, public-sector deployment of high-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal DST appropriately linked with treatment could substantially impact MDR-TB in India. Achieving 75% access over 3 years amongst all cases being diagnosed for TB in the public sector alone could avert over 180,000 cases of MDR-TB (95% CI 44187 - 317077 cases between 2015 and 2025. Sufficiently wide deployment of Xpert could, moreover, turn an increasing MDR epidemic into a diminishing one. Synergistic effects were observed with assumptions of simultaneously improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Our results illustrate the potential impact of new and emerging technologies that enable widespread, timely DST, and the important effect that universal rapid DST in the public sector can have on the MDR-TB epidemic in India.

  9. Towards Greater Cross-Border Trade in Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Angus

    2007-07-01

    Despite differences in our national agendas, the countries represented by the WEC are united in our desire to secure a long-term, affordable and sustainable energy supply for our nations. As the price of oil increases and concerns mount over the environmental impact of coal, gas will form an increasingly important part of the energy equation, with demand for gas expected to double over the next 25 years. Critically we are still facing many of the same concerns: rapidly increasing demand for energy from the industrialisation of developing countries, particularly China and India; slow technology innovation in the power industry; and increasing construction costs, in terms of price of the raw materials as well as access to sufficient skilled and qualified labour, across the value chain. (auth)

  10. The cost of solidarity: the salvadoran labor movement in Puerto el Triunfo and Greater San Salvador in 1979 and 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Gould

    2015-11-01

    the militant rise and expansion of the labor movement. The essay will trace this broader transformation while presenting a detailed examination of the political and social changes in Puerto El Triunfo, a quite distinct history that nevertheless reflected, influenced and paralleled the labor movement as a whole. I will make use of the concept of “desencuentro”.

  11. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  12. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. PMID:25862425

  13. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hilsenrath PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  14. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  15. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  16. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  17. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  18. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  19. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  20. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  1. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  2. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  3. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  4. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  5. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  6. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  7. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. The operating cost of electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Kan, J.; Szynkarczuk, J.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L. (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Devon, AB (Canada))

    1994-12-01

    The electrocoagulation of kaolinite and bentonite suspensions was studied in a pilot-scale electrocoagulation system to assess the operating cost and efficiency of the process. Factors affecting the operating cost such as formation of passivation layers on electrode plates, flow velocity, and concentration of NaCl in the suspension were examined. The operating costs investigated were the power cost of the electrocoagulation cell and the material cost due to the consumption of the aluminum electrode. Comparison was based on the settling properties of the treated product: turbidity, settling rate, and cake height. Higher NaCl concentration resulted in greater amounts of Al dissolved chemically and electrochemically into the suspension and thus a better clarity of the supernatant of the treated product. Increased flow velocity could reduce significantly the operating cost while improving both clarity of the supernatant and compactness of the sludge volume. The passivation layers developed quickly with time during the electrocoagulation process and more energy became wasted on the layers. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  10. Strategies, technologies, and economics for managing greater-than-class C waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Baird, R.D.; Chau, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act 0f 1985, Public Law 99-240, transferred responsibility for disposing of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by commercial licensees from the states to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Development of permanent disposal capacity for GTCC LLW requires the evaluation of potential disposal concepts in terms of technical feasibility, economics, and institutional concerns. Previous studies have identified 13 potential GTCC LLW disposal concepts and have characterized volumes and types of GTCC LLW. Data from these studies, along with newly developed data pertaining to concept designs and hypothetical sites, were used to evaluate each concept's technical feasibility. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the technically feasible disposal concepts was also conducted

  11. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  12. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  13. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  14. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  15. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  17. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  20. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  1. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Education, implementation, and policy barriers to greater integration of palliative care: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Melissa D; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Garralda, Eduardo; van der Eerden, Marlieke; Stevenson, David; McKendrick, Karen; Centeno, Carlos; Meier, Diane E

    2016-03-01

    Early integration of palliative care into the management of patients with serious disease has the potential to both improve quality of life of patients and families and reduce healthcare costs. Despite these benefits, significant barriers exist in the United States to the early integration of palliative care in the disease trajectory of individuals with serious illness. To provide an overview of the barriers to more widespread palliative care integration in the United States. A literature review using PubMed from 2005 to March 2015 augmented by primary data collected from 405 hospitals included in the Center to Advance Palliative Care's National Palliative Care Registry for years 2012 and 2013. We use the World Health Organization's Public Health Strategy for Palliative Care as a framework for analyzing barriers to palliative care integration. We identified key barriers to palliative care integration across three World Health Organization domains: (1) education domain: lack of adequate education/training and perception of palliative care as end-of-life care; (2) implementation domain: inadequate size of palliative medicine-trained workforce, challenge of identifying patients appropriate for palliative care referral, and need for culture change across settings; (3) policy domain: fragmented healthcare system, need for greater funding for research, lack of adequate reimbursement for palliative care, and regulatory barriers. We describe the key policy and educational opportunities in the United States to address and potentially overcome the barriers to greater integration of palliative care into the healthcare of Americans with serious illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The outcome of endoscopy for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, James; Fary, Camdon; Tran, Phong

    2016-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), previously referred as trochanteric bursitis, is a debilitating condition characterised by chronic lateral hip pain. The syndrome is thought to relate to gluteal tendinopathy, with most cases responding to non-operative treatment. A number of open and endoscopic surgical techniques targeting the iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa and gluteal tendons have, however, been described for severe recalcitrant cases. We report the outcomes of one such endoscopic approach here. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients (57 operations) who had undergone endoscopic longitudinal vertical iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy. Inclusion criteria included diagnosed GTPS with a minimum of six months of non-operative treatment. Exclusion criteria included concomitant intra- or extra-articular hip pathology and previous hip surgery including total hip arthroplasty. Outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, Oxford hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). The series included 42 females and 7 males with a mean age of 65.0 years (26.7-88.6). Mean follow-up time was 20.7 months (5.3-41.2). Eight patients had full thickness gluteal tendon tears, of which 7 were repaired. Adjuvant PRP was injected intraoperatively in 38 of 57 operations (67.2 %). At follow-up, overall mean Visual Analogue Scale values had decreased from 7.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.001), Oxford hip Scores had increased from 20.4 to 37.3 (p < 0.001) and iHOT-33 scores had increased from 23.8 to 70.2 (p < 0.001). Of the 57 operations performed, patients reported feeling very satisfied with the surgical outcome in 28 operations (49.1 %), satisfied in 17 operations (29.8 %) and less than satisfied in 12 operations (21.1 %). While the majority of patients with GTPS will improve with non-operative management, endoscopic iliotibial band release, trochanteric bursectomy and gluteal tendon repair is a safe and effective treatment for severe

  4. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  5. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  6. How rebates, copayments, and administration costs affect the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferko, Nicole C; Borisova, Natalie; Airia, Parisa; Grima, Daniel T; Thompson, Melissa F

    2012-11-01

    Because of rising drug expenditures, cost considerations have become essential, necessitating the requirement for cost-effectiveness analyses for managed care organizations (MCOs). The study objective is to examine the impact of various drug-cost components, in addition to wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies. A Markov model of osteoporosis was used to exemplify different drug cost scenarios. We examined the effect of varying rebates for oral bisphosphonates--risedronate and ibandronate--as well as considering the impact of varying copayments and administration costs for intravenous zoledronate. The population modeled was 1,000 American women, > or = 50 years with osteoporosis. Patients were followed for 1 year to reflect an annual budget review of formularies by MCOs. The cost of therapy was based on an adjusted WAC, and is referred to as net drug cost. The total annual cost incurred by an MCO for each drug regimen was calculated using the net drug cost and fracture cost. We estimated cost on a quality adjusted life year (QALY) basis. When considering different rebates, results for risedronate versus ibandronate vary from cost-savings (i.e., costs less and more effective) to approximately $70,000 per QALY. With no risedronate rebate, an ibandronate rebate of approximately 65% is required before cost per QALY surpasses $50,000. With rebates greater than 25% for risedronate, irrespective of ibandronate rebates, results become cost-saving. Results also showed the magnitude of cost savings to the MCO varied by as much as 65% when considering no administration cost and the highest coinsurance rate for zoledronate. Our study showed that cost-effectiveness varies considerably when factors in addition to the WAC are considered. This paper provides recommendations for pharmaceutical manufacturers and MCOs when developing and interpreting such analyses.

  7. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  8. Life cycle cost analysis rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates data from CDOTs Cost Data books and Pavement Management Program. Cost : indices were used to normalize project data to year 2014. Data analyzed in the study was obtained from : the CDOTs Cost Data books and the Pavement Man...

  9. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  10. [Cost per capita in outpatients by gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Campos Esparza, Maribel; Galicia Rodríguez, Liliana; Martínez González, Lidia; Vargas Daza, Emma Rosa; Torres Labra, Guadalupe; Patiño Vega, Adolfo; Rivera Martínez, María Teresa; Aparicio Rojas, Raúl; Juárez Durán, Martín

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the annual cost per capita by gender in first level of attention. It is a cost study in Family Physician Units in Mexico. The information corresponded to the year of 2004 and the study divided in the use profile and cost attention. USE PROFILE OF SERVICES: it was studied 1,585 clinical registries of patients, use profile defined by average and attention reasons by department, gender and age group. COST ATTENTION: considered in American dollars it included fixed unit cost (departmentalization adjusted by productivity), variable unit cost (micro cost technical), department unite cost by type attention, and department unit cost by age and gender. The life expectancy was of 73 years for men and 78 for women. Three scenes were identified. The annual cost per capita is superior among woman [US$73.24 (IC 95% $11.38 - $197.49)] than in man [$ 53.11 (IC 95% 2.51 - 207.71)]. The conclusion found that in the first level of attention the cost per capita is greater in woman than in man.

  11. Impact of generic alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nayak

    Full Text Available Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women.Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and alendronate treatment for individuals with osteoporosis; with a comparator of "no screening" and treatment only after fracture occurrence. We evaluated annual alendronate costs of $20 through $800; outcome measures included fractures; nursing home admission; medication adverse events; death; costs; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2010 U.S. dollars per QALY gained. A lifetime time horizon was used, and direct costs were included. Base-case and sensitivity analyses were performed.Base-case analysis results showed that at annual alendronate costs of $200 or less, osteoporosis screening followed by treatment was cost-saving, resulting in lower total costs than no screening as well as more QALYs (10.6 additional quality-adjusted life-days. When assuming alendronate costs of $400 through $800, screening and treatment resulted in greater lifetime costs than no screening but was highly cost-effective, with ICERs ranging from $714 per QALY gained through $13,902 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment was robust to joint input parameter estimate variation at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY at all alendronate costs evaluated.Osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment is effective and highly cost-effective for postmenopausal women across a range of alendronate costs, and may be cost

  12. Bioenergetic components of reproductive effort in viviparous snakes: costs of vitellogenesis exceed costs of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Beaupre, Steven J

    2011-12-01

    Reproductive effort has been defined as the proportion of an organism's energy budget that is allocated to reproduction over a biologically meaningful time period. Historically, studies of reproductive bioenergetics considered energy content of gametes, but not costs of gamete production. Although metabolic costs of vitellogenesis (MCV) fundamentally reflect the primary bioenergetic cost of reproductive allocation in female reptiles, the few investigations that have considered costs of reproductive allocation have focused on metabolic costs of pregnancy (MCP) in viviparous species. We define MCP as energetic costs incurred by pregnant females, including all costs of maintaining gestation conditions necessary for embryogenesis. MCP by our definition do not include fetal costs of embryogenesis. We measured metabolic rates in five species of viviparous snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix, Boa constrictor, Eryx colubrinus, Nerodia sipedon, and Thamnophis sirtalis) during vitellogenesis and pregnancy in order to estimate MCV and MCP. Across all species, MCV were responsible for 30% increases in maternal metabolism. Phylogenetically-independent contrasts showed that MCV were significantly greater in B. constrictor than in other species, likely because B. constrictor yolk energy content was greater than that of other species. Estimates of MCP were not significantly different from zero in any species. In viviparous snakes, MCV appear to represent significant bioenergetic expenditures, while MCP do not. We suggest that MCV, together with yolk energy content, represent the most significant component of reptilian reproductive effort, and therefore deserve greater attention than MCP in studies of reptilian reproductive bioenergetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  14. An application of the Rayleigh distribution to contract cost data

    OpenAIRE

    Abernethy, Thomas S.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Accurate cost models are essential to the proper monitoring of contract cost data. The greater the accuracy of the model, the earlier contract cost overruns can be recognized and their cause(s) ascertained. The availability of a variety of cost models allows flexibility in choosing the correct model for the particular circumstances and increases the chances of being able to select a model that can provide reliable forecasts about future c...

  15. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  16. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sase Yuji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views, knee (three views, wrist (two views, and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  17. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hiroshi; Tani, Yuji; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Yokooka, Yuki; Abe, Tamotsu; Sase, Yuji; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-09-30

    Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  18. Sensitivity study of the factors affecting first-of-a-kind and Nth-of-a-kind Small Modular Reactor investment costs - 15108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldon, L.; Liu, L.; Sabharwall, P.; Schneider, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional nuclear reactors require significant investment and pose financial, regulatory, and political risks. Small modular reactors (SMRs), on the other hand, provide an attractive alternative due to substantially reduced up-front investment costs and financial risks; more flexible deployment schedules and operations; modular fabrication and faster onsite assembly; and incorporation into hybrid energy systems or even cogeneration applications such as desalination, district heating, and industrial process heat. This paper aims to develop a general methodology of assessing the economics of first-of-a-kind (FOAK) and nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) SMRs as part of an effort to determine the conditions that would make them competitive with other generation technologies. Ultimately, this paper will provide background information on the various factors impacting nuclear reactor capital and operational costs; detail technology independent cost estimates for water-cooled SMRs; and provide a parametric study on learning and construction and deployment effects. This study demonstrates precisely why the financial risks are drastically reduced for an SMR site, making SMR nuclear projects feasible for many companies, rather than just a handful which are able to finance multi-billion dollar projects and handle the potential construction or licensing delays or cost overruns

  19. The Cost of Smoking in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling; Stark, Brad

    2016-05-01

    The economic impact of smoking, including healthcare costs and the value of lost productivity due to illness and mortality, was estimated for California for 2009. Smoking-attributable healthcare costs were estimated using a series of econometric models that estimate expenditures for hospital care, ambulatory care, prescriptions, home health care, and nursing home care. Lost productivity due to illness was estimated using an econometric model predicting how smoking status affects the number of days lost from work or other activities. The value of lives lost from premature mortality due to smoking was estimated using an epidemiological approach. Almost 4 million Californians still smoke, including 146 000 adolescents. The cost of smoking in 2009 totaled $18.1 billion, including $9.8 billion in healthcare costs, $1.4 billion in lost productivity from illness, and $6.8 billion in lost productivity from premature mortality. This amounts to $487 per California resident and $4603 per smoker. Costs were greater for men than for women. Hospital costs comprised 44% of healthcare costs. Despite extensive efforts at tobacco control in California, healthcare and lost productivity costs attributable to smoking remain high. Compared to costs for 1999, the total cost was 15% greater in 2009. However, after adjusting for inflation, real costs have fallen by 13% over the past decade, indicating that efforts have been successful in reducing the economic burden of smoking in the state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  1. Acute costs and predictors of higher treatment costs of trauma in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Taylor, Colman; Dickson, Cara; Jan, Stephen; Palmer, Cameron S; Langcake, Mary; Myburgh, John

    2014-01-01

    Accurate economic data are fundamental for improving current funding models and ultimately in promoting the efficient delivery of services. The financial burden of a high trauma casemix to designated trauma centres in Australia has not been previously determined, and there is some evidence that the episode funding model used in Australia results in the underfunding of trauma. To describe the costs of acute trauma admissions in trauma centres, identify predictors of higher treatment costs and cost variance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data linkage of admitted trauma patient and financial data provided by 12 Level 1 NSW trauma centres for the 08/09 financial year was performed. Demographic, injury details and injury scores were obtained from trauma registries. Individual patient general ledger costs (actual trauma patient costs), Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) and state-wide average costs (which form the basis of funding) were obtained. The actual costs incurred by the hospital were then compared with the state-wide AR-DRG average costs. Multivariable multiple linear regression was used for identifying predictors of costs. There were 17,522 patients, the average per patient cost was $10,603 and the median was $4628 (interquartile range: $2179-10,148). The actual costs incurred by trauma centres were on average $134 per bed day above AR-DRG costs-determined costs. Falls, road trauma and violence were the highest causes of total cost. Motor cyclists and pedestrians had higher median costs than motor vehicle occupants. As a result of greater numbers, patients with minor injury had comparable total costs with those generated by patients with severe injury. However the median cost of severely injured patients was nearly four times greater. The count of body regions injured, sex, length of stay, serious traumatic brain injury and admission to the Intensive Care Unit were significantly associated with increased costs (p<0.001). This

  2. Greater physician involvement improves coding outcomes in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Medford, Andrew R L

    2013-01-01

    Correct coding is essential for accurate reimbursement for clinical activity. Published data confirm that significant aberrations in coding occur, leading to considerable financial inaccuracies especially in interventional procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Previous data reported a 15% coding error for EBUS-TBNA in a U.K. service. We hypothesised that greater physician involvement with coders would reduce EBUS-TBNA coding errors and financial disparity. The study was done as a prospective cohort study in the tertiary EBUS-TBNA service in Bristol. 165 consecutive patients between October 2009 and March 2012 underwent EBUS-TBNA for evaluation of unexplained mediastinal adenopathy on computed tomography. The chief coder was prospectively electronically informed of all procedures and cross-checked on a prospective database and by Trust Informatics. Cost and coding analysis was performed using the 2010-2011 tariffs. All 165 procedures (100%) were coded correctly as verified by Trust Informatics. This compares favourably with the 14.4% coding inaccuracy rate for EBUS-TBNA in a previous U.K. prospective cohort study [odds ratio 201.1 (1.1-357.5), p = 0.006]. Projected income loss was GBP 40,000 per year in the previous study, compared to a GBP 492,195 income here with no coding-attributable loss in revenue. Greater physician engagement with coders prevents coding errors and financial losses which can be significant especially in interventional specialties. The intervention can be as cheap, quick and simple as a prospective email to the coding team with cross-checks by Trust Informatics and against a procedural database. We suggest that all specialties should engage more with their coders using such a simple intervention to prevent revenue losses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis

  4. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  5. Controlling Healthcare Costs: Just Cost Effectiveness or "Just" Cost Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2018-04-01

    Meeting healthcare needs is a matter of social justice. Healthcare needs are virtually limitless; however, resources, such as money, for meeting those needs, are limited. How then should we (just and caring citizens and policymakers in such a society) decide which needs must be met as a matter of justice with those limited resources? One reasonable response would be that we should use cost effectiveness as our primary criterion for making those choices. This article argues instead that cost-effectiveness considerations must be constrained by considerations of healthcare justice. The goal of this article will be to provide a preliminary account of how we might distinguish just from unjust or insufficiently just applications of cost-effectiveness analysis to some healthcare rationing problems; specifically, problems related to extraordinarily expensive targeted cancer therapies. Unconstrained compassionate appeals for resources for the medically least well-off cancer patients will be neither just nor cost effective.

  6. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  7. Greater Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  8. Greater Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P

    1986-03-01

    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, P.; Schricker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB) [de

  10. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs

  11. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  12. Long-term storage of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Under Federal law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for safe disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) generated by licenses of the Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) or Agreement States. Such waste must be disposed of in a facility licensed by the NRC. It is unlikely that licensed disposal of GTCC LLW will be available prior to the year 2010. Pending availability of disposal capacity, DOE is assessing the need for collective, long-term storage of GTCC LLW. Potential risks to public health and safety caused by long-term storage of GTCC LLW at the place of generation will be evaluated to determine if alternative facilities are warranted. If warranted, several options will be investigated to determine the preferred alternative for long-term storage. These options include modification of an existing DOE facility, development of a new DOE facility, or development of a facility by the private sector with or without DOE support. Reasonable costs for long-term storage would be borne by the waste generators. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  14. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  15. Costing Practices in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    .e., Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) systems, and costing practices. DRG-based payment systems strongly influence costing practices in multiple ways. In particular, setting DRG tariffs requires highly standardized costing practices linked with specific skill sets from management accountants and brings other...... jurisdictions (e.g., clinical coding) to bear on costing practice. These factors contribute to the fragmentation of the jurisdiction of management accounting.......The rising cost of healthcare is a globally pressing concern. This makes detailed attention to the way in which costing is carried out of central importance. This article offers a framework for considering the interdependencies between a dominant element of the contemporary healthcare context, i...

  16. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  17. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  18. Cost accounting at GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, R.

    1979-01-01

    The GKSS has a cost accounting system comprising cost type, cost centre and cost unit accounting which permits of a comprehensive and detailed supervision of the accural of costs and use of funds, makes price setting for outside orders possible and provides the necessary data for decision-making and planning. It fulfills the requirement for an ordered accounting system; it is therefore guaranteed that there exists between financial accounts department and cost accounting a proper demarcation and transition, that costs are accounted fully only on the basis of vouchers and only once, evaluation and distribution are unified and the principle of causation is observed. Two employees are engaged in costs and services accounting. Although we strive to effect adaptations as swiftly as possible, and constantly to adapt refinements and supplementary processes for the improvement of the system, this can only occur within the scope of, and with the exactitude necessary for the required information. (author)

  19. INTOR cost approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de

  20. Medicare Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare certified institutional providers are required to submit an annual cost report to a Medicare Administrative Contractor. The cost report contains provider...

  1. A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben; Nilsson, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour under natural conditions...

  2. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  3. Rationalizing regulation could help cut US O and M costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.; Koppe, R.; Waage, J.

    1990-01-01

    Rationalizing safety regulation could dramatically reduce the contractor costs which have become such a large component of rising operating and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants in the United States. Multi-plant operating companies are also a possibility - attractive to utilities because of the economies of scale that they bring and the greater influence that they wield. (author)

  4. Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater use of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is a pre-requisite for improved human welfare; however, the costs associated with groundwater development are prohibitively high and poorly defined. This study identifies and disaggregates the costs of groundwater development in 11 Sub-Saharan African countries, while ...

  5. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wout, E.L.; Bever Donker, J.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department

  6. Understanding Time-driven Activity-based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-03-01

    Transitioning to a value-based health care system will require providers to increasingly scrutinize their outcomes and costs. Although there has been a great deal of effort to understand outcomes, cost accounting in health care has been a greater challenge. Currently the cost accounting methods used by hospitals and providers are based off a fee-for-service system. As resources become increasingly scarce and the health care system attempts to understand which services provide the greatest value, it will be critically important to understand the true costs of delivering a service. An understanding of the true costs of a particular service will help providers make smarter decisions on how to allocate and utilize resources as well as determine which activities are nonvalue added. Achieving value will require providers to have a greater focus on accurate outcome data as well as better methods of cost accounting.

  7. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e...

  8. Costs of employee turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  9. Reactor cost driving items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Assuming that the design solutions presently perceived for NET can be extrapolated for use in a power reactor, and using costing experience with present day fusion experiments and with fission power plants, the major components of the cost of a tokamak fusion power reactor are described. The analysis shows the emphasis worth placing on various areas of plant design to reduce costs

  10. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  11. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  12. Cost-Benefit Comparison of Two Proposed Overseas Programs for Reducing Chronic Hepatitis B Infection among Refugees: Is Screening Essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazwa, Amelia; Coleman, Margaret S.; Gazmararian, Julie; Wingate, La’Marcus T.; Maskery, Brian; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Refugees are at an increased risk of chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection because many of their countries of origin, as well as host countries, have intermediate-to-high prevalence rates. Refugees arriving to the US are also at risk of serious sequelae from chronic HBV infection because they are not routinely screened for the virus overseas or in domestic post-arrival exams, and may live in the US for years without awareness of their infection status. Methods A cohort of 26,548 refugees who arrived in Minnesota and Georgia during 2005–2010 was evaluated to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection. This prevalence information was then used in a cost-benefit analysis comparing two variations of a proposed overseas program to prevent or ameliorate the effects of HBV infection, titled ‘Screen, then vaccinate or initiate management’ (SVIM) and ‘Vaccinate only’ (VO). The analyses were performed in 2013. All values were converted to US 2012 dollars. Results The estimated six year period-prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 6.8% in the overall refugee population arriving to Minnesota and Georgia and 7.1% in those ≥ 6 years of age. The SVIM program variation was more cost beneficial than VO. While the up-front costs of SVIM were higher than VO ($154,084 vs. $73,758; n=58,538 refugees), the SVIM proposal displayed a positive net benefit, ranging from $24 million to $130 million after only 5 years since program initiation, depending on domestic post-arrival screening rates in the VO proposal. Conclusions Chronic HBV infection remains an important health problem in refugees resettling to the United States. An overseas screening policy for chronic HBV infection is more cost-beneficial than a ‘Vaccination only’ policy. The major benefit drivers for the screening policy are earlier medical management of chronic HBV infection and averted lost societal contributions from premature death. PMID:25595868

  13. Cost-benefit comparison of two proposed overseas programs for reducing chronic Hepatitis B infection among refugees: is screening essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazwa, Amelia; Coleman, Margaret S; Gazmararian, Julie; Wingate, La'Marcus T; Maskery, Brian; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle

    2015-03-10

    Refugees are at an increased risk of chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection because many of their countries of origin, as well as host countries, have intermediate-to-high prevalence rates. Refugees arriving to the US are also at risk of serious sequelae from chronic HBV infection because they are not routinely screened for the virus overseas or in domestic post-arrival exams, and may live in the US for years without awareness of their infection status. A cohort of 26,548 refugees who arrived in Minnesota and Georgia during 2005-2010 was evaluated to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection. This prevalence information was then used in a cost-benefit analysis comparing two variations of a proposed overseas program to prevent or ameliorate the effects of HBV infection, titled 'Screen, then vaccinate or initiate management' (SVIM) and 'Vaccinate only' (VO). The analyses were performed in 2013. All values were converted to US 2012 dollars. The estimated six year period-prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 6.8% in the overall refugee population arriving to Minnesota and Georgia and 7.1% in those ≥6 years of age. The SVIM program variation was more cost beneficial than VO. While the up-front costs of SVIM were higher than VO ($154,084 vs. $73,758; n=58,538 refugees), the SVIM proposal displayed a positive net benefit, ranging from $24 million to $130 million after only 5 years since program initiation, depending on domestic post-arrival screening rates in the VO proposal. Chronic HBV infection remains an important health problem in refugees resettling to the United States. An overseas screening policy for chronic HBV infection is more cost-beneficial than a 'Vaccination only' policy. The major benefit drivers for the screening policy are earlier medical management of chronic HBV infection and averted lost societal contributions from premature death. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cost analysis and cost justification of automated data processing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, G E

    1983-03-01

    Prospective cost analysis of alternative data processing systems can be facilitated by proper selection of the costs to be analyzed and realistic appraisal of the effect on staffing. When comparing projects with dissimilar cash flows, techniques such as analysis of net present value can be helpful in identifying financial benefits. Confidence and accuracy in prospective analyses will increase as more retrospective studies are published. Several accounts now in the literature describe long-term experience with turnkey laboratory information systems. Acknowledging the difficulty in longitudinal studies, they all report favorable effects on labor costs and recovery of lost charges. Enthusiasm is also expressed for the many intangible benefits of the systems. Several trends suggest that cost justification and cost effectiveness will be more easily demonstrated in the future. These are the rapidly decreasing cost of hardware (with corresponding reduction in service costs) and the entry into the market of additional systems designed for medium to small hospitals. The effect of broadening the sales base may be lower software prices. Finally, operational and executive data management and reporting are destined to become the premier extensions of the LIS for cost justification. Aptly applied, these facilities can promote understanding of costs, control of costs, and greater efficiency in providing laboratory services.

  15. Implicit environmental costs in hydroelectric development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.; Strand, J.

    1992-01-01

    The ranking of hydropower projects under the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources is used to derive implicit government preferences for a number of environmental attributes described by ordinal scores for each project. Higher negative scores are generally associated with greater implicit willingness to pay to avoid the environmental damage tied to the attribute, caused by hydropower development. The total (ordinary economic and implicit environmental) cost for each project are derived, and the environmental costs per capacity unit are found to be on the same order as the economic costs, lower for projects ranked for early exploitation, and higher for projects to be saved permanently. An implicit long-run marginal cost curve for Norwegian hydropower development is derived, which is generally upward sloping, but not uniformly so. This can be due to the model specification problems or ranking inconsistencies, both of which are likely to be present. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghei, Mahshid; Turk-Adawi, Karam; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Oh, Paul; Chessex, Caroline; Grace, Sherry L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and its cost-effectiveness, it is not widely received. Arguably, capacity could be greatly increased if lower-cost models were implemented. The aims of this review were to describe: the costs associated with CR delivery, approaches to reduce these costs, and associated implications. Upon finalizing the PICO statement, information scientists were enlisted to develop the search strategy of MEDLINE, Embase, CDSR, Google Scholar and Scopus. Citations identified were considered for inclusion by the first author. Extracted cost data were summarized in tabular format and qualitatively synthesized. There is wide variability in the cost of CR delivery around the world, and patients pay out-of-pocket for some or all of services in 55% of countries. Supervised CR costs in high-income countries ranged from PPP$294 (Purchasing Power Parity; 2016 United States Dollars) in the United Kingdom to PPP$12,409 in Italy, and in middle-income countries ranged from PPP$146 in Venezuela to PPP$1095 in Brazil. Costs relate to facilities, personnel, and session dose. Delivering CR using information and communication technology (mean cost PPP$753/patient/program), lowering the dose and using lower-cost personnel and equipment are important strategies to consider in containing costs, however few explicitly low-cost models are available in the literature. More research is needed regarding the costs to deliver CR in community settings, the cost-effectiveness of CR in most countries, and the economic impact of return-to-work with CR participation. A low-cost model of CR should be standardized and tested for efficacy across multiple healthcare systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential fitness costs of reproduction between the sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Dustin J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection does not necessarily favor maximal reproduction because reproduction imposes fitness costs, reducing parental survival, and offspring quality. Here, we show that parents in a preindustrial population in North America incurred fitness costs from reproduction, and women incurred greater costs than men. We examined the survivorship and reproductive success (Darwinian fitness) of 21,684 couples married between 1860 and 1895 identified in the Utah Population Database. We found th...

  18. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  19. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    . The attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls......BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients...

  20. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  1. The disarmament cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, M.

    1996-01-01

    War is costly. But peace cost is even higher. The destruction of weapons (mines, nuclear weapons, chemical weapons) is much more expensive than their manufacturing. The soldiers demobilization cost is enormous, for instance in Angola, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Zimbabwe the demobilization of 270000 soldiers cost 2.5 10 9 francs. The measures intended to reduce the war risk are also expensive. That is why the arsenal of ex USSR is still intact. Today no international agency is entirely dedicated to peace building. The question is how would cost such an agency? (O.L.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. The economic costs of childhood disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Mark; Allin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disabilities entail a range of immediate and long-term economic costs that have important implications for the well-being of the child, the family, and society but that are difficult to measure. In an extensive research review, Mark Stabile and Sara Allin examine evidence about three kinds of costs-direct, out-of-pocket costs incurred as a result of the child's disability; indirect costs incurred by the family as it decides how best to cope with the disability; and long-term costs associated with the child's future economic performance. Not surprisingly, the evidence points to high direct costs for families with children with disabilities, though estimates vary considerably within these families. Out-of-pocket expenditures, particularly those for medical costs, for example, are higher among families with children with a special health care need. An important indirect cost for these families involves decisions about employment. Stabile and Allin examine several studies that, taken together, show that having a child with disabilities increases the likelihood that the mother (and less often the father) will either curtail hours of work or stop working altogether. Researchers also find that having a child with disabilities can affect a mother's own health and put substantial strains on the parents' relationship. In the longer term, disabilities also compromise a child's schooling and capacity to get and keep gainful employment as an adult, according to the studies Stabile and Allin review. Negative effects on future well-being appear to be much greater, on average, for children with mental health problems than for those with physical disabilities. Stabile and Allin calculate that the direct costs to families, indirect costs through reduced family labor supply, direct costs to disabled children as they age into the labor force, and the costs of safety net programs for children with disabilities average $30,500 a year per family with a disabled child. They note

  3. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  4. Costs associated with wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Wheeling costs are incurred by all companies that experience a change in power flows over their transmission lines during a specific transaction, whether or not the lines of that company are part of the contract path. The costs of providing wheeling service differ from one system to another and from one kind of wheeling transaction to another. While most transactions may be completed using existing capacity, others may require an increase in line. Depending on the situation, some cost components may be high, low, negative, or not incurred at all. This article discusses two general categories of costs; transactional and capital. The former are all operation, maintenance and opportunity costs incurred in completing a specific transaction assuming the existence of adequate capacity. Capital costs are the costs of major new equipment purchases and lines necessary to provide any increased level of transmission services

  5. The allometry of parrot BMR: seasonal data for the Greater Vasa Parrot, Coracopsis vasa, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Perrin, Mike R; Brown, Mark

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the allometry of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of 31 parrot species. Unlike previous reports, we show that parrots per se do not display BMRs that are any different to other captive-raised birds of their body size. An ordinary least squares regression fitted the data best and body mass explained 95% of the variation in BMR. There was no phylogenetic signal in the BMR data. We also provide new data for the Greater Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa) of Madagascar. We tested the hypotheses that C. vasa may, because of its insular existence, display conservative energetic traits (low BMR, use of adaptive heterothermy) similar to those observed in several Malagasy mammals. However, this was not the case. C. vasa had a higher BMR than other parrots, especially during summer, when BMR was up-regulated by 50.5% and was 95.7% higher than predicted from an ordinary least squares (OLS) allometry of parrots (BMR = 0.042M (b) (0.649) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). Compared with BMR data for 94 captive-raised bird species, the winter and summer BMRs were, respectively, 45.5 and 117.8% higher than predicted by a phylogenetic generalised least squares (PGLS) allometry (BMR = 0.030M (b) (0.687) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). The summer up-regulation of BMR is the highest recorded for a bird of any size to date. We suggest that the costs of a high summer BMR may be met by the unusual cooperative breeding system of C. vasa in which groups of males feed the female and share paternity. The potential breeding benefits of a high summer BMR are unknown.

  6. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  8. Cost segregation of assets offers tax benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A

    2001-04-01

    A cost-segregation study is an asset-reclassification strategy that accelerates tax-depreciation deductions. By using this strategy, healthcare facility owners can lower their current income-tax liability and increase current cash flow. Simply put, certain real estate is reclassified from long-lived real property to shorter-lived personal property for depreciation purposes. Depreciation deductions for the personal property then can be greatly accelerated, thereby producing greater present-value tax savings. An analysis of costs can be conducted from either detailed construction records, when such records are available, or by using qualified appraisers, architects, or engineers to perform the allocation analysis.

  9. Direct medical cost of stroke in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charmaine Shuyu; Toh, Matthias Paul Han Sim; Ng, Jiaying; Ko, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Globally, stroke is recognized as one of the main causes of long-term disability, accounting for approximately 5·7 million deaths each year. It is a debilitating and costly chronic condition that consumes about 2-4% of total healthcare expenditure. To estimate the direct medical cost associated with stroke in Singapore in 2012 and to determine associated predictors. The National Healthcare Group Chronic Disease Management System database was used to identify patients with stroke between the years 2006 and 2012. Estimated stroke-related costs included hospitalizations, accident and emergency room visits, outpatient physician visits, laboratory tests, and medications. A total of 700 patients were randomly selected for the analyses. The mean annual direct medical cost was found to be S$12 473·7, of which 93·6% were accounted for by inpatient services, 4·9% by outpatient services, and 1·5% by A&E services. Independent determinants of greater total costs were stroke types, such as ischemic stroke (P = 0·005), subarachnoid hemorrhage (P costs. Efforts to reduce inpatient costs and to allocate health resources to focus on the primary prevention of stroke should become a priority. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-01-01

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies

  11. Economic and biological costs of cardiac imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picano Eugenio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical imaging market consists of several billion tests per year worldwide. Out of these, at least one third are cardiovascular procedures. Keeping in mind that each test represents a cost, often a risk, and a diagnostic hypothesis, we can agree that every unnecessary and unjustifiable test is one test too many. Small individual costs, risks, and wastes multiplied by billions of examinations per year represent an important population, society and environmental burden. Unfortunately, the appropriateness of cardiac imaging is extra-ordinarily low and there is little awareness in patients and physicians of differential costs, radiological doses, and long term risks of different imaging modalities. For a resting cardiac imaging test, being the average cost (not charges of an echocardiogram equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of a CT is 3.1x, of a SPECT 3.27x, of a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging 5.51x, of a PET 14.03x, and of a right and left heart catheterization 19.96x. For stress cardiac imaging, compared with the treadmill exercise test equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of stress echocardiography is 2.1x and of a stress SPECT scintigraphy is 5.7x. Biohazards and downstream long-term costs linked to radiation-induced oncogenesis should also be considered. The radiation exposure is absent in echo and magnetic resonance, and corresponds to 500 chest x rays for a sestamibi cardiac stress scan and to 1150 chest x rays for a thallium scan. The corresponding extra-risk in a lifetime of fatal cancer is 1 in 2000 exposed patients for a sestamibi stress and 1 in 1000 for a thallium scan. Increased awareness of economic, biologic, and environmental costs of cardiac imaging will hopefully lead to greater appropriateness, wisdom and prudence from both the prescriber and the practitioner. In this way, the sustainability of cardiac imaging will eventually improve.

  12. Equipment cost optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results

  13. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  14. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  15. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  16. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  17. Designer's unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, William T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Swanson, G. D.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. The approach, goals, plans, and progress is presented for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  18. Designers' unified cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  19. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  20. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  1. Rethinking sunk costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capen, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    As typically practiced in the petroleum/ natural gas industry, most economic calculations leave out sunk costs. Integrated businesses can be hurt by the omission of sunk costs because profits and costs are not allocated properly among the various business segments. Not only can the traditional sunk-cost practice lead to predictably bad decisions, but a company that operates under such a policy will have no idea how to allocate resources among its operating components; almost none of its calculated returns will be correct. This paper reports that the solution is to include asset value as part of the investment in the calculation

  2. Direct cost of monitoring conventional hemodialysis conducted by nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa

    2017-04-01

    to analyze the mean direct cost of conventional hemodialysis monitored by nursing professionals in three public teaching and research hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. this was a quantitative, explorative and descriptive investigation, based on a multiple case study approach. The mean direct cost was calculated by multiplying (clocked) time spent per procedure by the unit cost of direct labor. Values were calculated in Brazilian real (BRL). Hospital C presented the highest mean direct cost (BRL 184.52), 5.23 times greater than the value for Hospital A (BRL 35.29) and 3.91 times greater than Hospital B (BRL 47.22). the costing method used in this study can be reproduced at other dialysis centers to inform strategies aimed at efficient allocation of necessary human resources to successfully monitor conventional hemodialysis.

  3. Direct cost of monitoring conventional hemodialysis conducted by nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the mean direct cost of conventional hemodialysis monitored by nursing professionals in three public teaching and research hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Method: this was a quantitative, explorative and descriptive investigation, based on a multiple case study approach. The mean direct cost was calculated by multiplying (clocked time spent per procedure by the unit cost of direct labor. Values were calculated in Brazilian real (BRL. Results: Hospital C presented the highest mean direct cost (BRL 184.52, 5.23 times greater than the value for Hospital A (BRL 35.29 and 3.91 times greater than Hospital B (BRL 47.22. Conclusion: the costing method used in this study can be reproduced at other dialysis centers to inform strategies aimed at efficient allocation of necessary human resources to successfully monitor conventional hemodialysis.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of retreatment with varenicline after failure with or relapse after initial treatment for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Annemans

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This analysis suggests that in the long term, varenicline retreatment is a dominant intervention, meaning both greater health gains and greater costs saved, over other possible interventions and therefore should be considered as a standard option.

  5. Costs of publicly provided maternity services in Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi Josephine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the costs of maternal health services in Rosario, Argentina. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The provider costs (US$ 1999 of antenatal care, a normal vaginal delivery and a caesarean section, were evaluated retrospectively in two municipal hospitals. The cost of an antenatal visit was evaluated in two health centres and the patient costs associated with the visit were evaluated in a hospital and a health centre. RESULTS: The average cost per hospital day is $114.62. The average cost of a caesarean section ($525.57 is five times greater than that of a normal vaginal delivery ($105.61. A normal delivery costs less at the general hospital and a c-section less at the maternity hospital. The average cost of an antenatal visit is $31.10. The provider cost is lower at the health centre than at the hospital. Personnel accounted for 72-94% of the total cost and drugs and medical supplies between 4-26%. On average, an antenatal visit costs women $4.70. Direct costs are minimal compared to indirect costs of travel and waiting time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the potential for increasing the efficiency of resource use by promoting antenatal care visits at the primary level. Women could also benefit from reduced travel and waiting time. Similar benefits could accrue to the provider by encouraging normal delivery at general hospitals, and complicated deliveries at specialised maternity hospitals.

  6. The COST model for calculation of forest operations costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackerman, P.; Belbo, H.; Eliasson, L.; Jong, de J.J.; Lazdins, A.; Lyons, J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the late nineteenth century when high-cost equipment was introduced into forestry there has been a need to calculate the cost of this equipment in more detail with respect to, for example, cost of ownership, cost per hour of production, and cost per production unit. Machine cost calculations

  7. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy.

  8. Unit cost of medical services at different hospitals in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010-11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital (USD 1 = INR 52. The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country's hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising

  9. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  10. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  11. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  12. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  13. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  14. Resources and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2005-01-01

    from resources depends on the property rights that he or she holds and on the transaction costs of exchanging, defining, and protecting them. While transaction costs are a major source of value dissipation, reducing such dissipation may create value. Implications for the RBV analysis of sustained...

  15. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  16. Costs and Tariff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of magnitude as construction costs. Proposed Civil Nuclear Liability Bill 2008: Reactor operators liable for accidents; must take insurance for Rs. 100-300 crores. Tariff: Despite all this, NPCIL claims it will not cost customers more than Rs. 4 per unit incl. waste disposal and decommish. It wont be easy. We wish them luck !

  17. Information at a cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robalo, P.; Sayag, R.

    2012-01-01

    The supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it is difficult

  18. Controlling Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  19. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...

  20. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  1. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  2. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  3. Inequalities in the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse in Scotland: a cost of illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Ludbrook, Anne; Jaffray, Mariesha A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse across Scotland in 2009/2010, in relation to deprivation. A cost of illness approach was used. Alcohol-related harmful effects were assessed for inclusion using a literature review. This was based upon the following categories: direct healthcare costs, intangible health costs, social care costs, crime costs and labour and productivity costs. An analysis of secondary data supplemented by a literature review was carried out to quantify each harmful effect, determine its value and provide an estimate of the distribution by deprivation. The deprivation distributions used were area measures (primarily the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation). The overall cost was £7457 million. Two alcohol harmful effects were not included in the overall cost by deprivation due to a lack of data. These were 'children's social work and hearing system' and the criminal justice system costs from 'alcohol-specific offences'. The included alcohol harmful effects demonstrated that 40.41% of the total cost arose from the 20% most deprived areas. The intangible cost category was the largest category (78.65%). The study found that the burden of alcohol harmful effects is greater in deprived groups and these burdens do not simply arise from deprived groups but are also experienced more by these groups. The study was limited by a lack of data availability in certain areas, leading to less-precise cost estimates.

  4. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  5. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input......Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  6. COST QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitanova Gordana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the contemporary economic conditions, enterprises might achieve a competitive advantage if only they sell goods and services with high quality and lower prices. Customers, usually, prefer quality goods with acceptable prices, while such goods create reputation with the particular brand. The perfect control system is necessary to achieve a high quality product, which the cost quality management is considered to be an indispensable part in. The cost quality is nevertheless created to ensure that customers’ requirements are being appropriately attained. The most important objective of quality costs controlling is to assist the management in enhancing the product’s value permanently. The superior cost quality control system helps the management to achieve other strategic objectives, such as: producing goods with acceptable costs and deliver the products to their customers in time.

  7. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  8. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS......This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were...... Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially...

  9. Comparison of the costs of nonoperative care to minimally invasive surgery for sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis in a United States commercial payer population: potential economic implications of a new minimally invasive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman SJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacey J Ackerman,1 David W Polly Jr,2 Tyler Knight,3 Karen Schneider,4 Tim Holt,5 John Cummings Jr6 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Minnesota, Orthopaedic Surgery, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 4Covance Market Access Services Inc., Sydney, Australia; 5Montgomery Spine Center, Orthopedic Surgery, Montgomery, AL, USA; 6Community Health Network, Neurosurgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA Introduction: Low back pain is common and treatment costly with substantial lost productivity and lost wages in the working-age population. Chronic low back pain originating in the sacroiliac (SI joint (15%–30% of cases is commonly treated with nonoperative care, but new minimally invasive surgery (MIS options are also effective in treating SI joint disruption. We assessed whether the higher initial MIS SI joint fusion procedure costs were offset by decreased nonoperative care costs from a US commercial payer perspective. Methods: An economic model compared the costs of treating SI joint disruption with either MIS SI joint fusion or continued nonoperative care. Nonoperative care costs (diagnostic testing, treatment, follow-up, and retail pharmacy pain medication were from a retrospective study of Truven Health MarketScan® data. MIS fusion costs were based on the Premier's Perspective™ Comparative Database and professional fees on 2012 Medicare payment for Current Procedural Terminology code 27280. Results: The cumulative 3-year (base-case analysis and 5-year (sensitivity analysis differentials in commercial insurance payments (cost of nonoperative care minus cost of MIS were $14,545 and $6,137 per patient, respectively (2012 US dollars. Cost neutrality was achieved at 6 years; MIS costs accrued largely in year 1 whereas nonoperative care costs accrued over time with 92% of up front MIS procedure costs offset by year 5. For patients with lumbar spinal fusion, cost neutrality

  10. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  11. Market power and state costs of HIV/AIDS drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-03-01

    We examine whether U.S. states can use their market power to reduce the costs of supplying prescription drugs to uninsured and underinsured persons with HIV through a public program, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Among states that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them directly to clients, those that purchase a greater volume pay lower average costs per prescription. Among states depending on retail pharmacies to distribute drugs and then claiming rebates from manufacturers, those that contract with smaller numbers of pharmacy networks have lower average costs. Average costs per prescription do not differ between the two purchase methods.

  12. Corroborating a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo from historical intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R.; Toda, S.

    2006-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past observations of shaking. For this we analyzed 10,000 intensity observations recorded during AD 1600-2000 in a 350 x 350 km area centered on Tokyo in a Geographic Information System. A frequency-intensity curve is found for each 5 x 5 km cell, and from this the probability of exceeding any intensity level can be estimated. The principal benefits of this approach is that it builds the fewest possible assumptions into a probabilistic seismic forecast, it includes site and source effects without imposing this behavior, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The cost is that we must abandon any attempt to make a time-dependent forecast, which could be quite different. We believe the method is suitable to many applications of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and to other regions. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA>=6 shaking (roughly equivalent to PGA>=0.9 g or MMI=IX-X) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba, the range reflecting spatial variability and curve-fitting alternatives. The strongest shaking is forecast along the margins of Tokyo Bay, within the river sediments extending northwest from Tokyo, and at coastal sites near the plate boundary faults. We also produce long- term exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and short-term hazard maps associated with hypothetical catastrophe bonds. Our results for greater Tokyo resemble our independent Poisson probability developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis, as well as

  13. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  14. Advancing molecular-guided surgery through probe development and testing in a moderate cost evaluation pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Hull, Sally M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason; Hoopes, Jack; Roberts, David W.; Strong, Theresa V.; Draney, Daniel; Feldwisch, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    Molecular guided oncology surgery has the potential to transform the way decisions about resection are done, and can be critically important in areas such as neurosurgery where the margins of tumor relative to critical normal tissues are not readily apparent from visual or palpable guidance. Yet there are major financial barriers to advancing agents into clinical trials with commercial backing. We observe that development of these agents in the standard biological therapeutic paradigm is not viable, due to the high up front financial investment needed and the limitations in the revenue models of contrast agents for imaging. The hypothesized solution to this problem is to develop small molecular biologicals tagged with an established fluorescent reporter, through the chemical agent approval pathway, targeting a phase 0 trials initially, such that the initial startup phase can be completely funded by a single NIH grant. In this way, fast trials can be completed to de-risk the development pipeline, and advance the idea of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) reporters into human testing. As with biological therapies the potential successes of each agent are still moderate, but this process will allow the field to advance in a more stable and productive manner, rather than relying upon isolated molecules developed at high cost and risk. The pathway proposed and tested here uses peptide synthesis of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-binding Affibody molecules, uniquely conjugated to IRDye 800CW, developed and tested in academic and industrial laboratories with well-established records for GMP production, fill and finish, toxicity testing, and early phase clinical trials with image guidance.

  15. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  16. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  17. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  18. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  19. Hierarchical population structure in greater sage-grouse provides insight into management boundary delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd B. Cross; David E. Naugle; John C. Carlson; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population structure is important for guiding ongoing conservation and restoration efforts. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a species of concern distributed across 1.2 million km2 of western North America. We genotyped 1499 greater sagegrouse from 297 leks across Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota using a 15 locus...

  20. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  1. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  2. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  3. Use of spikants in HTGR fuel and their effect on costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.H.

    1979-05-01

    The costs of fresh fuel fabrication have been estimated for flowsheets that have spikant added (Co-60) at various points. The costs are compared with refabricated and fresh fuel fabrication costs. It is shown that the costs increase as the spikant is added nearer to the plant feed point. The least cost is achieved by adding a detachable spikant to the finished fuel element. The highest cost is incurred when the spikant is fed in with the plant feed. This cost is greater than that for refabricated fuel because extra process cells are necessary to prepare the spikant and, in addition, the gamma flux from the Co-60 is much greater than from U-232 and greater precautions have to be taken

  4. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  5. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  6. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect total care costs among people with chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether high cost-sharing in physician care is associated with a differential impact on total care costs by health status. Total care includes physician care, emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient care. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients. This study used the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data with a cross-sectional study design. Difference in difference (DID), instrumental variable technique, two-part model, and bootstrap technique were employed to analyze cost data. Chronically ill individuals' probability of reducing any overall care costs was significantly less than healthier individuals (beta = 2.18, p = 0.04), while the integrated DID estimator from split results indicated that going from low cost-sharing to high cost-sharing significantly reduced costs by $12,853.23 more for sick people than for healthy people (95% CI: -$17,582.86, -$8,123.60). This greater cost reduction in total care among sick people likely resulted from greater cost reduction in physician care, and may have come at the expense of jeopardizing health outcomes by depriving patients of needed care. Thus, these policies would be inappropriate in the short run, and unlikely in the long run to control health plans costs among chronically ill individuals. A generous benefit design with low cost-sharing policies in physician care or primary care is recommended for both health plans and chronically ill individuals, to save costs and protect these enrollees' health status.

  7. Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Finkel, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of both risks and regulatory costs shape rational regulatory choices. Despite decades of risk perception studies, this article is the first on regulatory cost perceptions. A survey of 744 U.S. residents probed: (1) How knowledgeable are laypeople about regulatory costs incurred to reduce risks? (2) Do laypeople see official estimates of cost and benefit (lives saved) as accurate? (3) (How) do preferences for hypothetical regulations change when mean-preserving spreads of uncertainty replace certain cost or benefit? and (4) (How) do preferences change when unequal interindividual distributions of hypothetical regulatory costs replace equal distributions? Respondents overestimated costs of regulatory compliance, while assuming agencies underestimate costs. Most assumed agency estimates of benefits are accurate; a third believed both cost and benefit estimates are accurate. Cost and benefit estimates presented without uncertainty were slightly preferred to those surrounded by "narrow uncertainty" (a range of costs or lives entirely within a personally-calibrated zone without clear acceptance or rejection of tradeoffs). Certain estimates were more preferred than "wide uncertainty" (a range of agency estimates extending beyond these personal bounds, thus posing a gamble between favored and unacceptable tradeoffs), particularly for costs as opposed to benefits (but even for costs a quarter of respondents preferred wide uncertainty to certainty). Agency-acknowledged uncertainty in general elicited mixed judgments of honesty and trustworthiness. People preferred egalitarian distributions of regulatory costs, despite skewed actual cost distributions, and preferred progressive cost distributions (the rich pay a greater than proportional share) to regressive ones. Efficient and socially responsive regulations require disclosure of much more information about regulatory costs and risks. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Nuclear power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    A report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat and presented to the seventh session of the Agency's General Conference says that information on nuclear power costs is now rapidly moving from the domain of uncertain estimates to that of tested factual data. As more and more nuclear power stations are being built and put into operation, more information on the actual costs incurred is becoming available. This is the fourth report on nuclear power costs to be submitted to the IAEA General Conference. The report last year gave cost information on 38 nuclear power projects, 17 of which have already gone into operation. Certain significant changes in the data given last year are included-in the present report; besides, information is given on seven new plants. The report is divided into two parts, the first on recent developments and current trends in nuclear power costs and the second on the use of the cost data for economic comparisons. Both stress the fact that the margin of uncertainty in the basic data has lately been drastically reduced. At the same time, it is pointed out, some degree of uncertainty is inherent in the assumptions made in arriving at over-all generating cost figures, especially when - as is usually the case - a nuclear plant is part of an integrated power system

  9. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo......Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally......, the corresponding potential cost of publishing must have increased similarly. The actual realized cost of publishing in core journals are investigated for a high profile Danish astronomy research institutions. I argue that the situation is highly unstable if the current cost scenario continues, and I speculate...... that Danish astronomy is risking a scholarly communication collapse due to the combination of increasing subscription cost, increased research output, and increased direct publishing costs related to Open access and other page charges....

  10. Prefrontal recruitment during social rejection predicts greater subsequent self-regulatory imbalance and impairment: neural and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the Waggle Dance Help Honey Bees to Forage at Greater Distances than Expected for their Body Size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L.W. Ratnieks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A honey bee colony has been likened to an oil company. Some members of the company or colony prospect for valuable liquid resources. When these are discovered other group members can be recruited to exploit the resource. The recruitment of nestmates to a specific location where there is a patch of flowers should change the economics of scouting, that is, the search for new resource patches. In particular, communication is predicted to make scouting at longer distances worthwhile because a profitable resource patch, once discovered, will enhance the foraging not only of the discoverer but also of nestmates that can be directed to the patch. By virtue of having large colonies and dance communication, honey bees are predicted to be able to profitably scout, and hence forage, at greater distances from the nest than either solitary bees or social bees without communication. We test this hypothesis by first examining existing data on foraging distance to evaluate whether honey bees do indeed forage at greater distances than other bees given their body size. Second, we present a simple cost-benefit analysis of scouting which indicates that communication causes longer range scouting to be more profitable. Overall, our analyses are supportive, but not conclusive, that honey bees forage further than would be expected given their size and that the waggle dance is a cause of the honey bee’s exceptional foraging range.

  12. Cost-effectiveness and the socialization of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The more health care is socialized, the more cost-effectiveness is an appropriate criterion for expenditure. Utility-maximizing individuals, facing divisibility of health care purchases and declining marginal health gains, and complete information about probable health improvements, should buy health care according to its cost-effectiveness. Absent these features, individual health spending will not be cost-effective; and in any case, differences in personal utilities and risk aversion will not lead to the same ranking of health care interventions for everyone. Private insurance frees consumers from concern for cost, which undermines cost-effectiveness, but lets them emphasize effectiveness, which favors value for money. This is most important for costly and cost-effective interventions, especially for poor people. Cost-effectiveness is more appropriate and easier to achieve under second-party insurance. More complete socialization of health care, via public finance, can yield greater efficiency by making insurance compulsory. Cost-effectiveness is also more attractive when taxpayers subsidize others' care: needs (effectiveness) take precedence over wants (utility). The gain in effectiveness may be greater, and the welfare loss from Pareto non-optimality smaller, in poor countries than in rich ones.

  13. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  14. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    , the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born......In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts...

  15. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, David

    1998-01-01

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. The Relative Concentrations of Nutrients and Toxins Dictate Feeding by a Vertebrate Browser, the Greater Glider Petauroides volans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora M Jensen

    Full Text Available Although ecologists believe that vertebrate herbivores must select a diet that allows them to meet their nutritional requirements, while avoiding intoxication by plant secondary metabolites, this is remarkably difficult to show. A long series of field and laboratory experiments means that we have a good understanding of the factors that affect feeding by leaf-eating marsupials. This knowledge and the natural intraspecific variation in Eucalyptus chemistry allowed us to test the hypothesis that the feeding decisions of greater gliders (Petauroides volans depend on the concentrations of available nitrogen (incorporating total nitrogen, dry matter digestibility and tannins and of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs, potent antifeedants unique to Eucalyptus. We offered captive greater gliders foliage from two species of Eucalyptus, E. viminalis and E. melliodora, which vary naturally in their concentrations of available nitrogen and FPCs. We then measured the amount of foliage eaten by each glider and compared this with our laboratory analyses of foliar total nitrogen, available nitrogen and FPCs for each tree offered. The concentration of FPCs was the main factor that determined how much gliders ate of E. viminalis and E. melliodora, but in gliders fed E. viminalis the concentration of available nitrogen was also a significant influence. In other words, greater gliders ate E. viminalis leaves with a particular combination of FPCs and available nitrogen that maximised the nutritional gain but minimised their ingestion of toxins. In contrast, the concentration of total nitrogen was not correlated with feeding. This study is among the first to empirically show that browsing herbivores select a diet that balances the potential gain (available nutrients and the potential costs (plant secondary chemicals of eating leaves. The major implication of the study is that it is essential to identify the limiting nutrients and relevant toxins in a system in

  17. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  18. The Cost of Joint Replacement: Comparing Two Approaches to Evaluating Costs of Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsis, John A; Brehmer, Thomas S; Pellegrini, Vincent D; Drew, Jacob M; Sachs, Barton L

    2018-02-21

    In an era of mandatory bundled payments for total joint replacement, accurate analysis of the cost of procedures is essential for orthopaedic surgeons and their institutions to maintain viable practices. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional accounting and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methods for estimating the total costs of total hip and knee arthroplasty care cycles. We calculated the overall costs of elective primary total hip and total knee replacement care cycles at our academic medical center using traditional and TDABC accounting methods. We compared the methods with respect to the overall costs of hip and knee replacement and the costs for each major cost category. The traditional accounting method resulted in higher cost estimates. The total cost per hip replacement was $22,076 (2014 USD) using traditional accounting and was $12,957 using TDABC. The total cost per knee replacement was $29,488 using traditional accounting and was $16,981 using TDABC. With respect to cost categories, estimates using traditional accounting were greater for hip and knee replacement, respectively, by $3,432 and $5,486 for personnel, by $3,398 and $3,664 for space and equipment, and by $2,289 and $3,357 for indirect costs. Implants and consumables were derived from the actual hospital purchase price; accordingly, both methods produced equivalent results. Substantial cost differences exist between accounting methods. The focus of TDABC only on resources used directly by the patient contrasts with the allocation of all operating costs, including all indirect costs and unused capacity, with traditional accounting. We expect that the true costs of hip and knee replacement care cycles are likely somewhere between estimates derived from traditional accounting methods and TDABC. TDABC offers patient-level granular cost information that better serves in the redesign of care pathways and may lead to more strategic resource-allocation decisions to optimize

  19. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  20. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  1. The geothermal KWh cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous factors can influence the cost of geothermal electricity production: the size and power of production units, the conversion technology used (Rankine cycle or water steam), the resource quality (dry vapor or water-vapor mixing), the resource depth, the drilling activity in the country and the work people costs. In the United States of America the geothermal kWh cost ranges from 2.5 to 8.5 US cents, while in Italy and Nicaragua it ranges from 3 and 10 cents and from 5.7 to 6 cents, respectively. Results of a comparative study of the kWh production cost from different energy sources is also summarized. (J.S.). 1 tab

  2. Systems/cost summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgements on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying ''high-leverage'' subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion

  3. Systems/cost: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgments on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying high-leverage subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion. The systems considered as examples are: (1) injection system; (2) Wideroe linac; (3) Alvarez linac; (4) induction linac; (5) superconducting accumulator ring; (6) synchrotron; (7) final rf bunching; and (8) final beam transport to target

  4. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    caused by transaction costs), andnew types of resources (i.e., capture and protection capabilities), clarifies the roleof contracting in the exercise of market power, and suggests that `strategizing'and `economizing' perspectives are related to a larger extent than is normallyrecognized. Refutable......AbstractWe forge linkages between the economics of property rights (Coase, Demsetz,Cheung, Barzel) and strategic management. Property rights to resources consistof the rights to consume, obtain income from, and alienate these resources.Transaction costs are the costs of exchanging, protecting...... and capturing propertyrights. We clarify the key role of transaction costs with respect to understandingvalue creation and the limitations and opportunities of strategizing relative tocompetitive forces. The economics of property rights identifies new sources ofvalue creation (i.e., reducing the dissipation...

  5. Health Clinic Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Independent Rural Health Clinic and Freestanding Federally Qualified Health Center (HCLINIC).This data...

  6. COST 516 Tribology Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    Cost 516 Tribology action is the first joint European research action focusing on tribology, which originates in the approval of its Memorandum of understanding in February 1994. The COST 516 Tribology Symposium took place in Espoo, Finland from 14th to 15th May 1998. This was the first Symposium of the COST 516 Tribology action. The large number of research contributions at the Symposium, altogether almost SO, and their scientific and technical level, is an indication of the importance and significance of tribology research. The symposium proceedings contain papers in a wide variety of subjects, covering the three categories of the COST 516 Tribology action, namely Grease lubrication (GRIT), Tribology of renewable environmentally adapted lubricants (REAL) and Coatings and surface treatments (CAST). (orig.)

  7. Costly cables; Lange Leitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    Connection of offshore wind turbines to the onshore power supply grid requires costly cables for HV DC power transmission. The technology is mature enough to enable low-loss power transmission, but construction times may last several years.

  8. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  9. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  10. Costs of hospital malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Lori Jane; Bernier, Paule; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Allard, Johane; Duerksen, Donald; Gramlich, Leah; Laporte, Manon; Keller, Heather H

    2017-10-01

    Hospital malnutrition has been established as a critical, prevalent, and costly problem in many countries. Many cost studies are limited due to study population or cost data used. The aims of this study were to determine: the relationship between malnutrition and hospital costs; the influence of confounders on, and the drivers (medical or surgical patients or degree of malnutrition) of the relationship; and whether hospital reported cost data provide similar information to administrative data. To our knowledge, the last two goals have not been studied elsewhere. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on data from the Canadian Malnutrition Task Force prospective cohort study combined with administrative data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Subjective Global Assessment was used to assess the relationship between nutritional status and length of stay and hospital costs, controlling for health and demographic characteristics, for 956 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in 18 hospitals across Canada. After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, moderately malnourished patients' (34% of surveyed patients) hospital stays were 18% (p = 0.014) longer on average than well-nourished patients. Medical stays increased by 23% (p = 0.014), and surgical stays by 32% (p = 0.015). Costs were, on average, between 31% and 34% (p-values < 0.05) higher than for well-nourished patients with similar characteristics. Severely malnourished patients (11% of surveyed patients) stayed 34% (p = 0.000) longer and had 38% (p = 0.003) higher total costs than well-nourished patients. They stayed 53% (p = 0.001) longer in medical beds and had 55% (p = 0.003) higher medical costs, on average. Trends were similar no matter the type of costing data used. Over 40% of patients were found to be malnourished (1/3 moderately and 1/10 severely). Malnourished patients had longer hospital stays and as a result cost more than well

  11. Cost accounting for the radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Amilcare

    2014-05-01

    Cost accounting is the branch of managerial accounting that deals with the analysis of the costs of a product or service. This article reviews methods of classifying and allocating costs and relationships among costs, volume, and revenues. Radiology practices need to know the cost of a procedure or service to determine the selling price of a product, bid on contracts, analyze profitability, and facilitate cost control and cost reduction.

  12. The cost of electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donini, J.C.; Kan, J.; Szynkarczuk, J.; Hassan, T.A.; Kar, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has shown that electrocoagulation is suitable for separating solids from waste water. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the method is feasible economically. The cost incurred, namely energy costs and aluminum electrode consumed, during electrocoagulation experiments with kaolinite and bentonite are examined. Emphasis is placed on sodium chloride concentration, flow rate with and without recirculation, formation of passivation layers, how sodium chloride affects aluminum efficiency, and electrode efficiency. Further study is required. 8 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Cost Improvement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Cc) Ul y Cli U;ra ISO or.) . ............ t cc fl .9 it it ý I oli CC) I it cli L3 I HIM .......... 114 t4l t.r IM...Burroughz Cost AFIT/LSQ AV785-6280 Curve Programs Prof. Jeff Daneman Z-100 Cost Curve ASD/ACCR AV785- 8583 Programs Capt Arthur Mills * *- PROGRAMS CONCEPT

  14. COST BM0607

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, M. de

    2009-01-01

    COST is an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, allowing the coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level. COST contributes to reducing the fragmentation in European research investments and opening the European Research Area to cooperation worldwide. COST is specifically designed to network researchers mainly within the European Union that work on a specific topic. This COST BM0607 Action on cancer therapy using innovative targeting nanomedicines is highly multidisciplinary: nuclear medicine physicians, clinical oncologists, surgeons, physicists, radiobiologists, (in)organic chemists, radiochemists, radiopharmacists, pathologists and scientists from biomics participate in it. They define innovative new targets for cancer therapy, develop lead compounds and new radiolabelled ligands as vectors, perform molecular imaging and biologic testing, develop improved software and protocols for dosimetric calculations and select new vectors for early human use. Within the COST BM0607 more than 100 scientists from 21 countries are participating to work within 5 different working groups. Working group 1 works on the establishment of Database on Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy, working group 2 deals with the development and improvement of chemistry related to new molecules for targeted radionuclide therapy. Working group 3 is dedicated to dosimetry aspects, whereas working group 4 tries to optimize the use of new radionuclides for therapy from cyclotron, reactor and generator production. Finally, working group 5 has the aim to bring together research related to pharmacology and small animal imaging with new tracers for targeted radionuclide therapy. COST thereby organizes annual meetings of the whole group and in between dedicated meetings of the working groups. Besides organizing meetings one aim of COST is additionally to promote young researchers where short term scientific missions (STSM) are

  15. Cost and Price Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    described below which relies on questionnaires administered to subject matter experts in both cost analysis and price analysis to determine the value of...additional reports or data that the price analyst used in determining their final negotiated position. The cost analyst section of the questionnaire...an analysis at the individual element level rather than at a total price level to determine the major changes from the awarded contract to the new

  16. Real energy cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, I.

    1992-01-01

    Different methods of calculating the real power cost in the USA taking account of damage brought to the environment, public health expenses etc., are considered. Application of complex methods allowing one to directly determine the costs linked with ecology has shown that the most expensive power is generated at the new NPPs and thermal plants using coal. Activities on power saving and increasing the capacity of the existing hydroelectrotechnical equipment are considered to be the most effective from the viewpoint of expenses

  17. Tracking environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahutova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Tracking Environmental Costs and Investments in SAP will provide us with a managerial tool that will help us understand better the magnitude of the financial resources we are dedicating to environmental protection activities and investments. Environmental Cost Accounting is a new project in Slovenske Elektrarne that will be particularly valuable for the Company's environmental management initiatives, such as waste monitoring, cleaner production, eco-design and environmental management systems; its launch is expected in September. (author)

  18. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  19. Costing and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation.

  20. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  1. The societal costs of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Wade

    2010-12-01

    societal burden of insomnia and will contribute to greater understanding of this disorder.Keywords: insomnia, quality of sleep, societal cost, quality of life, health care resource utilization

  2. The reliability of running economy expressed as oxygen cost and energy cost in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Fudge, Barry W; Folland, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the between-test reliability of oxygen cost (OC) and energy cost (EC) in distance runners, and contrasted it with the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) of these measures. OC and EC displayed similar levels of within-subject variation (typical error < 3.85%). However, the typical error (2.75% vs 2.74%) was greater than the SWC (1.38% vs 1.71%) for both OC and EC, respectively, indicating insufficient sensitivity to confidently detect small, but meaningful, changes in OC and EC.

  3. How much does it cost? The LIFE Project - Costing Models for Digital Curation and Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davies

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation is concerned with the long-term safekeeping of electronic resources. How can we be confident of their permanence, if we do not know the cost of preservation? The LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature Project has made a major step forward in understanding the long-term costs in this complex area. The LIFE Project has developed a methodology to model the digital lifecycle and to calculate the costs of preserving digital information for the next 5, 10 or 100 years. National and higher education (HE libraries can now apply this process and plan effectively for the preservation of their digital collections. Based on previous work undertaken on the lifecycles of paper-based materials, the LIFE Project created a lifecycle model and applied it to real-life digital collections across a diverse subject range. Three case studies examined the everyday operations, processes and costs involved in their respective activities. The results were then used to calculate the direct costs for each element of the digital lifecycle. The Project has made major advances in costing preservation activities, as well as making detailed costs of real digital preservation activities available. The second phase of LIFE (LIFE2, which recently started, aims to refine the lifecycle methodology and to add a greater range and breadth to the project with additional exemplar case studies.

  4. Contemporary Costs Associated With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Propensity-Matched Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailawadi, Gorav; LaPar, Damien J; Speir, Alan M; Ghanta, Ravi K; Yarboro, Leora T; Crosby, Ivan K; Lim, D Scott; Quader, Mohammed A; Rich, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) trial suggested an economic advantage for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for high-risk patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of TAVR in the "real world" by comparing TAVR with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk and high-risk patients. A multiinstitutional database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) (2011 to 2013) linked with estimated cost data was evaluated for isolated TAVR and SAVR operations (n = 5,578). TAVR-treated patients (n = 340) were 1:1 propensity matched with SAVR-treated patients (n = 340). Patients undergoing SAVR were further stratified into intermediate-risk (SAVR-IR: predicted risk of mortality [PROM] 4% to 8%) and high-risk (SAVR-HR: PROM >8%) cohorts. Median STS PROM for TAVR was 6.32% compared with 6.30% for SAVR (SAVR-IR 4.6% and SAVR-HR 12.4%). A transfemoral TAVR approach was most common (61%). Mortality was higher for TAVR (10%) compared with SAVR (6%, p costs compared with SAVR ($69,921 vs $33,598, p cost of TAVR was largely driven by the cost of the valve (all p cost savings versus TAVR. TAVR was associated with greater total costs and mortality compared with SAVR in intermediate-risk and high-risk patients while conferring lower major morbidity and improved resource use. Increased cost of TAVR appears largely related to the cost of the valve. Until the price of TAVR valves decreases, these data suggest that TAVR may not provide the most cost-effective strategy, particularly for intermediate-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  6. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  7. Use of locking plates for fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison K. Tetreault, BA

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Locking plate technology is a successful method of fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with THA. Postoperative trochanteric pain and reoperation for hardware-related issues remain a challenge.

  8. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  9. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, A; Basso, L; Di Giacomo, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Basile, U; De Toma, G

    2003-12-01

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.

  10. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. W. Lai

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The substantial morbidity caused by asthma suggests that the disease is associated with a large economic burden. The current study analysed the burden of asthma in eight countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Responses to questions regarding resource use from a survey of people with asthma were analysed. Unit costs were obtained for each resource use element. Individual patient costs were estimated and means calculated for each country. A multivariate model was developed to identify potential predictors of resource use. Annual per-patient direct costs ranged from US$108 for Malaysia to US$1,010 for Hong Kong. When productivity costs were included, total per-patient societal costs ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1,189 in Hong Kong. Urgent care costs were responsible for 18–90% of total per-patient direct costs. Overall, total per-patient direct costs were equivalent to 13% of per capita gross domestic product and 300% of per capita healthcare spending. Extremes of age, greater severity of asthma, and poorer general health status were predictive of high cost. The per-patient cost of asthma in these countries is high, particularly when seen in the context of overall per-patient healthcare spending. Strategies to improve asthma control are likely to not only improve patient outcomes, but also to decrease societal costs.

  11. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  12. Transaction cost of micro and small enterprises financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghana Atma Sulistya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High transaction costs become one of the obstacles for the micro and small enterprises (MSEs to access financial loans to the bank. In order to minimize the transaction costs, group lending scheme become  alternative, so that both sides are pay lower transaction costs, and MSEs are able to improve their welfare. This study aims to analyze the credit process and transaction costs incurred on the model of individuals and groups lending and to compare the magnitude of transaction costs on both models. Mixed Method Analysis is used to analyze the component of transaction costs and the magnitude of the transaction cost on both models.These results indicate there are differences in transaction costs incurred on both schemes. In the amount of the transaction costs, the overall group scheme still allows for greater compared to individual schemes and dominated by the cost of the disbursement. Even so, the transaction cost per member group is much smaller than the individual schemes.

  13. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Serge; Descures, Sylvain; Du Pasquier, Louis; Francois, Patrice; Buonarotti, Stefano; Mariotti, Giovanni; Tarakonov, Jurij; Daniska, Vladimir; Bergh, Niklas; Carroll, Simon; AaSTRoeM, Annika; Cato, Anna; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Rodriguez, Jose; Laird, Alastair; Ridpath, Andy; La Guardia, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs. The 2012 report on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, a joint recommendation by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission, proposes a standardised structure of cost items for decommissioning projects that can be used either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping of cost items for benchmarking purposes. The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities, prepared jointly by the NEA and IAEA, is intended to complement the ISDC, assisting cost estimators and reviewers in systematically addressing uncertainties in decommissioning cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner

  14. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  15. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  16. On Graceful Spider Graphs with at Most Four Legs of Lengths Greater than One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graceful labeling of a tree T with n edges is a bijection f:V(T→{0,1,2,…,n} such that {|f(u-f(v|:uv∈E(T} equal to {1,2,…,n}. A spider graph is a tree with at most one vertex of degree greater than 2. We show that all spider graphs with at most four legs of lengths greater than one admit graceful labeling.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY BASED ANALYSIS METHOD COSTING SYSTEM IN PRICING COST OF ROOMS IN HOTEL DYNASTY MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Nur Hatta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fulfill one of the final project now where Thesis research was held in April to June, 2016. This study aims to know the differences in the calculation of the cost of the room by using a conventional system using activity-based costing (ABC system. method analysis is using descriptive method of analysis of the cost of the hotel this time, set the conventional method and then comparing the cost of a hotel room based activity based result costing. study showed that of calculating the cost of a hotel room by using activity based costing, when compared with the cost of hotel rooms used by the activity based costing Dynasty then give the results in standard rooms, deluxe, suites and family give results the calculation of which is smaller than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference in price for a Standard room IDR. 58024.84. For a Deluxe room IDR. 175,411.58. For room Suite IDR. 99. 034,88. Family rooms and for IDR. 100,045.60. While in the room Executive Suite / Pent House Activity Based Costing calculation result is greater than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference amounting to IDR. 368,096.17. The difference in price is due to the method of Activity Based Costing,The overhead on each product is charged to a lot of cost driver. Thus, in the Activity Based Costing method is able to allocate activity costs to each room is right by the consumption of each activity.

  18. National Variation in Urethroplasty Cost and Predictors of Extreme Cost: A Cost Analysis with Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Catherine R.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Gaither, Thomas W.; McAninch, Jack W.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    To determine which factors are associated with higher costs of urethroplasty procedure and whether these factors have been increasing over time. Identification of determinants of extreme costs may help reduce cost while maintaining quality.We conducted a retrospective analysis using the 2001-2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The HCUP-NIS captures hospital charges which we converted to cost using the HCUP cost-to-charge ratio. Log cost linear ...

  19. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  20. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  1. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  2. Medical therapy cost considerations for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Richard G; Green, Amy; Patuszynski, Daniel H; Wilensky, Jacob

    2003-07-01

    To determine the calculated daily patient cost (cost minimization) of medical glaucoma therapy and review cost trends. Experimental, controlled, prospective study. The actual volume of various glaucoma medications or glaucoma medications with redesigned bottles was determined for most commercially available sizes of the tested products. The drops per milliliter based on the actual volume and the daily costs of the dosage schedules recommended by the manufacturers were compared. The cost of each bottle of medication was determined from the average wholesale price (AWP) in the United States. A comparison to 1999 prices where applicable will be analyzed to review costing trends. The generic timolol products (range, US dollars 0.38-US dollars 0.46 per day) were similar on a cost per day basis vs Betimol (Santen, Napa Valley, California, USA), Optipranolol (Bausch and Lomb Pharmaceuticals, Tampa, Florida, USA) and Timoptic (Merck, West Point, Pennsylvania, USA). Their percentage cost increase ranged from 5% to 22% since 1999, except for generic timolol XE gel-forming solution (48%). Betagan (Allergan, Irvine, California, USA), Betoptic S (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA), and Ocupress (Novartis, Duluth, Georgia, USA) ranged from US dollars 0.88 to US dollars 1.11 per day, and their percentage cost increase ranged from 33% to 53%. Some brand-only products have raised their AWPs a greater percentage, including Betoptic S (37%), Iopidine (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (50%), Ocupress (Novartis Ophthalmics, Duluth, Georgia, USA) (53%), and Pilopine gel (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (32%). The mean cost per day for the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Azopt (Alcon Laboratories; US dollars 1.33 per day) and Trusopt (Merck; US dollars 1.05 per day) differed from 1999 when prices were almost identical. Cosopt (Merck; timolol 0.5% plus dorzolamide 2%, US dollars 1.04 per day) was less than the cost of separate bottles of a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

  3. Long Term Cost Efficiency through Green Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vukania Adda, Nancy; Qin, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Title: Long term cost efficiency through green management control systems.Authors: Nancy Vukania &Xiaochen QinSupervisor: Åsa Karin-EngstrandBackground: The worldwide financial crisis of 2008 has reconfigured the economic turf leading to a more uncertain and turbulent playing field – a greater challenge for business strategy and the quest for optimization- The oil price hike of 2008 (Furlong 2010)1 caused its rippling effect to affect various cost categories including energy, labor and lo...

  4. On the Costs of Not Loving Thy Neighbour as Thyself

    OpenAIRE

    Murshed, S.M.; Mamoon, D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine whether greater inter-state trade, democracy and reduced military spending lower belligerence between India and Pakistan. They begin with theoretical models covering the opportunity costs of conflict in terms of trade losses and security spending, as well as the costs of making concessions to rivals. Conflict between the two nations can be best understood in a multivariate framework where variables such as economic performance, integration with rest of the world, bilateral...

  5. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  6. The "costs" of urinary incontinence for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak, Leslee L; Brown, Jeanette S; Kraus, Stephen R; Brubaker, Linda; Lin, Feng; Richter, Holly E; Bradley, Catherine S; Grady, Deborah

    2006-04-01

    To estimate costs of routine care for female urinary incontinence, health-related quality of life, and willingness to pay for incontinence improvement. In a cross-sectional study at 5 U.S. sites, 293 incontinent women quantified supplies, laundry, and dry cleaning specifically for incontinence. Costs were calculated by multiplying resources used by national resource costs and presented in 2005 United States dollars (2005). Health-related quality of life was estimated with the Health Utilities Index. Participants estimated willingness to pay for 25-100% improvement in incontinence. Potential predictors of these outcomes were examined using multivariable linear regression. Mean age was 56 +/- 11 years; participants were racially diverse and had a broad range of incontinence severity. Nearly 90% reported incontinence-related costs. Median weekly cost (25%, 75% interquartile range) increased from 0.37 dollars (0, 4 dollars) for slight to 10.98 dollars (4, 21 dollars) for very severe incontinence. Costs increased with incontinence severity (P women (P women with urge compared with those having stress incontinence (P lower Health Utilities Index score (mean 0.90 +/- 0.11 for weekly and 0.81 +/- 0.21 for daily incontinence; P = .02). Women were willing to pay a mean of 70 dollars +/- 64 dollars per month for complete resolution of incontinence, and willingness to pay increased with income and greater expected benefit. Women with severe urinary incontinence pay 900 dollars annually for incontinence routine care, and incontinence is associated with a significant decrement in health-related quality of life. Effective incontinence treatment may decrease costs and improve quality of life. III.

  7. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  8. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  9. Logistics costs of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describe a problem of specification and systematization of enterprise’s logistics costs. With in a growing division of labour, also logistics costs increase their part in enterprises total costs.Almost all decisions about products and production in general, influence logistics processes even logistics costs and performances.In present is not clear enough, which of the cost-particles are relevant fot logistics costs, because some of logistics cost-particles accounts within overhead are charged together with costs of other sorts.Substantive step in the process of the monitoring and evidence of logistics costs is definition of this, that costs of enterprise´s processes will be inclusive in logistics costs and determining points of contact with the others departments (acquisition, production, sale etc.. After the specification of meditation processes, there is a need to choose applicable parameters for the expression of logistics performances. Besides logistics costs is needed to know logistics performances equivalent herewith at a cost of, therefore from the control side have for enterprise bigger value indices expressive correlation costs and performances(e.g. share of logistics unit costs performance.At the proposal and evidence of logistics costs and performances is needed consistently entertain an individual conditions of enterprise. Because the area of processes included strongly affects the size of account logistics costs and its share part in total costs of enterprise. Logistics costs are flow line between economy and logistics of the enterprise.

  10. Cost of treating sagittal synostosis in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Megan M; Rogers, Gary F; Proctor, Mark R; Busa, Kathleen; Meara, John G

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopically assisted suturectomy (EAS) has been reported to reduce the morbidity and cost of treating sagittal synostosis when compared with traditional open cranial vault remodeling (CVR) procedures. Whereas the former claim is well substantiated and intuitive, the latter has not been validated by rigorous cost analysis. Patient medical records and financial database reports were culled retrospectively to determine the total cost associated with both EAS and CVR during 1 year of care. Recorded cost data included physician and hospital services, orthotic equipment and fittings, and indirect patient cost. Ten patients treated with CVR were compared with 10 patients who underwent EAS. The CVR patients incurred greater costs in nearly all categories studied, including overall 1-year costs, physician services, hospital services, supplies/equipment, medications/intravenous fluids, and laboratory and blood bank services. Postoperative costs were greater in the EAS group, primarily because of the cost associated with orthotic services and indirect patient costs for travel and lost work. However, overall indirect patient costs for the whole year did not differ between the groups. One-year median costs were $55,121 for CVR and $23,377 for EAS. Early clinical results were similar for the 2 groups. Cranial vault remodeling was more costly in the first year of treatment than EAS, although indirect patient costs were similar. The favorable cost of EAS compared with CVR provides further justification to consider this procedure as first-line treatment of sagittal synostosis in young infants.

  11. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  12. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Archibald, Sandra O.

    1998-01-01

    As the number and cost of environmental regulations have increased over the last thirty years, the regulated community, taxpayers, and policy makers have begun to demand that the benefits of regulations justify their costs. The use of benefit-cost analysis as an integral part of developing new regulations is increasing and the demands and expectations being placed on the method have expanded. Although benefit-cost analysis is expected to play an even greater role in environmental decision mak...

  13. Costs of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; King, M.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed efforts throughout the world to deregulate the electricity industry, with varied results. While there have been a few qualified success stories, many challenges of deregulation have come to light. These challenges can lead to negative, even disastrous, outcomes. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this paper catalogues problems experienced in various deregulation efforts, and considers the application of the lessons learned from this history to Israel, which is considering deregulation. Failings of deregulation are found to center around the following problems: high set-up cost; complicated market design; inevitable spot price volatility; market power abuse; inefficient investment; difficulty in reducing generation cost; dysfunctional input markets; stranded cost; unequal distribution of benefits. We find that many of these problems are exacerbated by the particular circumstances faced by Israel, and advise any country or region considering deregulation to carefully consider these obstacles to success. (author)

  14. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labor, Bea

    2012-03-01

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  15. Defense Acquisitions. Greater Synergies Possible for DOD's Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... before committing to the development and demonstration of a new system. For example, the Global Hawk program which experienced a 261 percent cost growth had significant overlap of technology maturation, design, and production...

  16. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  17. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  18. Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K.; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity

  19. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  20. Cost Warrior Moneyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    program the money? That’s Army staff business in the franchise head shed, right? The truth is that we need to know its cost, afford- ability, and...address to an Armor War - fighting Conference, Gen. Peter Chiarelli said, “If you look at any one of these systems as an individual system, you can...tainment costs. The future ain’t what it used to be. Third, change takes time and patience. Over the past 10 years, big money has been flowing. It

  1. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  2. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  3. Nelson-Farrar cost indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Nelson-Farrar Cost Indexs. Topics covered include: economic analysis, petroleum refineries, petroleum industry, pumps, compressors, beat exchangers, cost estimation, productivity and wages

  4. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  5. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO{sub 2} emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO{sub 2} emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO{sub 2} emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country. (author)

  6. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO2 emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO 2 emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO 2 emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO 2 emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country.

  7. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  8. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  9. Reducing healthcare costs facilitated by surgical auditing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Johannes Arthuur; van Bommel, Anne Charlotte Madeline; van Dijk, Wouter Antonie; van Leersum, Nicoline Johanneke; Tollenaar, Robertus Alexandre Eduard Mattheus; Wouters, Michael Wilhemus Jacobus Maria

    2015-07-01

    Surgical auditing has been developed in order to benchmark and to facilitate quality improvement. The aim of this review is to determine if auditing combined with systematic feedback of information on process and outcomes of care results in lower costs of surgical care. A systematic search of published literature before 21-08-2013 was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Articles were selected if they met the inclusion criteria of describing a surgical audit with cost-evaluation. The systematic search resulted in 3608 papers. Six studies were identified as relevant, all showing a positive effect of surgical auditing on quality of healthcare and therefore cost savings was reported. Cost reductions ranging from $16 to $356 per patient were seen in audits evaluating general or vascular procedures. The highest potential cost reduction was described in a colorectal surgical audit (up to $1,986 per patient). All six identified articles in this review describe a reduction in complications and thereby a reduction in costs due to surgical auditing. Surgical auditing may be of greater value when high-risk procedures are evaluated, since prevention of adverse events in these procedures might be of greater clinical and therefore of greater financial impact. This systematic review shows that surgical auditing can function as a quality instrument and therefore as a tool to reduce costs. Since evidence is scarce so far, further studies should be performed to investigate if surgical auditing has positive effects to turn the rising healthcare costs around. In the future, incorporating (actual) cost analyses and patient-related outcome measures would increase the audits' value and provide a complete overview of the value of healthcare.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ''unpackaged'' volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste

  11. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B.; Wittenborn, John S.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Song, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of amblyopia screening at preschool and kindergarten, we compared the costs and benefits of 3 amblyopia screening scenarios to no screening and to each other: (1) acuity/stereopsis (A/S) screening at kindergarten, (2) A/S screening at preschool and kindergarten, and (3) photoscreening at preschool and A/S screening at kindergarten. Methods We programmed a probabilistic microsimulation model of amblyopia natural history and response to treatment with screening costs and outcomes estimated from 2 state programs. We calculated the probability that no screening and each of the 3 interventions were most cost-effective per incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and case avoided. Results Assuming a minimal 0.01 utility loss from monocular vision loss, no screening was most cost-effective with a willingness to pay (WTP) of less than $16,000 per QALY gained. A/S screening at kindergarten alone was most cost-effective between a WTP of $17,000 and $21,000. A/S screening at preschool and kindergarten was most cost-effective between a WTP of $22,000 and $75,000, and photoscreening at preschool and A/S screening at kindergarten was most cost-effective at a WTP greater than $75,000. Cost-effectiveness substantially improved when assuming a greater utility loss. All scenarios were cost-effective when assuming a WTP of $10,500 per case of amblyopia cured. Conclusions All 3 screening interventions evaluated are likely to be considered cost-effective relative to many other potential public health programs. The choice of screening option depends on budgetary resources and the value placed on monocular vision loss prevention by funding agencies. PMID:21877675

  12. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office... Discontinuation of Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards... development of an amendment to Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 416 regarding the use of the term ``catastrophic...

  13. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  14. Costs and cost-effectiveness of periviable care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Burchfield, David J

    2014-02-01

    With increasing concerns regarding rapidly expanding healthcare costs, cost-effectiveness analysis allows assessment of whether marginal gains from new technology are worth the increased costs. Particular methodologic issues related to cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in the area of neonatal and periviable care include how costs are estimated, such as the use of charges and whether long-term costs are included; the challenges of measuring utilities; and whether to use a maternal, neonatal, or dual perspective in such analyses. A number of studies over the past three decades have examined the costs and the cost-effectiveness of neonatal and periviable care. Broadly, while neonatal care is costly, it is also cost effective as it produces both life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). However, as the gestational age of the neonate decreases, the costs increase and the cost-effectiveness threshold is harder to achieve. In the periviable range of gestational age (22-24 weeks of gestation), whether the care is cost effective is questionable and is dependent on the perspective. Understanding the methodology and salient issues of cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for researchers, editors, and clinicians to accurately interpret results of the growing body of cost-effectiveness studies related to the care of periviable pregnancies and neonates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  16. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.; Heemstra, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  17. Containing contraceptive costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  18. Cost Is Not Everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell T.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of survey of 21 smaller to medium-sized (50,000-200,000 volumes) libraries which was conducted to determine factors used to make selection decisions in purchase of automated turnkey systems from established vendors. Factors examined include costs, software, hardware, and vendors for parts A (actual experience) and B (hypothetical…

  19. Controlling HR Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellig, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    Controlling human resources costs is critical for a competitive advantage. More money will have to be invested in education and training because of an inadequate, ill-prepared group of entry-level workers. Commitment to employees will have to be considered in relation to the increased investment in them. (JOW)

  20. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo...

  1. At What Cost?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    Mar 1, 1996 ... The production of this monograph would not have been possible without the ... RITC also conveys its thanks to the staff of Creatrix Design Group for their ...... land area devoted to tobacco farming, employment in tobacco manufacturing, ...... cost to manufacture cigarettes, demographics (i.e., age, sex, race), ...

  2. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  3. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  4. Sustainability at no Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    The presentation is dealing with some basic concept around the whole economy, and what are really the costs and the benefits. A distinction is made between professional economy, driven by money (GDP), and the amateur economy, driven by love, affection, etc. within the families, among friends, in ...

  5. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  6. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Gender differences in commuting behavior: Women's greater sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo Sanchez, M.I.; Maeso Gonzalez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Women's greater sensitivity to changes in their environment is one of the most distinguishing features between both genders. This article raises women's greater sensitivity to the different variables which influence their commuting modal choice. In order to do this, gender gaps detected in the choice of means of transport in commuting trips with respect to the decision factors such as age, education level, driver's license, private transport access; location, household size and net income, are quantified.The results show a greater female sensitivity to the different variables that affect their modal choice, which helps to better understand the different mobility patterns and it is useful for planning measures favoring sustainable mobility policies and equity. (Author)

  8. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  9. Societal and Family Lifetime Cost of Dementia: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Kane, Robert L; Gaugler, Joseph E; MacLehose, Richard F; Dowd, Bryan; Kuntz, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the cost of dementia and the extra cost of caring for someone with dementia over the cost of caring for someone without dementia. We developed an evidence-based mathematical model to simulate disease progression for newly diagnosed individuals with dementia. Data-driven trajectories of cognition, function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms were used to model disease progression and predict costs. Using modeling, we evaluated lifetime and annual costs of individuals with dementia, compared costs of those with and without clinical features of dementia, and evaluated the effect of reducing functional decline or behavioral and psychological symptoms by 10% for 12 months (implemented when Mini-Mental State Examination score ≤21). Mathematical model. Representative simulated U.S. incident dementia cases. Value of informal care, out-of-pocket expenditures, Medicaid expenditures, and Medicare expenditures. From time of diagnosis (mean age 83), discounted total lifetime cost of care for a person with dementia was $321,780 (2015 dollars). Families incurred 70% of the total cost burden ($225,140), Medicaid accounted for 14% ($44,090), and Medicare accounted for 16% ($52,540). Costs for a person with dementia over a lifetime were $184,500 greater (86% incurred by families) than for someone without dementia. Total annual cost peaked at $89,000, and net cost peaked at $72,400. Reducing functional decline or behavioral and psychological symptoms by 10% resulted in $3,880 and $680 lower lifetime costs than natural disease progression. Dementia substantially increases lifetime costs of care. Long-lasting, effective interventions are needed to support families because they incur the most dementia cost. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Cost prediction following traumatic brain injury: model development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Gershon; McKenzie, Dean; Attwood, David; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2016-02-01

    The ability to predict costs following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) would assist in planning treatment and support services by healthcare providers, insurers and other agencies. The objective of the current study was to develop predictive models of hospital, medical, paramedical, and long-term care (LTC) costs for the first 10 years following a TBI. The sample comprised 798 participants with TBI, the majority of whom were male and aged between 15 and 34 at time of injury. Costing information was obtained for hospital, medical, paramedical, and LTC costs up to 10 years postinjury. Demographic and injury-severity variables were collected at the time of admission to the rehabilitation hospital. Duration of PTA was the most important single predictor for each cost type. The final models predicted 44% of hospital costs, 26% of medical costs, 23% of paramedical costs, and 34% of LTC costs. Greater costs were incurred, depending on cost type, for individuals with longer PTA duration, obtaining a limb or chest injury, a lower GCS score, older age at injury, not being married or defacto prior to injury, living in metropolitan areas, and those reporting premorbid excessive or problem alcohol use. This study has provided a comprehensive analysis of factors predicting various types of costs following TBI, with the combination of injury-related and demographic variables predicting 23-44% of costs. PTA duration was the strongest predictor across all cost categories. These factors may be used for the planning and case management of individuals following TBI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Preliminary fee methodology for recovering GTCC-LLW management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning a fee to recover costs of managing Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste (GTCC-LLW). A cash flow basis will be used for fee calculations to ensure recovery of all applicable program costs. Positive cash flows are revenues received from waste generators. Negative cash flows are program expenses for storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of the wastes and for program development, evaluation, and administration. Program balances are the net result of positive and negative cash flows each year. The methodology calculates fees that will recovery all program expenses taking into account cost inflation. 3 refs., 1 tab

  12. O paradigma do custo negativo The paradigm of negative cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Dalmonech

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The current view that cost must be equal to or greater than zero (C ≥ O was subject to question. Considering the present and the future, a cost that can also be negative was foreseen. With the development of information (IT and communication (CT technologies as well as globalization, new ways of doing business are at hand for identification, evaluation, measurement and investigation. Development of these new ways will give rise to a concept of cost that may vary from a negative infinite to a positive infinite - ∞ to + ∞.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computer-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Loewenberger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for more cost-effective and pedagogically acceptable combinations of teaching and learning methods to sustain increasing student numbers means that the use of innovative methods, using technology, is accelerating. There is an expectation that economies of scale might provide greater cost-effectiveness whilst also enhancing student learning. The difficulties and complexities of these expectations are considered in this paper, which explores the challenges faced by those wishing to evaluate the costeffectiveness of computer-based assessment (CBA. The paper outlines the outcomes of a survey which attempted to gather information about the costs and benefits of CBA.

  14. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  15. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages. 257.203 Section 257.203 Housing and Urban... mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages. (a) Applicable premiums. Any mortgage presented for... LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18c - One-time or up-front mortgage insurance premium excluded from limitations on maximum mortgage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premium excluded from limitations on maximum mortgage amounts. 203.18c Section 203.18c Housing and...-front mortgage insurance premium excluded from limitations on maximum mortgage amounts. After... LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE...

  17. MRI and US of gluteal tendinopathy in greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Andrew; Van der Vliet, Andrew [Regional Imaging Border, Albury, NSW (Australia); Zadow, Steven [Dr Jones and Partners Medical Imaging, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is commonly due to gluteus minimus or medius injury rather than trochanteric bursitis. Gluteal tendinopathy most frequently occurs in late-middle aged females. In this pictorial review the pertinent MRI and US anatomy of the gluteal tendon insertions on the greater trochanter and the adjacent bursae are reviewed. The direct (peritendinitis, tendinosis, partial and complete tear) and indirect (bursal fluid, bony changes and fatty atrophy) MRI signs of gluteal tendon injury are illustrated. The key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater scaup (Aythya marila) remained relatively stable during a period when populations of lesser scaup (A. affinis) have declined from historic levels. To assist in describing these differences in population trends, from 1991 through 2000, we studied the survival, nesting ecology, and productivity of greater scaup on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, to develop a model of population dynamics. We located nests, radio-marked females for renesting studies, estimated duckling survival, and leg-banded females to examine nest site fidelity and annual survival.

  19. BILATERAL ANTERIOR DISLOCATION OF SHOULDER WITH GREATER TUBEROSITY FRACTURE DUE TO HYPONATREMIA : A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a rare presentation of bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder with associated fracture of greater tuberosity in a 38 year old male due to minor trauma which he sustained secondary to hyponatremia induced irritability. There was no associ ated rotator cuff tear which is often associated with BADS which makes this presentation unique. Unilateral dislocation of shoulder is a common condition which is frequently encountered in emergency trauma department. Anterior dislocation is more common th an posterior dislocation. However, simultaneous bilateral shoulder dislocations are usually posterior. Bilateral anterior dislocations with fractures of the greater tuberosity are even rarer and are usually associated with trauma or seizures

  20. Excerpt from Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Saldívar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available José David Saldívar’s work, excerpted from Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico, focuses on Américo Paredes, whom he refers to as a “proto-Chicano.” Here he discusses Paredes’s columns written from Asia for the United States Army magazine Stars and Stripes and how his experience in Asia between 1945 and 1950 crossed with and informed his evolving viewpoint on US–Mexican borderlands and his “outernationalist” envisioning of a “Greater Mexico.”

  1. Custom LSI plus hybrid equals cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The possibility to combine various technologies, such as Bi-Polar linear and CMOS/Digital makes it feasible to create systems with a tailored performance not available on a single monolithic circuit. The custom LSI 'BLOCK', especially if it is universal in nature, is proving to be a cost effective way for the developer to improve his product. The custom LSI represents a low price part in contrast to the discrete components it will replace. In addition, the hybrid assembly can realize a savings in labor as a result of the reduced parts handling and associated wire bonds. The possibility of the use of automated system manufacturing techniques leads to greater reliability as the human factor is partly eliminated. Attention is given to reliability predictions, cost considerations, and a product comparison study.

  2. Robotic and endoscopic transaxillary thyroidectomies may be cost prohibitive when compared to standard cervical thyroidectomy: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Jennifer C; Lee, Cho Rok; Brunaud, Laurent; Kleiman, David A; Chung, Woong Youn; Fahey, Thomas J; Zarnegar, Rasa

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a cost analysis of the standard cervical, gasless transaxillary endoscopic, and gasless transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy approaches based on medical costs in the United States. A retrospective review of 140 patients who underwent standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, or transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy at 2 tertiary centers was conducted. The cost model included operating room charges, anesthesia fee, consumables cost, equipment depreciation, and maintenance cost. Sensitivity analyses assessed individual cost variables. The mean operative times for the standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, and transaxillary robotic approaches were 121 ± 18.9, 185 ± 26.0, and 166 ± 29.4 minutes, respectively. The total cost for the standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, and transaxillary robotic approaches were $9,028 ± $891, $12,505 ± $1,222, and $13,670 ± $1,384, respectively. Transaxillary approaches were significantly more expensive than the standard cervical technique (standard cervical/transaxillary endoscopic, P cost when transaxillary endoscopic operative time decreased to 111 minutes and transaxillary robotic operative time decreased to 68 minutes. Increasing the case load did not resolve the cost difference. Transaxillary endoscopic and transaxillary robotic thyroidectomies are significantly more expensive than the standard cervical approach. Decreasing operative times reduces this cost difference. The greater expense may be prohibitive in countries with a flat reimbursement schedule. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 4280 - Technical Reports for Projects With Total Eligible Project Costs Greater Than $200,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency's satisfaction before the application will be approved. The applicant must submit the original... to bioenergy projects, which are, as defined in § 4280.103, renewable energy systems that produce... requirements and obtaining those agreements. This is required even if the system is installed on the customer...

  4. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  5. Patient level costing in Ireland: process, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A; McElroy, B

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, the Department of Health released their policy paper on hospital financing entitled Money Follows the Patient. A fundamental building block for the proposed financing model is patient level costing. This paper outlines the patient level costing process, identifies the opportunities and considers the challenges associated with the process in the Irish hospital setting. Methods involved a review of the existing literature which was complemented with an interview with health service staff. There are considerable challenges associated with implementing patient level costing including deficits in information and communication technologies and financial expertise as well as timeliness of coding. In addition, greater clinical input into the costing process is needed compared to traditional costing processes. However, there are long-term benefits associated with patient level costing; these include empowerment of clinical staff, improved transparency and price setting and greater fairness, especially in the treatment of outliers. These can help to achieve the Government's Health Strategy. The benefits of patient level costing need to be promoted and a commitment to investment in overcoming the challenges is required.

  6. Cost Analysis of the STONE Randomized Trial: Can Health Care Costs be Reduced One Test at a Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Xing, Guibo; Cox, Ginger; Leigh, Paul; Mills, Lisa; Miglioretti, Diana L; Moghadassi, Michelle; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Decreasing the use of high-cost tests may reduce health care costs. To compare costs of care for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected kidney stones randomized to 1 of 3 initial imaging tests. Patients were randomized to point-of-care ultrasound (POC US, least costly), radiology ultrasound (RAD US), or computed tomography (CT, most costly). Subsequent testing and treatment were the choice of the treating physician. A total of 2759 patients at 15 EDs were randomized to POC US (n=908), RAD US, (n=893), or CT (n=958). Mean age was 40.4 years; 51.8% were male. All medical care documented in the trial database in the 7 days following enrollment was abstracted and coded to estimate costs using national average 2012 Medicare reimbursements. Costs for initial ED care and total 7-day costs were compared using nonparametric bootstrap to account for clustering of patients within medical centers. Initial ED visit costs were modestly lower for patients assigned to RAD US: $423 ($411, $434) compared with patients assigned to CT: $448 ($438, $459) (Pcosts were not significantly different between groups: $1014 ($912, $1129) for POC US, $970 ($878, $1078) for RAD US, and $959 ($870, $1044) for CT. Hospital admissions contributed over 50% of total costs, though only 11% of patients were admitted. Mean total costs (and admission rates) varied substantially by site from $749 to $1239. Assignment to a less costly test had no impact on overall health care costs for ED patients. System-level interventions addressing variation in admission rates from the ED might have greater impact on costs.

  7. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    though product differentiation. This can manifest as a real or perceived value disparity. Thus, substantial coordination among system stakeholders is... satisfaction . Ultimately, incorporation of the Joint Value Model can contribute to more cost-effective solutions and greater value in joint capability...

  8. Five Smart Ways Educators Can Save Money on Benefit Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Pat

    2012-01-01

    State and local governments today face significant financial stress from the most recent recession, which makes their need to control benefit costs even greater. Revenues declined 22% from 2008 to 2009, mostly because of reduced tax income. At the same time, state and local government spending on unemployment compensation jumped 86%. It is no…

  9. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost management of golf courses

    OpenAIRE

    Černický, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The thesis focuses on costs incurred during the golf course construction and also on operating costs. Types of these costs and options of cost cutting are described. The final part of the thesis analyzes and models usage yield and capacity of golf courses.

  11. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  12. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP.......This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs...... in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about euro860 000 for men and about euro800 000 for women. The largest component was social care costs...

  13. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  14. Production cost methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffe, R. E.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The general gas cost equation for utility financing is presented. Modifications and assumptions made in order to apply the cost equation to hydrogen production are described. Cost data are given for various methods of hydrogen production. The cost matrix procedure is briefly discussed.

  15. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  16. The Ethos of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ethos of cost management, distinguishing the definition, functions and principles governing cost management. I have emphasized the efforts made by the specialists in the field towards finding a much more complete definition of cost management. The description of cost management principles reveals the current interest of the specialists in this extremely important domain of company management.

  17. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  18. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  19. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to evaluate functions without disclosing the private inputs. Secure comparisons (testing equality and greater-than) are important primitives required by many MPC applications. We propose two equality tests for ℓ-bit values with O(1) online...

  20. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  1. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  2. Landscape restoration for greater sage-grouse: implications for multiscale planning and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Mary M. Rowland; Miles A. Hemstrom; Barbara C. Wales

    2005-01-01

    Habitats and populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined throughout western North America in response to a myriad of detrimental land uses. Successful restoration of this species' habitat, therefore, is of keen interest to Federal land agencies who oversee management of most remaining habitat. To illustrate the...

  3. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  4. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  5. Microhabitat selection of brood-rearing sites by greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojcik

    2015-01-01

    Declines in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) populations could be attributed to low chick survival, which may be influenced by the availability of food and cover at sites used by females rearing broods. Habitat attributes important to broods may vary regionally; thus, it is necessary to understand factors affecting...

  6. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson; Mark A. Rumble; Nicholas W. Kaczor; Robert W. Klaver; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Kent C. Jensen

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this...

  7. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  8. Lek ecology of male greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshia Lynn Fremgen

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter "sage-grouse") have experienced range-wide population declines for several decades, and as a result they were considered warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act in 2010. Therefore, wildlife managers need to understand how sage-grouse breeding behavior influences long-term reproductive...

  9. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  10. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  11. Higher Education's Influence on the Confessional Practices of Roman Catholic Laity in the Greater Miami Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of 20 Roman Catholic laypersons in the Greater Miami area investigated the phenomenon of transformation of confessional practice as a result of the undergraduate educational experience. By searching for meaning in each individual's story, two themes or factors and six sub themes emerged. The themes were…

  12. Greater support and debriefing may help student midwives to process traumatic birth experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Kitson-Reynolds, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Implications for practice and researchIncorporating resilience training and a multidisciplinary debriefing approach within clinical and academic environments would develop a culture of support and compassion for the workforce and ultimately effective care for women using maternity services. Further research surrounding the effectiveness of resilience education for student midwives is required to elicit greater understanding of the effect on woman-centred care.

  13. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  14. Optimal wildlife management in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem: A spatiotemporal model of disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    South of Yellowstone National Park there are twenty-three sites where elk herds are provided supplementary feeding during the winter and spring months. Supplementary feeding of elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has been practiced since the early twentieth century, but the practice has b...

  15. DOD Financial Management: Greater Visibility Needed to Better Assess Audit Readiness for Property, Plant, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and compliance with... Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-383, a report to congressional committees May 2016 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Greater Visibility... Accounting Standards Advisory Board FIAR Financial Improvement and Audit Readiness IUS internal-use software NDAA National Defense Authorization Act

  16. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  17. Single versus double row suture anchor fixation for greater tuberosity fractures - a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppel, Gernot; Saier, Tim; Martetschläger, Frank; Plath, Johannes E; Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Henschel, Julia; Winkler, Martin; Augat, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Fractures of the humeral greater tuberosity (GT) are a frequent injury progressively treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Yet, no biomechanical study has been performed comparing fixation strength of arthroscopic single- (SR) vs. double row (DR) fixation. Standardized fractures of the greater tuberosity were created in 12 fresh frozen proximal humeri. After random assignation to the SR or DR group the fixed humeri were tested applying cyclic loading to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon. Load to failure and fragment displacement were assessed by means of an electrodynamic material testing machine using an optical tracking system. Load to failure values were higher in the DR group (649 N; ±176) than in the SR group (490 N; ±145) however without statistical significance (p = .12). In greater tuberosity displacement of 3-5 mm surgical treatment is recommended. The fixing constructs in this study did not reach displacement landmarks of 3 or 5 mm before construct failure as shown in previous studies. Thus the applied traction force (N) at 1 mm displacement was analyzed. In the SR group the load at 1 mm displacement was 277 N; ±46 compared to 260 N; ±62 in the DR group (p = .65). The results suggest that both techniques are viable options for refixation of greater tuberosity fractures. Laboratory study.

  18. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony L. Westerling; Monica G. Turner; Erica A. H. Smithwick; William H. Romme; Michael G. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated...

  19. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  20. Greater Engagement among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2016-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…