WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater syria 1840-1914

  1. Nationalism in Ottoman Greater Syria 1840-1914: The Divisive Legacy of Sectarianism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francioch, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    ... for a sustainable, peaceful, and just international system of interactions between nation states. Syria and Lebanon pose some of the most challenging problems to policy makers working to achieve these conditions...

  2. Istanbul’s Modernization-Period Hotels (1840-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Çelebi YAKARTEPE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modernization period in the 19th century caused important changes in systems of both travel and accommodation systems. These changes inevitably affected the architecture of hotels and other buildings offering accommodation. The first modern hotels were opened in Galata and Pera by the date of 1840. (It means first hotel opened in 1840 and then the other hotels began to open Later hotels began to serve tje in Eminönü, Kadıköy, Boğaziçi, Adalar, Şişli, Feriköy and Yeşilköy regions. The opening and development of hotels has continued until the beginning of the First World War in 1914. There were hotels with suit rooms and some communal space and there were also hotels which were as luxurious and wellequipped as European hotels. First hotels were traditionally built of wood or stone, and had only two or three floors. At the end of the century, hotels were modern structures built using modern materials such as brick and steel, larger and higher than their predecessors. Beside that these hotels did not have typical facades, they were constructed with traditional, neoclassical or mixed facades. The grand luxury hotels were designed by famous European architects and craftsmen and often magnificently decorated. These grand hotels are also important because of the technical equipment and technology at the date they were built. Because of being very important point for many in the domain of science, modernization period hotels of Istanbul’s are studied by many aspects as urbanisme, architecture, preservation, tourism and sustainability. In addition, the hotels are evaluated in terms of commerce and managerment conception, socio-economic status and political importance. And then it is defined deformations and their causes of these hotels. Finally suggestions are made that would remove these deformations. It is believed the data included in this work will be helpfull for planning, arranging and conservation works in Istanbul.

  3. Nationalism in Ottoman Greater Syria 1840-1914: The Divisive Legacy of Sectarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    represented what Salibi termed “Maronite particularism,”27 in a “great confidence game ” between Maronites and Sunnis who espoused an Islamic Arab...private salon discussions. Ultimately, sectarianism was a critical element that prevented the formation of single Arab state prior to World War I, and

  4. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  5. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  6. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  7. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both...

  9. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  10. 29 CFR 18.40 - Motion for summary decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.40 Motion for summary decision. (a) Any party may, at... that a party is entitled to summary decision. The administrative law judge may deny the motion whenever... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motion for summary decision. 18.40 Section 18.40 Labor...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital Impairment Percentage. 108.1840 Section 108.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1840 Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment...

  12. Country profile: Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    A relatively minor oil exporter on Middle Eastern terms, Syria is a member of OPEC and one of the first Arab states to take control of its hydrocarbon resources from foreign domination. After a period of decline, a major discovery is opening new perspectives of Syria's future. The author describes Syria's history since it emerged from the Ottoman Empire and a period of French domination into a period of industrialization and economic development. Oil is the largest single item in the balance of payments and the leading provider of revenues for investment by the government. Since the first discoveries in the 1950s, a number of fields have become productive. The configuration of refineries makes it necessary to export crude oil and import light crude from the new discoveries, making crude oil and petroleum products the largest negative items on the balance of payments. 1 figure.

  13. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  14. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  15. An Overview of the Conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Syria, there is not expected to break out of the revolution of this magnitude. Most people of Syria before others did not expect that the revolution breaks out originally because the regime governs Syria in an oppressive security manner. The regime controls the situation that making it difficult of any popular movement. Political life is not existent in the country. There are no civil society organizations and trade unions are not real and not real parties or political groupings, making it difficult with the outbreak of the revolution in the country in such a dictatorship, security control, which controls everything in people's lives. So Syria was apparently outside the US and global thinking. It has been stated by some officials in America and has had their expectations outbreak of the revolution in Syria minimal because the global system was not ready to abandon the Assad regime because the regime is better for them. However, the revolution in Syria broke out, caught and swept across the country, confusing international systems that were not planning to substitute for the Syrian regime. The Syrian regime is no doubt that one of the major hubs in the region.

  16. Syria: Reassessing U.S. Approach and Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeks, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    Syria's support to the Iraq insurgency and Washington's inability to ameliorate the regime's behavior, or to achieve its other national interests with regard to Syria, threaten America's Middle East objectives...

  17. European Film Gateway projekt EFG1914 / Ivi Tomingas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomingas, Ivi

    2015-01-01

    Saja aasta möödumise puhul Esimesest maailmasõjast kutsus Euroopa Komisjon ellu European Film Gateway projekti EFG 1914. Avalikkusele on nüüd kättesaadav 660 tundi digiteeritud filme ja 5500 plakatit, fotot ja dokumenti. Nendega saab tutvuda aadressidel http://project.efg1914.eu ja http://www.europeanfilmgateway.eu/content/efg1914-project. Rahvusarhiivist on portaali lisatud kaks tundi Johannes Pääsukese ülesvõetud etnograafilist materjali, Pathé ringvaade nr. 17 (sõjategevus 1917) ja Theodor Lutsu film "Noored kotkad" (1927) ning Karl Akeli ja Johann Ostrati fotosid

  18. 31 CFR 103.188 - Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.188 Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Commercial Bank of Syria means any branch, office, or subsidiary of Commercial Bank of Syria operating in Syria or in any other jurisdiction...

  19. Syria: Land of history, civilizations and war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As the Syrians are welcomed into Canada, it is useful to learn about where they are coming from. Syria is an ancient land with a rich history and has always been home to diverse cultures, ethnicities and religions. Palmyra was an ancient civilization that arose during the second century. Syria became part of the land of Islam in AD 640 and was a cultural, religious and artistic center. During the Middle Ages, Syria came under the control of the Crusaders and was part of the Ottoman Empire from the early fifteen hundreds until the end of the nineteenth century. During World War I it came under French influence and was recognized as an independent nation after World War II. In 1963, Hafez al-Assad led a military coup and since then, Syria has been ruled under emergency law. After al-Assad died in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected President in an uncontested presidential campaign. Before the current conflict, Syria had a population of approximately 22 million people but now about half the population have been displaced internally and into neighbouring countries, including approximately four million refugees. It is estimated that 250,000 people have died during the Syrian conflict. PMID:29770036

  20. IDRC in Syria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICARDA has improved barley, lentil, and faba beans; enhanced the nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep; rehabil- ... farm water management. ... been a long-time advocate of research ... management in Syria, and on new areas.

  1. INIS National Center in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2006-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 2.5 million references increasing at approximately 85,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. In addition, the PC-based software for inputs preparation (WinFIBRE) is demonstrated. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  2. Learning from Libya, Acting in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Buckley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has reached an impasse. The violence committed by Syrian President Assad's government against opposition forces, who have been calling for democratic reform, regime change, and expanded rights, has necessitated a response from the international community. This article explores various ways the international community could respond to the crisis in Syria and the consequences of each approach. It compares the current calamity in Syria to the crisis in Libya and examines the international community's response to the violence perpetrated by Qaddafi's regime. It further analyzes reports, primarily from the UN and news sources, about the ongoing predicament in Syria. The article concludes that the international community should proceed with achieving a ceasefire via dialogue but must begin by conveying newly imposed sanctions that affect the Sunni merchant class and thus threaten Assad's grip on power to make that dialogue more effective. World leaders should also identify a Syrian leader who could replace Assad, who must be removed from power because of the crimes against humanity that have been committed by his regime. Western states must accept that they will have to engage peacekeeping forces in the region to aid the transition of power in Syria.

  3. Waqf and Madrasas in Late Medieval Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamid, Hatim

    2013-01-01

    The "madrasa" began to spread in Syria ("Bilad al-Sham") as a higher institution for religious education since the Zangid rule (521H./1127 to 569H./ 1173). During the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, main cities of Syria were characterized by many madrasas, especially the major cities that served the political rule like, Damascus,…

  4. European Film Gateway projekt EFG 1914 Esimesest maailmasõjast / Ivi Tomingas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomingas, Ivi

    2014-01-01

    Saja aasta möödumise puhul Esimesest maailmasõjast kutsus Euroopa Komisjon ellu European Film Gateway projekti EFG 1914. Projekti tulemusena on avalikkusele kättesaadav 660 tundi digiteeritud filme ja 5500 plakatit, fotot ja dokumenti. Nendega saab tutvuda aadressidel http://project.efg1914.eu ja http://www.europeanfilmgateway.eu/content/efg1914-project. Tekstile lisatud väike valik Eesti arhiivides leiduvast 2230-st projektiteemalisest fotost

  5. Egypt (1914-2014): Global architecture before globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Volait , Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Chapitre de l'ouvrage "Architecture from the Arab World (1914-2014): a selection", sous la direction de George Arbid, publié à l'occasion de la participation du Royaume du Bahrein à la 14ème exposition d'architecture de la Biennale de Venise.; The article provides a survey of the main tendencies of modern architecture in Egypt over the past century, from 1914 to 2014. It argues that an established tradition of borrowing and naturalizing European techniques and aesthetics characterized Egyptia...

  6. El Bachillerato Pedagógico. Albacete (1901-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Romero, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Normal de Maestros de Albacete se fundó en el año 1840 e inició su andadura docente en 1842. En este centro se formaron los maestros albacetenses hasta el año 1901 en el que un Real Decreto de 17 de agosto firmado por el Conde de Romanones, Ministro de Instrucción Pública y Bellas Artes, establece la supresión del centro y la integración de los estudios de magisterio en el Instituto. Durante trece cursos académicos (1901-1902 a 1913-1914 los estudios para Maestro Elemental se cursan en el Instituto General Técnico de la capital De las aulas del Instituto saldrán 176 Maestros titulados que han cursado un plan de estudios generalista y poco profesional, pero que, considerado en sus dos niveles -de maestro elemental y maestro superior-, se nos ofrece como un plan más ambicioso y completo que los anteriores. Son los maestros del “Bachillerato Pedagógico” experiencia docente que sería propuesto como modelo formativo del Magisterio en sucesivas ocasiones, pero que nunca más volverá a experimentarse.El contenido de este estudio es el resultado de una minuciosa investigación en diferentes archivos interrogándonos acerca de esta novedosa experiencia. Nos detenemos en el estudio de los elementos personales, los alumnos, su matrícula y resultados académicos, y los profesores encargados de su formación pedagógica; los elementos materiales, el edifico y su sostenimiento económico; los elementos funcionales, planes de estudio y horarios.

  7. Kebijakan Politik Luar Negeri Arab Saudi terhadap Krisis Syria (2011-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Tjarsono, Idjang; khsan, Fadhly

    2015-01-01

    This research is intended to analyze the Saudi Arabia foreign policy toward Syria Crisis. In March 2011,Student of a School in Syria had written anti-governent slogan on their School€™s wall. Syrian Police arrested tand tortured them as punishment to the Student, this action cause Syria people movement to protest the government regime and ask for freedom and democratic transformation. In this case, Syria government tried to handle demonstration with the military action, This conflict increase...

  8. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  9. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  10. Syria’s Salafi Networks: More Local Than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    first, a brief background of Salafism in Syria; then a look at the range of Salafists within the Syrian opposition; next, Salafi lessons from Iraq...government is proposed. Salafism in Syria Salafism has deep roots in Syria. Most modern Salafists look to the writings of four- teenth-century Syrian...approach to Salafism that is both academic and practical: willing to accommodate Muslim leaders even if they are aligned with Western and secular

  11. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  12. Hommage à Anatole Abragam (1914-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Haroche, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Anatole Abragam est né à Moscou, le 15 décembre 1914. Il s’est éteint le 8 juin 2011 à l’âge de 96 ans. Diplômé de l’École supérieure d’électricité, il fut directeur de la Physique au Commissariat pour l’énergie atomique de 1965 à 1970. Nommé professeur au Collège de France en 1960, il fut titulaire de la chaire de Magnétisme nucléaire jusqu’en 1985. Né en 1914 à Moscou dans une famille de la bourgeoisie juive, il y passa sa prime enfance, assistant aux premières années de la Russie soviétiqu...

  13. Syria: The Consolidation of the Asad Regime, 1970-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    Up to 1975-76, Syria's Hafiz al-Asad was successful in consolidating his power, securing the maintenance of his regime, and broadening his base of political power. His system started weakening in 1975 due to increased opposition stemming from Syria's intervention in the Lebanese civil war. (AM)

  14. Marriage crisis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, B A

    1980-01-01

    The author examines some of the changing characteristics of marriage in Syria, including the deferment of age at first marriage and abstinence from marriage. Data are from the 1970 census and other official sources. Factors affecting these trends are discussed

  15. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.14 How will Commerce entities...

  16. The Kurds of Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Anne Sofie

    For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies to the Ameri......For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies...... are divided along political lines. Some Kurds are fighting for the so-called ‘Rojava revolution’ in the autonomous Kurdish regions, others participate in the Geneva peace talks as part of the Syrian opposition, yet others act as independent actors advocating liberal democracy and human rights....

  17. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased

  18. Baltimaad 1900-1914 / Jaanus Arukaevu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arukaevu, Jaanus

    1992-01-01

    Rets.: The Baltic Countries 1900-1914 : proceedings from the 9th conference on baltic studies in Scandinavia, Stockholm, June 3-6, 1987. Ed. Aleksander Loit. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia 5:1-2). Uppsala, 1990Red terror in Estonia 1918-1919 : sources and major problems. Lk. 96

  19. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  20. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney don...

  1. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.

  3. Destination Syria : An Exploratory Study into the Daily Lives of Dutch 'Syria Travellers'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, D.; Peters, R.; Bakker, E.; Bont, de R.

    2016-01-01

    Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by

  4. The impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, B.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003-2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabian to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa. On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  5. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  6. THE CIPA DATABASE FOR SAVING THE HERITAGE OF SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA’s initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA’s strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  7. The Cipa Database for Saving the Heritage of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Minna; Rinaudo, Fulvio; Morezzi, Emanuele; Quenda, Francesca; Moretti, Maria Laura

    2016-06-01

    CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA's initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA's strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  8. Nuclear knowledge dissemination in Syria: An INIS objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 3 million references increasing at approximately 100,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS , INIS Database Interface, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  9. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  11. A history of prices in Canada, 1840-1871: a new wholesale price index

    OpenAIRE

    Donald G. Paterson; Ronald A. Shearer

    2003-01-01

    We present a new monthly wholesale price index for Canada, 1840-71, comparing fluctuations in the Canadian macroeconomy with fluctuations in similar U.S. and British indexes. Canadian prices move through distinct phases: the 1840s rise in prices and the decline in the depression of 1848-49; the mid-century economic boom and the 1857 depression; U.S. Civil War inflation and apparent Canadian price insulation through a flexible exchange rate created by U.S. withdrawal from gold; and the non-inf...

  12. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar may alternate the use of...

  13. 15 CFR 746.9 - Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Syria. 746.9 Section 746.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS EMBARGOES AND OTHER SPECIAL...

  14. Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria. The development of civil society institutions in Syria has been largely controlled by the governing regime, never reaching the level of inclusion, participation, and pluralism needed to achieve an open and democratic society. In order for Syrians to work towards an inclusive and ...

  15. Epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albache, Nizar; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considerable public health problem, but data on the prevalence and correlates of T2DM in Syria are scarce. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable estimates of the prevalence of T2DM in Syria. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in Aleppo, Syria (population 2.5 million), in 2006. The study was conducted on a random sample of 1168 subjects ≥25 years of age (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information regarding a personal history of diabetes and other risk factors was collected, followed by measurement of weight, height, and the waist:hip ratio (WHR). Of the 1168 participants, 806 provided fasting blood samples that were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. The prevalence of T2DM based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥6.5% was 15.6% (11.2% self-reported; 5.0% diagnosed) and 14.8%, respectively. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥110 and Syria. Many of those with T2DM are unaware of their disease and most have unsatisfactory control of their disease. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Bysystem og urbanisme ca. 1840-2000 - historie og historiografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Bitsch; Thøgersen, Mette Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the history and history writing of Danish cities approx. 1840-2000 by help of the two concepts urban system and urbanism. The urban system (including urbanization) is believed to comprise the development of the cities versus the countryside as well as the size, function...... of all Danish cities in the official statistics 1801-1981. Figure 2 shows a rank-size distribution of the cities in 1840, 1901 and 1960. Table 6 shows the main tendencies of the spatial restructuring in Denmark 1980-2003. The urban development was marked by a huge growth from the middle of the 19th...... and hundred years ahead. The growth was primarily concentrated to the existing cities with the Capital of Copenhagen as a clear number one. In the beginning of the period the location of the cities on the coastline clearly indicated that the cities were part of networks that stretched over the sea...

  17. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  18. IAEA Clarification on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Director General Amano has been quoted in a news story as saying today that a site in Syria allegedly destroyed by Israel was a nuclear reactor under construction. The Director General did not say that the IAEA has reached the conclusion that the site was definitely a nuclear reactor. The IAEA continues to seek further information on the nature of the Dair Alzour site. (IAEA)

  19. Russia’s Impossible Position on Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Follebouckt, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The uprising in Syria is increasingly veering towards a full-fledged civil war, which raises legitimate fears for the stability of the Middle East as a whole and, more critically, for Russia’s credibility on the international front

  20. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  1. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Bing; Ginoux, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria) is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  2. Forecasting future prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim

    2013-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.

  3. Omnibalancing in Syria: Prospects for Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergen, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...

  4. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  5. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 78 FR 36223 - Extension and Redesignation of Syria for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... children died in military offensives, sniper fire, attacks on protests, and massacres. Children have... Postal Service. Immigration Services, Attn: TPS Syria, P.O. Box 6943, Chicago, IL 60680-6943. You are... Syria, 131 S. Dearborn 3rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If you were granted TPS by an Immigration...

  7. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  8. De opkomst van het moderne medium cinema in de Ottomaanse hoofdstad Istanbul, 1896-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The first two decades of cinema in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, 1896-1914 This study explores the development of cinema in Istanbul, starting from the first public shows in December 1896 till the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. This period marks the transformation of the medium from an

  9. Self-Determination Of The Kurdes In Syria: Origins, Forms And International Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.I.I. Dyurre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of self-determination of the Kurdish ethnos in Syria. Kurds are an indigenous people in this territory and for a long time lived within a single space within the Ottoman Empire. The artificial division of the Middle East into states in the interests of European powers led to ignoring the interests and rights of the Kurdish ethnos. Self-organization of Kurds in Syria occurred gradually and mainly under the influence of external factors. The first one was the political activity of Kurds in neighboring countries, the second – the assimilation efforts of the Syrian authorities. Although the Kurdish population, basically, retained its identity, half a century of assimilation policy led to the erosion of the Kurdish ethnic enclaves in the north of the country. Moreover, self-organization and political mobilization of Kurds in Syria began to be accompanied by disagreements and splits of the main political forces. Kurdish political parties sought to act as a “third force” in the course of the civil war in Syria. However, disagreements prevented this, as well as certain pressure from Western countries, which pushed the Syrian Kurds to support the moderate opposition. The power vacuum in the north of Syria was able to fill the center-left party “Democratic Union”. This political force is in contact with the official Syrian authorities and, at the same time, receives US support. Created by the efforts of the “Democratic Union” the Kurdish autonomy in the north of the country provides stability in territories with the Kurdish and mixed populations, and also performs socio-economic functions. This makes the Kurdish autonomy an important element of negotiations about the future political structure of Syria.

  10. Modeling system for the rapid construction in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefabrication is a manufacturing process conducted at a specialized facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation. Prefabrication techniques have been progressively adopted in the construction industry in various countries. The demand was at its peak in the early 1970s in Eastern and Western Europe for the construction of new towns. Worldwide, the highest precast levels in 1996 were located in Denmark (43%, the Netherlands (40%, Sweden and Germany (31%. In Asia, the precast levels in Japan and Singapore were about 15% and 8%, respectively, recently, the use of prefabrication is further encouraged to increase productivity and build ability. In Syria too, the first residential project in Damascus: the establishment of 2400 housing units in the year (77-80. Except that the rate of construction pre-cast in Syria is still not exceed 2% of Building of reinforced concrete. In order to participate in the reconstruction of Syria, after the destruction and devastation caused by the war over four years, this search evaluates successful international experiences in rapid construction technique, and modeled system that could serve the current Syrian reality. Introduction of this technology as a new method in the world of construction in Syria requires a good base, relying on the availability of the necessary raw materials and nearness of work site, as well as the need to replace old technology into modern technology, and analyzing the economic, social, environmental criteria, to make the decision about the best solution. Cost and time will form the most important indicators that will be analyzed and calculated, before the final model mode, in order to be able to use this system later in Syrian construction companies.

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice... of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  12. Survey of patient dose in computed tomography in Syria 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S

    2010-09-01

    The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.

  13. Military diplomacy and Russia’s policy in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Verbitskaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of modern international relations system. It was found that such changes have affected the very essence of international relations: actors (the emergence of non-governmental actors, the importance of which is increasing, methods (the scope of military diplomacy has been expanded, objects (the nature of armed confl icts, both international and non-international, has been changed; the concept of international crime is determined by the danger posed to the international community. The author sets time frameworks of the changes, studies the characteristics of international system and its elements. The study focuses on the phenomenon of military diplomacy and criteria of its effectiveness. These criteria for the effectiveness of military diplomacy are applied to the Russia’s actions in Syria as part of its fi ght against international terrorism. The key documents of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic are analyzed. The research is focused on Russian measures in its war against terror in Syria. The author posits that Russia’s actions in Syria represent a model which refl ects the role of non-governmental actors in world politics, the methods used in international affairs and the specifi cs of international crimes.

  14. Women negotiating peace in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Panelists will also address women's experience of the conflict in Syria, their ... to 2011 and headed the Labour Civil First Instance Court in Damascus just before the ... civil society, and formal and informal mediation processes.

  15. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  16. The Double-entry Bookkeeping Committee of 1914 and the Brazilian Public Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Villac Adde

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian accounting has not been explored at length. Through a historical survey, this article presents the history of the Double-entry Bookkeeping Committee of 1914. After the Proclamation of the Republic was announced in 1889, the government started to expand its administrative bodies, necessitating the introduction of a bureaucracy able to perform new functions. In the same period, Brazil experienced a strong economic development with the development of its coffee industry. In 1905, under the leadership of Carlos de Carvalho, São Paulo State Treasury bookkeeping tasks were introduced under a double-entry bookkeeping system and through accrual and financial accounting. Double-entry bookkeeping practices in the federal public accounting system, although enshrined in law since 1808, were only fully realized after the creation of the Double-entry Bookkeeping Committee in 1914. In that same year, due to the negotiation of a second funding loan, English creditor bank auditors requested a balance of the National Treasury from the Minister of Finance Rivadávia Corrêa. Because the balance had not been prepared in eight years, the Double-entry Bookkeeping Committee was established in June of 1914, and this body completed a technical audit of Revenues and Expenditures. The committee also conducted the state administration's first Asset and Liability audit since the colonial era. The Double-entry Bookkeeping Committee of 1914 spearheaded changes to the Brazilian public accounting system, including the creation of the Public Accounting Code in 1922 and the approval of Central Accounting Office of the Republic regulation in 1924, strengthening and ascribing perpetuity to practices adopted after 1914.

  17. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  18. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig

    2016-02-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  19. Rapid Deployment of International Tele–Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827

  20. [Anja Wilhelmi, Menschenbilder aus Reval und St. Peterburg. Reiseeindrücke einer Engländerin um 1840] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Anja Wilhelmi, Menschenbilder aus Reval und St. Peterburg. Reiseeindrücke einer Engländerin um 1840. In: Kollektivität und Individualität. Hamburg: Kovaè, 2001. S. 224-242. Elizabeth Rigby 1840. aastal Londonis anonüümselt ilmunud raamatust "Letters from the shores of the Baltic"

  1. Transitional Justice in Syria: Scenarios and Options | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and there has been widespread destruction to property and physical infrastructure. Syria's ... The project will provide research on key transitional justice issues, including methods to ... Syrian Center for Political and Strategic Studies SCPSS.

  2. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krummrich, Seth

    2007-01-01

    In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...

  3. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-09-23

    Sep 23, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 5. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 36 Issue 5 December 2011 pp 761-768. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Climate Change and Political Instability in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.; Mohtadi, S.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.; Kushnir, Y.

    2013-12-01

    From 2005 to 2010, Syria experienced the most severe and persistent drought in the instrumental record, devastating the agriculture and causing widespread crop failure. A mass migration of farming families to urban peripheries followed the resulting food shortages, unemployment, and disruption of rural social structure. The addition of nearly 1.5 million drought refugees to the recent influx of Iraqi refugees greatly exacerbated conditions in the urban slums. Anger at the government's failure to respond to the drought's impacts contributed to the political unrest that began in March 2011. The recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without the trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. Compared to the natural variability alone, the trend has made the occurrence of such a severe drought eight times more likely. There has been also a long-term warming trend in Syria, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with observed increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. The severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, implicated as a cause of the current conflict, is highly likely to be a consequence of human interference in the climate system.

  5. 78 FR 27299 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  6. 75 FR 24777 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty...

  7. 76 FR 24791 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria... Government of Syria. To deal with this national emergency, Executive Order 13338 authorized the blocking of...

  8. 77 FR 27557 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  9. Great War Shakespeare: Somewhere in France, 1914-1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenselaars, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091415640

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the various ways in which the entente cordiale and the political alliance between France and England in 1914-1918 created a unique climate in which the reception of Shakespeare thrived on either side of the Channel. Studying a number of manifestations during the period, we learn

  10. 78 FR 43972 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Limited Syria Waiver for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (the SAA). The waiver authorizes..., agricultural production and food processing, power generation, oil and gas production, construction and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  11. Strategic Forum. Number 285, January 2014. The Flawed Strategic Debate on Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that the Syrian regime of 2015 and beyond will not count us among its benefactors. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, “A prince must imitate the fox and...who_is_in_charge_of_us_syria_policy>. 60 Niccolò Machiavelli , The Prince , trans. Harvey Mansfield (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 69...very real possibility that Syria will not fulfill its chemi- cal weapons obligations under the agreement reached in late 2013. For as Machiavelli

  12. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-09-09

    Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  13. The Lancet Commission on Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The journal has adopted a series of global commissions that convene groups of experts for a limited time to produce thematic work aimed at improving human lives through scientific review and inquiry, and to encourage accountability for the problem under study. The Commission on Syria marks the first time a Southern ...

  14. The insurgency business: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot, Beau L.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Islamic State (IS)--also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Syria (ISIS)--managed to seize large swaths of territory within the sovereign countries of Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016. Even though its caliphate has been reduced in size and scope in 2017, the IS's entrepreneurial capability to effectively manage money, manpower, and materiel has enabled it to develop its brand as the deadliest and most widely known terrorist org...

  15. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  16. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  17. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  18. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastam Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  19. Factors in the Introduction of a New Communications Technology Into Syria and Turkey: Background Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCompte, Gare

    Syria and Turkey differ in styles of government and patterns of media use. Syria is governed by a military junta; factionalism, intolerance of opposition, and the lack of any options except the use of force to gain political power, have inhibited political stability. Syrian newspapers have low credibility and are characterized by low standards,…

  20. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  1. The Fiscal Imperative in the Amalgamation of 1914 | Lawal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many historians that have written about Nigeria have shown a great deal of interest in the factors, which accounted for the amalgamation of 1914 by which Nigeria was established as a single political entity. The various works, which have been published, have treated exhaustively the administrative and political factors.1 ...

  2. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  3. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R

    2011-06-01

    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  4. Maiana Atoll Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1840 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maiana bimonthly oxygen isotopic composition, 1840-1995. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD (bimonthly resolution = dec/jan, feb/mar) and coral...

  5. The effect of the Syrian crisis on organ transplantation in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.

  6. Climate Change and Human Occupation in Denmark and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels; Jensen, Gitte; Limborg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    the main changes in human activities in the areas. It also confirms that the climatic histories of the sites are closely correlated - with strong ties to global causes of climate change. The NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) caused contrasting rainfall conditions in Denmark and Levant. Over a period of one......Classical sites for studies of human occupation and climatic changes in Denmark and Syria - have been re-examined. A detailed geological/geophysical mapping of selected sites and geochemical /palynological analysis of cores/profiles confirms that climate change has been the decisive factor behind....... The changes in human occupation in Syria and in Denmark both seems to correlate with the proxies of climate change esp. the change from Atlantic to Subboreal around 4000BC, the change from Subboreal to Subatlantic around 500 BC are marked in as well the climate record and archaeological records (monsoon...

  7. Building the Old Contemptibles: British Military Transformation and Tactical Development from the Boer War to the Great War, 1899-1914

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risio, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Impressed with the tactical lessons of the Boer War, the British Army reformed its doctrine and training from 1899 to 1914, deploying a combat ready force, the "Old Contemptibles" of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in 1914...

  8. Economic Liberalization in Syria: Prospects for Regime Stability and Democratization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Dana

    1998-01-01

    From 1985 to 1991, Syria experienced a severe economic crisis. In response, the regime of Hafiz al-Asad implemented economic reforms designed to move the Syrian economy toward free-market capitalism...

  9. [The Dutch emigration pattern around 1840 in the European perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokvis Prd

    1980-01-01

    "In 1850 and 1860 the Netherlands ranked eighth among twelve North-Western European nations that contributed to the transatlantic migration. The Dutch emigration pattern reflecting the agrarian crisis of the 1840's resembled the one of Hanover and Westphalia, be it that like in Scandinavia the ecclesiastical situation played a more important part. Besides the motivating forces, conditions such as information, organization, public and official reactions, and transportation are reviewed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.

  11. Polio in Syria: Problem still not solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Alahdab, Fares; Abolaban, Heba; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The reappearance of polio in Syria in mid-2013, 18 years after it was eliminated from the country, manifests the public health catastrophe brought on by the civil war. Among the lessons learned, this outbreak emphasizes the importance of increasing the international financial and logistical support for vaccine and immunization efforts, especially in countries suffering from conflicts. The lack of access to polio accredited laboratory or outright lack of laboratories in settings of conflict should be recognized allowing international surveillance to be strengthened by supplementing the laboratory definition with the clinical definition. In addition, it illustrates the imperative for the United Nations (UN) agencies involved in global health to be able to operate independently from governments during conflicts in order to provide adequate and efficient medical and humanitarian relief for civilians. Proper communicable disease surveillance and control, delivery of vaccinations, and other pivotal healthcare services to these areas require independence from governments and all military actors involved. Moreover, it shows the necessity to adequately support and fund the front-line nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are implementing the delivery of medical and humanitarian aid in Syria.

  12. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  13. Chemical and environmental isotopes study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Abou Zakhem, B.

    2009-02-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were monitored at 12 stations distributed over the entire region in Syria for a period of 4 years from December 1999 to April 2003. Amount of precipitation and mean air temperature of rain monthly were also recorded. The conductivity of rain waters varies between 35 μ/cm in the mountainous stations and 336 μ/cm at Deir Az-Zor station. Excepted Tartous station, the mean value of Cl in the rainfall in all station is 3.8 mg/l. The seasonal variations in δ 18 O are smaller at west stations than to the east stations due to low seasonal temperature variations. All stations are characterized by water lines with slopes significantly lower than GMWL, except Bloudan, suggesting the influence of local factors on the isotopic composition of the precipitation. d-excess values decrease from 19% in the western part to 13% in the eastern part of Syria, indicating the influence of the precipitation generated by the air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea over Syria. A reliable altitude effect represent by depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.21, and -1.47, per 100 m elevation of 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively. Monthly tritium activity and seasonal variations pattern are low in the west stations than at the east stations. The weighted mean tritium values are between 3 to 9 TU during 2000-2003, and it is increasing with distance from the Syrian coast by 1 TU /100 Km. (author)

  14. Andriy Zayarnyuk. Framing the Ukrainian Peasantry in Habsburg Galicia 1846―1914.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Armour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Andriy Zayarnyuk. Framing the Ukrainian Peasantry in Habsburg Galicia 1846―1914. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 2013. xxxii, 448 pp. Maps. Appendices. Bibliography. Index. $34.95, paper.

  15. The Rise of Women's Modern Schooling in Late Qing China (1840-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The rise of women's modern schooling in late Qing China was deemed to be, by the historical trend of modern China, a progress that coincided with China's modernization and national self-strengthening movement after the humiliating defeat of the Opium War. This article is an examination of this process from 1840 to 1911, which had undergone three…

  16. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  17. Syria: health in a country undergoing tragic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Bahelah, Raed; Fouad, Fouad M; Coutts, Adam; Wilcox, Meredith; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To document the ongoing destruction as a result of the tragic events in Syria, to understand the changing health care needs and priorities of Syrians. A directed examination of the scientific literature and reports about Syria before and during the Syrian conflict, in addition to analyzing literature devoted to the relief and rebuilding efforts in crisis situations. The ongoing war has had high direct war casualty, but even higher suffering due to the destruction of health system, displacement, and the breakdown of livelihood and social fabric. Millions of Syrians either became refugees or internally displaced, and about half of the population is in urgent need for help. Access to local and international aid organizations for war-affected populations is an urgent and top priority. Syrians continue to endure one of the biggest human tragedies in modern times. The extent of the crisis has affected all aspects of Syrians' life. Understanding the multi-faceted transition of the Syrian population and how it reflects on their health profile can guide relief and rebuilding efforts' scope and priorities.

  18. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  19. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  20. The Conflict in Syria: Key Issues and Consequences on the International Market of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulică

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of August 2013, the international prices of Brent crude rose to a 17-month high ($ 117.8 /barrel as Western powers, mainly USA, readied a military strike against Syria, and traders and analysts cited concerns over stability in the Middle East. The main concern was the risk that Western intervention in Syria could prompt a wider regional conflict, given the support that Iran has provided to the regime of Syria. The attack failed to materialize, because U.S. and Russia reached an agreement with the goal of disarming Syria’s chemical weapon arsenal, and consequently the prices declined, but the risk of geopolitical and social unrest movementsAlpha is still high, so that a reactivation of geopolitical tensions in the extended area of Middle East and north Africa is anytime possible with the afferent disruptive effects on the international oil market. We tried to answer to some questions in order to clear up the background of the problem: 1 What was the real stake of the U.S. plan to intervene in Syria: the concern generated by chemical weapons or U.S. geostrategic interests in the wider Middle East? 2 Why Syria matters to oil market, given that it is not a major oil producer (as was Libya, nor is it a major transit point for oil and gas exports (as is Egypt? 3 The aftermath of a serious military action targeted against the Middle Eastern country and “qui prodest”? 4 Will Iran’s possible return to the world oil market send oil prices down, and how much?

  1. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  2. Pobyt Aleksandry Kołłontaj w Szwecji i Danii (IX 1914–I 1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ratuszniak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sojourn of Alexandra Kollontai in Sweden and Denmark (IX 1914–I 1915The aim of this article is to present the activites undertaken by Alexandra Kollontai during her stay in Sweden in 1914. Alexandra was a famous socialist activist at the time, and as a consequence of her activity had to flee Russia in 1908. For the following eight years, she remained in exile. She traveled throughout Europe, but collaborated most closely the with German Social Democrats party. After the I World War began, Kollontai – along with her son, Michael – was arrested. Thanks to an intervention of influential German politicians, both of them were released from jail. Shaken, she broke up her ties with the German socialist movement. Alone, Kollontai traveled to Sweden in September 1914, and moved for good to Stockholm. During the sojourn in Sweden, Kollontai was in touch with one of the most prominent local socialist activists, Hjalmar Branting, and took an active part in the Swedish socialist movement. During her short-term stay in Norway, Kollontai was not formally a supporter of the Bolshevik proposition, but she still wrote letters to Lenin. She also had a love affair with a Bolshevik comrade, Alexander Shliapnikov. The Swedish police arrested Kollontai for participation in anti-military propaganda activities. She was exiled from the country in November 1914, to Copenhagen. Also there, Kollontai managed to establish close relationship with the Bolsheviks. Hereafter, she has played a crucial role in the re-opening of the northern smuggling route.

  3. Reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in conflict: a case study on Syria using Countdown indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Ghattas, Hala; Bashour, Hyam; Mourtada, Rima; Akik, Chaza; Reese-Masterson, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women’s and children’s health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Popline and Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region Office and relevant development/humanitarian databases in all languages from January 2011 until December 2015. We met in person or emailed relevant key stakeholders in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Turkey to obtain any unpublished or missing data. We convened a meeting of experts working with these populations to discuss the results. Results The following trends were found based on available data for these populations as compared with preconflict Syria. Birth registration in Syria and in host neighbouring countries decreased and was very low in Lebanon. In Syria, the infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate increased, and coverage of antenatal care (one visit with a skilled attendant), skilled birth attendance and vaccination (except for DTP3 vaccine) declined. The number of Syrian refugee women attending more than four antenatal care visits was low in Lebanon and in non-camp settings in Jordan. Few data were available on these indicators among the internally displaced. In conflict settings such as that of Syria, coverage rates of interventions are often unknown or difficult to ascertain because of measurement challenges in accessing conflict-affected populations or to the inability to determine relevant denominators in this dynamic setting. Conclusion Research, monitoring and evaluation in humanitarian settings could better inform public health

  4. Area Handbook Series. Syria, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    elderly and those in authority, and forbidding adultery, gambling , usury, and the consumption of carrion, blood, pork, and alcohol . A Muslim stands in a...Health: Gastrointestinal ailments, trachoma, and infectious dis- eases prevalent ; considerable progress has been made in control of malaria. Severe...complete understanding of the Baath, The Ba ’th Party: A History from Its Origins to 1966. In the same genre is Patrick Seale’s The Struggle for Syria. A. L

  5. Use of remote sensing techniques for mitigation and relief action of the main disaster concerns in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, M.

    The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard

  6. [Protokolle der Estländischen Ritterschaft 1914-1920. Bd 1-2] / Mati Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Protokolle der Estländischen Ritterschaft 1914-1920. Bd. 1-2 (Ex fontibus archivi Estoniae, 3). Hrsg. von Thomas Freiherr von Dellingshausen und Henning von Wistingshausen. (Tartu: Eesti Ajalooarhiiv, 2011)

  7. When Empathy Hurts: Modelling University Students' Word of Mouth Behaviour in Public vs. Private Universities in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ali Bassam; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines and compares word of mouth (WOM) behaviour among university students in Syria. To date, little is known about this important phenomenon which is surprising given the deregulated education market in Syria that allows for private universities to compete for students alongside public universities. Using a mixed methods research…

  8. Determination of lead 210 atmospheric fluxes in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shaik Khalil, H.

    2001-01-01

    Lead 210 atmospheric fluxes were determined by collecting 51 profiles from Syrian soil during 1998. Lead 210 fluxes in Syria calculated from lead 210 inventory in soil ranged from 15 Bq.m -2 .y -1 and 407 Bq.m -2 .y -1 with an average value of 128 Bq.m -2 .y -1 . the highest fluxes were found to be in Hama area due to the Gaab fault, which is considered as a radon source in the area. In addition, fluxes were also high in most sites, which are located in Syria valleys and around the lakes. Moreover, the study has indicated that there is no linear relation between lead 210 flux values and other parameters such as annual rainfall and bulk density of the soil. On the other hand, an effect, of those two factors on lead 210 distribution with depth has been observed. In addition, the results of variable lead 210 fluxes from site to another have proved that it is necessary, in order to obtain a representative mean value of lead 210 flux obtained in this study is within the worldwide range for lead 210 flux. (Author)

  9. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  10. Protestant Responses to Darwinism in Denmark, 1859-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The clergyman N.F.S. Grundtvig's followers, who constituted a major fraction within the Danish Evangelical-Lutheran Established Church, were the most vocal Danish commentators on the religious consequences of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution from 1859 to 1914. While evangelicals and high......-churchmen within the church remained critical of evolution throughout the period, the Grundtvigians were divided over the issue. Orthodox Grundtvigians criticized Darwinism on philosophical and biblical grounds, while liberal neo-Grundtvigians came to terms with evolution by combining Grundtvig's critique...

  11. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  12. Mesonero, viajero por Francia y Bélgica (1840-1841

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Rey, Concepción

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soon after his return, the weekly Semanario Pintoresco Español published an account of the trip Mesonero Romanos made across France and Belgium between the years of 1840 and 1841. He shared his experiences in a series of 16 articles that he wrote between the months of April and August of 1841, which he would republish in a single volume shortly afterwards. We can see in his writings the way Mesonero viewed the people and cultures he visited. His work provides numerous comparisons and reflections about Spain; which remained always present in his mind. Readers familiar with Mesonero's writings on Madrid customs and manners may be surprised by his fascination with technical progress and the more advanced aspects of the societies he visited.

    El testimonio del viaje que Mesonero Romanos emprendió por Francia y Bélgica de 1840 a 1841, apareció publicado en el Semanario Pintoresco Español poco después de su regreso. Entre abril y agosto de ese año vertió su experiencia viajera en dieciséis artículos, que muy pronto reeditó reuniéndolos en un volumen. En estos textos descubrimos la mirada con que el autor contempla las sociedades visitadas, en la que está siempre presente España, dando lugar a constantes comparaciones y reflexiones. Para el lector habituado a sus artículos costumbristas madrileños sorprende su fascinación por el progreso técnico y el interés con que supo ver la modernidad de las sociedades visitadas.

  13. Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-06

    23 Appendixes Appendix A. Syrian History and Demographics...the OPCW-UN JIM, and the Secretary General appointed Virginia Gamba of Argentina to head the independent three-member panel that leads the JIM...Syrian History and Demographics Background: Syria, its People, and the Conflict The Syrian Arab Republic emerged as an independent country during the

  14. Natural radioactivity of drinking water in the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria, were collected twice and analyzed for 222 sup Rn, 226 sup Rn, 210 sup Po, and total uranium. the results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. the highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle part of Syria with 113 kBq m - 1 for 222 sup Rn, 350 Bq m - 1 for 226 sup Ra, 8 Bq m - 1 for 210 sup Po, and 350 Bq m - 1 for total uranium. (author). 1 Fig., 2 Tabs., 12 Refs

  15. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  16. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  17. Humanitarian Needs Among Displaced and Female-Headed Households in Government-Controlled Areas of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily

    2017-06-01

    To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.

  18. Radio spectrometric survey of un-surveyed areas in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  19. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  20. Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health Survey, and Lebanon 2004 PAPFAM), we tested the association between cigarette smoking and education and wealth-controlling for age, marital status, and region of residence-for each country, and among men and women depending on data availability. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Arab men is high- 51.3% in Syria, 39.7% in Palestine, and 42.1% in Lebanon; among women, prevalence is 8.4% in Syria, 10.9% in Jordan, and 24.3% Lebanon. Cigarette smoking shows the expected patterns inequalities by education among men in Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, and among women in Jordan and Lebanon. On the other hand, wealth does not show a clear pattern in its association with cigarette smoking and, in some cases (men in Palestine and women in Syria) the behavioral risk is higher among the wealthiest. Available data from 2004-2012 show that cigarette smoking among men and women in the four Arab countries is predominant among those with limited access to education as a fundamental cause. The weak or absent negative association between wealth and cigarette smoking suggests that access to material resources does not precipitate a reduction in the consumption of tobacco.

  1. Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: a preliminary inquiry for The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Fouad M; Sparrow, Annie; Tarakji, Ahmad; Alameddine, Mohamad; El-Jardali, Fadi; Coutts, Adam P; El Arnaout, Nour; Karroum, Lama Bou; Jawad, Mohammed; Roborgh, Sophie; Abbara, Aula; Alhalabi, Fadi; AlMasri, Ibrahim; Jabbour, Samer

    2017-12-02

    The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked. Evidence shows use of this strategy on an unprecedented scale by the Syrian Government and allied forces, in what human rights organisations described as a war-crime strategy, although all parties seem to have committed violations. Attacks on health care have sparked a large-scale exodus of experienced health workers. Formidable challenges face health workers who have stayed behind, and with no health care a major factor in the flight of refugees, the effect extends well beyond Syria. The international community has left these violations of international humanitarian and human rights law largely unanswered, despite their enormous consequences. There have been repudiated denunciations, but little action on bringing the perpetrators to justice. This inadequate response challenges the foundation of medical neutrality needed to sustain the operations of global health and humanitarian agencies in situations of armed conflict. In this Health Policy, we analyse the situation of health workers facing such systematic and serious violations of international humanitarian law. We describe the tremendous pressures that health workers have been under and continue to endure, and the remarkable resilience and resourcefulness they have displayed in response to this crisis. We propose policy imperatives to protect and support health workers working in armed conflict

  2. From the Berlin "ENTWURF" Field Equations to the Einstein Tensor I: October 1914 until Beginning of November 1915

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    I discuss Albert Einstein's 1914 review paper, "The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" from two points of view: the main elements in the paper that appear to have led to the downfall of the Einstein-Grossman theory; and the elements that seem to have inspired Einstein during October 1915 to reformulate the 1914 Einstein-Grossmann theory in the form of the November 1915 and the 1916 General Theory of Relativity. First paper among three papers.

  3. Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore

  4. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Injuries in Aleppo, Syria; first population-based estimates and characterization of predominant types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing burden of injuries worldwide, Syria and many other Arab countries still lack population-based estimates of different types of injuries. This study aims toprovide first population-based estimates of major injuries in Syria and characterize groups at increased risk. Methods An interviewer-administered population-based survey of adults 18–65 years residing in Aleppo, Syria was conducted in 2004. The study sample involved 2038 household representatives in Aleppo (45.2% men, mean age 35.3 ± 12.1, response rate 86%. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past year that required medical attention as well as injuries among their household members. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to type, place, and outcome. Results Overall, there was 153 self-reported injuries in the past year (77.3 per 1000 adult respondents, 93.1 per 1000 in men and 64.4 per 1000 in women, p = 0.02. Other than gender, injuries differed by age (the older age group being least affected, and place of occurrence, as men were more likely to sustain traffic injuries and be injured outside the home. Injuries were reported among 236 household members (21.0 per 1000, and were slightly more frequent in children than adults (22.0 per 1000 for children, and 19.7 per 1000 for adults, p = 0.2. Traffic injuries, falls, and poisoning (food were by far the most common types of injury experienced by participants as well as their household members. Falls and traffic injuries seem to have caused most morbidity for the injured, while burns, although not frequently reported, were associated with an unfavorable outcome in the majority of cases. Conclusion This information provides baseline information about the burden of different injuries in Syria, and the sociodemographic factors related to them.

  6. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  7. Natural radioactivity of drinking water on the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-05-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major drinking water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria were collected twice and analyzed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 210 Po and total uranium. Also all samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, physical properties and Hardness. The results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. The highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle par of Syria with 113 Kb.m -3 for 222 Rn, 350 Bq.m -3 for 226 Ra, 8 Bq.m -3 for 210 Po and 350 Bq.m -3 for total uranium. (author). 6 tabs

  8. Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

  9. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli in Syria: Attacking Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    known book The Prince , but also his lesser read work The Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu’s The Art of War). Machiavelli understood the...Tzu located in Yurihama, Japan. Public domain photo. Right: Statue of Italian philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli located in Florence... Machiavelli , juxtaposed to the normative trend the West has followed ever so ineffectually since the conflict began in Syria. Let me be clear upfront; this

  10. Detection of Listeria in raw milk in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Abou-Younes, A.

    2010-01-01

    The 66 milk collected from all province of Syria, were examined for the presence of Listeria sp. using a several technique, and L. monocytogenes serotypes associated with human listeriosis were also identified in the product. The PCR based method identified 117 strains of Listeria, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. gravi, and L. welshimeri. The API Listeria system identified 94% of the isolates whereas FTIR identification was 98% for all Listeria species. (author)

  11. Od atentata do rata. Konstruisanje rata Austro-Ugarske sa Srbijom 28. jun - 28. jul 1914.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilo Pavlović

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the political events between the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28th June 1914 until the dispatch of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia on 25th July 1914. In this period a military action against Serbia was prepared. After the assassination, special editions of Viennese newspapers were released on the afternoon of 28th June 1914. The titles emphasized that the assassins were Serbs; Moreover, the journalist claims were such that the impression was created that the assassins were from Serbia. The whole event was explained as the plot with the Kingdom of Serbia behind it. Two circumstances were emphasized: (1 both of the assassins visited Belgrade earlier, and (2 the Serbian origin of the bombs. Aside from small exceptions the whole press in the AustroHungarian Empire asked immediate declaration of the war on Serbia. The idea of "construction a war against Serbia" appeared immediately in Vienna already on 29th June 1914. This idea prevailed in official circles and became fully created on following day, on charges that "widely ramified conspiracy” was hatched in Belgrade. Having received the support for military action from the Germany on 5th July, the Austro-Hungary decided to send an ultimatum to Serbia already on 7th July 1914. It was "formulated with sufficient clarity that must be rejected." At a meeting of the Viennese political and military leadership on 14th July, it was decided that the Council of Ministers review and approve the draft of the ultimatum on 19th July, but to deliver it to the Belgrade government on the 23rd July. The schedule of delivery was planned to follow the end of the visit of French President to Russia. The Austro-Hungarian plan was to organize the local war on Serbia, without entering of other European Great Powers. It proved that this expectation was a fatal mistake. Despite the absence of the evidences, which were needed to prove involvement of the Serbian government in

  12. Not so coarse, nor always plain - the earliest pottery of Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P.; Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    The site of Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria offers a superb stratified sequence passing, from the aceramic (pre-pottery) to pottery-using Neolithic around 7000 BC Surprisingly the first pottery arrives fully developed with mineral tempering, burnishing and stripey decoration in painted slip. The expected,

  13. Iraq 2003-4 and Mesopotamia 1914-18: A Comparative Analysis in Ends and Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scudieri, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the linkage between strategic ends with operational ways and means of the current operation in Iraq in 2003-4 and the British campaign in Mesopotamia in 1914-18...

  14. Law and Order in the Classroom: Reconsidering "A Course on Citizenship," 1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the tension between social control and democratic participation in the first American peace education curriculum, "A Course in Citizenship" (1914). Previously, this "Course" has been read as a case study of progressive era peace education, during which the call to teach democratically increased in volume. Building on this…

  15. Mariann Lewinsky (Hg.: Cento Anni Fa. Attrici Comiche E Suffragette 1910–1914/Comic Actresses And Suffragettes 1910–1914. Bologna: Edizioni Cinemateca di Bologna 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dellmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese DVD stellt 19 kurze Komödien aus den Jahren 1910 bis 1914 zusammen. Das noch junge Genre der Komödie, so die Kuratorin Mariann Lewinsky, war innerhalb der Filmproduktion das entscheidende Terrain der Auseinandersetzungen um Geschlechterrollen. In den Filmen werden Komikerinnen gezeigt, die mit traditionellen Geschlechterrollen brechen und den Handlungsraum von Frauen erweitern. Ein Kapitel ist den Suffragetten gewidmet, hier findet sich auch dokumentarisches Filmmaterial der Zeit. Im beigefügten Booklet werden die Filme mittels feministischer Theorien zum (Frühen Kino in die Filmgeschichte eingeordnet, eine Verknüpfung mit den politischen Ereignissen der Zeitgeschichte wird leider nicht vorgenommen.This DVD is a collection of 19 short comedies from 1910 to 1914. According to the curator Mariann Lewinsky, the still young comedy genre was the central venue for discussions about gender roles in film production. The movies show female comedians who challenge traditional gender roles and broaden women’s space of action. One chapter, which also contains documentary footage, is dedicated to the suffragettes. Using feminist theories on (early film, the included booklet integrates the movies into cinematic history, unfortunately without connecting them to the political events of contemporary history.

  16. Anthropogenic Origin of Siliceous Scoria Droplets from Pleistocene and Holocene Archeaological Sites in Northern Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry

    2015-01-01

    Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The !ndi......Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event...

  17. Regulatory control in the rehabilitation of contaminated sites in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)

  18. Improvement of wood quality used in Syria by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarji, E. H.

    2002-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, and with Okoume (aucoumea klaineana pierre) imported to Syria in large quantities. Three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene were used. polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) to study the role of radiation doses using a 60 Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength or tensile strength of the obtained wood polymer composites (WPC) were studied. The effect of the additives, sulfuric acid (H + ), N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), trimethyolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), urea (U), lithium nitrate (LiNo 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and co-additives on monomer system polymerization were also investigated. Methanol, water and water/methanol mixtures were used as the swelling agents. In general, the use of additives and co-additives brought about an enhancement of tensile strength or compression strength and polymer loading of the composites. In some cases, additives also lowered the monomer concentration and the gamma radiation dose required for polymerization (author)

  19. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Syrian energy infrastructure will not be cost effective in the current oil pricing environment. I will present a quick overview of oil’s historic role...in the Syrian economy, followed by a synopsis of the current state of Syria’s oil infrastructure . An analysis of the impact of low oil prices on...similarities between countries, a specific comparison will be made to Yemen in an effort to predict the challenges that Syria will face when entering the

  20. Geophysical survey at archaeological sites in northeastern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...

  1. Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    the export of liquid petroleum gas ( LPG ) to Syria, since it is widely used by ordinary households for heating and cooking. Since new sanctions were...chemical weapons program suggests that nerve gas and mustard gas production and storage infrastructure is concentrated at facilities in and around Al...population). They inhabit agriculturally rich areas, which also contain several of Syria’s most valuable oil and natural gas fields. In an attempt to

  2. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    56 According to Chris Looney, writing for Syria Comment: Its hostility towards minority groups, draconian legal system, and brutal repression of...Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, DC. Higgins , Eliot. Brown Moses blog, brown-moses.blogspot.com/. Institute for the Study of War, Washington...syrian-war/. 57. See www.joshualandis.com/blog/al-qaedas-governance-strate- gy-raqqa- chris -looney/. 58. Norman Benotman and Roisin Blake, Jabat al-Nusra

  3. Results of a Nationwide Capacity Survey of Hospitals Providing Trauma Care in War-Affected Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Hariri, Mahmoud; Alnahhas, Houssam; Ludwig, Elizabeth; Allodami, Tammam; Mahameed, Bahaa; Koly, Jamal Kaby; Aldbis, Ahmed; Saqqur, Maher; Zhang, Baobao; Al-Kassem, Anas

    2016-09-01

    The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas. Identification and geocoding of trauma and essential surgical services in Syria. Although 86 hospitals (91%) reported capacity to perform emergency surgery, 1 in 6 hospitals (16%) reported having no inpatient ward for patients after surgery. Sixty-three hospitals (70%) could transfuse whole blood but only 7 (7.4%) could separate and bank blood products. Seventy-one hospitals (76%) had any pharmacy services. Only 10 (11%) could provide renal replacement therapy, and only 18 (20%) provided any form of rehabilitative services. Syrian hospitals are isolated, with 24 (26%) relying on smuggling routes to refer patients to other hospitals and 47 hospitals (50%) reporting domestic supply lines that were never open or open less than daily. There were 538 surgeons, 378 physicians, and 1444 nurses identified in this survey, yielding a nurse to physician ratio of 1.8:1. Only 74 hospitals (79%) reported any salary support for staff, and 84 (89%) reported material support. There is an unmet need for biomedical engineering support in Syrian trauma hospitals, with 12 fixed x-ray machines (23%), 11 portable x-ray machines (13%), 13 computed tomographic scanners (22%), 21 adult (21%) and 5 pediatric (19%) ventilators, 14 anesthesia machines (10%), and 116 oxygen cylinders (15%) not functional. No functioning computed tomographic scanners remain in Aleppo, and 95 oxygen cylinders (42

  4. Differences in resource management affects drought vulnerability across the borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Eklund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much discussion has taken place exploring a potential connection between the 2007-2009 Fertile Crescent drought and Syria's uprising-turned civil war beginning in 2011. This study takes an integrated perspective on the 2007-2009 drought in the border region of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey by looking at the meteorological, agricultural, and socioeconomic aspects of drought vulnerability. Satellite-based precipitation and vegetation data help outline the drought's spatial and temporal properties. In order to understand the context in which this drought happened, we also look at the trends in vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015, as well as each country's different politico-economic factors affecting land and water resource management leading up to the drought. The findings show that, although the drought was severe in Syria, it was not the only country affected, nor necessarily the worst hit meteorologically. The agricultural drought lasted 2 yr in most affected areas on the Iraqi and Syrian sides, however, only 1 yr in the affected areas on the Turkish side. The vegetation trend analysis shows a striking difference between the Syrian and Turkish sides of the border. Turkey experienced a general improvement in land productivity between 2001 and 2015, whereas Iraq and Syria show a generally negative productivity trend. The fact that the decline in rainfall had different effects on crops in each of the three countries highlights the role government and private sector resource management and infrastructure play in reducing drought vulnerability. The findings of this study highlight the need for an integrated approach to research that investigates the interconnection between climate and conflict.

  5. The Komedi Bioscoop : The Emergence of Movie-going in Colonial Indonesia, 1896-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruppin, D.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation traces the emergence of a local culture of movie-going in the Netherlands Indies (present-day Indonesia) from 1896 until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. It outlines the introduction of the new technology by independent touring exhibitors, the constitution of a market

  6. Abrupt treatments of hysteria during World War I, 1914-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Ad Sandy

    2018-06-01

    Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases.

  7. [French military nurses during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julien; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tabbagh, Xavier; Olier, François

    2014-06-01

    In 1914, beingthe heirs of the ambulance soldiers who had been created during the time of the Empire, the military males-nurses were overwhelmed by the armies huge needs in paramedics. Facing both the callings of commandment which demanded the recruitment of soldiers and the necessity--which had been set up as a duty by the health service--to attend the doctors, the military male-nurse gave way, in 1918 to a new comer: the female military nurse.

  8. Syria: a waited petroleum production of 600 000 barrels per day for the end of 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs

  9. La reforma contencioso administrativa de 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Naranjo-Galves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo estudia la Ley 60 de 1914, orgánica del Consejo de Estado, que restableció esa institución (suprimida en abril de 1905, otorgándole la condición de cabeza a la Jurisdicción de lo Contencioso Administrativo, que había sido creada por la Ley 130 de 1913 en cumplimiento, a su vez, de lo ordenado en la Reforma Constitucional de 1910 (Acto Legislativo No. 3. El estudio de la reforma y de sus antecedentes permite concluir que fue la expresión de un proceso político, en virtud del cual se perfeccionaron los instrumentos de control sobre el ejecutivo, proceso logrado gracias al entendimiento  de los personajes  más inteligentes y menos sectarios  de los dos partidos.

  10. El premio Nobel de la Paz 1901-1914. Voluntad o interés

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández García, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Los primeros premios Nobel de la Paz, (al igual que los otros premios Nobel), se concedieron en diciembre de 1901, entre esa fecha y el inicio de la I Guerra Mundial en 1914, el premio se consolida, igualmente se sientan las bases de lo que será en el fu

  11. Mariann Lewinsky (Hg.): Cento Anni Fa. Attrici Comiche E Suffragette 1910–1914/Comic Actresses And Suffragettes 1910–1914. Bologna: Edizioni Cinemateca di Bologna 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Dellmann

    2011-01-01

    Diese DVD stellt 19 kurze Komödien aus den Jahren 1910 bis 1914 zusammen. Das noch junge Genre der Komödie, so die Kuratorin Mariann Lewinsky, war innerhalb der Filmproduktion das entscheidende Terrain der Auseinandersetzungen um Geschlechterrollen. In den Filmen werden Komikerinnen gezeigt, die mit traditionellen Geschlechterrollen brechen und den Handlungsraum von Frauen erweitern. Ein Kapitel ist den Suffragetten gewidmet, hier findet sich auch dokumentarisches Filmmaterial der Zeit. Im be...

  12. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2008-01-01

    13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)

  13. Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    enforcement of human rights could prevent authoritarian governments from hurting their own populations. On the other hand, the violent protests in Syria...humanitarian intervention in its current form because it "reinforces authoritarianism , hard sovereignty, [and] militarization.൩ Furthermore, he asks...December 2011), p. 48. 78 Philip Cunliffe, Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ’responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies (2010

  14. De Leidse fabriekskinderen. Kinderarbeid, industrialisatie en samenleving in een Hollandse stad, 1800-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is a case study into the development of child labor in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century (up to 1914), focusing on Leiden. Child labor in this study is defined as the market-orientated production of goods and services by people under the age of sixteen years. Concentrating on one

  15. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  17. Dealing with risk: Underwriting sovereign bond issues in London 1870-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Anders L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the records of several leading 19th century issuing houses, this paper analyses the transformation of underwriting practices in London's primary sovereign bond market from 1870 to 1914. It shows how underwriting risk developed from being a liability, which market intermediaries sought to avoid, to becoming a valuable financial commodity. The impetus for this development was increased competition in the loan business from the 1880s onwards, which weakened the negotiating position of issu...

  18. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  19. The 'Naturals' and Victorian Cambridge: Reflections on the Anatomy of an Elite, 1851-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Roy; Moseley, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Explores how graduates of Cambridge University from 1851-1914 contributed expertise gained during their university years to British society, particularly the public sector in which they occupied many important positions. The term 'Naturals' refers to those who passed final exams in natural sciences and mathematics at Cambridge. (Author/DB)

  20. Rethinking therapeutic decisions for hepatitis B infection in Syria: insights into molecular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2012-10-19

    Hepatitis B virus patients are usually treated in Syria with alpha interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Genotypic viral factors causing inadequate response or relapse following initial response are not routinely investigated. This study aimed to explore and discuss local therapeutic decisions from a molecular perspective. Fifty patients with hepatitis B from Syria were tested for HBV genotyping and drug-resistance mutations by DNA sequencing. All patients had genotype D, which is characterized by relatively low response to interferon-based therapy. Drug-resistant viral mutant variants were detected in one fifth of the enrolled patients, and distributed similarly in both nucleos(t)ide analogues-naïve and -treated patients. However, nucleos(t)ide analogues-based therapy was associated with the existence of more mutations and hence increased resistance. Investigating HBV genotypes and drug-resistance mutations to support treatment decisions is critically needed for efficient therapy and patients' survival.

  1. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  2. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. The large earthquake on 29 June 1170 (Syria, Lebanon, and central southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Bernardini, Filippo; Comastri, Alberto; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    On 29 June 1170 a large earthquake hit a vast area in the Near Eastern Mediterranean, comprising the present-day territories of western Syria, central southern Turkey, and Lebanon. Although this was one of the strongest seismic events ever to hit Syria, so far no in-depth or specific studies have been available. Furthermore, the seismological literature (from 1979 until 2000) only elaborated a partial summary of it, mainly based solely on Arabic sources. The major effects area was very partial, making the derived seismic parameters unreliable. This earthquake is in actual fact one of the most highly documented events of the medieval Mediterranean. This is due to both the particular historical period in which it had occurred (between the second and the third Crusades) and the presence of the Latin states in the territory of Syria. Some 50 historical sources, written in eight different languages, have been analyzed: Latin (major contributions), Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, Greek, Hebrew, Vulgar French, and Italian. A critical analysis of this extraordinary body of historical information has allowed us to obtain data on the effects of the earthquake at 29 locations, 16 of which were unknown in the previous scientific literature. As regards the seismic dynamics, this study has set itself the question of whether there was just one or more than one strong earthquake. In the former case, the parameters (Me 7.7 ± 0.22, epicenter, and fault length 126.2 km) were calculated. Some hypotheses are outlined concerning the seismogenic zones involved.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Some Capparis L. Species Growing in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Al- Safadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the genetic diversity and relationships among Capparis species growing in Syria using IRAP and ISSR techniques. Forty-seven samples of three Capparis species genotypes were collected from 21 different locations in Syria. The genotypes were morphologically identified based on the descriptions available in the literature. When IRAP technique was used, an average of 71.5% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic compared to 82.04% in ISSR. Morphological characterization along with the cluster and PCoA analyses of the data divided the studied genotypes into three groups. The groups included genotypes identified as Capparis spinosa L, C. sicula Duh., and C. aegyptia Lam. Based on the morphological description, molecular studies and statistical analyses of this study, C. aegyptia could be suggested as a separate species and not a varietal rank of C. spinosa(C. spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.. Two samples (Alep1 and Idl were not placed in any of the three distinctive groups, despite their closeness morphologically to C. spinosa. In PCoA analysis, sample Alep1 came between C. sicula and C. spinosa and Idl was placed between C. sicula and C. aegyptia. Although hybridization between Capparis species could occur, it was not clear from the present study if these two genotypes were hybrids.

  5. A series of civilian fatalities during the war in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.

  6. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  7. Neurology, poetry and the first world war of 1914-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Thorpe, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The First World War of 1914-1918 produced a wealth of disability and death and much has been written of this catastrophe for mankind. Prose is prolific and much poetry has been written too, some of it discussed here; it consists of works by healthcare workers and also about the effects of the war upon those who fought and those who were left behind. Some of the work is by neurologists and some deals with the neurological disorders of those who fought. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  9. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  10. The discovery of the most distant known type Ia supernova at redshift 1.914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Dennis; Rodney, S.A.; Riess, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift z = 1.914 from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify t...

  11. Embriaguez y hacienda pública en Guatemala, 1840-1865: entre la moral decimonónica y los ingresos fiscales / Drunkenness and public finances in Guatemala, 1840-1865: between the nineteenth-century morals and tax revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia González Sandoval

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En los años 1840-1865, el abordaje gubernamental del consumo de bebidas embriagantes transitó desde una perspectiva en que predominaba la visión de la moral pública, escandalizada por los excesos en la embriaguez, hacia otra en la que se impuso la necesidad de maximizar los ingresos fiscales derivados de la fabricación y venta de aguardiente y chicha. Este giro tiene como telón de fondo el tránsito del monopolio estatal de ambas bebidas al ámbito privado y la defensa que los pueblos de indios hicieron de su consumo, en un momento de transición social y económica hacia el Estado agroexportador cafetalero.Between the years 1840-1865, the Guatemalan Government approach concerning the consumption of alcoholic beverages changed from a perspective in which public morality was predominant to one in which the need of maximizing tax revenues from the manufacture and sale of hard liquor and chicha prevailed over. This shift has as background the change from the State monopoly to the private monopoly and the defense that indigenous towns made of the alcoholic beverages consumption, at a time of social and economic transition to the coffee-producing State.

  12. Sibling Position and Marriage Timing in the Netherlands, 1840-1922: A Comparison across Social Classes, Local Contexts, and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Bras, H.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effects of sibling position on marriage timing has produced ambivalent findings, suggesting that birth order effects were contingent on social, local, and historical contexts. Based on a large database of marriage certificates from five Dutch provinces between 1840 and 1922, we

  13. Predictors of adherence to pharmacological and behavioral treatment in a cessation trial among smokers in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Ward, Kenneth D; Asfar, Taghrid; Bahelah, Raed; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    The development of evidence-based smoking cessation programs is in its infancy in developing countries, which continue to bear the main brunt of the tobacco epidemic. Adherence to treatment recommendations is an important determinant of the success of smoking cessation programs, but little is known about factors influencing adherence to either pharmacological or behavioral treatment in developing countries settings. Our study represents the first attempt to examine the predictors of adherence to cessation treatment in a low-income developing country. Predictors of adherence to pharmacological and behavioral treatment were identified by analyzing data from a multi-site, two-group, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial in primary care clinics in Aleppo, Syria. Participants received 3 in-person behavioral counseling sessions plus 5 brief follow-up phone counseling sessions, and were randomized to either 6 weeks of nicotine or placebo patch. Of the 269 participants, 68% adhered to pharmacological treatment, while 70% adhered to behavioral counseling. In logistic regression modeling, lower adherence to pharmacological and behavioral treatment was associated with higher daily smoking at baseline, greater withdrawal symptoms, and perception of receiving placebo instead of active nicotine patch. Women showed lower adherence than men to behavioral treatment, while being assigned to placebo condition and baseline waterpipe use were associated with lower adherence to pharmacological treatment. Adherence to cessation treatment for cigarette smokers in low-income countries such as Syria may benefit from integrated cessation components that provide intensive treatment for subjects with higher nicotine dependence, and address concurrent waterpipe use at all stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  15. Bayesian estimation of shrubs diversity in rangelands under two management systems in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Singh, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of shrubs in rangelands of northern Syria is affected by the grazing management systems restricted by the increase in human and livestock populations. To describe and estimate diversity and compare the rangeland grazing management treatments, two popular indices for diversity, the

  16. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)

  17. ALS5/SPG11/ KIAA1840 mutations cause autosomal recessive axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchiani, Celeste; Pedace, Lucia; Lo Giudice, Temistocle; Casella, Antonella; Mearini, Marzia; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Pedroso, José L.; Terracciano, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Massa, Roberto; St George-Hyslop, Peter H.; Barsottini, Orlando G. P.; Kawarai, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes. Hundreds of causative DNA changes have been found, but much of the genetic basis of the disease is still unexplained. Mutations in the ALS5/SPG11/ KIAA1840 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and peripheral axonal neuropathy, and account for ∼40% of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The overlap of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease with both diseases, as well as the common autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of thin corpus callosum and axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease in three related patients, prompted us to analyse the ALS5/SPG11/ KIAA1840 gene in affected individuals with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. Besides, we screened for all the known genes related to axonal autosomal recessive Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2A2/HMSN2A2/ MFN2 , CMT2B1/ LMNA , CMT2B2/ MED25 , CMT2B5/ NEFL , ARCMT2F/dHMN2B/ HSPB1 , CMT2K/ GDAP1 , CMT2P/ LRSAM1 , CMT2R/ TRIM2 , CMT2S/ IGHMBP2 , CMT2T/ HSJ1 , CMTRID/ COX6A1 , ARAN-NM/ HINT and GAN/ GAN ), for the genes related to autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and axonal peripheral neuropathy (SPG7/ PGN , SPG15/ ZFYVE26, SPG21/ ACP33 , SPG35/ FA2H , SPG46/ GBA2 , SPG55/ C12orf65 and SPG56/ CYP2U1 ), as well as for the causative gene of peripheral neuropathy with or without agenesis of the corpus callosum ( SLC12A6 ) . Mitochondrial disorders related to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2 were also excluded by sequencing POLG and

  18. ALS5/SPG11/KIAA1840 mutations cause autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchiani, Celeste; Pedace, Lucia; Lo Giudice, Temistocle; Casella, Antonella; Mearini, Marzia; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Pedroso, José L; Terracciano, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Massa, Roberto; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Barsottini, Orlando G P; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Orlacchio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes. Hundreds of causative DNA changes have been found, but much of the genetic basis of the disease is still unexplained. Mutations in the ALS5/SPG11/KIAA1840 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and peripheral axonal neuropathy, and account for ∼ 40% of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The overlap of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with both diseases, as well as the common autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of thin corpus callosum and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in three related patients, prompted us to analyse the ALS5/SPG11/KIAA1840 gene in affected individuals with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. Besides, we screened for all the known genes related to axonal autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2A2/HMSN2A2/MFN2, CMT2B1/LMNA, CMT2B2/MED25, CMT2B5/NEFL, ARCMT2F/dHMN2B/HSPB1, CMT2K/GDAP1, CMT2P/LRSAM1, CMT2R/TRIM2, CMT2S/IGHMBP2, CMT2T/HSJ1, CMTRID/COX6A1, ARAN-NM/HINT and GAN/GAN), for the genes related to autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and axonal peripheral neuropathy (SPG7/PGN, SPG15/ZFYVE26, SPG21/ACP33, SPG35/FA2H, SPG46/GBA2, SPG55/C12orf65 and SPG56/CYP2U1), as well as for the causative gene of peripheral neuropathy with or without agenesis of the corpus callosum (SLC12A6). Mitochondrial disorders related to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 were also excluded by sequencing POLG and TYMP genes. An additional locus for autosomal recessive Charcot

  19. Genetic differentiation in Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia as assessed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Murad, S; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the level of genetic differentiation and diversity among Pyrenophora teres isolate populations originating from different agro-ecological areas of Syria and Tunisia and to determine the potential of AFLP profiling in genotyping Pyrenophora teres f. teres. In this study, AFLP markers have been employed to identify patterns of population structure in 20 Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia. Ninety-four isolates were studied by the use of a protocol that involved stringent PCR amplification of fragments derived from digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes EcoRI and MesI. Based on 401 amplified polymorphic DNA markers (AFLP), variance analyses indicated that most of the variation was partitioned within rather than between populations. Genotypic diversity (GD) was high for populations from Rihane, local landraces and different agro-ecological zones (GD = 0·75-0·86). There was high genetic differentiation among pathogen populations from different host populations in Syria (Gst  = 0·31, ht = 0·190) and Tunisia (Gst  = 0·39, ht = 0·263), which may be partly explained by the low gene flow around the areas sampled. A phenetic tree revealed three groups with high bootstrap values (55, 68, 76) and reflected the grouping of isolates based on host, or agro-ecological areas. AFLP profiling is an effective method for typing the genetically diverse pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres. The study represents a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity in P. teres isolates from two countries spanning two continents and also shows that several distinct P. teres genotypes may be found in a given environment. The implications of these findings for Pyrenophora teres f. teres evolutionary potential and net blotch-resistance breeding in Syria and Tunisia were also discussed. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A True Proteus: A history of energy conservation in German science and culture, 1847-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener, F.D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis follows the career of the law of energy conservation in German science and culture between 1847 and 1914. There is an interesting contrast between the initial reception of Hermann Helmholtz’ 1847 treatise ‘Über die Erhaltung der Kraft’, which was rejected by the editor of the Annalen der

  1. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East. In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (pSyria when compared to other nationalities of asylum seekers from the Middle East.

  2. A possible "grinder" from Tell Arbid, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.

  3. Counting The Cats In Zanzibar: American Travel Abroad in American Travel Writing to 1914 Counting The Cats In Zanzibar: American Travel Abroad in American Travel Writing to 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Caesar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1914 Josiah Royce began his address to a scientific gathering by comparing philosophy to "a sort of Cook's bureau." "Its servants," Royce continued, "are taught to speak various languages -- all of them ill -- and to know little of the inner life of the numerous foreign lands to which they guide their feet, or check the luggage of their fellow men." Yet these agents have their use, Royce concluded, "if new comparative studies of ideas of various and widely sundered provinces of research are to be carried out at all," and he bid his listeners to regard him, "if you wish to vary the name, as representing some bureau of university travel." In 1914 Josiah Royce began his address to a scientific gathering by comparing philosophy to "a sort of Cook's bureau." "Its servants," Royce continued, "are taught to speak various languages -- all of them ill -- and to know little of the inner life of the numerous foreign lands to which they guide their feet, or check the luggage of their fellow men." Yet these agents have their use, Royce concluded, "if new comparative studies of ideas of various and widely sundered provinces of research are to be carried out at all," and he bid his listeners to regard him, "if you wish to vary the name, as representing some bureau of university travel."

  4. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Analytical investigations of cooking pottery from Tell Beydar (NE-Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekmans, T.; Adriaens, A.; Pantos, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of a technological and socio-economical study of pottery production in Tell Beydar (NE-Syria) during the third millennium BC, the chemical composition and mineralogy of cooking pottery from that site has been studied using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction by means of synchrotron radiation (SR-XRD). The obtained data were used to make inferences concerning the pottery's technology, such as clay preparation and firing techniques

  6. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  7. The correlations between Radon in soil gas and its exhalation and concentration in air in the southern part of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Hushari, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the concentration of the radon ( 222 Rn) in soil air, 222 Rn exhalation from soil and 222 Rn in outdoor air which may have great influence on 222 Rn levels in houses. 222 Ra activity concentrations were also determined in soil samples. The studied areas are located in southern part of Syria. The common bed rock of this area is black and massive granite which are poor in uranium content [Jubeli Y.M., 1990. Uranium exploration in Syria. Internal Technical Report, vol. 1 (in English), vol. 2 (in Arabic), SAEC, Damascus; Technoexport (USSR), 1966. In: Ponikarov (Ed.), The Geological Map of Syria Scale: 1:200.000, Ministry of Industry, Damascus, Syria]. Results showed that the maximum measurement in all areas was 32500Bqm -3 in soil air with an exhalation rate of 9Bqm -2 s -1 in Darra region and 66.43Bqm -3 of radon in open air, with 77Bqkg -1 of radium content in soil (Damascus suburb). In addition, correlations between Rn in soil and exhalation of Radon from soil and radon in houses were found in some areas (Sweda and Darra), while, no correlations were found in other studied areas. Moreover, no correlation between radon in houses and radon measurements in soil and in outdoors were found. This was attributed to the methodology used and the influence of building design and inhabitants behavior

  8. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness,

    species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed

    longevity, rangeland management, Syria.

    Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid

  9. [Medical photography and cinematography before 1914: privileged rapport with the neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M G

    2000-01-01

    Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, professor at the Université catholique de Louvain, was an enthusiastic user of photography and a pioneer of medical cinematography. He used these techniques widely in order to illustrate his lectures, papers and his neurological textbook. His films and photographic plates are at the present time being studied and restored. The nitrate films are the oldest belgian films surviving. Neuroscientists have played a major role in the development of medical photography and cinematography and in the use of these techniques for clinical, research or didactic purposes.

  10. MENUJU DIALOG ISLAM – KRISTEN: PERJUMPAAN GEREJA ORTODOKS SYRIA DENGAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Arifin

    2012-05-01

    Konflik antara Kristen dengan Islam tampil dalam sejarah agama. Karena memiliki sumber asal yang sama, kedua agama selalu terlibat dalam kontak ke­kerasan. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengkaji secara mendalam geraja orthodoks Syria dan ditemukan akan adanya akar yang sama dengan Islam. Ditemukan pula adanya paralelisasi dalam aspek teologinya, khususnya pe­laksana­an kewajiban agama. Data yang didapatkan menunjukkan arti penting dalam pengembangan dialog antara Islam dengan Kristen

  11. The Source of Solar Energy, ca. 1840-1910: From Meteoric Hypothesis to Radioactive Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J. R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-h...

  12. 50-dinar banknote from 1914: From an ugly duckling to a swan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the session of the National Bank's Board of Directors, held on 12 December 1914 in Niš, the Governor, Georg Weifert, in his address, gave the consent to issue the new type of a 50-dinar banknote in silver, which had already been sent to the Banque de France in Paris for printing. It was at this session that the closer details about this banknote were disclosed: it was to be painted by Beta Vukanović, and to be printed in the still unspecified amount, with the first delivery of 100,000 pieces planned for 2 January 1915. The first batch of the 50-dinar banknotes bearing the date of 1 August 1914 was received at the National Bank in Kruševac in the first half of March 1915. It remained in circulation from 25 March 1915 officially until 31 March 1934. There was a total of 1,025,000 printed pieces in the nominal value of 51,250,000 dinars, without a single recorded counterfeit copy. This war banknote was, however, short-lived. Prepared hastily with some mistakes in the inscription, it was met with a surprisingly huge opposition among the people who nicknamed it pegavac (spotted fever, which is why the National Bank immediately stopped its further releases into circulation. Thus, it was actually withdrawn from circulation already in 1915.

  13. Mobilizacija ljudi, konja, stoke i prijevoznih sredstava u Dubrovačkom kotaru 1914.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tado Oršolić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the proclamation of a state of war in 1914, general mobilisation was carried out in the Dubrovnik District which, besides the military forces and conscripted soldiers, included logistic support and supplies without which the troops could not act efficiently in long-term war operations. This article is based on the archival sources housed in the State Archives of Zadar, in the archival fond Tajni spisi c. k. Dalmatinskog Namjesništva (1814-1918.The bulk of the material pertains to the mobilisation of the Home Guard (Landsturm, volunteers, horses, cattle and vehicles (carriages, wagons, motor vehicles in the District of Dubrovnik during 1914. Having analysed the documents from the mentioned fond, the authors have reconstructed the mobilisation procedure in the municipalities of the District of Dubrovnik which, like in the rest of the Austrian provinces, was carried out according to the Military Law of the Dual Monarchy, in that the civil authorities of the district and the municipality showed utmost strictness in performing the tasks dictated by the military authorities. The analysis of archival sources casts light on various social and economic features of the District of Dubrovnik on the eve of World War I, providing a specific inventory of cattle, horses, motor vehicles, and other means of transport.

  14. A century later the Manipur Argus Callerebia suroia Tytler, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae recorded in its type locality in Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the sighting of Callerebia suroia Tytler, 1914 at Shirui Kashong Peak, Ukhrul District which confirms the continued presence of the species in Manipur State, India.  The butterfly was sighted on 13 July 2016 near the footpath leading to the summit at an altitude of 2,330m.  Callerebia suroia Tytler, 1914 is protected under Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972.  The sighting of such very rare species in Manipur after a decade shows that more surveys are needed in the hills and valleys of Manipur to determine the butterfly fauna of the region.

  15. Note sur l'histoire démographique de Douelle (Lot) 1676-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Fourastié

    1986-01-01

    Fourastié Jean. ? Note on the demographic history of Douelle (Lot) 1676-1914. This article summarizes the demographic data contained in a book about the village of Douelle in the department of the Lot. Both family reconstitution and genealogies have been used to ascertain the major demographic characteristics of this region during the 17th and 18th centuries : a high rate of endogamous marriages, few remarriages, declining birth rates before the Revolution, a very low number of illegitimate b...

  16. International legal problem in combating 'Islamic State' terrorist group in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' (ISIS has occupied parts of internationally recognized states and exerts further territorial pretensions. ISIS, also, implements a repressive rule, through violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which may constitute international crimes. In facing the threat od ISIS, the perception of international terrorism is important since this group has the features of a territorial entity. So far, facing with the threat of ISIS has been reduced to a model that is adopted by the UN Security Council against the terrorist network Al-Qaida. An international coalition of states, led by the United States, has undertaken air strikes on positions ISIS, on several grounds: the responsibility to protect, the protection of national security, and at the request of Iraq. At the same time, the strikes are applied in Syria, which can not be accountable for the actions of ISIS and has not requested international assistance. International law does not allow actions which would aim to destroy or jeopardize the territorial integrity or political independence of any sovereign and independent state, which is acting in accordance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and is hence governed by a representative government. The UNSC resolution 2249 remains short of recommending international armed action under the aegis of UNSC, but represents a step forward in recognizing the responsibility of this body in facing ISIS, at least as far as the 'destruction of refuge' is concerned. The use of force in the territory of Syria, without the express authorization of the UNSC is illegal, because terrorism does not constitute grounds for the use of force against countries. But, it opens broader issues of responsibility for the development of ISIS and the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East, as well as the functioning of the system of collective security. Overcoming the current crisis UNSC implies not just a

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 108/158 Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a case control study in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Ghabreau, Lina; Mohamed, Ali; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Alachkar, Amal

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catechol estrogens by methylation and thus may play a protective role against mutations induced by estrogen metabolites. In this study we investigated the relationship between the Vall58Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Syria. We examined 135 breast cancer patients and 107 healthy controls in North Syria to determine the association between the functional genetic Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and female breast cancer risk. There was no significant overall association between the COMT genotype and individual susceptibility to breast cancer. Our data suggest that there may be no overall association between the COMT genotype and breast cancer.

  18. From Metric Image Archives to Point Cloud Reconstruction: Case Study of the Great Mosque of Aleppo in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Khalil, O. Al

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents photogrammetric archives from Aleppo (Syria), collected between 1999 and 2002 by the Committee for maintenance and restoration of the Great Mosque in partnership with the Engineering Unit of the University of Aleppo. During that period, terrestrial photogrammetric data and geodetic surveys of the Great Omayyad mosque were recorded for documentation purposes and geotechnical studies. During the recent war in Syria, the Mosque has unfortunately been seriously damaged and its minaret has been completely destroyed. The paper presents a summary of the documentation available from the past projects as well as solutions of 3D reconstruction based on the processing of the photogrammetric archives with the latest 3D image-based techniques.

  19. FROM METRIC IMAGE ARCHIVES TO POINT CLOUD RECONSTRUCTION: CASE STUDY OF THE GREAT MOSQUE OF ALEPPO IN SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Grussenmeyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents photogrammetric archives from Aleppo (Syria, collected between 1999 and 2002 by the Committee for maintenance and restoration of the Great Mosque in partnership with the Engineering Unit of the University of Aleppo. During that period, terrestrial photogrammetric data and geodetic surveys of the Great Omayyad mosque were recorded for documentation purposes and geotechnical studies. During the recent war in Syria, the Mosque has unfortunately been seriously damaged and its minaret has been completely destroyed. The paper presents a summary of the documentation available from the past projects as well as solutions of 3D reconstruction based on the processing of the photogrammetric archives with the latest 3D image-based techniques.

  20. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied...... as an interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  1. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  2. In Search of a Role to Play: The EU and the War in Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the recognition that more needs to be done, the Council of Ministers adopted a new EU Strategy for Syria on the eve of the April 2017 Brussels donor. This Overview explores the potential of, and limits to, the different roles of the EU in the pursuit of its own (constitutional) objectives

  3. La construction progressive de l'avantage compétitif financier suisse (1914-1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Laurent; Guillaume Vallet

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at explaining how Switzerland succeeded in building a major competitive advantage in the financial sector. From a historical perspective, we show that the period 1914-1936 was decisive in Swiss monetary history, Switzerland moving from a status of minor international financial centre to a major place, with the development of very powerful actors like banks. Hence we highlight that if the banking and financial industry played an important role in this process, such a competit...

  4. Making Mass Schooling Affordable: In-Kind Taxation and the Establishment of an Elementary School System in Sweden, 1840-1870

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the significance of in-kind taxation and payments in kind for the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, in the 1840-1870 period. By analysing the funding of teachers' wages, the heating of the school facilities, and school building construction in the 12 rural school districts of the Sundsvall region, this…

  5. Petrographical, geochemical and petrological study of the xenoliths associating the basalt of (Southwest, Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarjalani, A.; Nasir, S.

    1998-01-01

    Alkali basalt spread northeast part of Shamah volcanic field (Southwest of Syria) belonging to the Neogene and Quaternary ages, which are coexisted with a great quantity of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths and megacrysts. Field observations and data of geochemical and petrographical studies results, for xenoliths coexisted with alkali basalt speared over the northwest part of the arabian plate (Syria) indicate availability of a proper environment where various kinds of xenoliths of lower crustal and upper mantle were formed, this indicates that these xenoliths have been formed under different thermo barometric conditions. The study of available mineral para genesis and geothermobarometrics on coexisting minerals suggests equilibration conditions, ranging between 6-8 kba for pressure and 850-920 Centigrade for temperature, and that is for xenoliths of gabbroic nature formed in the lower crustal between 20-27 km depth. With regard to the formation conditions of the xenoliths formed in the upper mantle (Pyroxenite and Lherzolite); they rang between 13.5 - 14.5 kba for pressure and 950-1060 Centigrade for temperature. (Author)

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayani, Kinan; Dandashli, Anwar; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease caused by an infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania transmitted via sand flies. It is endemic in many of the poorest countries of all continents. "Aleppo boil" is one of the recognised names given to this disease in the medical literature. Although CL used to be well-controlled and well-documented in Syria, its incidence has dramatically increased since the beginning of the war; however, there is lack of documentation. Here, we present the past and current epidemiological situation of the disease in Syria. We also draw attention to gross and highly unusual clinical variants of CL presented to the Department of Dermatology in Aleppo covering the important differential clinical diagnoses, since this disease is already known to mimic other conditions. Diagnostic procedures and treatment as well as prevention are summarised. Due to the increased ability to travel, and especially the flight of Syrians to neighbouring countries, as well as to Europe, CL may become a new threat in formerly unaffected regions. Through this account, we hope to give weight to the aspiration that CL does not remain a neglected and often clinically overlooked tropical dermatosis.

  7. Description and developmental biology of the predatory diplogastrid Acrostichus nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962 (Nematoda: Rhabditida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlawat S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrostichus nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962 is redescribed and illustrated along with observations on its developmental biology. Most morphometrics of the present population agree well with those of A. nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962. The largely oviparous females of A. nudicapitatus lay eggs in single-celled or two-celled stage, 1.5 – 2 h after fertilization. In cultured females, the uterine tract was observed to accommodate occasionally as many as 4 – 6 eggs. The eggs are smooth-shelled, oval in shape measuring 45 – 48 x 23 – 26 μm in dimension. The pole of entry of sperm marks the posterior end of the developing embryo. The embryonation time has been recorded to be 20 – 25 h at 25 ± 2 °C. The first moult occurs inside the egg and the juvenile hatches as second stage juvenile. The gonad development follows the trends found in most rhabditids, however, three prime cells of the 12 vulval precursor cells have been observed to be involved in vulva formation.

  8. Undergraduate medical students' perceptions, attitudes, and competencies in evidence-based medicine (EBM), and their understanding of EBM reality in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahdab, Fares; Firwana, Belal; Hasan, Rim; Sonbol, Mohamad Bassam; Fares, Munes; Alnahhas, Iyad; Sabouni, Ammar; Ferwana, Mazen

    2012-08-12

    Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students' awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies' in EBM. According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria.

  9. Undergraduate medical students’ perceptions, attitudes, and competencies in evidence-based medicine (EBM), and their understanding of EBM reality in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. Methods The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students’ awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies’ in EBM. Results According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. Conclusion The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria. PMID:22882872

  10. Coinage and the economy of Syria-Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries CE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2010-01-01

    Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....

  11. Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mustafa; Daraz, Umar; Lantagne, Daniele; Saltori, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria. During the survey, household water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and mixed effect logistic regressions were completed to determine associations between demographic and WASH variables with outcomes of FCR > 0.1 mg/L in household water and reported diarrhea in children market-available hygiene items were unaffordable. FCR > 0.1 mg/L increased from 4.1% to 27.9% over this time, with Water Safety Plan (WSP) programming strongly associated with FCR (mOR: 24.16; 95% CI: 5.93-98.5). The proportion of households with childhood diarrhea declined from 32.8% to 20.4% over this time; sanitation and hygiene access were protective against childhood diarrhea. The private sector has effectively replaced decaying infrastructure in Syria, although at high cost and uncertain quality. Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets.

  12. The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 28 June 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunday, June 28, 1914, the world will change in the days of a political murder was carried out. Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Sarajevo visit with his wife and both died as a result of an assassination. The Sarajevo assassination, referred in the history texts as “spark” of the First World War or “like a clap of thunder to Europe”. In Serbia, the secret organization “Black Hand” engaged in activities for the unity of Serbs; together with Gavrilo Princip and Nedjelko Cabrinovic, Trifko Grabez, Muhamed Mehmedbasic, Vaso Cubriloviç , Cvijetko Popoviç had a mystical trip to the assassination plot. The background of the assassination in Sarajevo, causes and consequences of the assassination will be discussed in this study.

  13. Industria y conflictividad laboral en España. La industria textil, 1914-1923

    OpenAIRE

    Montañés Primicia, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende efectuar un análisis de la conflictividad laboral entre 1914 y 1923, uno de los periodos más destacados del primer tercio del siglo xx. Sin embargo, la intensidad de esa conflictividad fue muy desigual, tanto sectorial como geográficamente. Este hecho se constata en un primer apartado en el que se elaboran las tasas sectoriales de huelguistas. Este enfoque permite subrayar la indiscutible incidencia de la conflictividad en la industria manufacturera y, particularmente, e...

  14. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Very little information is available to IAEA on the geology and uranium potential of Syria. In 1975 a contract was awarded to Huntings Geology and Geophysics Ltd by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources to carry out a study of the country's mineral resources with particular reference to phosphate uranium, chrome and industrial materials. The results of this survey are not known. Apart from the assumption of some possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product from phosphate production it is assumed that the Speculative Potential is likely to be less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  16. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY: Bureau of... Government has determined on August 2, pursuant to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons...

  17. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  18. Undergraduate medical students’ perceptions, attitudes, and competencies in evidence-based medicine (EBM, and their understanding of EBM reality in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahdab Fares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. Methods The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students’ awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies’ in EBM. Results According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%, role models among professors and instructors (92%, a librarian (70%, institutional subscription to medical journals (94%, and sufficient IT hardware (58%. After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%, searching for evidence (39.8%, appraising the evidence (27.3%, understanding statistics (48%, and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%. However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. Conclusion The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria.

  19. Patient doses from diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M.H.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing 9 routine common types of x-ray examination in Syria covering (chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, Urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head, shoulder and extremities). The study consisted of measurements for 1308 x-ray examination for patients in 26 public hospitals. The average effective dose imparted to each patient per examination was computed from measurement of dose area product for the examination and using the X-dose software, the result of the effective dose except for extremities are gradually (0.125, 1.67, 1.23, 2.7, 1.07, 0.85, 0.05 and 0.025) and the average of the DAP for extremities was 0.095 Gy.cm 2 . (author)

  20. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  1. Do Small States Matter? : A comparative analysis of the discourses by three of the non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council on the crisis in Libya and Syria between 2011 and 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Afrida

    2017-01-01

    A new era of wars and instability have left the world shaken with the civil wars in Syria and Libya. Although there are many similarities with Syria and Libya, the two states did not have the same end due to actions by the United Nations Security Council. Libya resulted in a military humanitarian intervention, while Syria did not. Studies about the Security Council usually focuses on the actions of the Permanent Five members who holds institutional power and influence over the council, mostly...

  2. Medical advertising: the Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine scandal of 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, E H

    2008-12-01

    The past 100 years have seen a transition from a total ban in Britain on all advertising by doctors to the laity to almost total freedom of medical information, with probable benefit to public health but also a risk of loss of privacy. The Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine, written by Dr Hugh Howard Riddle and published by Lord Northcliffe's Daily Mail in 1914, started a flood of medical journalism in the press and the newer media. The lavishly advertised misattribution of its authorship to 'thirty eminent specialists', including Clifford Allbutt and William Osler, caused a major rumpus in the London Royal College of Physicians, but the fortnightly publication continued and became a four-volume book, popular with a public avid for more and more medical information.

  3. Occupational Characteristics and Cognitive Aging in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability...... was assessed by 4 cognitive ability tests at ages 60, 70, and 80. RESULTS: Individuals in more intellectually challenging occupations had higher cognitive ability (r = .27-.38, p occupations performed more poorly (r = -.12 and -.13 at ages 50 and 60, p ..., the one in the more intellectually challenging occupation had lower subsequent cognitive ability. The association of physical hazards with lower cognitive ability level did not remain after adjustment for the basic demographics, and none of the occupational characteristics were associated with cognitive...

  4. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses..., finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of... have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...

  5. Are primary health care providers prepared to implement an anti-smoking program in Syria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Taghrid; Al-Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D; Vander Weg, Mark W; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-11-01

    To document primary health care (PHC) providers' tobacco use, and how this influences their smoking cessation practices and attitudes towards tobacco-control policies. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to PHC providers in 7 randomly selected PHC centers in Aleppo, Syria. All PHC providers completed the questionnaires (100% response rate). A quarter of these providers smoke cigarettes and more than 10% smoke waterpipes. Physicians who smoke were less likely to advise patients to quit (OR=0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.95), assess their motivation to quit (OR=0.13, 95% CI=0.02-0.72), or assist them in quitting (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.06-0.99). PHC providers who smoke were less likely to support a ban on smoking in PHC settings (68.2% vs. 89.1%) and in enclosed public places (68.2% vs. 86.1%) or increases in the price of tobacco products (43.2% vs. 77.4%) (PSyria and will negatively influence implementation of anti-smoking program in PHC settings. Smoking awareness and cessation interventions targeted to PHC providers, and training programs to build providers' competency in addressing their patients' smoking is crucial in Syria. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Spatial and temporal analysis of drought variability at several time scales in Syria during 1961-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathbout, Shifa; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Martin-Vide, Javier; Bech, Joan; Rodrigo, Fernando S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyses the observed spatiotemporal characteristics of drought phenomenon in Syria using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Temporal variability of drought is calculated for various time scales (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months) for 20 weather stations over the 1961-2012 period. The spatial patterns of drought were identified by applying a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the SPI and SPEI values at different time scales. The results revealed three heterogeneous and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts: 1) Northeastern (inland desert); 2) Southern (mountainous landscape); 3) Northwestern (Mediterranean coast). The evolutionary characteristics of drought during 1961-2012 were analysed including spatial and temporal variability of SPI and SPEI, the frequency distribution, and the drought duration. The results of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test applied to the SPI and SPEI series indicate prevailing significant negative trends (drought) at all stations. Both drought indices have been correlated both on spatial and temporal scales and they are highly comparable, especially, over a 12 and 24 month accumulation period. We concluded that the temporal and spatial characteristics of the SPI and SPEI can be used for developing a drought intensity - areal extent - and frequency curve that assesses the variability of regional droughts in Syria. The analysis of both indices suggests that all three regions had a severe drought in the 1990s, which had never been observed before in the country. Furthermore, the 2007-2010 drought was the driest period in the instrumental record, happening just before the onset of the recent conflict in Syria.

  7. Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37° E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were ana...

  8. EKSISTENSI PASAR-PASAR TRADISIONAL DI KOTA SEMARANG TAHUN 1873 – 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Agus Wijayati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1873 can be regarded as the beginning of growth and development of traditional marketsignifi cantly in Semarang. The deadline was set in 1914, based on the 30 April 1914 Besluit No.379 ofdecentralized market businesses submitted to the local council (city council. Above conditions, led toproblems including: the form of regulation, market management and the government’s revitalization ofthe markets in Semarang. Since decentralization, the delegation obtained Semarang Municipal obligationsin managing public facilities including care and repair and even build a set of market infrastructure. Untilthe year 1910 the market management in Semarang are still under the direct supervision of the colonialgovernment. Revitalization evidenced by an increase in the quality and infrastructure through discussion atcity council level. Various efforts related to the revitalization of the market almost all the elements to giveher attention. Technical Committee started, City Project Director, Chairman of the City Council, Memberof the Council, the Commission indicates the involvement of all markets is intense. Revitalization of thewhole market began to be realized from the building and management system. Not just action for theorder, cleanliness, security, cleanliness, health, but the administration and supervision of fi nancial marketsmeans the attention of many parties. Order of the occupation has given a lot of positive infl uence in thedevelopment of markets empowerment in Semarang and of course can be used as a source of learning.Irrespective of political background surrounding the economic-colonialist interests.Key words: Eksistention, traditional market, decentralization.

  9. Remote sensing, landscape and archaeology tracing ancient tracks and roads between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Silver, K.; Okkonen, J.; Nuñez, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper concentrates on the use of remote sensing by satellite imagery for detecting ancient tracks and roads in the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria. The Syrian desert was traversed by caravans already in the Bronze Age, and during the Greco-Roman period the traffic increased with the Silk Road and trade as well as with military missions annexing the areas into empires. SYGIS - the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project traced, recorded and documented ancient sites and roads in the region of Jebel Bishri in Central Syria in 2000-2010 before the outbreak of the civil war in Syria. Captured data of ancient roads and bridge points bring new light to the study of ancient communication framework in the area. Archaeological research carried out by the project on the ground confirmed the authenticity of many road alignments, new military and water harvesting sites as well as civilian settlements, showing that the desert-steppe area was actively used and developed probably from the second century AD. The studies further demonstrated that the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates was militarily more organised already in the second and third centuries AD than earlier believed. Chronologically, the start of this coincided with the "golden age" of the Palmyrene caravans in the second century AD. Topography and landscape were integral parts of the construction of graves/tumuli as sign-posts guiding in the desert, as well as roads and all kinds of settlements whether military or civilian.

  10. Comparing methane emissions from different sheep-keeping systems in semiarid regions: A case study of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hijazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep husbandry represents a significant source of methane (CH4 in semiarid grassland regions such as Syria. However, the contribution of sheep to CH4 emissions in Syria is still unknown. This study was designed to quantify CH4 emissions and identify possible mitigation strategies for their reduction. Methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used to estimate CH4 emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms from different locations in Syria in 2009. Data were collected concerning sheep-keeping systems (SKSs, body mass, milk and wool yield, farm locations, feed rations, periods of grazing on the Steppe, the duration of pasturing on agricultural residuals and time periods when sheep were kept in stables. Using a linear statistical model, the influence of SKS, geographical region and sheep body mass on emitted CH4 were analysed. The results showed that the geographical region, SKS and sheep body mass had significant effects (P < 0.05 on CH4 emissions. According to the model, the mean values of estimated CH4 emissions from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive SKSs were 26 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 13.5 ± 1.7 kg/sheep year, respectively. In comparing differences between the least square means of CH4 emissions, the extensive and semi-intensive SKSs produced 92% and 66% higher CH4 emissions compared to intensive SKS. The differences in CH4 emissions within the distinct SKSs were attributed to dietary composition. Extensive SKS used a less concentrated feeding regime (98 ± 17 day/year than semi-intensive SKS (114 ± 47 day/year, and intensive SKS employed concentrated feeding year round. Furthermore, it was observed that sheep with the same body mass produced higher CH4 emissions in extensive SKS than in semi-intensive and intensive SKSs. Moreover, the semi-intensive SKS occupied more natural pastures than extensive SKS, which caused an overuse of the Steppe. Therefore, an effective mitigation

  11. Het perspectief van de vooruitgang : denken over politiek in het Spaanse fin de siècle, 1890-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Hendrik Jan

    1999-01-01

    Anders dan veelal gedacht wordt, valt de intellectuele crisis waarin Spanje rond 1900 in terecht kwam niet te wijten aan de desastreus verlopen oorlog tegen de Verenigde Staten in 1898. Het politieke debat in Spanje tussen 1890 en 1914 was in de eerste plaats een reactie op de crisis van het

  12. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  13. Impact of war on child health in northern Syria: the experience of Médecins Sans Frontières.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiqari, Lana; Hoetjes, Maartje; Baxter, Louisa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-03-01

    Few data are available to evaluate the impact of Syrian war on civilian population; to describe this impact on child health, this article uses data from Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Amsterdam's activities in Tal-Abyad and Kobane cities, northern Syria (2013-2016). Data were obtained from routine medical datasets and narrative reports, for out-patient clinics, immunisation, nutritional monitoring and assessments, and in-patient care, and were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Infections were the largest contributor to morbidity. The proportion of war on the health of children; • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF-OCA) has worked in northern Syria during different times since 2013. What is New • Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MSF's routine medical data and situtation reports show that one fifth of all consultations in children war, e.g. thalassemia.

  14. Discovery of scientific correspondence of P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914), including three unpublished letters by Charles Darwin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Florence F.J.M.; Winthagen, Diny

    1990-01-01

    Recently the scientific correspondence of the Dutch zoologist P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914) turned up in the Artis Library. This collection contains three hitherto unpublished letters from Charles Darwin. It appears that Charles Darwin recommended Hoek to the favour of Sir Charles Wyville Thomson upon

  15. Burning Down the House: the Burnt Building V6 at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...

  16. Antoine-Marie Chambeyron (1797-1851): a forgotten disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    Antoine-Marie Chambeyron (1797-1851) was a disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) that history forgot, undoubtedly because he made no original contribution to psychiatric nosography. In 1827, his interest in the medical-legal status of the insane led him to translate into French and annotate the first medical-legal psychiatric treatise ever published, which was the work of the German philosopher Johann Christoph Hoffbauer (1766-1827). His translation played a role in shaping the French Law of 1838, the first piece of modern legislation aimed at protecting the rights of mental patients and limiting the State's power to confine them arbitrarily. Chambeyron is among the least-cited contributors to the prestigious work of nineteenth-century French alienists.

  17. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwan Shehab

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  18. La misión pentecostal escandinava en el Chaco argentino: Etapa formativa: 1914 - 1945 Scandinavian pentecostal mission in the Argentine Chaco: First stage: 1914-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ceriani Cernadas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo propone una etnografía histórica sobre la misión pentecostal escandinava entre los aborígenes del Chaco Argentino durante su período formativo. Fue el misionero noruego Berger Johnsen (1888-1945 quien se instaló en el pueblo de Embarcación (provincia de Salta en 1914 con el objetivo de organizar una base misionera para el trabajo evangélico. La indagación pretende sumar conocimiento sobre esta corriente olvidada en los estudios sobre evangelización protestante en la región chaqueña tomando en cuenta cuatro ejes: 1. los valores, el imaginario y las prácticas del misionero nórdico; 2. la recepción aborigen del mensaje pentecostal, observada en los dirigentes y la memoria de los habitantes; 3. la coyuntura regional, religiosa, política y económica, que enmarcó estructuralmente el emprendimiento; 4. la realidad cultural sui generis de la misión de Embarcación, conformada por diversos grupos étnicos del corazón chaqueño y establecida en un naciente pueblo criollo.This paper proposes an historical ethnography of the Scandinavian Pentecostal mission among the aboriginal people of the Argentinean Chaco focusing on its former period. In 1914 a Norwegian missionary, Berger Johnsen (1888-1945, established a Pentecostal base in Embarcación (Province of Salta in order to embrace evangelical work. This study tries to add knowledge to this neglected trend in the studies about Protestant evangelism in the Chaco region. This will be done taking into account four topics: 1. the values, representations and practices of the Nordic missionary; 2. the aboriginal appropriation of the Pentecostal message; 3. the regional context, in terms of religion, politics and economy, framing the missionary enterprise; 4. the sui generis cultural reality of Embarcación mission, characterized by the presence of different ethnic groups from the central Chaco and a novel criollo town.

  19. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  20. Prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia: a transcultural comparative study between Germany as a western, liberal, industrialised country and Syria as an oriental society with a strong Islamic tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert; Juratli, Nour; Kabalan, Younes

    2010-10-01

    Prolactinomas and hyperprolactinaemia cause hypogonadism and impairment of sexual and reproductive function. In this transcultural study, clinical characteristics of prolactinoma/hyperprolactinaemia were compared between a liberal, western, industrialised country and a more traditional, Islamic, oriental society. Sixty-two Syrian patients with hyperprolactinaemia were compared to 62 German patients with hyperprolactinaemia. In Syria and Germany, prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia were more frequent in females than in males (Syria 87% females; Germany 63% females). Prolactinomas were larger in males, males were older at diagnosis in both countries. Recorded clinical symptoms were comparable, even if culturally determined differences in spontaneous reporting of and asking for symptoms might be considered. The average age of the Syrian patients at diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia was more than 6 years lower than in the German cohort (33.4 ± 10.4 vs. 39.7 ± 17.6 years). In Germany, a variety of therapeutic regimens were applied. In Syria, bromocriptine was prescribed exclusively. The differences may be attributed to culturally determined differences in sexual and reproductive behaviour, i.e. sexual intercourses of young, unmarried girls and women in association to the use of oral contraceptives regulating the menstrual cycle, maternal age at first delivery and birth frequency. Exclusive prescription of bromocriptine in Syria may be associated to limited resources and the safety of bromocriptine during pregnancy.

  1. Responding to chemical weapons violations in Syria: legal, health, and humanitarian recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M

    2018-01-01

    The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.

  2. Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 (Pisces: Labridae)--a case of taxonomic con- fusion and mistaken extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barry C; Craig, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 is known from only three specimens collected from Mauritius, and despite intensive sampling, the species has not been seen or reported since it was originally described. This apparent failure to 'rediscover' A. viridis at Mauritius has led to speculation that it is extinct, and the species has been widely cited as an example of a marine fish extinction. Far from being extinct, Anampses viridis has been taxonomically confused and actually is the adult male (terminal phase) colour form and a junior synonym of A. caeruleopunctatus Rüppell 1829, a species that is common and widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region.

  3. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  4. Political culture and the labour movement: a comparison between Poplar and West Ham, 1889-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Banks-Conney, Diana Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    This thesis compares two areas of East London, Poplar and West Ham,that ultimately became strongholds of the Labour Party. The thesis attemptsto answer the crucial question of why, prior to 1914, it seemed as if Labour had succeeded in South West Ham but had failed to achieve similar representation in Poplar. This thesis considers that although contemporaries had identified similar social and economic problems in both Poplar and West Ham in the early twentieth century, more detailed analysis ...

  5. Reverse effect of Balkan radical Islamists' engagement in the armed conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevčić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an apparent tendency to increase activism among Balkan Muslims (mostly Sunni denomination within Islam and their desire to participate in solving the problems of Muslims globally. As a result of this trend, the involvement of individuals from the ranks of radical Islamist groups in the armed conflict in Syria is not surprising. What characterizes these individuals is going through the complex process of radicalization at the individual level within which strong motivation is formed for taking part in such an extreme form of social conflict such as a civil war. Due to the strong indoctrination, they perceive the participation in this conflict as their duty to the whole community of believers, accepting even the possibility of their own death which they see as martyrdom. The connection of these individuals with the global Islamistic terrorist network may affect the Balkan countries' security. After the end of the Syria conflict or earlier, a number of these individuals will be directed to other crisis areas, while some of them will return to their home countries. Additionally indoctrinated with acquired combat experience and military expertise, these people can play a key role in planning, preparation or commission of terrorist acts in the Balkans and Europe as a whole. Taking adequate and timely measures is a necessary condition for an effective opposition to this kind of religious based terrorism.

  6. Sustainable Leadership, Organizational Trust on Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Higher Education Institutions in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serene Dalati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a theoretical model of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and satisfaction at work in higher education environment in Syria. The model assesses staff perception of outstanding leadership behaviors and examines its relationship with perceived organizational trust in the field of higher education institutions in Syria. This research examines a conceptual framework identifying outstanding leadership styles and behaviors which are associated with sustainable leadership, organisational trust identified by members’ trust in their coworkers, and job satisfaction at an institutional level. The research methodology applied in this research develops a quantitative approach through application of questionnaire survey. To measure the dimensionality of scale factors an exploratory factor analysis is conducted. Reliability analysis is performed, Cronbach alpha test indicates that the research scales are internally consistent. The sample of the study employed a convenience sample from higher education institutions. The managerial implication of the research study recommends application and adoption of sustainable leadership behaviors among functional, mid and senior levels of managers and academics in management positions in higher education institutions. The limitation of research is mainly indicated in the sample size and measurement scales of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and job satisfaction.

  7. "Science to the Glory of God". The Popular Science Magazine "Iberica" and Its Coverage of Radioactivity, 1914-1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a first approach to the history of "Iberica," one of the most important popular science magazines published in Spain before the Civil War. Founded in 1914 by members of the Society of Jesus based at the Ebro Observatory, "Iberica" reached a weekly circulation of about 10,000 in the mid 1920s, and was…

  8. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... sanctions are hereby imposed, subject to partial waivers as noted below: 1. Bank Loans--The United States Government shall prohibit any United States bank from making any loan or providing any credit to the Government of Syria, except for loans or credits for the purpose of purchasing food or other agricultural...

  9. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity estimation of the basaltic aquifer in Southern Syria by using nuclear and electrical well logging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2017-08-01

    An alternative approach using nuclear neutron-porosity and electrical resistivity well logging of long (64 inch) and short (16 inch) normal techniques is proposed to estimate the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the basaltic aquifers in Southern Syria. This method is applied on the available logs of Kodana well in Southern Syria. It has been found that the obtained K value by applying this technique seems to be reasonable and comparable with the hydraulic conductivity value of 3.09 m/day obtained by the pumping test carried out at Kodana well. The proposed alternative well logging methodology seems as promising and could be practiced in the basaltic environments for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity parameter. However, more detailed researches are still required to make this proposed technique very performed in basaltic environments.

  10. Repeated prayers: saying the rosary in contemporary Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Mauss' seminal doctoral thesis, On Prayer [1909], captured the social character of prayer, but he sidelined the rosary as a merely mechanical prayer of repetition. This article also finds repetition at play in the rosary, as it is performed in the shrine of Our Lady of Soufanieh, Damascus, in pre......-2011 Syria. However, it argues that repetition need not be conceptualised as dulling and inhibiting for the devotee. Rather, repetition can be seen like a heartbeat: something alive and pulsating. The repetition of the prayers among the followers is seen as unforced, a voluntary response to a grace...... already bestowed upon them by the Virgin Mary and Christ. Prayers are a response to this grace and, in this sense, repetition is to be understood as re-petition. This re-petition is seen as modelling the individual in the image of the Virgin Mary and, by this, exemplifying the saintly character...

  11. Regional radiometric map of Syria, using gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.

    2005-01-01

    The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)

  12. The Security Gap in Syria: Individual and Collective Security in ‘Rebel-held’ Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ali Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security re...

  13. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chamat Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005 including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR, maternal near miss ratio (MNMR, mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. Results There were 28 025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100 000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52% and haemorrhage (34% were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60% while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%. Most cases (93% were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%, primary (5% and secondary (10% healthcare unites and private practices (11%. 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Conclusion Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to

  14. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Yara; Almerie, Muhammad Q; Matar, Hosam E; Shahrour, Yasser; Al Chamat, Ahmad Abo; Abdulsalam, Asmaa

    2010-10-19

    Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005) including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR), maternal near miss ratio (MNMR), mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. There were 28,025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100,000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52%) and haemorrhage (34%) were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60%) while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%). Most cases (93%) were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%), primary (5%) and secondary (10%) healthcare unites and private practices (11%). 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to prevent/manage post-partum haemorrhage and training health

  15. Registro de Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae danificando plantas de mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Inés Diez-Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914, são comumente encontradas em cereais de inverno (trigo, cevada, aveia e triticale, milho e soja, no Rio Grande do Sul. Em março de 2012, larvas desta espécie foram detectadas em plantas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'O´Neal', no município de Pelotas, RS. Os insetos alimentaram-se de raízes em áreas restritas do pomar. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência do coró-pequeno, C. flavipennis, em plantas de mirtileiro

  16. System program information of internal occupational radiation exposure in Syria (SORIES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Moghrabi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes personal-computer-based software, SORIES, which enables users to estimate intake activity and the resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in ICRP /78/ and IAEA Safety Reports Series No.37. The program forms a useful tool to get a database containing all the information related to occupational internal monitoring program. Furthermore, SORIES offers the possibility to obtain different reports of results. The SORIES program was built to be easy-to-use and user friendly. The program is based on Microsoft FoxPro database program and runs on Microsoft Windows 97-XP. SORIES software is distributed by Atomic Energy Commission in Syria.(author)

  17. Pre-Design of Transitional Rural Housing for Syria with Recycled Rubble from Destroyed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Naomi; Haj Ismail, Salah; Cetin, Rukiye

    2017-10-01

    The scale of destruction caused by seven years of on-going war in Syria has caused mass migration of the Syrian people within and outside of Syria. The situation calls for a means to provide the internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria with humane post-war affordable housing that can be quickly and easily built with few resources. Fossil fuel resources are not only scarce because of the war, but are also being used as a valuable commodity to finance the war economy, and thus, housing should minimize consumption of energy for heating and cooling because of the fossil fuel scarcity while providing high thermal comfort to the inhabitants. The housing parameters for the proposed solution are to integrate as much of the local building materials in the Aleppo region as possible using existing regional building traditions. Imported products such as building materials, machinery, equipment, as well as foreign labour and knowhow are to be kept to a minimum while incorporating recycled rubble from destroyed buildings. A comparative study of current disaster relief housing illustrates the appropriateness of each design solution in relation to the above-proposed housing parameters. A detailed analysis of the physical properties of an existing case study building in Dabiq, a town 40 km northeast of Aleppo, outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the building tradition to determine which aspects of the construction may be improved for better thermal comfort and resistance against earthquakes. The simulation results from WUFI Plus show the building behaviour of the case study house. This paper offers a concept for transitional single-family housing for IDPs based upon the adobe tradition in the rural areas of Aleppo. Reducing the heating and cooling loads can also drastically reduce fossil fuel requirements during the construction and operation phases of the single-family homes while maintaining a high level of indoor thermal comfort. Traditional construction techniques

  18. Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O'Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-02-02

    In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible.

  19. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  20. Health system challenges for the management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: an empirical qualitative study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Fouad, Fouad M; Elias, Madonna; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To explore through empirical qualitative data health system barriers to effective management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Syria before the crisis, and how such analysis can inform the building of a post-crisis system. Data were collected through document review, semi-structured key informant interviews, and fieldwork in clinics. Institutional commitment to address the increasing burden of CVD and diabetes in Syria was limited and uncoordinated. Challenges included an increasingly split healthcare system, with private provision for those who could afford it, and a residual state health sector for the majority. Public trust in the system had been declining. We conclude that lack of effective management of CVD and diabetes indicated weaknesses of the state and its retracting role in providing effective healthcare. Such weaknesses that existed before the crisis are now compounded by new challenges resulting from wide destruction of the health system due to the ongoing war. The rebuilding of post-conflict heath care system may benefit from insights into the structural problems of the pre-crisis system.

  1. La gestión municipal: ¿cómo administrar las plazas y los mercados de la ciudad de México? 1824-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Moncada González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto analiza la gestión de los servicios públicos en la ciudad de México, y en particular, la administración de las plazas y los mercados a través de contratas a particulares. La problemática se centra en las dificultades que enfrentó la administración municipal para regular el comercio urbano. La fuente documental empleada es la Ordenanza Municipal de 1840 y el estudio detallado de las comisiones que integraban al Ayuntamiento de México entre 1810 y 1840. La investigación concluye que la falta de un orden jurídico que regulara la gestión municipal provocó una mala organización y planeación en los servicios públicos de la ciudad. Por ello, las contratas, que parecían una salida eficiente en la administración municipal, terminaron por convertirse en negocios entre particulares, debido a la incapacidad del gobierno para vigilarlos y regularlos, así como por la falta de recursos económicos para sostenerlas.

  2. In search of the creation of news frames in Flemish newspapers: The case of the Belgian ‘Syria warriors’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the framing construction of Flemish newspaper journalists regarding the so-called ‘Syria-warriors’. When the Syrian conflict developed, the rebels against the Assad regim were joined by young muslims from Western European countries. Figures of the number of Belgian fighters

  3. A third Balkan war: France and the allied attempts at creating a new Balkan alliance 1914-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial phase of the First World War in the Balkans 1914-1915 was a natural continuation of the conflicts opened during the Balkan Wars, but national fervor now encompassed all of the Balkans, from Rijeka and Ljubljana to Athens, Sofia and Bucharest, because the role of the Dual Monarchy had changed from that of an arbiter to that of a participant in the conflict. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the further survival of the Habsburg Monarchy was challenged by the Serbian government's Yugoslav project, creating conditions for implementing the nationality principle in all of the Balkans. It seemed that, in support of the alliances that were being created in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole, the time had come for the final fulfillment of the national aspirations of the Balkan peoples. The outcome of this third Balkan war no longer depended solely on the balance of power inside the Balkans, but also on the overall course of the war. After the initial victories in 1914, Serbia suffered a defeat in 1915 and her armies were forced to retreat southward to Albania and Greece, but her Yugoslav project was the foundation of her future policies and the basis for materializing the concept of a common South-Slavic state.

  4. Gender, depression and physical impairment: an epidemiologic perspective from Aleppo, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine the association of physical impairment with gender, depression, and socio-demographics in the community in Aleppo, Syria. Method We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in Aleppo on adults aged 18–65 (N = 2,038). We used a computerized interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Physical impairment was measured via an adapted 12-item World Health Organization, Health State Description Individual Questionnaire which includes both physical and emotional items. We used physical impairment items score to classify individuals into low, middle, and high physical impairment category. Self-report of physician-diagnosed depression and chronic diseases active in the past year and their current treatment status were obtained. Results Sample mean age (SD) was 35.3 (12.1) years, 55% were female, and 4.5% had depression. Female gender, low socioeconomic status (SES), and depression were associated with high physical impairment. Women had more impairment (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.15–5.21) with little change after controlling for depression and chronic diseases, but significantly decreased after controlling for socio-demographics (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.84–2.73). The association with low (vs. high) SES was prominent (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.32–4.67) after controlling for all variables. Depression’s association (OR = 4.85, 95% CI: 1.93–12.15) lost significance after controlling for chronic diseases (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 0.96–8.25), but further adjustment for socio-demographics had little effect. Conclusion Women and individuals of low SES appear more vulnerable to physical impairment in the community in Aleppo. Depression’s association with physical impairment may be mediated through co-existing chronic diseases. Public health planning regarding physical impairment in Syria should encompass these as putative risk factors. PMID:20195569

  5. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  6. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: How diverse are wheat and barley varieties and landraces from farmer’s fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study described the diversity of wheat and barley varieties and landraces available in farmer’s fields in Syria using different indicators. Analysis of spatial and temporal diversity and coefficient of parentage along with measurements of agronomic and morphological traits were employed

  7. Comparative virulence of Pyrenophora teres f. teres from Syria and Tunisia and screening for resistance sources in barley: implications for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Al Ahmed, M; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenic diversity and virulence groups among Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates, sampled from Syria and Tunisia, and to identify the most effective source of resistance in barley that could be used in breeding programmes to control net blotch in both countries. One hundred and four isolates of P. teres f. teres were collected from barley in different agroecological zones of Tunisia and Syria. Their virulence was evaluated using 14 barley genotypes as differential hosts. The UPGMA clustering identified high pathogenic variability; the isolates were clustered onto 20 pathotypes that were sheltered under three virulence groups, with high, intermediate and low disease scores. According to susceptibility/resistance frequencies and mean disease ratings, CI05401 cultivar ranked as the best differential when inoculated with the Syrian isolates. However, CI09214 cultivar was classified as the best effective source of resistance in Tunisia. All P. teres f. teres isolates were differentially pathogenic. CI09214 and CI05401 cultivars were released as the most effective sources of resistance in Syria and Tunisia. National and international barley breeding programmes that seek to develop resistance against P. teres f. teres in barley should strongly benefit from this study. This resistance cannot be achieved without the proper knowledge of the pathogen virulence spectrum and the sources of host resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Abdul Ghani, B.; Ahmad, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. - Highlights: • Apply fuzzy analysis technique on the nuclear and electrical well logging data of Kodana well in Southern Syria. • Determine and differentiate between four kinds of basalt. • Establish the lithological section of the studied well.

  9. Provenance Study of Archaeological Ceramics from Syria Using XRF Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Thermoluminescence Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Abboud, Rana; Issa, Haissm

    2014-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and multivariate statistical methods based on radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis have been utilized to date and classify Syrian archaeological ceramics fragment from Tel Jamous site. 54 samples were analyzed by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence; 51 of them come from Tel Jamous archaeological site in Sahel Akkar region, Syria, which fairly represent ceramics belonging to the Middle Bronze Age (2150 to 1600 B.C.) and the remaining three samples come from Mar-T...

  10. Atividade alimentar da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae no rio Paraná Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Peciformes, Sciaenidae feeding activity in Parana river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A atividade alimentar anual, estacional e diária da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi avaliada para a planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (município de Porto Rico-PR e para o reservatório de Itaipu. Os peixes foram capturados com redes de espera de diferentes malhagens, sendo as coletas realizadas mensalmente, de outubro de 86 a setembro de 88, no primeiro ambiente, e de novembro de 83 a fevereiro de 89, no segundo. Os aparelhos de pesca ficaram expostos por 24h, com despescas ao amanhecer (7h, durante o dia (15h e ao anoitecer (23h e a cada três horas, em coletas especiais, para determinação do ritmo diário. Foi utilizado o grau de enchimento do estômago e a freqüência de estômagos com alimento como indicadores de repleção estomacal. Registrou-se alta incidência de estômagos vazios, em ambos os ambientes. As variações anuais desses indicadores foram mais pronunciadas no reservatório de Itaipu. Em relação às variações sazonais, a atividade alimentar foi sempre mais elevada nos períodos mais quentes, em contraste com o inverno. A tomada de alimento no período de 24 horas foi mais intensa nas primeiras horas da manhã, revelando-se uma espécie predadora tipicamente diurna, utilizando estímulos visuais para a detecção e perseguição das presas.Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 feeding activity at the upper Paraná river floodplain (Porto Rico region, state of Paraná, Brazil and Itaipu reservoir was investigated. The fishes were collected monthly with different mesh-sized gill nets October, 1986 through September, 1989 at upper Paraná river and November, 1983 through February, 1989 at Itaipu reservoir. The nets were set for 24 hours and the fishes were collected at sunrise (7A.M., afternoon (3P.M. and night (11P.M. at Itaipu reservoir and each, three hours at upper Paraná river floodplain to determine daily feeding rhythm. Stomach repletion degree and food update frequency

  11. Impact of External Forcing on Glacier Dynamics at Jakobshavn Isbræ during 1840-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy

    warm period occurred. To control the acceleration and retreat based on observed front positions during 1840-2012, we use an ocean model modifier that implements forcing at the ocean boundary using melange back pressure offsets. The mean temperature anomaly in west Greenland, the North Atlantic......Greenland's main outlet glaciers have more than doubled their contribution to global sea-level rise over the past decade through acceleration of ice discharge. One of the triggering mechanisms is a reduction in resistance (buttressing) at the marine based glacier front (i.e. through reduced...... thickness or retreat of the floating tongue of a glacier) caused by enhanced calving or a longer-term thinning due to a mass deficit of the ice sheet. Recent findings indicate the reduced buttressing at the marine terminus is responsible for the recent dynamic changes observed in Greenland...

  12. Selection of buildings as maternity roosts by greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berková, Hana; Pokorný, M.; Zukal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1011-1017 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * habitat * linear landscape elements * maternity roosts * Moravian Karst * Myotis myotis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014

  13. On the colour types in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D

    2014-05-30

    Two colour types were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the Sea of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the Sea of Japan.

  14. D'Alembert's paradox, 1900-1914: Levi-Civita and his Italian and French followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzioli, Rossana

    2017-07-01

    Before the First World War, Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) was already a well-known mathematician in Italy and abroad, in particular in France. Professor at the University of Padua since 1898, he had published important contributions to tensor calculus, theory of relativity, differential geometry, hydrodynamics, and the three-body problem. In 1918, when he moved to the University of Rome, he created an international school of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on d'Alembert's paradox to which Levi-Civita and some of his Italian and French followers contributed remarkable solutions. This case-study is used to illustrate Levi-Civita's approach to hydrodynamics and its influence in Italy and France, especially in the period 1910-1914.

  15. Documentation of some Cultural Heritage Emergencies in Syria In August 2010 by Spherical Photrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangi, G.

    2015-09-01

    Syria is a country of many civilizations, Marie, Aramaic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Ottoman civilizations. Unfortunally the recent war is the reason for many cultural heritage items to be destroyed, beyond the thausand civilian people killed. In 2010, just before the war, the A. made a touristic trip together with Crua (Recreational Club of the Ancona University). It was the occasion to make some fast documentation of some Syrian CH monuments. Mostly of the images were taken by the A. not to make a survey, but as a photographic report, as fast and complete as possible. For a regular survey project, the tripod, the spherical head should be used for the takings and the 3x3 Cipa rules should be followed, that occurred only in the three main projects, say the survey of the citadel walls in Aleppo, the survey of the Umayyads Mosque in Damascus, and the survey of the minaret of the Umayyads Mosque in Aleppo. All the other documentation surveys have been carried out with hand-held camera taking the dimension of the model from Google earth high resolution, when available. But, apart the regular surveys, due to the explosion of the unexpected war, the photographs taken in such a touristic way, have been used to try to get some usable plottings an restitutions and it worked successfully mostly of the times. These surveys could be useful in case of reconstruction and in case of lack of suitable alternative metric documentation. Because of the continuing threats, all six Syrian World Heritage properties were inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cambodia last June: Ancient City of Aleppo, Ancient City of Bosra, Ancient City of Damascus, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria, Krak des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din ans finally the Site of Palmyra. See the following links: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kr.a3e0DL5sA and https

  16. Emergency Food Assistance in Northern Syria: An Evaluation of Transfer Programs in Idleb Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Witiw, Joseph; Aken, Vicki

    2017-06-01

    The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015. The evaluation used repeated survey data from beneficiary households to determine whether assistance was successful in maintaining food security at the household level. Shopkeeper surveys and program monitoring data were used to assess the impact on markets at the district/governorate levels and compare the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transfer modalities. Both in-kind food assistance and voucher programs showed positive effects on household food security and economic measures in Idleb; however, no intervention was successful in improving all outcomes measured. Food transfers were more likely to improve food access and food security than vouchers and unrestricted vouchers. Voucher programs were found to be more cost-efficient than in-kind food assistance, and more cost-effective for increasing household food consumption. Continuation of multiple types of transfer programs, including both in-kind assistance and vouchers, will allow humanitarian actors to remain responsive to evolving access and security considerations, local needs, and market dynamics.

  17. Sarajevo 1914: An Examination of the Context by which Austria Hungary Responded to the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    disputes. Romania and Serbia were recognized as independent states in this Congress, but the agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina was a half-way house...Greece, and Romania together against Bulgaria. After fighting, peace was arranged and borders re-drawn without Austro-Hungarian input. Williamson...Monarchy 1848- 1918 . 2 vols. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1950. May, Arthur J. The Hapsburg Monarchy 1867-1914. Harvard University Press

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in Syria, 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Meredith L; Mason, Helen; Fouad, Fouad M; Rastam, Samer; al Ali, Radwan; Page, Timothy F; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to lower coronary heart disease in Syria. Costs and benefits of a health promotion campaign about salt reduction (HP); labeling of salt content on packaged foods (L); reformulation of salt content within packaged foods (R); and combinations of the three were estimated over a 10-year time frame. Policies were deemed cost-effective if their cost-effectiveness ratios were below the region's established threshold of $38,997 purchasing power parity (PPP). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for the uncertainty in the reduction of salt intake. HP, L, and R+HP+L were cost-saving using the best estimates. The remaining policies were cost-effective (CERs: R=$5,453 PPP/LYG; R+HP=$2,201 PPP/LYG; R+L=$2,125 PPP/LYG). R+HP+L provided the largest benefit with net savings using the best and maximum estimates, while R+L was cost-effective with the lowest marginal cost using the minimum estimates. This study demonstrated that all policies were cost-saving or cost effective, with the combination of reformulation plus labeling and a comprehensive policy involving all three approaches being the most promising salt reduction strategies to reduce CHD mortality in Syria.

  19. Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, A. A.; Bhandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern era of planetary exploration has revealed fluvial or fluvial like landforms on the extraterrestrial surfaces of planets and moons of our solar system. This has posed as interesting challenges for advancing our fundamental understanding of fluvial processes and their associated landforms on the planetary surfaces especially on Mars. It has been recognized through earlier studies that the channels and valleys are extensively dissected on Mars. The Valleys are low lying, elongate troughs surrounded by elevated topography. Moreover, valley networks on Mars are the most noticeable features attesting that different geological processes and possibly climatic conditions prevailed in the past and played a vital role in formulating the Martian topography. Channel incisions which are a domino effect both tectonic and surface runoff and groundwater sapping. The components of surface runoff have been deciphered with the help of morphometric exercises. Further, the geomorphological studies of these landforms are critical in understanding the regional tectonics. The present work is an assessment of Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars. This study focuses on the fluvio geomorphology of the southern highlands (00 to 400S to 850-1200W) to determine how these features were formed, which process formed these valleys and includes the probable causes resulting into the development of the topography. Keywords: Noctis Fossae; Noctis Labyrinthus; Syria Planum; Mars

  20. Estancias de Entre Ríos en el siglo XIX, 1840 y 1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schmit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la racionalidad de inversión de los estancieros y sus lógicas de explotación de las estancias entrerrianas durante los orígenes del capitalismo rural argentino entre 1840 y 1880. En la investigación analizamos cómo evolucionó la inversión rural dentro de los patrones generales de inversión. Qué peso tuvieron sobre el ciclo productivo rural los distintos costos de los factores de producción. Finalmente, estudiamos las estrategias de gestión y cuál fue la rentabilidad que tuvieron las estancias. En el ensayo utilizamos los datos de una serie de inventarios y de un conjunto de contabilidades de estancias provenientes de los registros de testamentarias. Intentamos mostrar en el trabajo el peso diversificado de los patrones de inversión y la evolución de los costos de los factores de producción. También se plantea tomar en cuenta la rentabilidad que parece haber obtenido los estancieros.

  1. Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O’Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. Methods: We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. Discussion: As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. Conclusion: We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible. PMID:29511602

  2. La industria azucarera en Argentina (1860-1914. El mercado interno en una economía exportadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Román, José Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Tucumán, Argentina, siglos XIX y XX, azúcar, mercado, Estado nacional, finanzas, This article analyzes the origin and consolidation of the sugar industry in Tucumán between 1860 and 1914. This evolutionary approach facilitates the analysis of the Argentinian export economy from an unusual perspective, namely the building of the domestic market, and the development of a sector which was not oriented to the export trade, in a province other than Buenos Aires or la Pampa. It is contended that both aspects were intimately related, since the export boom helped to consolidate a national State which favoured the expansion of the Tucuman sugar industry through reailroad construction, finance aid and tariff protection.

    Este artículo analiza el origen y consolidación de la industria azucarera en Tucumán entre 1860 y 1914. Su evolución permite contemplar el período de esplendor de la economía exportadora argentina desde perspectivas poco habituales: la construcción del mercado interno y el desarrollo de producciones no destinadas al comercio externo en una provincia del interior, en lugar de Buenos Aires o la Pampa. El estudio prueba que ambos aspectos estaban íntimamente relacionados, pues el citado boom exportador ayudó a consolidar un Estado nacional que, en última instancia, propició el auge de la manufactura cañera tucumana mediante el tendido de ferrocarriles, ayudas financieras y protección arancelaria.

  3. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mohammed; Mohamad Fater

    2016-01-01

    Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recordi...

  4. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  5. Daily bread: a novel vehicle for dissemination and evaluation of psychological first aid for families exposed to armed conflict in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khani, A; Cartwright, K; Redmond, A; Calam, R

    2016-01-01

    Risks to the mental health of children and families exposed to conflict in Syria are of such magnitude that research identifying how best to deliver psychological first aid is urgently required. This study tested the feasibility of a novel approach to large-scale distribution of information and data collection. Routine humanitarian deliveries of bread by a bakery run by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) were used to distribute parenting information leaflets and questionnaires to adults looking after children in conflict zones inside Syria. Study materials were emailed to a project worker in Turkey. Leaflets and questionnaires requesting feedback were transported alongside supplies to a bakery in Syria, and then packed with flatbreads. Three thousand bread-packs were distributed, from three distribution points to which questionnaires were returned, and then taken to Turkey and dispatched to the UK. Notwithstanding delays, 3000 leaflets and questionnaires were successfully distributed over 2 days. Questionnaire return yielded 1783 responses, a 59.5% return rate. Overall ratings of the usefulness of the leaflet were 1060 (59.5%) 'quite a lot' and 339 (19.0%) 'a great deal'. Content analysis was used to code 400 respondent comments. Four themes emerged; positive comments about the leaflet, suggestions for modifications, descriptions of children's needs and the value respondents placed on faith. Findings indicate the willingness of NGO staff and volunteers to assist in research, the remarkable willingness of caregivers to respond and the value of brief advice. It demonstrates the scope for using existing humanitarian routes to distribute information and receive feedback even in high-risk settings.

  6. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  7. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  8. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the abundance of armed groups who all need to generate revenue. Secondly, the paper argues that organised crime also affects the intensity and duration of war by enabling militants to reproduce themselves materially and to build institutions amongst the communities where they are active. The relationships between armed groups and local populations emerge as a central theme in understanding the crime-conflict nexus.

  9. The Armenian Repatriation 1908-1914,The Question of Nationality and Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale şıvgın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the rise of the industrial America, the prosperous living conditions in the United States has begun to pull immigrants and hard economic conditions became a powerful driving force behind the immigration. Ottoman emigration to America has approximately the 80-90-year-old history. Ottoman emigration to America has continued between 1908-1914 years even after the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP issued the proclamation of the Constitution. Another feature of migrations in this period, the return of Armenians previously migrated from where they went. This study focused on repatriation of Armenians from United States. The population emigrated from Ottoman Empire to America has been encouraged to return under Tashnak political campaigns. It has been tried to get the picture of repatriation campaigns and politics regarding Armenians and after returnees how the question of nationality and property has been solved by CUP.

  10. Kształtowanie polskości na łamach „Dziennika Kijowskiego” w latach 1914-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Betlii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shaping of Polish Identity in the “Dziennik Kijowski” in 1914-1916 The First World War was a real catalyst for the shaping of national identities in Eastern Europe. Like all wars, it aroused discussions about the future of peoples caught up in the conflict, especially those who did not possess their own statehood. The Polish nation was among them. How did its political elite respond to the beginning of the Great War in Europe, what was discussed and what topics raised by the Polish newspapers, how Poland’s future and Polish identity was seen and determined at that time? In this article I try to answer these questions by analyzing political, social and literary materials in the Polish daily Dziennik Kijowski published in Kyiv in 1906-1920. Based on archival sources, publications of the Dziennik, analysis of the censuses, and historiography, this publication depicts the “Polish Kyiv”, reflects on various opinions about the newspaper’s editorial policies during the war, and defines the main topics that were elaborated by the Dziennik in 1914-1916 regarding Polish identity issues. During this period the newspaper, as well as the majority of members of the Polish community in Kyiv, was loyal to the Russian authorities. At the same time, the Dziennik Kijowski constantly reminded its readers what the Polish identity meant not only by the mere fact that the newspaper was published in the Pollish language, but also by the Polish matters as the contents of its columns.   Kształtowanie polskości na łamach „Dziennika Kijowskiego” w latach 1914-1916 Pierwsza wojna światowa stała się prawdziwym katalizatorem kształtowania tożsamości narodowych w Europie Wschodniej. Jak każda inna wojna wywoływała ona dyskusje o przyszłości narodów wciągniętych w konflikt, zwłaszcza tych, które nie posiadały swojej państwowości. Do takich narodów wówczas należał również naród polski. W jaki sposób polskie elity polityczne

  11. The news is in the frame: A journalist-centered approach to the frame-building process of the Belgian Syria fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to understand the genesis of frame-building based on the early coverage of the Belgian Syria fighters in the four leading newspapers in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. For a period of 6 weeks, a frame analysis of news stories was linked to reconstruction interviews

  12. Anthony Traill (1838-1914), the first Provost to confer degrees on Women Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S

    2015-10-01

    Anthony Traill was born into a Scotch-Irish family at Ballylough House near Bushmills in county Antrim in November 1838. At the age of twenty he entered Trinity College Dublin to study engineering, but he was a professional student who passed through all the faculties and took legal and medical degrees in 1864-1870. He applied his knowledge of physics when advising his brother William who was building the Portrush-Bushmills electric railway. Though he took time off to indulge his athletic abilities, he steeped himself in College affairs and became Provost in March 1904, a post he held until his death in October 1914. His outstanding contribution whilst holding that post was to welcome women with university training into graduation.

  13. Characterization of mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madania, Ammar; Habous, Maya; Zarzour, Hana; Ghoury, Ifad; Hebbo, Barea

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis in Syria, 69 rifampicin resistant (Rif(r)) and 72 isoniazid resistant (Inh(r)) isolates were screened for point mutations in hot spots of the rpoB, katG and inhA genes by DNA sequencing and real time PCR. Of 69 Rif(r) isolates, 62 (90%) had mutations in the rifampin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene, with codons 531 (61%), 526 (13%), and 516 (8.7%) being the most commonly mutated. We found two new mutations (Asp516Thr and Ser531Gly) described for the first time in the rpoB-RRDR in association with rifampicin resistance. Only one mutation (Ile572Phe) was found outside the rpoB-RRDR. Of 72 Inh(r) strains, 30 (41.6%) had a mutation in katGcodon315 (with Ser315Thr being the predominant alteration), and 23 (32%) harbored the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation. While the general pattern of rpoB-RRDR and katG mutations reflected those found worldwide, the prevalence of the inhA(-15C-->T mutation was above the value found in most other countries, emphasizing the great importance of testing the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation for prediction of isoniazid resistance in Syria. Sensitivity of a rapid test using real time PCR and 3'-Minor groove binder (MGB) probes in detecting Rif(r) and Inh(r) isolates was 90% and 69.4%, respectively. This demonstrates that a small set of MGB-probes can be used in real time PCR in order to detect most mutations causing resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid.

  14. The relationship between waterpipe smoking and body weight: population-based findings from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D; Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or "hookah") is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥ 18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79-3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06-7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Oil in Syria between Terrorism and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Almohamad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.

  16. Striking at their Core: De-funding the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Shostak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundraising efforts of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS have impressed academics, journalists, and government officials alike. The literature has thus far explored the methods via which ISIS acquire funds and transfer their proceeds across international borders. This article aims to expand upon these entries by analysing the failures of EU and US policy to counter terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks, particularly with regards to the inability of both entities to adjust to digital transfer methods. The value of military operations will also be discussed within the context of halting the Islamic State’s fundraising capabilities.

  17. The Security Gap in Syria: Individual and Collective Security in ‘Rebel-held’ Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Kadir Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security refers to the general safety of inhabitants and the protection of human rights. This paper compares the security situation in so-called ‘rebel-held’ areas of Syria where alternative governance structures have emerged, examining the security approaches of Local Administrative Councils and Rebel Councils in Deir Azzor, Manbij, Dera, and areas dominated by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD. It argues that security and safety are strongly influenced by authority formation and the nature of deals and relationships involved in the formation of these nascent authorities. It also argues that security in these areas is strongly influenced by the Syrian government, which disrupts collectives that threaten its own collective security while giving limited support to those which serve its agenda of retaining power. It also demonstrates the limited utility of the ‘regime’ vs. ‘rebel-held’ dichotomy, as rebel groups at times must accommodate the Syrian state in limited ways for instrumental purposes. The article is based on fieldwork conducted in Turkey in 2013–2014, interviews conducted in 2015, and secondary sources based on field research.

  18. Between Emotion and Intellect. On the Musical Language of Andrzej Panufnik (1914–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesławska-Lewandowska Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Panufnik’s (1914-1991 key objective as a composer was to achieve a balance between emotion and intellect. The composer very often emphasised the role of the relation between these two elements in his works. This topic is the leitmotiv of texts about his own music left behind by the composer. From those texts, it is clearly evident that symmetry (and in later years also geometry played a central role in the composer’s formal concepts. The impulse for the study of the possibility of using geometric shapes for the construction of musical forms came from his 1972 composition for the BBC television entitled Triangles - for three flutes and three cellos.

  19. Los cuentos de Carmen de Burgos publicados en La Esfera. Ilustración Mundial (1914-1930

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    Arbona Abascal, Guadalupe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of nine short-stories by Carmen de Burgos, Colombine, published in the arts magazine La Esfera. Ilustración de Madrid between 1914 and 1930. All of them have descriptive value and are written in different styles corresponding to the spaces depicted in them. This allows a classification in three groups according to the main traits of the stories. The first group is within a poetic naturalism. The second group is representative of a critical realism perspective, while the third one, more innovative, belongs in a humorous-cosmopolitan realism. All nine short-stories express a socially critical view, structurally ordered, and which reveals itself as the meaning of the texts.Este trabajo aborda el estudio de nueve cuentos de Carmen de Burgos, Colombine, publicados en la revista de arte La Esfera. Ilustración Mundial entre 1914 y 1930. Todos ellos tienen un valor descriptivo y se modulan con diferentes estilos a partir de la visión del espacio. Esto permite una clasificación según los rasgos predominantes de cada uno de ellos: los primeros se enmarcan en una tendencia al naturalismo poético, los segundos son representativos de un realismo-crítico y los terceros, más innovadores, se inscriben en un realismo humorístico-cosmopolita. En todos ellos se descubre un fondo de crítica social, que se ordena en una estructura y se revela como el significado de los textos.

  20. Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Methods Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health ...

  1. ISIS Child Soldiers in Syria: The Structural and Predatory Recruitment, Enlistment, Pre-Training Indoctrination, Training, and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad Almohammad

    2018-01-01

    Research on the engagement of children with the so-called Islamic State (a.k.a. ISIS) relies heavily on the analysis of obtained ISIS documents and ISIS-disseminated propaganda, leaving major elements of the recruitment and deployment process uncovered. Such ambiguities hinder future efforts aimed at dealing with ISIS’ child soldiers. As such, an intensive effort to compile data using interviews and naturalistic observations across ISIS-held territories in Syria was made to exhaustively explo...

  2. Multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial respiratory and urinary infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2015-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.

  3. Caracteres preimaginales y aspectos bionómicos de Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez, V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the morphology and microstructure of the egg chorion, and the morphology of the first instar larva of Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Nycteliini. Bionomical and distributional data on this species are also provided. To obtain eggs and larvae, couples were collected in the field and kept in rearing cages until oviposture and ecclosion. The structure and adornment of the egg exochorion, and the exterior morphological features of larvae were examined with electron scanning microscopy. The eggs of G. luczotii showed a rounded micropyle and a smooth exochorion, composed of hexagonal cells without aeropyles. The larvae of G. luczotii showed morphological characteristics suited for an edaphic life similar to that of Pedobionta: digging prothoracic legs, cephalic capsule with abundant sensilla, and well–developed pygopodium. We analysed the importance of larval morphology as an element for specific diagnosis and found that interspecific differences regarding frontal sensilla, clypeus shape, and anterior part of labrum, had a taxonomic value and possibly a phylogenetic value.

  4. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ricchiardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E. ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation.

  5. Providing surgery in a war-torn context: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Miguel; Dominguez, Lynette; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Kisswani, Katrin; Zerboni, Alberto; Vandenborre, Thierry; Dallatomasina, Silvia; Rahmoun, Alaa; Ferir, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, civil war has crippled Syria leaving much of the population without access to healthcare. Various field hospitals have been clandestinely set up to provide basic healthcare but few have been able to provide quality surgical care. In 2012, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) began providing surgical care in the Jabal al-Akrad region of north-western Syria. Based on the MSF experience, we describe, for the period 5th September 2012 to 1st January 2014: a) the volume and profile of surgical cases, b) the volume and type of anaesthetic and surgical procedures performed, and c) the intraoperative mortality rate. A descriptive study using routinely collected MSF programme data. Quality surgical care was assured through strict adherence to the following minimum standards: adequate infrastructure, adequate water and sanitation provisions, availability of all essential disposables, drugs and equipment, strict adherence to hygiene requirements and universal precautions, mandatory use of sterile equipment for surgical and anaesthesia procedures, capability for blood transfusion and adequate human resources. During the study period, MSF operated on 578 new patients, of whom 57 % were male and median age was 25 years (Interquartile range: 21-32 years). Violent trauma was the most common surgical indication (n-254, 44 %), followed by obstetric emergencies (n-191, 33 %) and accidental trauma (n-59, 10 %). In total, 712 anaesthetic procedures were performed. General anaesthesia without intubation was the most common type of anaesthesia (47 % of all anaesthetics) followed by spinal anaesthesia (25 %). A total of 831 surgical procedures were performed, just over half being minor/wound care procedures and nearly one fifth, caesarean sections. There were four intra-operative deaths, giving an intra-operative mortality rate of 0.7 %. Surgical needs in a conflict-afflicted setting like Syria are high and include both combat and non-combat indications, particularly

  6. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

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    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  7. The quality assurance program data analysis for diagnostic radiology in government hospitals in southern provinces of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Khedr, M. S.; Wannus, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study covered comprehensive evaluation for diagnostic radiography and fluorography equipment used in medicine by applying SAEC quality control rules. The results showed that most of considered x-ray equipment have an acceptable performance but few reached 21.6% in radiography and 36.8% in fluorography need repair and recalibration. Also recommendations and guidance for repair and preventative maintenance are required and quality assurance program should be applied in all diagnostic radiology institutions in Syria.(author)

  8. Representing Distant Victims: The Emergence of an Ethical Movement in Dutch Colonial Politics, 1840-1880

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    Maartje Janse

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to add to our understanding of the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies in the little researched period of 1840-1880 when this relation became politicised. This was a direct result of a new notion of citizenship that developed after the 1848 constitution was implemented: many believed that citizens had now become accountable for government policies, that is, as far as they were acquainted with the effects these had abroad. Colonial issues were among the first for which citizens developed new protest forms and demanded that public opinion should be taken more seriously by the government. This means that not only what happened in the colonies influenced the shape and structure of Dutch politics in an important formative stage, but also that sentiments usually connected to the introduction of the Ethical Policy can be traced back much earlier than isoften assumed.

  9. Kofi Annan, Syria and the Uses of Uncertainty in Mediation

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    Richard Gowan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessary to recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy and his team in early 2012. The Syrian conflict had created serious tensions between the major powers. A Western military intervention appeared unlikely but could not be ruled out with absolute certainty. This commentary contends that Annan’s initial priority was to reduce the level of uncertainty inside and outside Syria, thereby creating a framework for political talks.  However, in lowering the level of uncertainty, Annan reduced his own leverage as the Syrian government correctly concluded that it would not be punished for failing to cooperate in good faith.  The commentary concludes that there are occasions where it is advisable for international mediators to maintain and exploit a degree of uncertainty about how a conflict may develop.

  10. The Dredging of the Sacred Cenote of Chichen Itzá 1904-1914

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    Guillermo Palacios

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the “restoration” of a treasure of incalculable value, taken from Chichen Itzá’s Sacred Cenote with the help of a primitive dredge installed along its edge by Edward H. Thompson, then the U.S. consul in Progreso, and financed by Harvard University’s Peabody Museum and private collectors from the Boston area. This “restoration” began in 1904 and continued up until 1907, with periodic resumptions up until 1909, the year in which Thompson resigned from his consular position, which marked the weakening of the network of complicity that he had been weaving since 1875 to allow him to illegally export hundreds of Maya pieces to the University of Cambridge. The article concludes in 1914, when the violence of the Mexican Revolution unintentionally put an end to the looting of Chichén Itzá.

  11. Progress in life's history: Linking Darwinism and palaeontology in Britain, 1860-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the tension between Darwinian evolution and palaeontological research in Britain in the 1860-1914 period, looking at how three key promoters of Darwinian thinking - Thomas Henry Huxley, Edwin Ray Lankester and Alfred Russell Wallace - integrated palaeontological ideas and narratives of life's history into their public presentations of evolutionary theory. It shows how engagement with palaeontological science was an important part of the promotion of evolutionary ideas in Britain, which often bolstered notions that evolution depended upon progress and development along a wider plan. While often critical of some of the non-Darwinian concepts of evolution professed by many contemporary palaeontologists, and frequently citing the 'imperfection' of the fossil record itself, Darwinian thinkers nevertheless engaged extensively with palaeontology to develop evolutionary narratives informed by notions of improvement and progress within the natural world. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of potato and tobacco isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Syria and the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad CHIKH ALI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV has been reported from potato production areas in Europe, USA, Japan and more frequently in regions with warm climates such as Egypt, India, Saudi Arabia and Syria. As it is considered as an uncommon virus in potato, the characterization of potato isolates of CMV is far behind those from other hosts. In addition to potato, CMV is a common virus infecting many crops in Syria, but nothing is known about its molecular characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize Syrian CMV isolates collected from potato and neighboring tobacco fields. All potato isolates of CMV (total of four co-infected potato plants with Potato virus Y (PVY which is the most frequent potato virus in Syria. According to the sequence analyses of the coat protein (CP coding region, three potato and three tobacco CMV isolates were found to be closely related regardless of the host species or geographic origin, and all belonged to the IA strain subgroup of CMV. A potato CMV isolate, PoCMV7-5, readily infected solanaceous plants in which it induced systemic infection, but was less infectious to other hosts including those of Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae. When inoculated on potato plants, PoCMV7-5 alone or with various PVY strains was able to cause local but not systemic infection in all potato cultivars inoculated. PoCMV7-5 contained heterogeneous variants of satellite RNA which varied in length due to A or/and T deletion/insertion at approximate nucleotide position 225‒240. This is the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato.

  13. Two Branches of the Same Tree: A Brief History of Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society (1914-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Fatih; Erkoç, Şahap; Kardeş, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a brief history of Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society by examining its institutional background, the milestones within its history, and the major activities undertaken by the organization during the years. Firstly, the books, journals, and articles that are related to the history of psychiatry and neurology in Turkey have been reviewed and the information that can explain the history of the society has been brought together. The founding records, regulations, journals, and congress booklets of Tababet-i Akliye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Society of Psychiatry and Neurology) have been examined and the newspapers of the period have been reviewed to collect news concerning congresses and meetings. Besides, oral history interviews have been conducted with regard to the recent history of the society. Although the roots of neuropsychiatry in Turkey date back to the mid-nineteenth century, the first society, which was called Tababet-i Akliye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Society of Psychiatry and Neurology), was founded in 1914. The organization now maintains its activities under the name Türk Nöropsikiyatri Derneği (Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society). Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society has organized monthly meetings, conferences, and national congresses and has published numerous scientific journals in the field of neuropsychiatry over the past century. As one of the earliest societies of medical specialty in Turkey, Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society has played a crucial role in the development and institutionalization of psychiatry and neurology. The administration and activities of the society occurred in the following institutions respectively: Toptaşı Asylum (1914-1925), Bakırköy (1925-1955), and Çapa (Psychiatry Clinic of Medical Faculty of İstanbul University). The society was mainly composed of psychiatrists and neurologists; however, neurosurgeons, psychologists, and neuropsychologists also attended the congresses and meetings held by the

  14. Historiografía del arte prehistórico en la Península Ibérica : I, hasta 1914

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    Eduardo Ripoll Perelló

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Historiografía del arte rupestre de la Península (hasta 1914, en relación con el de otras regiones cercanas. Antecedentes en la literatura y la arqueología. Significado del descubrimiento y valoración del arte mueble del Paleolítico Superior en Francia. La cueva de Altamira, su descubridor M. Sanz de Sautuola y las polémicas a que dio lugar su descubrimiento. La revaloración de la cueva de Santillana por H. Breuil y E. Cartailhac. La actividad exploradora de H. Alcalde del Rio (con la lista de sus descubrimientos. El reconocimiento y valoración de las diferentes facies del arte ruprestre postpaleolítico peninsular.Historiographie der Höhlenlkunst der Iberischen Halbinsel (bis 1914, in Beziehung zur IHóhlenkunst anderer benachbarten Gebiete. Vorkenntnisse der Literatur und der Arctiáologie. Bedeutung der Entdeckung und Einscliatzung der Hocfipaleolittiiscen mobilen Kunst in Frankreicfi. Die Hóhle in Altamira, itir Entdecker M. Sanz de Sautuola und die durch seine Entdeckung verursachten Streitgespráche. Revalorisierung der Hóhle in Santillana von H. Breuil und E. Cartailhac durch geführt. Die Expeditionen von H. Alcalde del Río (mit der Auflistung seiner Entdeckungen. Anerkennung und Einscháttzung der verschiedenen Aspekte der postpaleolithischen Höhlenkunst der Iberischen Halbinsel.

  15. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2010-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (author)

  16. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2008-11-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  17. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mariri, A; Sharabi, N D [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2008-11-15

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  18. Parenthood, child-rearing and fertility in England, 1850-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Siân

    2013-03-01

    Fertility declines across Europe and the Anglo-world have been explained as the result of reversals of intergenerational flows of wealth. According to this theory, the child was transformed from an economically-useful household asset to an emotionally-valued parental burden. This article is based on a comparative study of changing understandings of parenthood in three provincial English localities between 1850 and 1914. It works from the premise that in order to make sense of reproductive behaviour, it is essential to examine the meanings that men and women attached to childlessness, child-rearing and parenthood. It is argued that there was not a universal shift that made children into burdens. New understandings of the duties of parenthood did develop, but these were founded on class-, gender- and place-specific interpretations. These encouraged a minority of fathers and mothers to believe that together they had the capacity to improve the lives of their sons and daughters in pioneering ways. Given that husbands and wives had distinct motives for avoiding rearing many children and that the discussion of reproduction was shrouded in silence, the dissemination and use of new ideals of family was crucial in enabling birth control to be thought about respectably within marriage.

  19. Baczoni, Tamás, Tibor Balla et al. eds. 2014. A Nagy Háború, 1914-1918 - kézzelfogható hadtörténelem (The Great War, 1914-1918 - Tangible Military History]. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó, Honvédelmi Minisztérium Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum munkatársai (Staff of the Institute and Museum of Military History Ministry of Defense. 68 pp. Two DVDs and fifty-six reproduced documentary inserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Deák

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Baczoni, Tamás, Tibor Balla et al. eds. 2014. A Nagy Háború, 1914-1918 - kézzelfogható hadtörténelem (The Great War, 1914-1918 - Tangible Military History]. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó, Honvédelmi Minisztérium Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum munkatársai (Staff of the Institute and Museum of Military History Ministry of Defense. 68 pp. Two DVDs and fifty-six reproduced documentary inserts.

  20. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... system has expanded greatly in recent years, giving a detailed insight into the system of exchange within an urban context. However, its social function as an urban institution has been, by comparison, little considered. This paper will reflect on the shops, their keepers, the suppliers and the patrons...

  1. [Christian Westerhoff. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918, Tilman Plath.Zwischen Schonung und Menschenjagden. Die Arbeitseinsatzpolitik in den baltischen Generalbezirken des Reich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Westerhoff, Christian. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918 (Studien zur historischen Migrationsforschung, 25). Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. Padeborn 2011

  2. La privatización del acueducto de Bogotá: 1887 – 1914 consideraciones históricas sobre la gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Rodríguez Gómez

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este trabajo se describen los antecedentes del abastecimiento de agua para la ciudad de Bogotá a lo largo de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII para llegar, ya en la segunda mitad del siglo XXI, a la definición de sistemas más complejos de administración que condujeron finalmente a la privatización del servicio (1887. Se estudia  luego lo que fue la gestión privada de acuerdo a su fracaso,  después de cerca de tres décadas, que llevó de nuevo a la municipalización (1914. Posteriormente se hace una rápida evaluación de las labores durante los primeros diez años  de gestión municipal (1914 – 1924 que permite plantear algunos criterios para confrontar los dos sistemas de gestión, el privado y el público. El trabajo concluye exponiendo la crisis de la empresa, luego de 1916, que llegaría de 1926. Se cierra así un amplio ciclo analítico que permite elaborar valiosos criterios para el análisis  de la historia empresarial del país.

  3. Is Mirko M. Kosić predicted the Great War in 1914?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper answers the question which was raised in one of the posts of Jovica Trkulja, actually in one of his statements according to which Mirko Kosic predicted the war in 1914. The mentioned question had in the first place opened several more questions. Is it actually possible to predict anything in the science especially in social science? If it is possible what dose it imply? Eventually, keeping all that in mind did Mirko Kosic really predict the war in his papers 'Panermenism' and 'Modern Germany' according to Trkulja? Taking into consideration the thesis about structural symmetry of explanation and prediction as well as the characteristic order of social reality, then the answer is affirmative. Therefore, it can be said that the whole century after the Great War the legacy of domestic sociology but the pride of the science in general as well. Above all, with this paper Mirko M. Kosic is established as a paradigm of thinking and readiness for a sociologist to abandon the research conformism.

  4. Bolwerk van de oude adel? Een kwantitatieve benadering van de adellijke vertegenwoordiging in het Belgische diplomatieke korps (1840-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertjan Leenders

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European diplomatic services in the nineteenth-century have often been characterised as strongholds of the old nobility. This article challenges this hypothesis by proposing a quantitative approach to the representation of the noble class in the Belgian diplomatic corps between 1840 and 1940. It is argued that, in comparison to the situation in the major European countries at that time, the Belgian nobility did not constitute a dominant factor in the diplomatic service, although it was better represented in the higher echelons. Throughout the nineteenth century, the number of aristocrats in the diplomatic service surprisingly rose simultaneously with the democratisation of politics. This re-aristocratisation of the diplomatic career is attributed mainly to the conferment of noble titles to diplomats with a middle-class background. Furthermore, this article will show that the democratisation of the diplomatic corps was a slow and gradual process, spread over the first half of the twentieth century.  De negentiende-eeuwse Europese diplomatieke diensten zijn vaak getypeerd als een bolwerk van oude adellijke families. Dit artikel bestudeert deze hypothese door de adellijke vertegenwoordiging in de Belgische diplomatie tussen 1840 en 1940 op een kwantitatieve manier te benaderen. In vergelijking met de Europese grootmachten van deze periode, vormde de Belgische adel geen dominante factor binnen de Belgische diplomatie, hoewel edelen wel beter vertegenwoordigd waren in de hoogste rangen van de hiërarchie. Verrassend genoeg steeg het aantal edelen aan het einde van de negentiende eeuw, op het moment dat de politiek meer en meer op een democratische basis georganiseerd werd. Deze re-aristocratisering van de diplomatieke carrière is voornamelijk toe te schrijven aan het verlenen van titels aan diplomaten met een burgerlijke achtergrond. Verder toont dit artikel aan dat de democratisering van het diplomatieke korps in de eerste helft van de twintigste

  5. El feminismo y el pacifismo en tiempos de la Gran Guerra europea (1914-19181

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Himelda Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una reinterpretación de los cambios en la vida de las mujeres durante las movilizaciones de la Gran Guerra europea (1914-1918, desde la perspectiva de las redefiniciones de las relaciones de género. Se realiza un recorrido por una selección de historiografía feminista, por fragmentos de la historia crítica de la familia y por datos biográficos y autobiográficos de activistas de los movimientos sufragistas y pacifistas. Se aprecian las reacciones de adhesión de las mujeres a la causa beligerante suscitadas por el patriotismo, su solidaridad con los combatientes sobrevivientes y con sus familias, así como sus críticas pacifistas al militarismo.

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea... CONTROLS Pt. 742, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 742—Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and... terrorism under section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act (EAA). (b) Items controlled under EAA sections...

  7. The impact of living-unrelated transplant on establishing deceased-donor liver program in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2014-10-01

    Liver transplant is the criterion standard for patients with end-stage liver disease. Yet there is no liver transplant in Syria. Traveling abroad for a liver transplant is a luxury few Syrians can afford. There is currently an on-going debate whether to start a liver transplant program using living or deceased donors. In 2003, a new law was enacted, authorizing the use of organs from volunteer strangers and deceased donors. Despite the positive aspects of this law (allowing unrelated donors to increase the number of transplants in the country); the negative aspects also were obvious. The poor used the law to sell their organs to the rich, and this model is in violation of the Istanbul Declaration. To better document transplant communities' perceptions on organ donation, an e-mail survey was sent to a nationally representative sample of physicians (n = 115) that showed that 58% of respondents did not support the start of liver transplant from live donors, as they fear a considerable risk for the donor and the recipient. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe that unrelated kidney donation has contributed to tarnishing the reputation of transplant, and 56% believe that a deceased-donor program can run in parallel with unrelated organ donations. The interest in deceased-donor program has been affected negatively by the systematic approach of using poor persons as the source of the organ. This lack of interest has affected starting a liver program that relies on deceased donors; especially the need for kidneys is more than livers. Health authorities in Syria were inclined to initiate a liver transplant program from live donors, despite the risks of serious morbidities and mortality. In conclusion then, paid kidney donation in actual effect is actually a hindrance to establishing a deceased-donor liver program.

  8. Surnames and genetic structure of a high-altitude Quechua community from the Ichu River Valley, Peruvian Central Andes, 1825-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettener, D; Pastor, S; Tarazona-Santos, E

    1998-10-01

    Changes in isolation, inbreeding, population subdivision, and isonymous relationships are examined in six Quechua communities from the upper valley of the Ichu River in the Peruvian Central Andes (3700 m). All marriages registered between 1825 and 1914 in the Parish of Santa Ana were analyzed. The data (1680 marriages) were divided into 2 periods (1825-1870 and 1871-1914) and into the 6 villages that constitute the parish. Endogamy rates are between 81% and 100%, indicating high levels of reproductive isolation. The inbreeding indicated by isonymy (Ft, Fr, and Fn) is lower than in other mountain populations studied. Isonymy values, calculated from the different surname combinations made possible by the Ibero-American Surnames System, indicate a strong rejection of consanguineous marriages, particularly between patrilineal relatives, in agreement with the parental structure typical of Andean populations. The comparison between observed and expected repeated-pair values reveals a moderate level of subdivision within populations, which could be related to cultural and socioeconomic factors. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to investigate temporal changes in the isonymous relationships among the communities. The results reveal a decrease in the interpopulational variability measured by surnames, in agreement with an increase in exogamy. Surnames and data contained in historical and demographic records yield reliable information, and they can be used to reconstruct the biological history of Amerindian populations over the last few centuries.

  9. The transmissional and functional context of the lexical lists from Ḫattuša and from the contemporaneous traditions in Late-Bronze-Age Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheucher, Tobias Simon

    2012-01-01

    The study attempts to reconstruct aspects of the culture and knowledge transfer as involved in the import of cuneiform writing from Mesopotamia to Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. It therefore analyzes the manuscripts called 'lexical lists' that were excavated at the Anatolian and Syrian

  10. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  11. Chemical and environmental isotope study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Waters from a network of rainfall collection covering mine meteorological stations distributed mainly in the western part of Syria have been assayed using chemical and environmental isotope techniques for a period of 5 months from Dec. 1989 to Apr. 1990. The chemistry of rain waters falling over the mountainous stations shows a low solute concentration (20-105 mg 1 -1 ) compared with those falling over the coastal and anterior stations (50-210 mg 1 -1 ). The rain waters was generally characterized by a high deuterium excess (d=19%) compared with that of typical global meteoric waters (d=10%). The estimated deuterium excess is lower than that for the eastern Mediterranean meteoric waters (d=22%). The altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about - 0.23% and -1.65% per 100 m elevation of δ 1 8 O and δD, respectively. The spatial distribution pattern of tritium contents shows a gradual build up with increasing distance from the Syrian coast. The weighted mean tritium content in rain waters falling over the country is estimated to amount to 9.5 tritium units (TU) during the period of observation. (author)

  12. Modelling the Spatial Isotope Variability of Precipitation in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, Z.; Kattaa, B. [Department of Geology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2013-07-15

    Attempts were made to model the spatial variability of environmental isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H) compositions of precipitation in syria. Rainfall samples periodically collected on a monthly basis from 16 different stations were used for processing and demonstrating the spatial distributions of these isotopes, together with those of deuterium excess (d) values. Mathematically, the modelling process was based on applying simple polynomial models that take into consideration the effects of major geographic factors (Lon.E., Lat.N., and altitude). The modelling results of spatial distribution of stable isotopes ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H) were generally good, as shown from the high correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8), calculated between the observed and predicted values. In the case of deuterium excess and tritium distributions, the results were most likely approximates (R{sup 2} = 0.5-0.6). Improving the simulation of spatial isotope variability probably requires the incorporation of other local meteorological factors, such as relative air humidity, precipitation amount and vapour pressure, which are supposed to play an important role in such an arid country. (author)

  13. Merging airborne and carborne radiometric data for surveying the Deir Az-Zor area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    1997-01-01

    To complete the radiometric map of Syria, and to estimate the natural background radiation levels for environmental monitoring, a carborne survey was undertaken over the Deir Az-Zor area. This area was not covered by a previous airborne survey, except for peripheral regions in the south and west. To complete the radiometric map, results of the carborne and airborne surveys had to be merged. This paper presents the merging procedure which was used after normalizing the two data sets to match each other. No anomalies suitable for radioelement exploration were found. However, the overall radiometric maps resulting from the present work were consistent with the maps of the areas covered by the airborne survey. (author)

  14. A radical proposition: the brief but exceptional history of the Seattle school clinic, 1914-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolworth, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the history of the Seattle school clinic (1914-21) and the efforts of public school administrators to institutionalize a full-service medical program for poor and working class children. At its height, thirty-six volunteer physicians and thirteen partially paid dentists organized within nine departments performed a range of diagnostic and "corrective" surgical procedures, including tonsillectomies, circumcisions, and eye surgeries. These practices were not funded by other public school systems across the United States, almost all of which delineated between prevention and treatment services. This article explains the exceptional nature of the clinic, examines the institutional tensions instigated by the expression of medical authority within the schools, and considers how clinic technologies influenced state-school-child relations.

  15. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  16. Theoretical and experimental estimation of the lead equivalent for some materials used in finishing of diagnostic x-ray rooms in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Suman, H.; Takeyeddin, M.; Suleiman, J.

    2003-11-01

    This work aimed at estimating the lead equivalent values for finishing materials, which are frequently used in Syria. These materials are ceramic and marble. In the past, many studies were performed to estimate the lead equivalent values for different types of bricks, which are widely used in Syria. Therefore, this work could be considered as a follow up in order to be able to estimate the structural shielding of diagnostic X-ray rooms and accurately perform the shielding calculations to reduce unnecessary added shields. The work was done in two ways, theoretical using MCNP computer code and experimental in the secondary standard laboratory. The theoretical work was focused on generalizing the results scope to cover the real existing variations in the structure of the materials used in the finishing or the variations in the X-ray machines. Therefore, quantifying different sources of errors were strongly focused on using the methodology of sensitivity analysis. While, the experiment measurements were performed to make sure that their results will be within the error range produced by the theoretical study. The obtained results showed a strong correlation between theoretical and experimental data. (author)

  17. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MATOS

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  18. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  19. HLA-DRB1 allele association with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility and severity in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Jamil; Monem, Fawza

    2013-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex multifactorial chronic disease. The importance of human leukocyte antigen as a major genetic risk factor for RA was studied worldwide. Although it is widely distributed in different Syrian areas, studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles' role are absent. The aim of our study was to determine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with the susceptibility and severity of RA in Syria. Eighty-six RA patients and 200 healthy controls from Syria were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). Anti-CCP antibodies were measured by ELISA. Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and disease activity score 28 (DAS-28) values were obtained from patients' medical records. DAS-28 was used to assess the clinical severity of the patients. The HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 frequencies showed a strong association with the disease susceptibility (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.11-4.75, P = 0.022; OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 2.0 -4.8, P < 0.0001; OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.51, P = 0.029 respectively), while the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*11, and *13 were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, P = 0.004; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.15-0.69, P = 0.002, respectively). The other HLA-DRB1 alleles showed no significant difference. The frequency of anti-CCP antibodies was higher in shared epitope (SE) positive patients compared with SE-negative patients (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2-15.1, P = 0.00054). DAS-28 of RA patients didn't show significant difference between the SE negative and the SE positive groups. Our results indicate that HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 alleles are related with RA, while HLA-DRB1*11 and *13 protect against RA in the Syrian population.

  20. Study of the techno-economic feasibilities of potato and onion irradiation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used for food preservation in many ways, among them sprout inhibition in onion and potato. Experiments showed that irradiation of these crops using doses between 50 - 150 Gy prevented sprouting for up to 6 months during storage. Priliminary experiments in Syria proved the effectiveness of such treatment in these two crops. In addition to the technical, social, and political feasibility, this study includes, general description of the suggested plant ( 60 Co 3.7 PBq), estimated cost, location, and the tentative operation schedual. The study showed that the cost of irradiation will be about $ 8.7 per ton, this will save the country about $ 3.760.000 per year. The study showed the possitive effect of establishing this plant. (author). 74 refs., 44 tabs., 15 figs

  1. [Red Cross hospital in Krapina, during the First world war from 1914 to 1918].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago

    2016-08-01

    Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience.

  2. Taxonomic review of Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914) [= Lutzomyia marajoensis (Damasceno & Causey, 1944)] and the resurrection of Lutzomyia dubitans (Sherlock, 1962) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciangeli,M. Dora

    1985-01-01

    Examination of the holotype of Lutzomyia marajoensis (Damasceno & Causey, 1944) shows this species to be identical to Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914). The name Lutxomyia dubitans (Sherlock, 1962) is resurrected for another sand fly which has been incorrectly named L. marajoensis since 1961. Newly discovered structural differences between males and females of L walkeri from L. dubitans are presented.Examinando o holótipo de Lutzomyia marajoensis (Damasceno & Causey, 1944), observou-se que e...

  3. La elite económica Argentina, 1810-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Hora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los principales rasgos del sector más poderoso de la elite económica argentina del período 1810-1914. El trabajo discute las principales interpretaciones sobre las características y naturaleza de este grupo, pone de relieve algunas de limitaciones de los enfoques más habituales sobre el tema, y sugiere de qué manera conceptualizarlo de forma productiva. Aunque el objeto de este trabajo es la elite económica, todo análisis de este actor supone a la vez una manera de concebir las características del sistema de poder y del entorno económico en el que se desenvuelve la acción de los hombres de fortuna. Por este motivo, este trabajo formula algunas consideraciones generales sobre las características del Estado (argentino y el capitalismo (pampeano, con el fin de precisar mejor qué tipo de elite económica dominó la producción rural y la economía argentina en el período de crecimiento exportador que se extendió desde la Independencia hasta la Primera Guerra Mundial. El trabajo toma distancia de los estudios que enfatizan la importancia de la dimensión política para explicar el proceso de constitución y reproducción de esta elite económica, enfatizando en cambio los determinantes económicos de este proceso. El ensayo no aporta nueva evidencia empírica, sino una reflexión a partir de la literatura existente.

  4. Las Logias antirrosistas: análisis sobre dos agrupaciones secretas que intentaron derrocar a Juan Manuel Rosas, 1835-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Zubizarreta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the trajectory of two secret organizations that were formed between 1835 and 1840. The first appeared in Uruguay and the second in Buenos Aires, and both were created for the purpose of overthrowing the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas in Argentina. Despite the fact that neither was completely successful in achieving said objective, the article aims to reveal their strategies, their communication systems, their plans and the internal relations among their members. The conclusion is that these lodges played a determining role in the complex machinery of opposition since they constituted an important component in the persistent drive to oust Rosas, which would not be completely successful until the battle that finally liquidated him in Caseros (1852.

  5. KERAGAAN BIOREPRODUKSI DAN PERTUMBUHAN TIGA POPULASI IKAN BAUNG (Hemibagrus nemurus Val. 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Subagja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan baung (Hemibagrus nemurus Val. 1840 termasuk kelompok catfish bernilai ekonomis, di Asia populer dengan nama “green catfish”. Informasi tentang variasi genetik dan keragaan bioreproduksi dari ketiga kandidat populasi hasil kegiatan 2011, yaitu: populasi Cisadane (Sdn, Cirata (Crt, dan Serayu (Sry telah dijadikan informasi dasar dalam keperluan seleksi atau persilangan antar strain agar diperoleh ikan yang cepat tumbuh. Populasi Serayu menunjukkan tingkat variasi genetik paling kecil, namun memiliki aspek bioreproduksi lebih baik, sementara populasi Cirata menunjukkan kekerabatan dan variasi genetik lebih tinggi dari populasi Serayu dan Cisadane. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaan bioreproduksi dan pertumbuhan hasil persilangan dari tiga populasi yang digunakan. Keturunan hasil persilangan antara ketiga populasi telah diamati pada aspek Spesific Growth Rate (SGR, bobot akhir, dan sintasan (SR pada stadia benih umur 42 hari, serta parameter bioreproduksi dari masing-masing populasi induk antara lain: perkembangan gonad, fekunditas, dan indeks ova somatik. Hasil persilangan antara populasi Sdn x Sry menghasilkan nilai heterosis tertinggi pada parameter SGR (8,72%; heterosis sintasan tertinggi dicapai oleh persilangan Sry dengan Sdn (45,45%; sedangkan bobot akhir dicapai oleh persilangan Crt dengan Sdn (22,08%. Persilangan dua arah antara populasi Cisadane dan populasi Cirata adalah persilangan dengan respons tertinggi pada parameter SR dan bobot akhir nilai IOS (Indeks Ova Somatik Cisadane 15,9% dan Cirata 20,7%.

  6. The Military Route of 24 th Infantry Division within the Troops of North-Western, Western and Northern Fronts. 1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Andrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the operational record of 24th infantry division during the First World War within the troops of three fronts (North-Western, Northern and Western. This division was formed in 1863, and in 1892-1895 three of its four regiments were located in Pskov, an old city in the North-West of Russia. The officer staff (their social origin and education by the eve of the First World War as well as the mobilization course at the beginning of the War have been reviewed in the article. On the example of one military unit, typical of the Russian Army, the author analyzes the peculiar features of military operations during the First World War and the role of the division’s participation in several major operations in 1914-1917. They include the Russian Army’s dramatic offensive in East Prussia (summer and autumn 1914, the defensive fighting on the Ravca river (in the beginning of 1915, the offensive of the Russian army in Galicia in 1916 (known as Brusilov Offensive. The article has been finished with the story about the division’s way during the Russian Army’s disintegration in the period of the revolution of 1917. The article is based on the unpublished documents from Russian Military and Historic Archive (Moscow as well as on the press materials.

  7. The Development Local Coffe Grower in the Zone West of Santiago de Cuba Between 1840-1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenis Romero-Fonseca

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The topic related to the history of the French migration to Cuba, the culture and exploitation of the coffee, and the household tasks of the culture of this grain, they have motivated to different historians to the accomplishment of investigations relating to this subject matter. Such it is the case of this work, that local coffee grower tries to analyze the development in the zone west of Santiago de Cuba between 1840-1868. Though the zone was not predominant in the first decades of the 19th century, coffee grower would manage to turn into an important demarcation for the plantation into the second half of this century. The present work contributes to the study of the coffee in this locality and in the oriental region simultaneously that penetrates into the regional history and specifically into the history of the coffee into a period where this product enters decadence.

  8. Analysis of clays from a Hellenistic housing insula in North Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, H.; Bailey, G.; Clayton, E.; Stelcer, E.

    1999-01-01

    Jebel Khalid, on the West bank of the Euphrates River in Northern Syria, has been excavated by an Australian team from Canberra and Melbourne Universities since 1987. It is a Seleucid settlement, probably founded by Seleucus I (one of Alexander's generals who 'inherited' a large tract of his empire) or one of his successors in the early third century BCE. The pottery which is the main subject of this report was all excavated from the housing area, which lies on a south-facing slope facing the higher peak, on which stood the Governor's Palace. Very few whole pots were excavated so we have to rely on diagnostic sherds to recreate the types of vessels used. The volume and range is enormous; it covers large amphorae and jars, cooking pots, kitchen vessels and tableware which can be quite fine. Some of the latter is imported and easily identified as such by its appearance, particularly the even surface of glossy black or glossy red. The majority, however, if painted at all, has a dull red surface, with drips running down. This is what we tend to call 'local' pottery without really knowing where it was made. No kilns have been found on site but would surely have been down in the valley with the source of the clay, near the river for water supply. North Syria has long been suspected of having an important role in pottery production during the Hellenistic period, but no specific site has been proved. Antioch-on-the-Orontes is a strong contender and it seems likely that at least some of the Jebel Khalid pottery was brought in from there. But there must have been a nearer source and we cannot determine the extent and range of imports from Antioch until we can distinguish between the clays. Publications of pottery from Syrian Hellenistic sites (including Antioch) tend to date from early in the century when such analysis was not available, or are often given less attention because they are incidental to the excavation of another earlier period. Where clays are described, it is

  9. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: the Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Melki, Jad; Jabado, May

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that reson...

  10. Objects of utility: cultural responses to industrial collections in municipal museums 1845-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Snape

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1845 and 1914 several municipal museums in Great Britain established an industrial collection of objects relevant to local manufacture. The origins of these collections are found in the 1830s and the reform of design education. Industrial collections assigned an economic function to museums and were contested by critics who maintained that museums should be concerned primarily with fine rather than applied art. It is argued that curatorial decisions on the adoption of industrial collections can be evaluated with reference to contemporary debates on art, design education and the relative values of liberal and applied knowledge. Through case studies of the municipal museums of Birmingham and Preston, this paper assesses contrasting curatorial responses to industrial collections. Adopting Matthew Arnold’s categories of Hebraism and Hellenism as an exploratory framework, it concludes that industrial collections represented materialistic values associated with Hebraism that were directly opposed to the spiritual values associated with Hellenism.

  11. EL RESORTE PRINCIPAL DE LA MÁQUINA. EL PRESIDIO AMBULANTE EN EL ORDEN PORTALIANO. Chile 1830-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivera Tobar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Este artículo analiza al presidio ambulante como una de las formas de disciplinamiento social ejercida por la elite conservadora chilena durante el proceso de diseño y consolidación del Estado tras el fin de las disputas interelitarias (1830-1840, relevando la participación del Ministro Diego Portales. Así, se exploran de manera crítica las distintas funciones de los carros jaulas, la condiciones de vida y mecanismos de resistencia de los presidiarios frente al autoritarismo. A la vez que el rol de este sistema carcelario en vísperas de la Guerra contra la Confederación Peruano-Boliviana, su vinculación con los procesos económicos de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En síntesis, en nuestro estudio se comprende al presidio ambulante como un elemento reflejo de las concepciones que la elite tenía en torno a la posición que cabía a los sectores populares en la construcción de un Estado nacional regido por los principios teóricos del republicanismo. Palabras Claves: Historia Social, Disciplinamiento, Estado Portaliano. ABSTRACT. This article analyzes the “presidio ambulante” (itinerant jail as one device of social discipline imposed by Chile’s conservative elites during the period of State consolidation that followed intra-elite struggles (1830-1840, highlighting the role of Minister Diego Portales. It explores critically the various functions of the “carros jaula” (cage carts, as well as the living conditions and resistance mechanisms displayed by the prison inmates vis-à-vis the authoritarian regime. The role of this disciplinary system on the eve of the war against the Confederacion Perú-Boliviana is also dealt with, including its links with the main economic processes of the early 19th Century. In sum, this study considerers the “presidio ambulante” as a reflection on the elite’s views regarding the role of the popular sectors in the making of a nation-state guided by the principles of republicanism

  12. Jules Cotard (1840-1889): his life and the unique syndrome which bears his name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Gardner-Thorpe, C

    2002-05-14

    Dr. Jules Cotard (1840-1889) was a Parisian neurologist who first described the délire des négations. Cotard's syndrome or Cotard's delusion comprises any one of a series of delusions ranging from the fixed and unshakable belief that one has lost organs, blood, or body parts to believing that one has lost one's soul or is dead. In its most profound form, the delusion takes the form of a professed belief that one does not exist. Encountered primarily in psychoses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, Cotard's syndrome has also been described in organic lesions of the nondominant temporoparietal cortex as well as in migraine. Cotard's delusion is the only self-certifiable syndrome of delusional psychosis. Jules Cotard, a Parisian neurologist and psychiatrist and former military surgeon, was one of the first to induce cerebral atrophy by the experimental embolization of cerebral arteries in animals and a pioneer in studies of the clinicopathologic correlates of cerebral atrophy secondary to perinatal and postnatal pathologic changes. He was the first to record that unilateral cerebral atrophy in infancy does not necessarily lead to aphasia and was also the pioneer of studies of altered conscious states in diabetic hyperglycemia.

  13. Case 3693 Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae): Proposed suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases. 

  14. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajou, J.; Othman, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method was applied to provenance studies of ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. 35 samples were analyzed, where each sample was irradiated 1000 s by sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope source and the elements (As, Ca, fe, Ga, Nb, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn, and Zr) were determined. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). The study show that 94% of the samples can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials. (Authors)

  15. ‘Kulna Suriyyin’ ? The Armenian community and the State in contemporary Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Migliorino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through a brief overview of the Armenian experience in Syria since the 1920s (post-genocide mass resettlement, the article shows that the emergence of centralising, authoritarian regimes in the 1950s and 1960s has substantially restricted the communal autonomy of the Armenians, with the result of damaging their strategy of cultural self-preservation. The article critically suggests, however, that since President Hafiz Al-Asad seized power in 1970, the position of the Armenian community has partially recovered. While officially denying their relevance, the Syrian regime has continued to use ethnic and sub-ethnic allegiances as channels to connect with components of the Syrian society. This context has created for the Armenians some protected spaces where the community could continue to preserve – within certain limits, and among increasing economic difficulties - its diversity.

  16. La red de revistas latinoamericanas en París (1907-1914. Condiciones y mediaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Merbilhaá

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an encompassing approach of four reviews published in Paris by Enrique Gómez Carrillo, Rubén Darío, Francisco García Calderón and Leopoldo Lugones between 1907 and 1914. First, I will identify the context that surrounded the publication of El Nuevo Mercurio, Mundial Magazine, La Revista de América y la Revue Sud-Américaine. Second, by considering the reviews as well as the letters and memoirs of the aforementioned Latin American writers living in Paris in the early XX Century, I will focus on the common features of their publishing projects. Henceforth, I will tackle down the specifics aspects of Latin American reviews in Paris –such as their sub-continental and international mediating role–, and I will relate them to some of the cultural and social processes of the period.

  17. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospects of the Syria conflict’s settlement in the context of the exasperation of Russian-American relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of the Syria conflict’s settlement in the context of exasperation of Russian-American relations have been investigated. Nowadays this conflict is one of the largest centers of danger in the world. Moreover, after the intervention of Russian Federation and United States of America in the conflict, it gained even greater complexity, contradictions and urgency. We should say that after analyzing the positions of participants of the conflict, it is clear that the rapid resolution of the situation shouldn’t be expected. Such factors as differences in views and positions, antagonistic mood, uncompromising, aggressive behavior, the prevalence of power factor, terrorist activity and others do not allow improving the performance reconciliation of the parties’ process. Important thing is that exasperation of Russian-American relations is one of the key negative external factors, which makes it impossible to establish meaningful strategic dialogue between the conflicting parties. The process of further settlement will depend on how quickly Russian and American parties will find understanding regarding key issues of the conflict. Not less important is the conflict settlement processes. Now this process seems to be very complicated. Divergence of interests and views of direct participants and key «players» Russia and the United States do not allow to speak about the presence of compromise and constructive dialogue. If they are not achieved soon, it can lead to unpredictable consequences, such as the expansion of «geography» of the conflict or its transfer to other areas. We should pay attention to the fact that further exasperation of Russian-American relations may cause open military confrontation between this two countries about which people have recently started talking more often. This confrontation complicates not only the progress of the conflict, but also creates some additional problems that affect negatively the dynamic of

  19. Survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Khedr, M. S.; Wannus, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing eight routine common types of X-ray examination in Syria. These types cover chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head and shoulder. This work consisted of measurements for 926 X-ray examinations for patients in 26 governmental hospitals. The mean and third quartile of the dose area product (DAP) to each patient per examination have been measured. The corresponding average effective doses have been computed from the DAP measurement for each examination using NRPP X-Dose software. Comparison of the results was done with those from similar surveys published by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000, 2007). The present measurements will provide a useful baseline to establish, for the first time, national diagnostic reference levels. These results can be used in the future to evaluate the collective dose to the population from medical exposure and the radiation risks from the various radiological procedures. (authors)

  20. Etude de la fécondité du silure Africain Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1840 en conditions d'élevage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla, YL.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Reproduction and Fecundity of the African Catfish Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire, 1840. Through the artificial reproduction of Heterobranchus bidorsalis, fecundity of females, characteristics of oocytes and larvae after hatching were determined. Mean absolute and relative fecundity were respectively 140,440 ± 82,168 oocytes and 47.30 ± 17.94 oocytes per g of body weight. Hormonal injection to females increased weight and diameter of oocytes. Fertilization and hatching rates were significantly correlated (r= 0.93 but were relatively weak. The mean value of larval length, weight and their yolk sac diameter were respectively 4.37 ± 0.20 mm; 1.42 ± 0.13 mg and 1.95 ± 0.14 mm.

  1. Modern Processing Capabilities of Analog Data from Documentation of the Great Omayyad Mosque in Aleppo, Syria, Damaged in Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.; Raeva, P.; Hůlková, M.

    2017-08-01

    In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today's technologies.

  2. MODERN PROCESSING CAPABILITIES OF ANALOG DATA FROM DOCUMENTATION OF THE GREAT OMAYYAD MOSQUE IN ALEPPO, SYRIA, DAMAGED IN CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavelka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today’s technologies.

  3. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios; Syrie, Iran: et maintenant? Trois scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno [Fondation pour la recherche strategique, 4 bis rue des Patures 75016 Paris (France)

    2013-10-15

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  4. Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces: Pimelodidae from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIDELLI G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species is of the genus Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 described, Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp., digenetic parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species has been thus included because of the presence of separate dorsal genital pores, while differing from other species of the same genus mainly in digestive apparatus features, genital pore position, and infection site. Emendation of generic diagnosis is included.

  5. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  6. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.; Othman, I.; Karajou, J.

    2001-01-01

    The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method was applied to studies of the provenance of the ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. The samples were irradiated 1000s by a 109 Cd radioisotope source and 13 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in 35 samples. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal components analysis (PCA). It was shown from the combination of the statistical techniques and the determination of elemental composition of the samples that 94% of the ceramic samples analyzed can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials

  7. Lethal differences: a short history of the concepts of wealth and poverty in Danish epidemiological writings, 1858-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ivan Lind

    2011-01-01

    Through a study of the history of the concepts of wealth and poverty, this paper investigates the onset of a tradition in the conceptual architecture of epidemiological research concerning social differences in mortality rates from 1858 to 1914. It raises the question as to what the concepts of wealth and poverty meant to those who used them and what objects of interventions the conceptual architecture surrounding the concepts enabled the researchers to create. It argues that a transition began in the late 19th century in which an important framework for the understanding of causal relations behind the mortality patterns changed and that this change in turn influenced the scope of what was conceived as relevant objects of intervention.

  8. The history of transdisciplinary race classification: methods, politics and institutions, 1840s-1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Richard

    2018-03-01

    A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization. This is especially the case for the less well-studied nineteenth century, when disciplines and challenges to disciplinary specialization were both gradually emerging. Like Marxism or structuralism, race classification was a holistic interpretive framework, which, at its most ambitious, aimed to structure the human sciences as a whole. It resisted the organization of academia and knowledge into disciplines with separate organizational institutions and research practices. However, the 'transdisciplinarity' of this nationalistic project also bridged emerging borderlines between science and politics. I ascribe race classification's simultaneous longevity and instability to its complex and intricately entwined processes of political and interdisciplinary coalition building. Race classification's politically useful conclusions helped secure public support for institutionalizing the coalition's component disciplines. Institutionalization in turn stimulated disciplines to professionalize. They emphasized disciplinary boundaries and insisted on apolitical science, thus ultimately undermining the 'transdisciplinary' project.

  9. The source of solar energy, ca. 1840-1910: From meteoric hypothesis to radioactive speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J.R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-heat energy conversion was proposed by H. Helmholtz in 1854 and further developed by W. Thomson. For more than forty years the once so celebrated Helmholtz-Thomson contraction theory was accepted as the standard theory of solar heat despite its prediction of an age of the Sun of only 20 million years. In between the gradual demise of this theory and the radically different one based on nuclear processes there was a period in which radioactivity was considered a possible alternative to gravitational contraction. The essay discusses various pre-nuclear ideas of solar energy production, including the broader relevance of the question as it was conceived in the Victorian era.

  10. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from 01 January 1914 to 12 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1914 to 31 December 1999....

  11. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  12. Tele-Pediatric Intensive Care for Critically Ill Children in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghbeis, Muhammad Bakr; Steffen, Katherine M; Braunlin, Elizabeth A; Beilman, Gregory J; Dahman, Jay; Ostwani, Waseem; Steiner, Marie E

    2017-12-12

    Armed conflicts can result in humanitarian crises and have major impacts on civilians, of whom children represent a significant proportion. Usual pediatric medical care is often disrupted and trauma resulting from war-related injuries is often devastating. High pediatric mortality rates are thus experienced in these ravaged medical environments. Using simple communication technology to provide real-time management recommendations from highly trained pediatric personnel can provide substantive clinical support and have a significant impact on pediatric morbidity and mortality. We implemented a "Tele-Pediatric Intensive Care" program (Tele-PICU) to provide real-time management consultation for critically ill and injured pediatric patients in Syria with intensive care needs. Over the course of 7 months, 19 cases were evaluated, ranging in age from 1 day to 11 years. Consultation questions addressed a wide range of critical care needs. Five patients are known to have survived, three were transferred, five died, and six outcomes were unknown. Based on this limited undertaking with its positive impact on survival, further development of Tele-PICU-based efforts with attention to implementation and barriers identified through this program is desirable. Even limited Tele-PICU can provide timely and potentially lifesaving assistance to pediatric care providers. Future efforts are encouraged.

  13. Characteristics and outcome of critically ill patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadat, Reem; Dakak, Abdulrahman; Mazlooms, Mouna; Ghadhban, Ghasan; Fattoom, Shadi; Betelmal, Ibrahim; Abouchala, Nabil; Kherallah, Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical features, and outcome of severe cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infections who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) in Damascus, Syria. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, we collected clinical data on all patients who were admitted to the ICU with confirmed or suspected diagnosis of severe 2009 H1N1 influenza A with respiratory failure at 4 major tertiary care hospitals in Damascus, Syria. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II system was used to assess the severity of illness within the first 24 h after admission. The outcome was overall hospital mortality. Results: Eighty patients were admitted to the ICU with severe 2009 H1N1 infection. The mean age was 40.7 years; 69.8% of patients had ≥1 of the risk factors: asthmatics 20%, obesity 23.8%, and pregnancy 5%; and 72.5% had acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome, 12.5% had viral pneumonia, 42.5% had secondary bacterial pneumonia, and 15% had exacerbation of airflow disease. Mechanical ventilation was required in 73.7% of cases. The mean hospital length of stay was 11.7 days (median 8 days, range 0–77 days, IQR: 5–14 days). The overall mortality rate was 51% for a mean APACHE II score of 15.2 with a predicted mortality of 21% (standardized mortality ratio of 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.7–3.2, P value < 0.001). Conclusion: Critically ill patients with severe 2009 H1N1 infection in this limited resource country had a much higher mortality rate than the predicted APACHE II mortality rate or when compared with the reported mortality rates for severe cases in other countries during 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PMID:23210019

  14. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  15. Application of multivariate statistical methods to classify archaeological pottery from Tel-Alramad site, Syria, based on x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    Radioisotopic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been utilized to determine the elemental composition of 55 archaeological pottery samples by the determination of 17 chemical elements. Fifty-four of them came from the Tel-Alramad Site in Katana town, near Damascus city, Syria, and one sample came from Brazil. The XRF results have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis, in order to determine similarities and correlation between the selected samples based on their elemental composition. The methodology successfully separates the samples where four distinct chemical groups were identified. (author)

  16. [Larval biology of Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, a habronemid nematode parasite of the francolin in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seureau, C; Quentin, J C

    1983-01-01

    Larval biology of the habronemid nematode Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, parasite of the Double-spurred Francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus, in Togo, is experimentally studied with the orthopteran Acrididae Tylotropidius patagiatus Karsch as intermediate host. The first three larval stages are described and illustrated. Infective larvae, which occur after two weeks of development at 30 degrees C, are unusually large (3 mm). The biology of this habronemid nematode is compared with the biology of the other Spirurids. It differs by: --an asynchronous penetration of the first stage larvae in the insect adipose tissue, --a short stay in this tissue (about 5 days) with a cell reaction of encapsulation, followed by an active escape of second stage larvae out of their capsule, --free and movable infective larvae in the hemocoele of the insect.

  17. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, R; Issa, H; Abed-Allah, Y D; Bakraji, E H

    2015-11-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Biological cycle of Cyrnea (Procyrnea) mansoni Seurat, 1914, a habronemid nematode parasite of birds of prey in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Seureau, C; Railhac, C

    1983-01-01

    A habronemid nematode in birds of prey, Milvus migrans Bonaparti and Accipiter badius Linné, in Togo, is identified as Cyrnea (Procyrnea) mansioni (Seurat, 1914). Larval development is experimentally studied in the orthopteran Acrididae Tylotropidius patagiatus Karsch. The first three larval stages are described and illustrated. The biology of this spiruroid nematode is distinguished by the unusual rapidity of larval development (infective larvae at 10 days). Comparison of the life cycle of C. mansioni with life cycles of other Habronemid Nematodes parasitizing birds, points out an evolution of larvae from primitive forms of large size and slow development to evolved forms of small size and rapid development. Observations concerning the encapsulation of infective larvae in the intermediate host confirm this larval evolution.

  19. Contribution of katG, ahpC and inhA mutations to the detection of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Lebanon and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Dabboussi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the pyrosequencing applied to katG, inhA promoter and ahpC-oxyR intergenic region was able to detect a relatively large proportion of Syrian INH-resistant MTB isolates (80.7% in Syria. This strategy may be inappropriate for Lebanese strains, as the genetic mechanisms of resistance remain unidentified for approximately half of the isolates, so it is quite possible to detect the presence of other mechanisms of resistance.

  20. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  1. African arts between curios, antiquities, and avant-garde at the Maison Brummer, Paris (1908-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaëlle Biro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Before World War I, Hungarian-born art dealer Joseph Brummer (1883-1947 developed in Paris an extensive trade network through talented salesmanship and brilliant art selections. Helped by his brothers Imre (1889-1928 and Ernest (1891-1964, he promoted original art-forms that were not previously integral to the Western art canon. Juxtaposing works from Africa with art of Medieval Europe, Ancient Greece and Rome, as well as creations by living artists, the Maison Brummer blurred the boundaries that existed between these fields of collecting and was instrumental in awakening the interest of many collectors and museum professionals. Despite the Brummer brothers’ extensive international dealership and the fame of the collections they helped build, only recently has in depth scholarship begun to explore their activities. Using an array of unpublished archival documents and little-examined written accounts, this paper focuses on the early history of the Maison Brummer before its expansion to New York in 1914.

  2. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  3. Modelling of Informal Settlement Growth with Satellite Data in Latakia City,Syria

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    Yahya Ghassoun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to social, economic and political reasons, informal settlements are considered as a challenging problem in the third world countries. These create problems to the society and to the local government. The present study aims to discuss informal settlements of Latakia city (Syria during 1970 and 2005 using satellite data. Where based on all the information available, until today the present study is the first one carried out in Syria concerning the development of informal settlements. In this study, we put a headline to solve the informal settlement problem in Latakia city by achievement 4 goals: • INCORPORATION: This goal requires that the inhabitants of an informal settlement are recognized as full citizens of the city, town or village with which they are associated.• IMPROVEMENT: This goal requires an integrated approach to development, that seeks to meet the most important needs of the whole community. It also requires that those needs and priorities are determined by all the stakeholders. The choice of strategies also requires an inclusive process that takes all factors into account. • DEVELOPMENT: The vital elements of this goal are the provision of opportunities and encouragement. • PLANNING: This goal includes, Anticipate the future. Identification and addressing the implications for the informal settlements in a comprehensive manner. We suggested 4 guiding principles to achieve the previous goals: • Integration: Considering the informal settlements as a part of the whole city, is a very important point in the integration process. • Participation: Participation of people and groups of people with the local authority effectively in a process. • Communication: communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, information and meeting between people and the authority. • Minimum relocation: is to provide the people with opportunities to stay and settle, because every move is disruptive and costly. Also in the present study

  4. [Doctor Albéric Pont (1870-1960). Dental surgeon, doctor and creator of the center of maxillo-facial surgery of Lyon in 1914].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    As Stomatologist and Dental Surgeon Albéric Pont founded with six other Dental Surgeons the School of Dentistry in Lyons which he ran for a long time. When he enlisted in the French Army in 1914 he soon became aware of the extent of facial damage that occurred among the injured soldiers. His subsequent decision was to create and run a Centre for maxillofacial surgery in Lyons. He died in 1960 and left a significant scientific work as well as technical elements of surgery, dental index and devices which still bear his name.

  5. Prevalence of herpes simplex types 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, immunoglobulin G antibodies among female university students in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barah, Faraj

    2012-09-01

    To examine the current seroepidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig)G for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV 1-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) among university females of childbearing age in Syria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the female students of the Pharmacy College, Kalamoon University, Deratiah, Syria, where 316 sera were collected from October 2009 to November 2010, and subjected to HSV 1-2, VZV, and CMV IgG screening and titration using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based techniques in the Microbiology Laboratory. A total of 164 participants were positive for HSV 1-2 IgG giving a prevalence of 52%, leaving a relatively high proportion of susceptibility among the tested group. For VZV, 91% of the participants (n=287) were positive for its specific IgG, while, regarding CMV, 74.5% (n=235) were positive, and 25.5% were negative for CMV specific IgG. Although most participants were seropositive for herpes viruses IgG, suggesting a natural virus circulation within the community, screening for protective immunity is suggested against HSV, since a relatively high proportion of tested females are still susceptible. In addition, and because of its nasty outcomes during pregnancy, IgG against CMV should also be tested. High percentage of positivity towards VZV could be explained due to introduction of the new vaccine program, and therefore, further analysis during pregnancy is not recommended.

  6. Germination of somatic embryos of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems

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    Jorge Vilchez Perozo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryo germination of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems (TIS, in which somatic embryos were cultured in the heart-torpedo stage in MS mediun at mayor half strength salt and suplemented with: 0.25 mg.l-1 of 6-bencilaminopurine (6-BAP, 10 mg.l-1 of Biobras-6 (analogous of brasinoesteriode and 20 g.l-1 of sucrose. As control was used solid cultivation medium (2.5 g.l-1 Gellan gum, Spectrum® of same composition to the one used in the TIS. The variables germination percentage and fresh weight were evaluated statistically. After ten weeks of cultivation the largest values in germination percentage (91.04% and fresh weight (1.22 g were obtained in the TIS, being statistically different to those obtained in solid medium (9.79% and 1.03 g, respectively. Key words: in vitro plant, guayaba, regeneration, RITA®,somatic embryogenesis

  7. UNA CIUDAD PARALELA DE LAS MUJERES: LA RED DE CLUBS Y ASOCIACIONES FEMENINOS EN LONDRES (1859–1914 / A parallel city of women: the network of female associations and clubs in London (1859–1914

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    Nuria Alvarez-Lombardero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Entre mediados del siglo XIX y principios del XX la ciudad de Londres sufrió una radical transformación social y espacial convirtiéndose en una ciudad moderna. Entre estos procesos de transformación se encuentra la división de la ciudad en términos de género consecuente con la implementación progresiva de los códigos morales evangélicos imperantes en la sociedad de la época. No obstante, entre 1859 y 1914, un grupo de mujeres rompieron estas divisiones a través de distintos mecanismos de acción utilizados para reclamar tanto sus derechos como ciudadanas como un lugar en la esfera pública urbana. Entre estos mecanismos se encuentra la progresiva apertura de espacios de asociación como estrategia de infiltración en una ciudad exclusivamente masculina. El surgimiento de clubs y asociaciones femeninos consolidó una sólida red relacional que posteriormente eclosiona con las grandes marchas sufragistas en el espacio público a principios del siglo XX. A través de esta primera red de lugares se evidencia una ciudad paralela de las mujeres definida por unos mapas alternativos de la ciudad, que serían, no obstante, largamente marginados por la historiografía moderna. SUMMARY Between mid-nineteenth and early twentieth century, London underwent a radical social and spatial transformation to become a modern city. A key part of this transformation process is a gendered division of the city related to a progressive implementation of evangelical moral codes prevailing in the society of that time. However, between 1859 and 1914, a group of women broke these divisions through different mechanisms of action to reclaim both a place in the urban public sphere and their citizen rights. Among these mechanisms, there is a strategy of infiltration in this male town that is implemented through a progressive opening of spaces of association. The progressive opening of women’s clubs and associations consolidated a solid relational network

  8. Spanish Mystic Women of the Golden Century within the Ottoman Empire: Seven Arabic Manuscripts Found in Aleppo (Syria

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    Francisco Fernando del Río Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the existence of seven manuscripts conserved in three different collections of Aleppo (Syria: the Greek-Catholic/Melkite, the Georges and Mathilde Salem Foundation and the Maronite libraries. These seven co­pies contain the Arabic translations of some mystical works written by two mystic women of the Spanish Golden Century, Teresa de Ávila and María de Ágreda. The history of these Arabic versions, translated right in the heart of the Ottoman Arabic provinces, constitutes an interesting object of study that is directly linked with the manner in which many  European Western works passed to the Mediterranean Levant during the 16th and 17th centuries.

  9. A importância forense de Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae

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    Camila Kraiczyi Kotzko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxelytrum discicolle Brullé, 1840 é a espécie mais coletada de Silphidae (Coleoptera na América Latina, constituindo um indicador forense na região Neotropical. O objetivo do trabalho é reunir informações sobre biologia e distribuição de O. discicolle, além de ferramentas para utilização desse besouro como indicador forense em casos de morte de humanos. O. discicolle é um besouro de grande porte, de cor preta com um colar vermelho. Larvas da espécie são necrófagas, já os adultos são onívoros e se alimentam tanto de larvas de dípteros quanto da própria carcaça. Nossa revisão aponta que a espécie reduz seu tempo de desenvolvimento conforme a temperatura aumenta, sugerindo que a taxa de desenvolvimento é diferente entre as temperaturas. Estudos mostram que a espécie O. discicolle é um forte indicador forense, porém para que ocorra o avanço das pesquisas de Entomologia Forense em humanos no Brasil é necessário que os Institutos de Criminalística publiquem mais dados sobre insetos que os colonizam. Além disso, são necessários mais estudos em carcaças de animais em diversas regiões e biomas diferentes, desta forma pode ser montado um mapa de distribuição da espécie em nível nacional.

  10. A Blend of Romanism and Germanism: Experimental Science Instruction in Belgian State Secondary Education, 1880-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2013-04-01

    A case study of secondary experimental science instruction in Belgium demonstrates the importance of cross-national communication in the study of science education. Belgian secondary science education in the years 1880-1914 had a clear internationalist dimension. French and German influences turn out to have been essential, stimulated by the fact that Belgium, as a result of its geographical position, considered itself as the centre of scientific relations between France and Germany, and as actually strengthened by its linguistic and cultural dualism in this regard. This pursuit of internationalist nationalism also affected the configuration of chemistry and physics as experimental courses at Belgian Royal State Schools, although the years preceding WWI are usually characterized as a period of rising nationalism in science, with countries such as Germany and France as prominent actors. To what extent did France and Germany influence Belgian debates on science education, science teachers' training, the use of textbooks, and the instalment of school laboratories and teaching collections?

  11. Introduction to Special Issue "War Graves / Die Bauaufgabe Soldatenfriedhof, 1914-1989"

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    Fuhrmeister, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Commemoration of the dead is intricately linked to the history of civilization itself. Consequently, art history (understood in a broad sense, encompassing architectural history, social history of art, aesthetics, political iconography, etc. is characterized by a long tradition of paying minute attention to Christian and profane iconography of chapels, epitaphs, and death dances; and to memorials, tombs, and other manifestations, particularly with regard to the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. Twentieth century war graves, war cemeteries, memorial shrines, and burial sites of the fallen, however, have received only little attention. This assessment was the starting point of our joint endeavor: If the history of conflicts and wars, and the history of war death in particular, is such a major topic for the humanities at large, and especially for contemporary and cultural history, memory studies, etc., then the question arises to what degree art history can contribute to that ongoing discourse. Sketching a Potentially Global Field of Research Table of Contents Acknowledgements Sources and Materials Basic Research on War Graves and War Cemeteries in The Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin / Kriegsgräber im Politischen Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes in Berlin The Archive of the German War Graves Commission in Kassel / Das Archiv des Volksbundes Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. in Kassel War Graves, War Cemeteries, and Memorial Shrines since 1914: A Selected Bibliography Selected Printed Source Material

  12. "How nationality influences Opinion": Darwinism and palaeontology in France (1859-1914).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Claudine

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the "non-reception" of Darwin's works and concepts in French palaeontology and palaeoanthropology between 1859 and 1914. Indeed, this integration was difficult, biased and belated, for ideological, intellectual and epistemological reasons: Clémence Royer's biased 1862 translation of Darwin's Origin of Species pulled its ideas toward "social darwinism", making them less attractive to the natural sciences. - French nationalism and the authority of religion, which imposed Cuvier's thinking until late into the century - the dominance of Lamarckian and neo-Lamarckian transformism in France, both in biology and in paleontology, which proposed the notion of orthogenetic laws and environmental determinations, and refused darwinian evolutionary mechanisms - obstacles inherent to the application of Darwin's concepts to palaeontology, namely the impossibility to identify evolutionary mechanisms through the fossil record, which was stressed by Darwin himself and underlined in turn by 19th century French palaeontologists. However, as I argue, in the course of the examined period, French palaeontology grew from refusal to a better understanding and evaluation of Darwin's thinking. The quest for intermediary forms, the construction of branching evolutionary trees and the attempts to reconstruct human biological and cultural evolution were important efforts toward an integration of some aspects of Darwinian views and practices into French palaeontology and plaeoanthropology. The 1947 Paris conference which brought together American Neo-darwinists and French paleontologists made Darwinian concepts better understood and triggered a revival of French palaeontology from the 1960s. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

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    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  14. Evaluation of the Quality Control Program for Diagnostic Radiography and Fluoroscopy Devices in Syria during 2005-2013

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    M. H. Kharita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive use of diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to total population radiation doses. Thus, appropriate equipment and safe practice are necessary for good-quality images with optimal doses. This study aimed to perform quality control (QC audit for radiography and fluoroscopy devices owned by private sector in Syria (2005-2013 to verify compliance of performance of X-ray machines with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. Materials and Methods: In this study, QC audit included 487 X-ray diagnostic machines, (363 radiography and 124 fluoroscopy devices, installed in 306 medical diagnostic radiology centers in 14 provinces in Syria. We employed an X-ray beam analyzer device (NERO model 8000, Victoreen, USA, which was tested and calibrated at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory traceable to the IAEA Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Standard QC tool kits were used to evaluate tube and generator of the X-ray machines, which constituted potential (kVp, timer accuracy, radiation output consistency, tube filtration, small and large focal spot sizes, X-ray beam collimation and alignment, as well as high- and low-resolution and entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy. Results: According to our results, most of the assessed operating parameters were in compliance with the standards stipulated by the National Regulatory Authority. In cases of noncompliance for the assessed parameters, maximum value (28.77% pertained to accuracy of kVp calibration for radiography units, while the lowest value (2.42% belonged to entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy systems. Conclusion: Effective QC program in diagnostic radiology leads to obtaining information regarding quality of radiology devices used for medical diagnosis and minimizing the doses received by patients and medical personnel. The findings of this QC program, as the main part of QA program, illustrated that most

  15. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

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    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  16. The Meeting (Slet оf the Czech Sokol Movement in Brno on June 27-28, 1914

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    Kotov Viktor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to the so called slet of the Czech Sokol (Falcon movement which took place on June 27–28, 1914 in Brno, the capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia, which was a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Czech Sokol Union was one of the most powerful nationalistic organizations in the country. Sport was primary, but not the only agenda of the Sokol movement, which was advancing Czech interests since 1862. This festival held on 27th and 28th of June 1914 was the last major Sokol event before the outbreak of World War I. The slet is examined as yet another episode of the national conflict between Czechs and Germans in the region. Officially it took place not in Brno, but in the nearby town of Královo Pole (“King’s field”, where the local authorities were Czech. In fact, this place was one of the urban districts of Brno, but the German-led town council kept it independent not to let the local Czech inhabitants vote at the elections. More then 100 000 participants and spectators of the slet wanted to turn some of the Czech-speaking locals, who were indifferent to the national cause or preferred the German identity, into Czechs and to proclaim Brno a Czech city. In this argument they relied on so called historical and natural rights at the same time. This desire inevitably led to the street clashes. At that time Brno was visited by lots of journalists and public figures from Serbia, Russian Empire and the Slovak lands. The slet was not only a major sporting event, but also a unique opportunity to promote Moravian cultural and artistic trends to the world. Elaborately prepared, the slet was cancelled on its second day, when the information from Sarajevo about an Archduke Franz Ferdinand being assassinated came. The Sokols in Lviv experienced a similar turn of events, when their celebration of the 200th anniversary of Taras Shevchenko’s birth was cancelled due to the bad news from Bosnia. Brno

  17. `Science to the Glory of God'. The Popular Science Magazine Ibérica and its Coverage of Radioactivity, 1914-1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, Néstor

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a first approach to the history of Ibérica, one of the most important popular science magazines published in Spain before the Civil War. Founded in 1914 by members of the Society of Jesus based at the Ebro Observatory, Ibérica reached a weekly circulation of about 10,000 in the mid 1920s, and was instrumental in extending science education in Jesuit education facilities and in developing a "reactionary modernist" culture that embraced Catholicism and modernisation. By focusing on its coverage of radioactivity and the radium industry, the article aims to examine the magazine's popularising style and ideology, and to determine its role in the debates regarding the cultural value of science in the first decades of twentieth century Spain.

  18. LA LLEGADA DE LA ESCUELA Y LA LLEGADA A LA ESCUELA: LA EXTENSIÓN DE LA EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE, 1840-1907

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    Macarena Ponce de León Atria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo comprender el proceso de expansión del sistema de instrucción primaria estatal, durante su período de formalización y consolidación territorial. Entre 1840 y 1907 la multiplicación de las escuelas y el avance de la matrícula tuvieron ritmos ascendentes, pero su cronología y su distribución geográfica a lo largo del país no siempre fueron fenómenos paralelos. Esta constatación hace necesario reconstruir desde la evidencia empírica tales ritmos, para demostrar que la extensión de la escuela y el acceso a ella fueron procesos vinculados pero no mecánicos, y que el patrón de asentamiento rural de la sociedad chilena estuvo en la base de los bajos índices de escolariza-ción y asistencia del siglo, porque determinó la construcción de una red escolar urbana, dejando fuera de las escuelas a dos tercios de la población diseminada por los campos.The objective of this article is to understand the process of expansion of the system of public primary education during the period of territorial formalization and consolidation. Between 1840 and 1907 the multiplication of schools and the rate of enrollment increased, but the chronology and geographical distribution throughout the country were not always parallel phenomena's. This discovery makes it necessary to reconstruct from the evidence certain trends, in order to demonstrate that the extension of schooling and the access to it were processes that were closely linked but whose connection was not mechanical in nature. Moreover the pattern of rural settlement in Chilean society was at the bottom in both the scholarly index and the attendance of students during this period, because it determined the construction of a urban network of schools, leaving two thirds of the population disseminated in the countryside out the system.

  19. Automation of the environmental data resulting from the application of the national program to the environmental observer in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Mouna, M.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Amin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a computer program has ben prepared to manage the environmental data of the results of the different analyzed environmental samples (soil, water and air), which collected from different places in syria and analyzed by environmental protection division in the Department of Protection and Safety. This program was designed to display the results of these analyzed samples. In addition, the calculations of some environmental factors such as inventory of radionuclides in soil, transfer factor of soil to plant or food to organ and external of internal radiation dose for the population are also presented. Maps of main cities, water resources, soil classification and annual rain rate can be displayed. (author)

  20. Starmerella syriaca f.a., sp. nov., an osmotolerant yeast species isolated from flowers in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Four strains of a novel asexual ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from Malva sp. flowers in Syria. Sequencing of the regions spanning the small subunit, 5.8S, and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed that the isolates were conspecific. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the corresponding sequences of the type strains of ascomycetous yeasts revealed that the novel species is phylogenetically related to members of the Starmerella clade. Its closest relative is Candida vaccinii. For the new species the name Starmerella syriaca is proposed. Its strains are osmotolerant and produce pseudohypha-like structures capable of penetrating agar media. The type strain is 2-1362(T) (=CBS 13909(T) = NCAIM Y.02138(T) = CCY 090-003-001(T)). The GenBank accession numbers for its nucleotide sequences are: JX515986 (D1/D2 LSU), JX515987 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and JX515988 (SSU). Mycobank: MB 810090.

  1. Sewage impact on the composition and distribution of Polychaeta associated to intertidal mussel beds of the Mar del Plata rocky shore, Argentina

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    Elías Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete composition and distribution within mussel beds were studied in order to assess organic pollution due to domestic sewage in a rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina during 1997. Four stations and a control site were randomly sampled around the local effluent. Quantitative data on polychaetes, as well as sediment accumulated among mussels and its organic carbon content were measured. Polychaete distribution patterns are related to the organic matter gradient, being Capitella cf. capitata, Neanthes succinea (Frey & Leuckart, 1847 and Boccardia polybranchia (Haswell, 1885 the dominant indicator species close to the effluent. At medial distances, the cirratulids Caulleriella alata (Southern, 1914 and Cirratulus cirratus (Müller, 1776 are very important in abundance. The syllids Syllis prolixa Ehlers, 1901 and S. gracilis Grube, 1840 are distributed along the study area, but dominate at the medial stations and at the control site. The orbiniid Protoariciella uncinata Hartmann-Schröder, 1962 is subdominant at the control station.

  2. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low-dependent vs. high-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-07-01

    Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18-40 and smoked > or =10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking and neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful and relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regard to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (beta=-.082; p=.037; beta=-.101; p=.023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the Total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice over Time: A Historical Look at the "American Journal of Botany" and the Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice from 1914-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Laura Marie

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…

  4. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage...... of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media...

  5. First report on class 1 integrons and Trimethoprim-resistance genes from dfrA group in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from the Aleppo area in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) introduces advantageous genetic elements into pathogenic bacteria using tools such as class1 integrons. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of these integrons among uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in Aleppo, Syria. It also set to uncover the frequencies of the clinically relevant DfrA1 and DfrA17,7, as well as various associations leading to reduced susceptibility. This study involved 75 Trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates from in- and outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo. Bacterial identification, resistance and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production testing were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of integrons and DfrA genes was done using PCR and statistical significance was inferred through χ2 (Fisher’s) test. Class1 integrons were detected in 54.6% of isolates while DfrA1 and DfrA17,7 were found in 16% and 70.6% of tested samples respectively. Furthermore, only DfrA17,7 were strongly associated with class1 integrons, as were reduced susceptibility to the majority of individual antibiotics, multidrug resistance and ESBL production. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of class1 integrons among UPEC strains in Aleppo, Syria, as well as their significant associations with MDR. This data give information for local healthcare provision using antibiotic chemotherapy. PMID:23956949

  6. Multielement geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Hale, M.

    1988-01-01

    Multielement reconnaissance geochemistry coupled with ground scintillation gamma ray measurements has been used to investigate the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. Over 500 geochemical samples of outcropping rock, wadi and playa sediments, overburden and groundwaters were taken over an area of approximately 9000 sq km. Most samples were analyzed for 25 major and trace elements by nebulization ICPAES; for As, Sb, Bi and Se by hydride generation and ICPAES; and for U, Th and La and other REE by neutron activation analysis. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The areal distributions of U, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped using computer graphics. Results of the factor analysis indicate that the primary lithogeochemical dispersion patterns of uranium and associated elements are controlled by a combination of structural, lithological and environmental factors. Uranium and associated elements have subsequently been leached out of the phosphorite and other U enriched clayey limestones and carbonate rocks into the hydro- geologic regime. Redistribution of these elements is taking place along fracture zones and major faults. A degree of urnaium accumulation in a Neogene aquifer of the Ad-Daww basin is evident

  7. Obituary: Leverett Davis, Jr., 1914-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, Jack Randolph

    2004-12-01

    Professor Leverett Davis Jr., Professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology, died on June 15, 2003 after a long illness. He was 89 years old. He contributed many important ideas and concepts to theoretical astrophysics and was a pioneer in the in situ scientific exploration of space using observations from spacecraft. Davis was born in Elgin, Illinois on March 3, 1914, the eldest of four children of Louis Leverett Davis and Susan Gulick Davis. His parents moved several times as he grew up because his father, a mining engineer, became involved in different mining operations in the American West. Leverett married Victoria Stocker in June 1943. They had two children who died in childhood and subsequently adopted a son, Jeffrey. His wife and son survive him. Davis's early education was rather fractured and uneven because of the many family moves, with periods of home schooling alternating with regular school. His high school education was, on the other hand, reasonably normal. It was while in high school that he decided that he wanted to do physics or mathematics. He went on to earn his Bachelor of Science degree at Oregon State College in 1936, after which he started graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology, to pursue a graduate degree in physics. His advisor was William V. Houston and Davis received his PhD in 1941 for a thesis on electrical properties in nerves. He briefly entertained the idea of changing to work in biophysics. During World War II, Davis became an integral member of the Caltech project for rockets, which developed a number of different types of rockets used in the war. As a result of this war work, Davis wrote a book on Exterior Ballistics, published by Van Nostrand in 1958. He joined the faculty at the California Institute of Technology in 1946, after several years on campus as an instructor. In all, he taught there for nearly four decades before retiring as Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1981

  8. Ortopedia del alma. Degeneracionismo e higiene mental en la Casa de Corrección de Menores y Escuela de Trabajo San José, Colombia 1914-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Avendaño, Jairo; Silva Ramirez, Lina Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Comprender las prácticas y la formación experimental de la psicopedagogía de la infancia anormal en Colombia, llevadas a cabo en la “Casa de Corrección de Menores y Escuela de Trabajo San José”, entre 1914 y 1947. Métodos y materiales: estudio cualitativo, de enfoque histórico-hermenéutico, mediante investigación documental, heurística de archivos de patrimonio documental e historiografía institucional del periodo de estudio. Conclusiones el surgimiento de un nuevo régimen de educ...

  9. Ortopedia del alma. Degeneracionismo e higiene mental en la Casa de Corrección de Menores y Escuela de Trabajo San José, Colombia 1914-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Gutiérrez Avendaño; Lina Marcela Silva Ramirez

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Comprender las prácticas y la formación experimental de la psicopedagogía de la infancia anormal en Colombia, llevadas a cabo en la “Casa de Corrección de Menores y Escuela de Trabajo San José”, entre 1914 y 1947. Métodos y materiales: estudio cualitativo, de enfoque histórico-hermenéutico, mediante investigación documental, heurística de archivos de patrimonio documental e historiografía institucional del periodo de estudio. Conclusiones el surgimiento de un nuevo rég...

  10. A Small Part of Which Empire?: Swaziland’s Combatants in the First World War, 1914- 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella Musiiwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on archival material, this study explores the participation of Swaziland’s combatants in the First World War between 1914 and 1918. At the outbreak of the war it was imperative that Swaziland, as part of the British Empire, supports the British War effort. Caught up in South Africa’s long standing imperial motives, most of the combatants from Swaziland served in the war through the South African Overseas Expeditionary Force. Except for a few individuals who joined the war front in Europe on their own, the rest of the participants had to prove that they had participated in German South West Africa in order to qualify to serve on the war front in Europe. Most of them therefore served in German West Africa and Europe, or in German East Africa and Europe because South Africa had imperial interests in German West Africa and German East Africa. In serving the British Empire, Swaziland’s white combatants implicitly served South Africa’s conceptual or anticipated empire.

  11. Local Leader, Liberalism and Autonomy in the Mexican Revolution. Pahuatlán, Puebla, 1911–1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando López Meraz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the revolutionary process in the municipality of Pahuatlán, located in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (Mexico, from 1911 to 1914. The objective is to understand the particularities of this space to know the impact it had on the daily life of its inhabitants. The questions that led the investigation were: How does the Revolution arrive in Pahuatlán? What motivated the pahuatecos to be part of the revolutionary process? How did your participation in daily life affect you? Likewise, we assume that Pahuateca's participation was due to the attempt of the regional political leaders to execute the mandates of the liberal state in terms that were locally acceptable; That is to say, they elaborated a local agenda that provided political and social stability in the municipality based on the defense of the local autonomy, and not in the necessity of an agrarian claim. From a local perspective, we observe how the specific characteristics acquired by the revolutionary movement in Pahuatlán are closely related to what happened at the national and state levels.

  12. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, R.; Issa, H.; Abed-Allah, Y.D.; Bakraji, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. - Highlights: • Providing new additional data of Syrian archaeological ceramics. • This work investigates both elemental content and dating of Syrian ceramics. • Elemental analysis and dating were performed by XRF and TL dating respectively.

  13. “Il Dolore, il Lutto, la Gloria. Rappresentazioni Fotografiche della Grande Guerra fra Pubblico e Privato, 1914-1940” a Conference on the First World War and its Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Di Giangirolamo

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the First World War Centenary, the Department for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna in Ravenna together with the SISF Italian Society for the Study on photography, promoted the conference Il dolore, il lutto, la gloria. Rappresentazioni fotografiche della grande guerra fra pubblico e privato, 1914-1940 between 26-28 May, 2016. The conference was organised in collaboration with the University of Padova, the Fundation of Historical Studies Filippo Turati of Flore...

  14. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  15. Long-Term Climate Trends and Extreme Events in Northern Fennoscandia (1914–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kivinen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied climate trends and the occurrence of rare and extreme temperature and precipitation events in northern Fennoscandia in 1914–2013. Weather data were derived from nine observation stations located in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Russia. The results showed that spring and autumn temperatures and to a lesser extent summer temperatures increased significantly in the study region, the observed changes being the greatest for daily minimum temperatures. The number of frost days declined both in spring and autumn. Rarely cold winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons had a low occurrence and rarely warm spring and autumn seasons a high occurrence during the last 20-year interval (1994–2013, compared to the other 20-year intervals. That period was also characterized by a low number of days with extremely low temperature in all seasons (4–9% of all extremely cold days and a high number of April and October days with extremely high temperature (36–42% of all extremely warm days. A tendency of exceptionally high daily precipitation sums to grow even higher towards the end of the study period was also observed. To summarize, the results indicate a shortening of the cold season in northern Fennoscandia. Furthermore, the results suggest significant declines in extremely cold climate events in all seasons and increases in extremely warm climate events particularly in spring and autumn seasons.

  16. Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauben, Joseph W; Gleason, Mary Louise; Smith, George E

    2009-03-01

    I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), the first American to receive a Ph.D. in history of science, was a Harvard undergraduate ('37) and then a Ph.D. student and protégé of George Sarton, founder of Isis and the History of Science Society. He went on to succeed Sarton as editor of Isis (1952-1958) and, later, president of the Society (1961-1962); he was also a president of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Cohen was an internationally recognized Newton scholar; his interests were encyclopedic, ranging from science and public policy to the history of computers, with several decades as a special consultant for history of computing with IBM. Among his hundreds of publications were such major books as Franklin and Newton (1956), The Birth of a New Physics (1959; rpt., 1985), The Newtonian Revolution (1980), Revolution in Science (1985), Science and the Founding Fathers (1995), Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer (1999), and his last book, The Triumph of Numbers (2005), not to mention two jointly authored contributions, the variorum edition and new English translation of Newton's Principia, which will surely still be read a century from now.

  17. Reading, Trauma and Literary Caregiving 1914-1918: Helen Mary Gaskell and the War Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Sara

    2018-03-28

    This article is about the relationship between reading, trauma and responsive literary caregiving in Britain during the First World War. Its analysis of two little-known documents describing the history of the War Library, begun by Helen Mary Gaskell in 1914, exposes a gap in the scholarship of war-time reading; generates a new narrative of "how," "when," and "why" books went to war; and foregrounds gender in its analysis of the historiography. The Library of Congress's T. W. Koch discovered Gaskell's ground-breaking work in 1917 and reported its successes to the American Library Association. The British Times also covered Gaskell's library, yet researchers working on reading during the war have routinely neglected her distinct model and method, skewing the research base on war-time reading and its association with trauma and caregiving. In the article's second half, a literary case study of a popular war novel demonstrates the extent of the "bitter cry for books." The success of Gaskell's intervention is examined alongside H. G. Wells's representation of textual healing. Reading is shown to offer sick, traumatized and recovering combatants emotional and psychological caregiving in ways that she could not always have predicted and that are not visible in the literary/historical record.

  18. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Fares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of 222Rn levels in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.A.; Raja, G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with homes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the application of multielement reconnaissance rock chemistry, coupled with ground scintillation γ-ray measurements, to the investigation of the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the rocks of the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. The region is underlain by 10 km of sediments that accumulated in an interplatform depression during the Mesozoic and Caenozoic. Uranium and associated elements were syngenetically incorporated into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Palaeogene sediments - especially phosphorites, which are well represented in the region. The oxidizing environment of the region has facilitated the subsequent geochemical redistribution of uranium. In the investigation more than 400 lithogeochemical samples collected from an area of approximately 9000 km 2 were analysed for over 30 elements. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the areal distribution of uranium, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped with the use of computer graphics. Anomalies of U are accompanied by concentrations of As, Se, V, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and P in various combinations. The highest U concentrations are found in the Upper Cretaceous, which contains a high proportion of phosphatic rocks; younger sediments contain progressively less U. Uranium anomalies close to faults, which have provided conduits for wider U migration, are superimposed on this pattern. Lithogeochemical methods thus define geochemical dispersion patterns with good contrast and delineate areas for further investigation. (author)

  1. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior, and intention among female undergraduate university students in the Middle East: the case of Lebanon and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Haya; Naja, Farah; Keyrouz, Sarah; Hwalla, Nahla; Karam, Jeanette; Al-Rustom, Lea; Nasreddine, Lara

    2014-06-01

    The Middle East has one of the lowest rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the world, highlighting the need to promote breastfeeding in this region. Young adults represent a key population of interest, since decisions about infant-feeding appear to be made before children are even conceived. To examine breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavior among female undergraduate students in Lebanon and Syria and determine factors associated with intention to breastfeed in this population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010/11 in Damascus and Beirut. Four universities were selected in each city. A multicomponent questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of participants (n = 194 from Beirut and n = 199 from Damascus). The questionnaire included breastfeeding knowledge (measured by the Infant Feeding Knowledge Test Form), attitude (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale), perceived behavior (Breastfeeding Behavior Questionnaire), and intention (Infant Feeding Intention Scale). Factors associated with intention to breastfeed were examined by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participants had an average breastfeeding knowledge level (mean score, 10.39 +/- 2.09) and neutral perceived behavior (mean score, 22.00 +/- 3.68), while having relatively positive attitudes (mean score, 58.12 +/- 6.49). Knowledge gaps and negative perceptions were identified, particularly linked to breastfeeding in public and among working mothers. Breastfeeding intention was found to be significantly associated with knowledge and attitude in Lebanon (beta = 0.103 and beta = 0.230, respectively), and with perceived behavior in Syria (beta = -0.135). By revealing specific knowledge gaps and misconceptions and identifying country-specific disparities in the predictors of the intention to breastfeed, the findings of this study may provide a basis for devising culture-specific interventions aimed at promoting breastfeeding.

  2. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  3. To School or to Syria? The foreign fighter phenomenon from a children’s rights perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemarijn van Spaendonck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the international, national and local level, authorities seek to prevent citizens from travelling to the Middle East to join fighting parties or settle in the ISIS caliphate (also referred to as IS, ISIS or its Arab language acronym, Daesh. As some travellers have not reached the age of majority, the authorities should take the best interests of the child (Article 3 Convention on the Rights of the Child into account while addressing this so-called foreign fighter phenomenon. This article explores to what extent the best interests of the child are considered at the international (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, national (the Netherlands and local (The Hague level when preventing minors from travelling to Syria and Iraq. In general, it finds that little distinction is made between the position of children and young adults. The position of children is explicitly addressed when measures are taken to prevent radicalization. Attention for the position of children is often lacking when repressive measures such as criminal and administrative measures are taken.

  4. Determination of lead equivalent thickness to building blocks used in shielding of diagnostic x-ray rooms in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawash, A.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.; Souliman, J.; Al-Oudat, M.

    1998-06-01

    Lead equivalent thicknesses of various kinds of blocks (Hollow core, solid, filled, roof) with different thicknesses were determined. These blocks are widely used for building the diagnostic X-rya departments in Syria. Different applied voltages at X-ray tube (65, 85, 100, 125, 150 KVp) were examined. The results showed that the highest lead equivalent thicknesses for hollow core blocks were at 100 KVp. These equivalent thicknesses were 0.4372, 0.7008 and 0.928 mm for block thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively. it was also found that, the lead equivalent thicknesses for filled, solid and concrete block were 3.5 to 4 times higher than that of the hollow core block for the same thicknesses and the applied KVp. Values obtained for roof blocks were similar to that of hollow core for the same conditions and geometry. (Author)

  5. Revisitando o passado em tempos de crise: federalismo e memória no período regencial (1831-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Geraldo Santos da Silva

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a contra-memória criada no período regencial em torno dos movimentos políticos pernambucanos de 1817 e 1824, propagada principalmente através do jornal O Carapuceiro (1832-1842, publicado por Miguel do Sacramento Lopes Gama. Procuramos demonstrar que esse periódico foi, sobretudo, político e não, meramente de costumes, e que teve grande influência no processo de retorno dos conservadores ao poder, em 1837. Examinamos, também, como a memória sobre aqueles eventos foi redefinida, entre as décadas de 1840 e 1860, como resultado da publicação de obras, como a de Muniz Tavares (História da Revolução de Pernambuco em 1817, e da fundação do Instituto Arqueológico e Geográfico Pernambucano (1862 que procuraram instituir outra contra-memória daqueles movimentos, articuladamente à construção de uma identidade provincial e contraposta à identidade imperial, forjada no âmbito do IHGB e da historiografia produzida em seu interior.

  6. Trench foot: the medical response in the first World War 1914-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenstaedt, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The approaching 90-year anniversary of United States entry into the Great War is an apt time to examine the response to trench foot (now called nonfreezing cold injury [NFCI]) in this conflict. Trench foot appeared in the winter of 1914, characterized by pedal swelling, numbness, and pain. It was quickly recognized by military-medical authorities. There was little debate over whether it was frostbite or new condition, and it was quickly accepted as a specific disease. The major etiologies proposed were exposure, diet, and infection. The opinion emerged that it was caused by circulatory changes in the foot caused by cold, wet, and pressure. Predisposing factors included dietary inadequacy and fatigue. A number of labels were first given to the disease. However, the name "trench foot" was eventually officially sanctioned. Trench foot became a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 75 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. Therapy for trench foot involved a number of conventional, tried-and-tested, and conservative methods. Some more innovative techniques were used. Amputation was only used as a last resort. Prevention involved general measures to improve the trench environment; modification of the footwear worn by the men; and the provision of greases to protect them from moisture. The medical reaction to this condition seems to have been relatively effective. The causation was identified, and prophylactic measures were introduced to fit this model; these seem to have been successful in reducing the prevalence of the condition by 1917-18.

  7. Soil Catena Properties of Daher Al- Jabal in South Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H. M. Husein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107

  8. Parámetros reproductores de la gaviota patiamarilla Larus michahellis lusitanius Naumann, 1840 en Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAIZAGA, J., ALDALUR, A., CUADRADO, J.F., DIEZ, E., GOIKOETXEA, J., HERRERO, A., JAUREGI, J.I., LASO, M., SANCHEZ, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es estudiar la reproducción de la gaviota patiamarilla Larus michahellis lusitanius Naumann, 1840 en Gipuzkoa. En particular, analizamos (1 el tamaño de puesta (número de huevos/nido, (2 la fecha de eclosión, (3 el número de huevos eclosionados/nido y (4 la proporción de huevos eclosionados en relación al número de huevos en el nido, considerando dos zonas que, a priori, presentan diferente tipo de sustrato de nidificación. Para ello, durante un periodo de 40 días (16.05.201124.06-2011 la colonia de Ulia se visitó a diario. En promedio, se registró un tamaño de puesta de 3 huevos/nido, un número de huevos eclosionados de 3/nido y un porcentaje de eclosión de 88,4%. La fecha media de eclosión sucedió en la segunda quincena de Mayo. Asimismo, se registraron algunas diferencias entre las dos zonas en que se dividió la colonia (tamaño de puesta inferior y porcentaje de huevos eclosionados superior en una zona que presentó más roca y vegetación de mayor porte en relación a otra zona con menos rocas así como más hierba. Discutimos esto en un contexto de zonificación de la colonia de estudio en el marco de áreas de carácter óptimo o subóptimo en términos reproductivos.

  9. SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European bread wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, V; Leisova, L; Exbrayat, F; Stehno, Z; Balfourier, F

    2005-06-01

    A sample of 480 bread wheat varieties originating from 15 European geographical areas and released from 1840 to 2000 were analysed with a set of 39 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles ranged from 4 to 40, with an average of 16.4 alleles per locus. When seven successive periods of release were considered, the total number of alleles was quite stable until the 1960s, from which time it regularly decreased. Clustering analysis on Nei's distance matrix between these seven temporal groups showed a clear separation between groups of varieties registered before and after 1970. Analysis of qualitative variation over time in allelic composition of the accessions indicated that, on average, the more recent the European varieties, the more similar they were to each other. However, European accessions appear to be more differentiated as a function of their geographical origin than of their registration period. On average, western European countries (France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium) displayed a lower number of alleles than southeastern European countries (former Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary) and than the Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain and Portugal), which had a higher number. A hierarchical tree on Nei's distance matrix between the 15 geographical groups of accessions exhibited clear opposition between the geographical areas north and south of the arc formed by the Alps and the Carpathian mountains. These results suggest that diversity in European wheat accessions is not randomly distributed but can be explained both by temporal and geographical variation trends linked to breeding practices and agriculture policies in different countries.

  10. [The alpine garden of Monthabey in Vosges (1903-1914) and his creator, professor Camille Brunotte (1860-1910)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the XXth century, professor Brunotte, of the school of pharmacy of Nancy, and the section vosgienne de Nancy du Club alpin français, undertook the creation of an alpine garden, in the Vosges, near the col de la Schlucht and le Hohneck, near also with the frontier with Germany. After the death of professor Brunotte, in 1910, the garden was given to the University of Nancy and completed until 1914, but the 1st World War destroyed it completely and it was impossible to recreate it. 1966 was the year of the creation of a new garden, not far from Monthabey, along the route des Crêtes, with a monument devoted to Monthabey garden and its promoter. The paper describes the creation of the first garden, the personality and career of professor Brunotte, its garden after his death and after the war, the precursors in botany of the Vosges Kirschleger and Bleicher, the new garden at Haut-Chietlet, finally the memories of professor Brunotte.

  11. Tendencia poblacional en tres colonias de gaviota patiamarilla Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840 en Gipuzkoa: 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J., Aldalur, A., Herrero, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de la población de gaviota patiamarilla Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840 en Gipuzkoa, con el fin de determinar si esta población ha aumentado o no durante los últimos años. Se desarrolla un modelo de crecimiento poblacional a partir de datos de censos llevados a cabo en tres colonias de referencia (Ulia-Faro, Santa Clara y Geteria, para el periodo 2000-2013, mediante el programa TRIM. La población estudiada ha pasado de 354 parejas (pp. en 2000 a 299 pp. en 2013. Observamos un ajuste malo de nuestros modelos (modelo de crecimiento nulo y modelo que estima un cambio log-lineal de la población a los datos que, no obstante, tanto para todas las colonias como para cada una de las colonias por separado, el modelo que estima un cambio log-lineal se ajusta mejor a los datos. Globalmente, la tendencia de las colonias es incierta (estable. Por colonias, las tendencias son dispares, lo cual indicaría dinámicas distintas. En el caso de Ulia la colonia disminuye durante el periodo de estudio, mientras que en Santa Clara la colonia es estable, y en Getaria aumenta. Globalmente, durante el periodo de estudio, el descenso de Ulia se habría compensado con las tendencias observadas en las otras dos colonias.

  12. Paleizen van het volk. Stemmen voor de democratisering van het museumbezoek in België (1860-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nys

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaces of the people. Lobbying on behalf of the democratisation of museum visits in Belgium (1860-1914In the second half of the nineteenth century Belgian museums increasingly came under fire. They were heavily criticized for having become lifeless institutions that   failed to fulfil their educational role. The mundane and overcrowded manner in which they presented their collections and their failure to provide any background information for visitors concerning their exhibits resulted in them being viewed as rather boring establishments by most people. A handful of museum reformers who wanted to help museums lose their reputation for stuffiness and elitism came up with all kinds of proposals to make the process of visiting museums more democratic. This article examines those proposals. The case of the Koninklijke Museums voor Sier- en Nijverheidskunst, established in 1889 in Brussels, is used to illustrate how the museums themselves dealt with the criticism and plans for reform. In this way it is hoped that some light may be shed on a relatively unexplored area, namely the history of cultural consumption and museum attendance in Belgium in the nineteenth century.

  13. CONCENTRATION OF ARSENIC IN THE MUSCLE, LIVER AND KIDNEY OF CONSUMED CALVES IN THE WEST OF SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiyath Soliman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 240 samples, 80 muscle, 80 kidney and 80 liver samples, which were collected from 80 calves’ carcasses (between 1-3 years old from Western Syria (Latakia, Tartus, Jableh and Safita. Samples were analyzed for the arsenic contamination using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. The results showed that concentrations of arsenic in the kidney, liver and muscle of the calves in Latakia region were 0.7175, 0.602 and 0.4715 mg/kg, respectively. In Jableh region they were 0.43, 0.3425 and 0.2665 mg/kg, respectively, in Tartus region 0.5035, 0.4545 and 0.2918 mg/kg, respectively, and in Safita region 0.3615, 0.342 and 0.2168 mg/kg, respectively. Results also revealed that the highest arsenic concentration was detected in the kidney followed by liver and muscle, and was higher in the samples from Latakia and Tartus regions compared to the samples from Jableh and Safita regions.

  14. An experimental study of the shielding characteristics of the dwelling house building materials against gamma radiations in the Central Region of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarhoum, M.; Soufan, A.H.; Mustafa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measure shielding properties of dwelling houses in the central region of Syria. → The concrete used for ceiling construction is good for shielding from gamma radiations. → Fairly high linear attenuation coefficients are obtained (from 0.173 to 0.198 cm -1 ). → Blocks used for house walls are not effective against gamma radiations. → Blocks efficiency can be improved by filling their holes with a cement paste. - Abstract: The shielding properties of the concrete and blocks used for the construction of dwelling houses in the Central Region of Syria (CRS) were measured and studied. The concrete used for the ceiling construction was found to have optimum shielding properties with 0.182 cm -1 (or equivalently 0.0859 cm 2 g -1 ) for the linear (mass) attenuation coefficient [L(M)AC]. In addition gamma radiation is attenuated by 73.221% on average, while the blocks used for the walls have smaller LACs (0.082 cm -1 for the bare blocks, and 0.118 cm -1 for the coated ones). Although the LACs for the blocks are smaller than those for the concrete their shielding properties are good to protect from the gamma radiations coming from radioactive or nuclear accidents (78.630% attenuation), even Chernobyl - like disasters, because of their big width (10-12 cm). The LACs were measured by an ionization chamber and simple theoretical calculations have been made to predict the concrete LACs. The calculations showed an average LAC for the six samples equal to 0.1664 cm -1 with 8.47% error with respect to the experimental values. The average LAC for the concrete used for ceiling construction in the CRS was found to be comparable or even better than the average of some international values for the reactor shielding concretes, which are about 0.163 cm -1 .

  15. "Arrancale los dientes al trópico": ambiente,enfermedad y el programa sanitario de Estados Unidos en Panamá, 1904-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutter

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoyado en fuentes escritas durante y después de la construcción del Canal de Panamá (1904- 1914, este artículo examina la forma en que los estadunidenses conceptualizaron los trópicos de Panamá y el modo en que dicha conceptualización orientó su política, en especial la sanitaria, durante el periodo de construcción del canal. Debido a que las enfermedades tropicales, en especial la malaria y la fiebre amarilla, ocupaban un lugar central en el modo de concebir los trópicos por parte de los estadunidenses, el objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que los problemas de enfermedades en Panamá eran el resultado de complejas interacciones ambientales y sociales, y no una mera característica natural de los trópicos.

  16. “Il Dolore, il Lutto, la Gloria. Rappresentazioni Fotografiche della Grande Guerra fra Pubblico e Privato, 1914-1940” a Conference on the First World War and its Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Di Giangirolamo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the First World War Centenary, the Department for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna in Ravenna together with the SISF Italian Society for the Study on photography, promoted the conference Il dolore, il lutto, la gloria. Rappresentazioni fotografiche della grande guerra fra pubblico e privato, 1914-1940 between 26-28 May, 2016. The conference was organised in collaboration with the University of Padova, the Fundation of Historical Studies Filippo Turati of Florence and the Institute of the History of Italian Risorgimento of Rome.

  17. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 29 October 1914. Date of death: 20 January 2002. Specialization: Medicinal Chemistry Last known address: B-1, Pamposh Enclave, Greater Kailash-1, New Delhi 110 048. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  18. Monitoring of chemical and isotopic composition of the Euphrates river in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2008-11-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H), tritium content, together with the chemical composition of major ions of the Euphrates and Balikh (Euphrates tributary) Rivers, and the groundwaters of four wells drilled close to the Euphrates River course, were measured on a monthly basis. The Euphrates River water was monitored at twelve stations along its course in Syria during the period from January 2004 to December 2006, whereas those of the Balikh and groundwaters were only investigated during 2005. Although, the spatial variations of heavy stable isotope concentrations are moderated with respect to other large rivers in the world, the concentrations of these isotopes increase generally downstream the Euphrates River, with a sharp enrichment at Al-Assad Lake. This sharp increase could be explained by the effect of direct evaporation from the river and its tributaries; and the effect of drainage return flows of irrigation waters, isotopically more enriched. Enrichment of stable isotopes in the Euphrates River water was used as a direct indicator of evaporation. Based on an experimental evaporation result of a Euphrates water sample and the integral enrichment of heavy stable isotopes in the Euphrates River system, the amount of water losses by evaporation from Al-Assad Lake was estimated to be about 1.26 to 1.62 billion m''3, according to 18 O and deuterium ( 2 H), respectively. This amount represents about 12-16% of the renewable surface water resources in the country. (author)

  19. À La Recherche De L’Espace Perdu: Architecture, Urban Fabric, and French Travelers to Antioch (1784–1914

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    Ümit Fırat Açıkgöz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ottoman Antioch, a marginalized outpost by the late 18th century, attracted French travelers thanks to its illustrious Roman, Early Christian, and crusader histories. To make sense of the city, these travelers relied either on previous travelogues or on their own observations of the built environment. This article sheds light on the inter-textual relationship among travelogues, and on how both the built environment of Ottoman Antioch and representations of the pre-Islamic city and its monuments shaped the travelers’ narratives. The dramatic contrast between the insignificance of Ottoman Antioch and the grandeur of the pre-Islamic city prompted the travelers to reflect on the glories of Greco-Roman antiquity and the ‘decadence of the Oriental civilizations’. I focus on four French travelers who visited Antioch between 1780 and 1914, and argue that they turned the state of the city’s architecture and urban fabric into a critical tool to imagine their historical connections to the region, reproduce the Orientalist stereotypes in circulation in Europe at the time, and, thereby setting the tone for the colonization of the region.

  20. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  1. Peter M. M. G. Akkermans - Glenn M. Schwartz: The Archaeology of Syria. From Complex Hunter-Gartherers to early Urban Societies (ca. 16000-300BC).

    OpenAIRE

    Vostrovská Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Recenze představuje publikaci P. Akkermanse a G. Schwartze, ve které souhrnně přibližují archeologii Sýrie od paleolitu po rok 300BC. Mimo chronologický přehled v daných obdobích se autoři blíže věnují neolitizaci a vzniku urbánních společností. The review represents a study by P. Akkermans a G. Schwartz where totaly converge the archeology of Syria from paleolithic to 300BC. Beyond chronologically overview in given periods authors pay attention process of neolitisation and development of ...

  2. «Dans toutes les parties de la République», l'origine géographique des élèves de l'École Normale Supérieure de 1914 à 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian BAUDELOT

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse du lieu de naissance des élèves entrés à l’École Normale Supérieure entre 1914 et 1992 fait apparaître que le recrutement concerne tous les départements français, mais aussi qu’au fil du temps les poids des grandes villes s’accroît et que le Nord et l’Ouest y envoient proportionnellement moins de leurs enfants que le Sud et l’Est.

  3. A cross sectional study of maternal 'near-miss' cases in major public hospitals in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, Hyam; Saad-Haddad, Ghada; DeJong, Jocelyn; Ramadan, Mohammed Cherine; Hassan, Sahar; Breebaart, Miral; Wick, Laura; Hassanein, Nevine; Kharouf, Mayada

    2015-11-13

    The maternal near-miss approach has been increasingly used as a tool to evaluate and improve the quality of care in maternal health. We report findings from the formative stage of a World Health Organization (WHO) funded implementation research study that was undertaken to collect primary data at the facility level on the prevalence, characteristics, and management of maternal near-miss cases in four major public referral hospitals - one each in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria. We conducted a cross sectional study of maternal near-miss cases in the four contexts beginning in 2011, where we collected data on severe maternal morbidity in the four study hospitals, using the WHO form (Individual Form HRP A65661). In each hospital, a research team including trained hospital healthcare providers carried out the data collection. A total of 9,063 live birth deliveries were reported during the data collection period across the four settings, with a total of 77 cases of severe maternal outcomes (71 maternal near-miss cases and 6 maternal deaths). Higher indices for the maternal mortality index were found in both Al Galaa hospital, in Egypt (8.6%) and Dar Al Tawleed hospital in Syria (14.3%), being large referral hospitals, compared to Ramallah hospital in Palestine and Rafik Hariri University hospital in Lebanon. Compared to the WHO's Multicountry Survey using the same data collection tool, our study's mortality indices are higher than the index of 5.6% among countries with a moderate maternal mortality ratio in the WHO Survey. Overall, haemorrhage-related complications were the most frequent conditions among maternal near-miss cases across the four study hospitals. In all hospitals, coagulation dysfunctions (76.1%) were the most prevalent dysfunction among maternal near-miss cases, followed by cardiovascular dysfunctions. The coverage of key evidence-based interventions among women experiencing a near-miss was either universal or very high in the study hospitals

  4. [Medical service of Russian Army in the First World War 1914-1918 (to the 95th anniversary of the beginning of war)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniushko, I G; Gladkikh, P F; Loktev, A E

    2009-08-01

    During the First World War 1914-1918 Russian Army hadn't a united medical service, military-medical affair was diluted in multiple governances. Evacuation of wounded and ill persons was an affair of Evacuation Governance of Main Governance the General Staff. Process of treatment in field and stationary medical formations was administered by sanitarium chiefs of armies and theaters of operation, bureaucrats of Russian Red Cross Society, Russian Union of Cities and Territorial Union. Supply by medical property, accounting and arrangement of medical staff was administered by Main Military-Sanitarium Governance, supply by sanitarium-household property--by Main Indent Governance, health resort affair--by Governance of Supreme chief of sanitarium and evacuation part in Empire of prince Ol'denburgskiy P.A. On the base of different sources were characterized casualty of Russian Army during the war.

  5. First record of the oak gall wasp genus Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Central America with description of three new species from Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Medianero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini are described from Panama and Costa Rica: Neuroterus elvisi sp. n., Neuroterus pulchrigalla sp. n., and Neuroterus glandiphilus sp. n. The new species are the first of the genus Neuroterus recorded from Central America and the Neotropical region. The new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks. Additional evidence of the presence of other unidentified species of Neuroterus in the sampled area is presented. Diagnostic morphological characters, gall descriptions, distributions, host plant and other biological data of the new species are given and discussed. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48D0C1E1-1D0C-40D8-B890-FFC85AE7A213

  6. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  7. Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Omar, H.; Almoustafa, A.; Seif Al-din, M.Kh.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the outcomes of a two years CRP project entitled (Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection). The main activity deals with a case study concerning the assessment of optimal Syrian energy supply strategy taking into account the impact of environmental constraints related to GHG reduction on the cost and prospects of energy sources and technologies with special emphasis on renewable and nuclear options. In a previous activity the future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand has been analyzed according to various scenarios of socio-economic and technological development of the country. The results indicate that energy demand will grow rapidly in the next decades as consequent of many socio-economic and technological factors given by Syria's high population growth, its current economic transition, and its expected economic and technological development, particularly in the industry sector. To meet the projected future energy demand up to 2030, an optimal reference energy supply strategy with minimal supply cost has been developed taking into account, in particular, the availability of national energy resources and diversity of supply options. The analysis has been performed using the IAEA's optimization tool MESSAGE. MESSAGE is suitable to formulate and evaluate alternative energy supply strategies consistent with pre-defined constraints including limits on new investment, fuel availability and trade, environmental regulations, and market penetration rates for new technologies. To evaluate the potential of GHG reduction in the Syrian power sector an alternative energy supply scenario - Mitigation Scenario (Ren S ce) has been introduced reflecting the most probable adaptation measures of this sector to mitigate GHG emission by more dependency on renewable options. Compatible with the Kyoto agreement for developing countries, the CDM is being considered

  8. First record of Crypticerya zeteki (Cockerell, 1914 (Monophlebidae in Brazil and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Pseudococcidae in the state of Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. J. C. Ramos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crypticerya zeteki (Cockerell, 1914 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Monophlebidae is recorded for the first time from Brazil and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae is recorded for the first time from the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Both species were collected from branches, leaves and fruits of various fruit trees in the municipalities of São José de Ribamar, São Luís and Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, Brazil. Crypticerya zeteki was collected on Citrus spp. (Rutaceae, Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae, Cycas revoluta L. (Cycadaceae, Malpighia punicifolia L. (Malpighiaceae, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum (Malvaceae, all first records for this species. Maconellicoccus hirsutus was collected on Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae and M. punicifolia L. (Malpighiaceae, both new records for this species.

  9. Inmigración europea y modelos familiares: la legitimidad de los nacimientos y la sexualidad fuera del matrimonio en la población francesa de Tandil (Buenos Aires, 1850-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, Hernán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on a family reconstitution of French people in Tandil between 1850 and 1914,shows the advantages and disadvantages of this method and the sources; illegitimacy and its associated factors (parents’ age, endo and exogamy, rural/urban differentiation, etc.. and the incidence of pre-marital children and conceptions. The indicators obtained were analyzed and compared with other Argentinean and French socio-demographic contexts. In the conclusion I propose that illegitimacy among the French population in Tandil is a consequence of a different family conformation pattern from that of the native population.

  10. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ruhana; Lee, Suet Yee; Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan

    2017-01-01

    Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods), sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%), muddy substratum (17.5%), coral substratum (11.5%), and sandy areas (10.6%). The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  11. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea, from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhana Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods, sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%, muddy substratum (17.5%, coral substratum (11.5%, and sandy areas (10.6%. The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  12. Kafkasya Muhacirlerinin Suriye Vilayetine İskânı ve Karşılaşılan Zorluklar The Settlement of Caucasian Refugees to Syria Province and the Hardships Encountered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay KIZILKAYA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia invaded the Caucasian region completely in the secondhalf of 19th century. The Muslim nations of the Caucasia, who rejectedthe domination of Russia, decided to emigrate Ottoman Empire. The oppression and the cruelty that Russia carried out had an importantrole in the decision of emigration. The first refugees, who came fromCaucasia, were settled in Anatolia, Rumelia and partly Syria province.The Ottoman Empire lost war at the result of 1877–1878 Ottoman-Russia war. As the result of the war, Ottoman Empire lost a great dealof land in Balkan geography. Therefore, the Caucasian refugees, whowere settled in Balkans before, became refugee again. Syria provincewas approved as the new settlement region both for Caucasian andRumelian refugees. These refugees, who had been sent to Syriaprovince, encountered, great problems. They experienced the problem ofadapting to natural conditions of Syria such as water and air. Besides,when the epidemic illnesses, which caused due to squalor, were addednearly half of the refugees died. Apart from that, the refugees facedtroubles with Druse and Bedouins in social aspect, thus, theyencountered great problems. After nearly thirty years that emigrantssettle in Syria province, they adapted to its socio-cultural structure andclimate conditions. After emigrants adapted to Syria province, theybecame strong towards Druse and Bedouins that attack them.Ottoman Empire mobilized all its opportunities for the settlementof refugees. However, it could not prevent the unwanted events. XIX yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Rusya Kafkasya Bölgesini tamamenistila etti. İstila neticesinde Rus hâkimiyetini kabul etmeyenKafkasya’nın Müslüman milletleri, Osmanlı Ülkesine göç etme kararıaldı. Bu göç kararında Rusların uyguladıkları baskı ve şiddet büyük birrol oynadı. Kafkasya’dan ilk gelen göçmenler Anadolu ve Rumeli’ye çokaz da olsa Suriye Vilayetine iskân edildi. 1877–1878 Osmanl

  13. “The cross” against “the sword”: Russia, intellectuals and the national idea of 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Saša S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Great War 1914-1918, in focus in the years marking a hundred year anniversary, is more than ever enriched by researches which aim is not only to shade light on military-political events only. Increasingly, professional community, but also every interested citizen, are able to learn about various aspects of social ideas and the creation of national identity. Russian social thought during the XIX century had an exceptionally complex development. In search for a content of their own identity the Russians had been looking to the West hoping it will offer them something new, but had also tried to express own autochthonous Slavophile profile through tradition. Undeniably huge Empire had allowed for highlighting a specific role Russia had in development of humanity. At the beginning of the XX century a Russian social thought which was guiding the state had tried to amalgamate Christian universalism with nationalist egoism. The result was exceptional emotionality of the national idea which relied on intuitivism, a specific Russian role and its messianism. Rationally set out treatment of the state interests, although present in the final consequence of the decision, was marked by compassion. The Russian Tzar Nicholas II, although the military-political and economic situation in the country was not suggesting readiness, stood up in defence of the “Slavic brothers”. The Russian people had supported the sentiment, and the German imperialism counted on it because it was itself driven by the “Teutonic domination”.

  14. Syria in the Arab Spring: The integration of Syria’s conflict with the Arab uprisings, 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lynch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How did Syria’s conflict interact with the broader wave of regional protest known as the Arab Spring? This article uses a unique, complete Twitter dataset of tweets including the word “Syria” in English or Arabic to empirically test how Syria’s conflict was discussed online. The analysis shows a high level of interaction between Syria and other Arab countries through 2011. Other Arab countries experiencing popular protests (“Arab Spring countries” were referenced far more often in 2011 than were Syria’s immediate neighbors, while keyword analysis shows the framing of the conflict in terms of Syria’s “regime” aligned the conflict with other Arab uprisings. In 2012–2013 this changed sharply, with significantly fewer mentions of other Arab countries, particularly Arab Spring countries, more fundraising and political appeals across the Gulf, and growing Islamization. These findings offer one of the first empirical demonstrations of the integration and disintegration of a unified Arab discourse from 2011 to 2013, with significant implications for theories of the diffusion of protest and ideas.

  15. Benthic Foraminifers identify the source of displaced sediment from a sediment density flow at 1840 m near the Seafloor Instrument Node of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Barry, J.; Carvajal, C.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Parsons, D. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are found along the slopes of most continental margins and turbidity currents are thought to be the primary mechanism responsible for transporting sediment through them to deep-sea fans. The initiation sites of these flows are difficult to locate with any degree of precision from lithology alone. Fortunately, the presence of allochthonous microscopic remains, such as benthic foraminifers, can aid in the identification of the source of the displaced sediments. In Monterey Canyon, offshore California, a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) and adjacent mooring in the Coordinated Canyon Experiment indicate that a February 2017 turbidity current reached 1840 m water depth. In April 2017, one push core was obtained on each of four sides of the SIN just outside its frame and six others from 30-100 m away. Each was cut into 1 cm slices, stained with rose Bengal, washed, and analyzed for their microscopic constituents. Material recovered included terrestrial debris (wood, leaves, seeds, highway safety spheres, and volcanic glass) as well as foraminiferal tests. Dead benthic foraminifers from the estuarine (0-10 m), inner shelf (0-50 m), outer shelf (50-150 m), slope break (150 m), upper bathyal (150-500 m), and middle bathyal (500-2000 m) biofacies were present, suggesting a staged progression of sediment downslope from the continental shelf and slope. Living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifers recovered represent estuarine (Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum), inner shelf (Buccella frigida, B. tenerrima, Buliminella elegantissima, Cibicides fletcheri, Nonionella spp., Rotorbinella turbinata), and upper bathyal (Bolivina pacifica, B. spissa, Epistominella exigua, Uvigerina peregrina) species as well as an in-situ middle bathyal biofacies (Bolivina argentea, B. spissa, Buliminella tenuata, Epistominella pacifica, Globobulimina spp., Uvigerina peregrina, U. hispida). The presence of living allochthonous benthic foraminifers from these shallower biofacies suggests

  16. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  17. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  18. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. - Highlights: • Degree of radioactive hazard has been estimated by using airborne spectrometric gamma data. • ER, ADR, AEDR, and HP of the eleven radiometric units have been computed. • Comparison of AEDR of Area-3 with the AEDR of Area-1. • Human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. • The highest heat production in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations.

  19. ISIS Child Soldiers in Syria: The Structural and Predatory Recruitment, Enlistment, Pre-Training Indoctrination, Training, and Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad Almohammad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the engagement of children with the so-called Islamic State (a.k.a. ISIS relies heavily on the analysis of obtained ISIS documents and ISIS-disseminated propaganda, leaving major elements of the recruitment and deployment process uncovered. Such ambiguities hinder future efforts aimed at dealing with ISIS’ child soldiers. As such, an intensive effort to compile data using interviews and naturalistic observations across ISIS-held territories in Syria was made to exhaustively explore the process of child recruitment and deployment by ISIS. Findings suggest that there are two methods of recruitment: predatory and structural. The enlistment, intensity of indoctrination, types of training, and nature of deployment were found to depend, to a high degree, on the type of recruitment (i.e., predatory or structural, and category of children based on their origin (i.e., local, Middle Eastern and North African [MENA], or foreign and if they are orphans. The data shows that the separation between children and adults’ roles/assignments is diminishing. After a thorough exploration of the elements of ISIS’ recruitment and deployment process, this paper argues its findings, implications, and limitations.

  20. Geophysical survey at Tell Barri (Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Giovanni; Cella, Federico; Pierobon, Raffaella; Castaldo, Raffaele; Castiello, Gabriella; Fedi, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    A geophysical survey at the archaeological site of Tell Barri (Northeasterm Syria) was carried out. The Tell (Arab word for "hill") is 32 m high with a whole covered area of 37 hectares. The Tell, with its huge dimensions and with a great amount of pottery on the surface, is a precious area to study the regional history from IV mill. BC to Islamic and Medieval period. The geophysical study consisted in magnetic and electromagnetic measurements in the lower town area. The aim of this survey was to provide evidence of the presence of buried archaeological structures around an already excavated area. The wall structures in the Tell Barri are made by backed or crude clay bricks. The instrument used for the magnetic survey was an Overhauser-effect proton magnetometer (Gem GSM-19GF), in gradiometric configuration. The electromagnetic instrument used, Geonics Ltd. EM31, implements a Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Method (FDEM). It was used in vertical coils configuration, and this choice should grant a maximum theoretical investigation depth of about 6 m. Before starting the measurements on a larger scale, we conducted a magnetic and EM test profile on some already excavated, outcropping, baked bricks walls. Results were encouraging, because clear and strong magnetic and EM anomalies were recorded over the outcropping walls. However, in the survey area these structures are covered by 3 to 4 meters of clay material and the increased sensors-structures distance will reduce the anomalies amplitude. Moreover, the cover material is disseminated with bricks, basalt blocks and ceramics, all of which have relevant magnetic properties. After magnetic surveying some 50 m side square areas, we verified that unfortunately their effect resulted to be dominant with respect to the deeper wall structures, degrading too much the signal-to-noise ratio. The processing and analysis of magnetic data is however currently underway and will determine decisions about further use of this method

  1. A 100 AÑOS DE LA REBELIÓN DE ANGATA: ¿RESISTENCIA RELIGIOSA O SECULAR? LAS COMPLICIDADES TIRE1 Y LOS MÚLTIPLES SENTIDOS DE LA REVUELTA DE 1914 EN RAPA NUI

    OpenAIRE

    Foerster, Rolf; Montecino, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo proponemos una nueva lectura de lo que se ha denominado "La rebelión de Angata", un hecho que se produce en 1914 y que marcará la relación entre los rapanui y el mundo tire (Chile). El eje de nuestro análisis devela como centro de este acontecimiento el Tratado de 1888 -que define a los tire como "amigos del lugar"-, así como la visibilidad de una gastropolítica ligada a los sueños premonitorios de la catequista María Angata. Estos tres elementos, Tratado, gastropolítica y su...

  2. Preferencia de hábitat del murciélago hortelano meridional Eptesicus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840 en ambientes mediterráneos semiáridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisón, F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat preference of the meridional serotine bat Eptesicus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840 in semiarid Mediterranean landscapes Several molecular studies have recently reported the presence of a second species of the genus Eptesicus in the Iberian peninsula, the meridional serotine bat, E. isabellinus. This species is present in the south of Iberia and it seems to have an allopatric distribution with its twin species, E. serotinus. Ecological studies are now needed to understand the biology of E. isabellinus in southeast Spain. In this study, we used presence–only data for E. isabellinus to perform an ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA and to create a habitat suitability map (HSM. Our results show that the species has a low marginality index, suggesting it is well adapted to the semiarid conditions of the study area. The main habitats used by E. isabellinus are water courses, scrublands, and zones with high primary productivity. The species avoids non–irrigated cropland and shows no preference for human settlements or irrigated cropland. This study provides information about the ecology of E. isabellinus in southeast Spain and allows us to discuss relevant aspects for its conservation.

  3. Cancer in refugees in Jordan and Syria between 2009 and 2012: challenges and the way forward in humanitarian emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Arab-Levantine personality structure: A psycholexical study of modern standard Arabic in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinoun, Pia; Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Choueiri, Lina; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2018-06-01

    The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (Palestinian territories). We then analyzed self- and peer ratings (N = 806) and identified a six-factor solution comprising Morality (I), Conscientiousness (II), Positive Emotionality (III), Dominance (IV), Agreeableness/Righteousness (V), and Emotional Stability (VI) without replicating an Openness factor. The factors were narrower or broader variants of factors found in the Big Five and HEXACO models. Conceptual and methodological considerations may have impacted the factor structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Damage Assessment and Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Places in a Disaster and Post-Disaster Event - a Case Study of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafadari, A.; Philip, G.; Jennings, R.

    2017-08-01

    In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER) for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa) project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage) and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk) of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data standard, and

  6. Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy's and H. S. Jennings's Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.

  7. First indications of high slip rates on active reverse faults NW of Damascus, Syria, from observations of deformed Quaternary sediments: Implications for the partitioning of crustal deformation in the Middle Eastern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob; Daoud, Mohamad; Bridgland, David R.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on rates of crustal shortening within the Palmyra Fold Belt (PFB) in Syria has drawn attention to the possibility that reverse faults near the city of Damascus, which adjoins the SW PFB, have significant slip rates. We infer that the Damascus Fault, directly adjacent to the city, has developed a throw of ~ 2500 m and report the discovery of the en echelon Bassimeh Fault, with a throw of ~ 1000 m, this fault being revealed by warping of the local bedrock and of a terrace, of inferred Late Pleistocene age, of the River Barada. We estimate that this set of faults became active circa 0.9 Ma, synchronous with changes to the pattern of faulting previously reported farther southwest in the northern Jordan Valley. Vertical slip rates on the Bassimeh and Damascus faults of ~ 1.1 and ~ 2.8 mm a- 1, respectively, are thus estimated. We also infer that large historical earthquakes, previously attributed to left-lateral faulting farther west on the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), probably occurred on this set of reverse faults; these faults thus represent a significant hazard to the city of Damascus. Our observations indicate that as much as half of the northward motion of the Arabian plate, relative to the African plate, may be 'absorbed' by crustal shortening within the PFB, potentially explaining the low slip rate recently measured geodetically on the northern DSFZ in western Syria.

  8. Stratigraphy and structure of eastern Syria across the Euphrates depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaf, Tarif; Al-Saad, Damen; Gebran, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia; Best, John A.; Chaimov, Thomas A.

    1993-04-01

    A N-S crustal-scale geotransect across the northern Arabian platform in eastern Syria reveals an alternating series of basement uplifts and basins separated by predominantly transpressional fault zones above an effectively uniform crust. Four major tectonic provinces are crossed along a 325 × 100 km corridor that extends from the Iraqi border in the south to the Turkish border in the north: the Rutbah uplift, the Euphrates depression, the Abd el Aziz structural zone, and the Qamichli uplift. These features are the manifestations of reactivated pre-Cenozoic structures that responded to forces acting along nearby Arabian plate boundaries, particularly Cenozoic convergence and collision along the margins of the northern Arabian platform i.e., the Bitlis suture and the East Anatolian fault in southern Turkey and the Zagros suture in Iran and Iraq. The database for this study consists of 3000 km of industry seismic reflection data, 28 exploratory wells, and geologic and Bouguer gravity maps. The deep crustal structure and, in part, the basement geometry along this transect are inferred from two-dimensional modeling of Bouguer gravity, whereas the shallow (about 8 km) structure is constrained primarily by well and seismic data. Features of the geotransect reveal: (1) A relatively uniform crustal column approximately 37 km thick with only minor crustal thinning beneath the Euphrates. Crustal thinning may be slightly more pronounced beneath the Euphrates (about 35 km) to the southeast of the transect where the Bouguer gravity anomaly is slightly higher. (2) Along the Euphrates depression, ongoing subsidence, which began during the Late Cretaceous, resulted in the deposition of at least 3 km of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks. The structural complexity of the Paleozoic and most of the Mesozoic sedimentary sections along the transect contrasts markedly with a relatively simple, flat-lying Cenozoic section along most of the transect. A notable exception is the Abd el Aziz

  9. Preliminary evaluation of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn level in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in Homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 Homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 Homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with Homes. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Use of tritium for estimation of groundwater mean residence time, a case study of the Ain Al-Samak Karst springs (Central Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an attempt to estimate the mean residence time of groundwater in the Ain Al-Tanour and Ain-Samak, which are the major karst springs in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). This estimate, which consists on the application of a mathematical modeling approach, was based on the use of tritium, as a natural radioisotope tracer and a tool for ground water age dating. By adopting a completely mixed reservoir model, linked with exponential time distribution function, the mean residence time (turnover time) of these two springs was evaluated to be about 50 years. This result is in good agreement with previous estimation obtained for the Figeh main spring, which belongs to the same aquifer (Cenomanian-Turonian complex) in the Damascus Basin. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 800 million m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size

  11. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey as a tool for evaluating the uranium remobilization degree: Case study from Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index U I and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration. (Authors)

  12. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  13. El problema de los excluidos. Las leyes contra la vagancia en Colombia durante las décadas de 1820 a 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Botero Jaramillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga el fenómeno de la vagancia en Colombia durante las décadas de 1820 a 1840 a partir de un estudio de la legislación, en el cual se detallan los sujetos, las prácticas y las condenas. Dicho estudio se realiza en relación con el problema de la opinión pública y la construcción de una legitimidad política para la República. A través del análisis de la normatividad, los informes oficiales y la prensa, se rastrean las significaciones de la vagancia, las transformaciones y permanencias de las políticas contra esta y las discusiones dadas en relación con la pobreza y la exclusión. De esta manera, se busca dar cuenta de las consideraciones de esta en contraposición a las virtudes republicanas como un problema en que se articulan los campos de la moral, la economía y la política, y de cómo y por qué el vago se convirtió en sujeto de leyes y policía, quienes buscaron controlarlo y sujetarlo por medio de la instrucción, el trabajo y la colonización.

  14. Peers versus professional training of basic life support in Syria: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fatima; Sawaf, Bisher; Hanafi, Ibrahem; Hajeer, Mohammad Younis; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Abbas, Wafaa; Alabdeh, Fadi; Ibrahim, Nazir

    2018-06-18

    Peer training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate training in basic life support (BLS) which is fundamental as an initial response in cases of emergency. This study aimed to (1) Evaluate the efficacy of peer-led model in basic life support training among medical students in their first three years of study, compared to professional-led training and (2) To assess the efficacy of the course program and students' satisfaction of peer-led training. A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted on 72 medical students from the pre-clinical years (1st to 3rd years in Syria) at Syrian Private University. Students were randomly assigned to peer-led or to professional-led training group for one-day-course of basic life support skills. Sixty-four students who underwent checklist based assessment using objective structured clinical examination design (OSCE) (practical assessment of BLS skills) and answered BLS knowledge checkpoint-questionnaire were included in the analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in delivering BLS skills to medical students in practical (P = 0.850) and BLS knowledge questionnaire outcomes (P = 0.900). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-course assessment with significant statistical difference in both practical skills and theoretical knowledge (P-Value life support for medical students was beneficial and it provided a quality of education which was as effective as training conducted by professionals. This method is applicable and desirable especially in poor-resource countries and in crisis situation.

  15. CRUZANDO LOS MALLKUS. LAS MIGRACIONES BOLIVIANAS PENDULARES DURANTE LAS GRANDES CRISIS SALITRERAS (1914 - 1933

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    Sergio González Miranda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio pendular de la población boliviana (especialmente indígena hacia las salitreras de Tarapacá; destacándose la “gran crisis” de 1930 y años siguientes, analizando el desarraigo del retorno a Bolivia. Se sostiene que a partir del término de la Primera Guerra Mundial se inicia la decadencia del ciclo de expansión del salitre, generando procesos migratorios de atracción y expulsión de mano de obra, donde el drama social producto de la cesantía fue el factor común. En otras palabras, se plantea que la crisis del salitre no surgió en la década de los años treinta, como suele reconocerse en la literatura especializada sobre la industria salitrera, sino a partir de la primera guerra mundial se inicia el proceso de decadencia del mercado mundial del nitrato, siendo la década de los años veinte cuando se define el futuro de esta industria. Se estudia, especialmente a través de la prensa y archivos oficiales, los sistemas de enganche, los flujos de ida y venida de trabajadores bolivianos con sus familias, especialmente durante los años de crisis entre 1914 y 1933, donde el drama de la cesantía afectó a miles de bolivianos que debieron regresar a sus comunidades de origen. Este artículo se enmarca dentro de un análisis histórico que rescata la importancia de la sociedad civil en las relaciones entre países fronterizos, como Bolivia y Chile, fenómeno que la disciplina de las relaciones internacionales denomina acertadamente “paradiplomacia”.

  16. A Peek into a Cul-De-Sac and a Mews of Martian Dust Storm Activity: Western Hellas and Syria-Claritas Fossae During Mars Year 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    Western Hellas Planitia (WHP) and the region encompassed by Syria Planum and Claritas Fossae are the main centers of textured dust storm activity in Mars's southern low to mid-latitudes. (Texture in this context refers to distinct fine structure at the cloud tops indicative of active lifting.) WHP is a well-known initiation zone for regional and global dust storm activity and often the end point of the Utopia "flushing storm" track. Syria-Claritas Fossae (SCF), too, can be a lifting center in global dust storm activity. Indeed, SCF and the area to its west was the region most denuded of dust by the Mars Year (MY) 25 global dust storm, perhaps suggesting that SCF contained the principal lifting center of the storm. Thus, if the Acidalia and Utopia storm tracks are Mars's dust storm alleys, through which dust storms pass quickly again and again; WHP might be a cul-de-sac and SCF something like a mews, where dust storm activity can enter more or less easily but may not as easily leave. In this presentation, I will focus on dust storm activity in these areas in a typical non-global dust storm year, MY 29. Synthesizing visible imagery by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also on board MRO, I will consider the climatology, morphology, texture, and vertical structure of dust storm activity in these areas in order to infer their governing dynamics. This investigation has two aims: (1) to understand why these areas are centers of textured dust storm activity; and (2) to connect the characteristics of smaller-scale dust storm activity in these regions to the underlying dynamics in order to understand the role of WHP and SCF in the dynamics of global dust storms. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).

  17. Syria civil war: Outcomes of humanitarian neurosurgical care provided to Syrian wounded refugees in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F

    2015-01-01

    As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.

  18. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

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    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  19. ‘The “Meidias” hydria: a visual and textual journey of a Greek vase in the history of art of antiquity (c. 1770s–1840s’

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    Emmanouil Kalkanis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines scholarly publications between the 1770s and 1840s of one of the most published Athenian red-figured vases, a hydria first known in the collection of Sir William Hamilton and since 1772 in the British Museum. It reviews critically several visual and textual interpretations of the vase by a range of scholars of various European nationalities. It offers a new interpretation of a well-known object and reveals the extent to which its iconography influenced the development of art-historical writing and vice versa. While d’Hancarville was a pioneer in his own peculiar way, others were all more or less influenced by him though having their own agendas, not really related to any intrinsic interest in the vase, or any vase, as an object. What the article establishes is that although every writer was the product of his time and culture, only one of them (Eduard Gerhard really advanced the study of the vase or Greek ceramics being more thorough and imaginative in analyzing the subject matter.

  20. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE PLACES IN A DISASTER AND POST-DISASTER EVENT – A CASE STUDY OF SYRIA

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    A. Vafadari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data