Models of patient and family-centered care advocate catering to psychosocial needs when designing healthcare facilities yet there is little evidence available to determine how the built environment can cater to psychosocial needs. This article highlights the obstacles to overcoming this knowledge deficit in the pursuit of evidence-based guidelines to inform social provisions within the pediatric hospital setting. It will propose a working definition for psychosocial space and identify new research directions to enhance understandings of the relationship between social space and well-being. While traditional multibed ward configurations afforded opportunities for peer support relationships to develop, both for patients and caregivers, the contemporary preference for single-occupancy rooms intensifies the need to critically examine social spaces within the pediatric hospital. Research suggests a correlation between social support and well-being. This article reviews the research underpinning contemporary understandings of this relationship; it positions literature from sociology, environmental psychology, and evidence-based design to highlight the limitations of this knowledge and identify where additional research is required to inform evidence-based design guidelines for psychosocially supportive spaces within pediatric healthcare settings. Evidence regarding the therapeutic value of social support within the pediatric hospital is not sufficiently sophisticated or conclusive to inform guidelines for the provision of social space with pediatric hospitals. There is an urgent need for targeted research to inform evidence-based design guidelines; this will demand a broad disciplinary approach.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine whether social support and acculturative stress were related to obtaining antenatal and postpartum care for pregnant female migrants, as well as access to health care for migrant children. The study utilized data of 987 migrant workers in Thailand who originated from hill tribes and mountain communities in Myanmar and Cambodia. Regression analysis showed that the language barrier, a crucial factor behind acculturative stress, adversely influenced access to maternal care. Social support reduced the impact of acculturative stress. Migrants with support are more likely to access health care. Based on the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, more sources of support either from friends, family members, or other supporters who are significant could increase health care access. Besides friends and family, the support from the Migrant Health Worker Program and Migrant Health Volunteer Program allowed the formal health sector to utilize the informal social networks to improve care for migrants.
Greenaway, Katharine H.; Cichocka, Aleksandra; van Veelen, Ruth; Likki, Tiina; Branscombe, Nyla R.
Hope is an emotion that has been implicated in social change efforts, yet little research has examined whether feeling hopeful actually motivates support for social change. Study 1 (N = 274) confirmed that hope is associated with greater support for social change in two countries with different
Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish
Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...
Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.
Mariska Kromhout; Peteke Feijten; Frieke Vonk; Mirjam de Klerk; Anna Maria Marangos; Wouter Mensink; Maaike den Draak; Alice de Boer; m.m.v. Jurjen Iedema
Original title: De Wmo in beweging. Evaluatie Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2010-2012 The goal of the Dutch Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning – Wmo) is to make it possible for people to manage within and outside their homes and to participate in society. Within the
Amy E. Pinkham; Philip D. Harvey; David L. Penn
Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...
Held, Mary L
Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors. Females, immigrants who are not married/cohabitating, and those who reported experiencing a greater number of discrete stressors in the USA each reported lower levels of social support. Implications for practice include an increased emphasis on assessing levels of social support and designing services to strengthen support for the most vulnerable immigrants. Future research should consider a longitudinal analysis and specific types of social support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.
Olff, Miranda; Koch, Saskia B. J.; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Veltman, Dick J.
A lack of social support and recognition by the environment is one of the most consistent risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD patients will recover faster with proper social support. The oxytocin system has been proposed to underlie beneficial effects of social support as
Westdahl, Claire; Milan, Stephanie; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
OBJECTIVE To estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk. METHODS This is a prospective study following 1,047 pregnant women receiving care at two university-affiliated clinics from early pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Structured interviews were conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. Hierarchical and logistic regressions were used to examine potential direct and interactive effects of social support and conflict on prenatal depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. RESULTS Thirty-three percent of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms predicted from sociodemographic factors, social support, and social conflict. Social support and conflict had independent effects on depressive symptoms although social conflict was a stronger predictor. There was a “dose–response,” with each increase in interpersonal risk factor resulting in consequent risk for probable depression based on symptom reports (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Scale greater than or equal to 16). A composite of one social support and three conflict items were identified to be used by clinicians to identify interpersonal risk factors for depression in pregnancy. Seventy-six percent of women with a composite score of three or more high-risk responses reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Increased assessment of social support and social conflict by clinicians during pregnancy can identify women who could benefit from group or individual interventions to enhance supportive and reduce negative social interactions. PMID:17601908
Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L
Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.
Van Dijk, F
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt
Mok, Ka Ho; Leung, Dennis
This new century has witnessed the rapid and frequent emergence of many new information and communications technologies (ICTs). On one hand, digitalisation enhances our economic, social and political lives. But on the other hand, it leads to certain negative social impacts. One prevalent problem is digital divide--the gap between different social…
Maritza Cristancho García
Full Text Available This document is an overview of the educational offer generated by the family compensation funds and their contribution to the commitment of social tissue formation according to the territorial challenges, considering some characteristics of the institutions of family subsidy system. The process is stated from the review of the "White Paper of the family subsidy system" (ILO, 2014; the undergraduate thesis from the Faculty of Political Science of Del Rosario University "Analysis of the evolution of the figure of the family compensation funds in Colombia as managers of social security for the period between 1954 and 2009, Case Study Cafam "(Cortés, 2011; the document developed by Externado University entitled "The institutions of the family subsidy system as operators of social policy" (Carrasco and Farné, 2010; the document developed by Asocajas in conjuction with Corporación para el desarrollo de la seguridad social “Perspectives of family subsidy system” (Asocajas y Codess, 2014; and finally, considering the development of an analysis of the information provided by Asocajas, and the information taken from the different web pages of the 43 institutions of the family subsidy system that were analyzed.
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert
Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Paula Mendonça Studart
Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and ext...
Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.
Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…
Implications for practice and researchIncorporating resilience training and a multidisciplinary debriefing approach within clinical and academic environments would develop a culture of support and compassion for the workforce and ultimately effective care for women using maternity services. Further research surrounding the effectiveness of resilience education for student midwives is required to elicit greater understanding of the effect on woman-centred care.
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.
Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R
The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.
Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan
Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel
To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
“Heterogeneous Social Dilemmas: The Case of Social Support” studies the level of social support between heterogeneous actors. We consider heterogeneity with respect to several individual properties: the likelihood of needing support, the costs of providing support, and the benefits from receiving
Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L
Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke
We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...
Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I
An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Hurst, R.; Hale, B.; Smith, D.; Collins, D.
Objectives—To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Methods—Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. Results—A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (pbodybuilding identity (pbodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Key Words: bodybuilding; exercise dependence; social physical anxiety; social support; athletic identity PMID:11131230
O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months. Veterans in HUD-VASH reported significantly greater increases in social support than veterans in the two other groups, as well as greater frequency of contacts, availability of tangible and emotional support, and satisfaction with nonkin relationships over time. These gains largely involved relationships with providers and other veterans encountered in treatment. Supported housing may play a pivotal role in fostering constructive new relationships with persons associated with service programs but may have a more limited impact on natural support networks.
The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social suppo...
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.
Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R
According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.
Full Text Available Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were administered to a sample of 100 participants. Results indicated a perception of social support more pronounced in women, mainly on the dimension of social support derived from the partner. Furthermore, for women and not for men, an association between attachment models to the AAI and the different perceptions of social support was revealed. Data seems support the opportunity to assess parents during early rehabilitation interventions. Support groups could be used with insecure parents and has positive effects in reducing stress and promoting adjustment to the disability for children and their families.
Endo, Go; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Aiba, Miyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Shiratori, Yuki; Matsui, Yutaka; Doi, Nagafumi; Asada, Takashi
The loss of social support is one of the major risk factors for suicide. However, there are few empirical studies that have examined how a person's suicide ideation relates to their social support. To examine the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. Self-report questionnaires were sent to 2,200 randomly selected adults in Japan. The questionnaire inquired the participants about the severity of suicidal ideation, the details of current perceived social support and their degree of satisfaction with this social support. Social support and related indicators were compared among three groups of participants that varied in severity of suicidal ideation. People in the group that had suicide ideation during their lives reported receiving significantly less support from their family and had greater feelings of dissatisfaction with that support than those in the other groups. Furthermore, people who had suicide ideation during the month immediately preceding the survey reported providing less support to their family, relatives or friends, as well as receiving less support from family than other groups, and having stronger feelings of dissatisfaction with social support. Our study identified a strong relationship between the severity of suicidal ideation and perceived social support.
Sanchez-Martínez, Mercedes; López-García, Esther; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Cruz, Juan J; Orozco, Edilberto; García-Esquinas, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R
Social support has been associated with greater nocturnal decline (dipping) in blood pressure (BP) in younger and middle-aged individuals. However, it is uncertain if aggregated measures of social support are related to ambulatory SBP in older adults, where high SBP is frequent and clinically challenging. We studied 1047 community-living individuals aged at least 60 years in Spain. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was determined under standardized conditions. Social support was assessed with a seven-item questionnaire on marital status, cohabitation, frequency of contact with relatives, or with friends and neighbors, emotional support, instrumental support, and outdoor companionship. A social support score was built by summing the values of the items that were significantly associated with SBP variables, such that the higher the score, the better the support. Participants' mean age was 71.7 years (50.8% men). Being married, cohabiting, and being accompanied when out of home were the support items significantly associated with SBP variables. After adjustment for sociodemographic (age, sex, education), behavioral (BMI, alcohol, tobacco, salt consumption, physical activity, Mediterranean diet score), and clinical variables [sleep quality, mental stress, comorbidity, BP medication, and ambulatory BP levels and heart rate (HR)], one additional point in the social support score built with the abovementioned three support variables, was associated with a decrease of 0.93 mmHg in night-time SBP (P = 0.039), totaling 2.8 mmHg decrease for a score of 3 vs. 0. The three-item social support score was also inversely associated with the night/day SBP ratio (β = -0.006, P = 0.010). In older adults, social support is independently associated with lower nocturnal SBP and greater SBP dipping. Further research is needed in prospective studies to confirm these results.
Idalski Carcone, April; Ellis, Deborah A; Weisz, Arlene; Naar-King, Sylvie
The aim of this research study was to examine the relationship between 4 sources of social support (support for the adolescent from family, support for the adolescent from friends, support for the caregiver from another adult, and support to the family from the health care provider) and adolescents' diabetes outcomes (illness management behavior and health status) using a diverse sample of urban adolescents. One hundred forty-one adolescents with insulin-managed diabetes and their primary caregivers completed questionnaires assessing social support and illness management behavior. Glucose meters were downloaded and hemoglobin A1c assays were obtained. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model social support informed by social ecological theory. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that support for the caregiver from another adult was directly and positively related to support for the adolescent from family and indirectly related to better illness management. Support for the adolescent from family was directly related to better diabetes management and, through better management, to better diabetes health. Support to the family from the health care provider was not related to support for the adolescent and support to the adolescent from friends was not related to illness management, as hypothesized. This study identifies a novel target for social support intervention to improve adolescents' illness management behavior-the caregivers of adolescents with diabetes. By enhancing the social support caregivers receive from other adults in their lives, caregivers' ability to support their adolescent children with diabetes might also be improved which, in turn, improves adolescents' illness outcomes.
Kim, Seoyoun; Thomas, Patricia A
We aimed to investigate potential direct and indirect pathways linking social support and health, while considering mental health and chronic inflammation as inter-related outcomes. The study also contributes to the literature through testing potential bidirectional relationships between social support, mental health, and chronic inflammation. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling and two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), including 1,124 community-living older adults aged 57-85 years at Wave 1 (2005). Analyses show that social support influenced mental health indirectly through better self-esteem. Moreover, social support was associated with lower levels of chronic inflammation but chronic inflammation did not influence social support. The growing number of older adults with an aging population urgently calls for a greater understanding of factors influencing their physical and mental health. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of social support in older adults' health, while specifically focusing on understudied indirect pathways from social support to health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46 showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim
The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…
Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.
Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…
Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.
This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program
Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)
This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A
Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul
A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.
King, Alison E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.
Diversifying biologically simple cropping systems often entails altering other management practices, such as tillage regime or nitrogen (N) source. We hypothesized that the interaction of crop rotation, N source, and tillage in diversified cropping systems would promote microbially-mediated soil C and N cycling while attenuating inorganic N pools. We studied a cropping systems trial in its 10th year in Iowa, USA, which tested a 2-yr cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] managed with conventional fertilizer N inputs and conservation tillage, a 3-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and a 4-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/alfalfa. Three year and 4-yr cropping systems were managed with composted manure, reduced N fertilizer inputs, and periodic moldboard ploughing. We assayed soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), soil extractable NH4 and NO3, gross proteolytic activity of native soil, and potential activity of six hydrolytic enzymes eight times during the growing season. At the 0-20cm depth, native protease activity in the 4-yr cropping system was greater than in the 2-yr cropping system by a factor of 7.9, whereas dissolved inorganic N pools did not differ between cropping systems (P = 0.292). At the 0-20cm depth, MBC and MBN the 4-yr cropping system exceeded those in the 2-yr cropping system by factors of 1.51 and 1.57. Our findings suggest that diversified crop cropping systems, even when periodically moldboard ploughed, support higher levels of microbial biomass, greater production of bioavailable N from SOM, and a deeper microbially active layer than less diverse cropping systems.
Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion
Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie
Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…
Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles; Kendall, Katherine C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Moody, David S.; Frey, Kevin L.; Paetkau, David
The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) supports the southernmost of the 2 largest remaining grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States. Since the mid-1980s, this population has increased in numbers and expanded in range. However, concerns for its long-term genetic health remain because of its presumed continued isolation. To test the power of genetic methods for detecting immigrants, we generated 16-locus microsatellite genotypes for 424 individual grizzly bears sampled in the GYE during 1983–2007. Genotyping success was high (90%) and varied by sample type, with poorest success (40%) for hair collected from mortalities found ≥1 day after death. Years of storage did not affect genotyping success. Observed heterozygosity was 0.60, with a mean of 5.2 alleles/marker. We used factorial correspondence analysis (Program GENETIX) and Bayesian clustering (Program STRUCTURE) to compare 424 GYE genotypes with 601 existing genotypes from grizzly bears sampled in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) (FST = 0.096 between GYE and NCDE). These methods correctly classified all sampled individuals to their population of origin, providing no evidence of natural movement between the GYE and NCDE. Analysis of 500 simulated first-generation crosses suggested that over 95% of such bears would also be detectable using our 16-locus data set. Our approach provides a practical method for detecting immigration in the GYE grizzly population. We discuss estimates for the proportion of the GYE population sampled and prospects for natural immigration into the GYE.
Full Text Available The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social support. The lack of social support make a negative influence on personality development and personality traits. Positive emotional relationsthips with parents are important for healthy growth of personality (Filadelfiová, 2001; Arrive, 2004; Vágnerová, 2000; Langmeier & Křejčířová, 2006; Grun, 2011; Kraus & Poláčková, 2001; Matulník, 2002; Matějček & Dytrych, 2002. The meaning of social support and partner's love is confirmed with research. The meaning of social support in adolescence is replaced from parents to life partner. Strong emotional relationship motivates, integrates and regulates (Vágnerová, 2000. Absence of positive and permanent emotional relationship hold the positive soul steadiness. The signs of soul unsteadiness are destruction of self-esteem and self-image which manifest unstable emotionality. Subjective survival of emotional and social disharmony influence mental problems - neurotic disorders, problems with adaptation, emotional and social problems (Kondáš, 2002. The goal of research was find out relationship of social support regarding with emotional-willing stability and adolescence relationships in their family. We were interested in level of social support and level of emotional- willing stability and perception of quality family relationships regarding with gender and actual partnership. The research sample contained with N= 120 respondents (men = 33, women = 87 in age 19 - 24 years old, M = 23, 97. The next criterium of
Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.
The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.
sound, ontologically congruent methodology to support their social-learning ..... role in strengthening democratisation of the decision-making of the participants. ... powers of the contextual social structures and cultural systems (Lindley, 2014). ... participatory practice in integrated water resource management in South Africa.
Hill, Patrick L; Payne, Brennan R; Jackson, Joshua J; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Roberts, Brent W
This study examined whether perceived social support predicted adaptive personality change in older adulthood, focusing on the trait of conscientiousness. We tested this hypothesis both at the broad domain level and with respect to the specific lower order facets that comprise conscientiousness: order, self-control, industriousness, responsibility, and traditionalism. A sample of 143 older adults (aged 60-91) completed measures of conscientiousness and social support during 2 assessments 7 months apart. Social support and conscientiousness were positively correlated among older adults. Moreover, older adults who perceived greater social support at baseline were more likely to gain in conscientiousness over time. The magnitude of this effect was relatively similar across the order, self-control, and industriousness facets. Perceived social support provides multiple benefits later in life, and the current results add to this literature by showing that it also promotes conscientiousness. As conscientiousness is linked to a variety of positive outcomes later in life, including health, future research should examine whether conscientiousness change may be an important mechanism through which social support enhances resilience in older adulthood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.
Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.
Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)
McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal
Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.
Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C
Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.
Social media has been used increasingly as part of nursing education. Nurse educators at a large, multisite teaching hospital used social media to support clinical teaching. A series of educational images was created by nurse educators and shared across Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. This campaign coincided with in-unit clinical education. Nurse educators can consider using social media as an adjunct to clinical teaching, especially in large hospital settings. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(12):541-542. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...
Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian
District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How
Choi, Min-Je; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Kwon, Bum Chul; Yi, Ji Soo; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina
While online health social networks (OHSNs) serve as an effective platform for patients to fulfill their various social support needs, predicting the needs of users and providing tailored information remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to discriminate important features for identifying users' social support needs based on knowledge gathered from survey data. This study also provides guidelines for a technical framework, which can be used to predict users' social support needs based on raw data collected from OHSNs. We initially conducted a Web-based survey with 184 OHSN users. From this survey data, we extracted 34 features based on 5 categories: (1) demographics, (2) reading behavior, (3) posting behavior, (4) perceived roles in OHSNs, and (5) values sought in OHSNs. Features from the first 4 categories were used as variables for binary classification. For the prediction outcomes, we used features from the last category: the needs for emotional support, experience-based information, unconventional information, and medical facts. We compared 5 binary classifier algorithms: gradient boosting tree, random forest, decision tree, support vector machines, and logistic regression. We then calculated the scores of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) to understand the comparative effectiveness of the used features. The best performance was AUC scores of 0.89 for predicting users seeking emotional support, 0.86 for experience-based information, 0.80 for unconventional information, and 0.83 for medical facts. With the gradient boosting tree as our best performing model, we analyzed the strength of individual features in predicting one's social support need. Among other discoveries, we found that users seeking emotional support tend to post more in OHSNs compared with others. We developed an initial framework for automatically predicting social support needs in OHSNs using survey data. Future work should involve nonsurvey
Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin
Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…
Timmerman, IGH; Emanuels-Zuurveen, ES; Emmelkamp, PMG
The development of a brief measure to assess satisfaction with obtained social support using Simultaneous Components Analysis (SCA) is described. In the first study the component structure of the Social Support Questionnaire (Van Sonderen, 1991) was determined in a sample of men (n = 401) and women
Pereira-Gomes, Nadirlene; Lorenzini Erdmann, Alacoque; Rebouças-Gomes, Nadjane; da Silva-Monteiro, Deise; Moreira Dos Santos, Raiane; Menezes-Couto, Telmara
Objective To understand the meanings attributed by health professionals to the social support of women in domestic violence situations. Methods We interviewed 52 professionals from five local health units of the municipality of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were processed based on the Grounded Theory. Results It was shown that the demands are related to the threats of companions and economic dependence, which justifies intersectorial referrals and women's inclusion in the income and employment generation program. Discussion Given the high demand and the health promotion prerogative of Primary Health Care, a greater availability of social workers within the Health Strategy is needed. Social support to women requires political interest in combining the health care sector with other resources available to combat violence.
Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine
In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…
Woodley, Carolyn; Meredith, CaAtherine
Views about the role of Facebook and other social networking sites in education are extremely varied. Facebook threatens academic success and yet "certain kinds of Facebook use" can support study; indeed, Facebooking students may perform better than their unwired peers (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Facebook is emphatically a…
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the degree to which social media influence or support the learning process among students. The research was complex, involving three international panels, comprising students from Poland, China and Romania. Although intercultural differences between the three countries are evident, the attitudes and perceptions of the usefulness of social media in learning activities tend to be homogeneous, revealing not just the extensive use of this worldwide phenomenon amongst young people, but also its significance. Social media have impacted greatly on the way people relate, both positively and negatively. This research focuses on the analysis of the use of social networking in the process of training and self-training in youth education.
Medeiros, L.; Bosse, T.
Social media are an effective means for people to share everyday problems with their peers. Although this often leads to empathic responses which help alleviate the experienced stress, such peer support is not always available. As an alternative solution for such situations, this paper explores the
Davidson, Stephen D. [Energy and Environmental; Spies, Kurt A. [Energy and Environmental; Mei, Donghai [Energy and Environmental; Kovarik, Libor [Energy and Environmental; Kutnyakov, Igor [Energy and Environmental; Li, Xiaohong S. [Energy and Environmental; Lebarbier Dagle, Vanessa [Energy and Environmental; Albrecht, Karl O. [Energy and Environmental; Dagle, Robert A. [Energy and Environmental
We report on the markedly improved stability of a novel 2-bed catalytic system, as compared to a conventional 1-bed steam reforming catalyst, for the production of H2 from acetic acid. The 2-bed catalytic system comprises of i) a basic oxide ketonization catalyst for the conversion of acetic acid to acetone, and a ii) Co-based steam reforming catalyst, both catalytic beds placed in sequence within the same unit operation. Steam reforming catalysts are particularly prone to catalytic deactivation when steam reforming acetic acid, used here as a model compound for the aqueous fraction of bio-oil. Catalysts comprising MgAl2O4, ZnO, CeO2, and activated carbon (AC) both with and without Co-addition were evaluated for conversion of acetic acid and acetone, its ketonization product, in the presence of steam. It was found that over the bare oxide support only ketonization activity was observed and coke deposition was minimal. With addition of Co to the oxide support steam reforming activity was facilitated and coke deposition was significantly increased. Acetone steam reforming over the same Co-supported catalysts demonstrated more stable performance and with less coke deposition than with acetic acid feedstock. DFT analysis suggests that over Co surface CHxCOO species are more favorably formed from acetic acid versus acetone. These CHxCOO species are strongly bound to the Co catalyst surface and could explain the higher propensity for coke formation from acetic acid. Based on these findings, in order to enhance stability of the steam reforming catalyst a dual-bed (2-bed) catalyst system was implemented. Comparing the 2-bed and 1-bed (Co-supported catalyst only) systems under otherwise identical reaction conditions the 2-bed demonstrated significantly improved stability and coke deposition was decreased by a factor of 4.
Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L
Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.
Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.
Frans van Dijk
The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...
Piferi, Rachel L; Lawler, Kathleen A
The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L
Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.
Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.
Thompson, Tess; Pérez, Maria; Kreuter, Matthew; Margenthaler, Julie; Colditz, Graham; Jeffe, Donna B
Social support plays an important role in quality of life and health outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To examine changes in perceived social support in African American women during the two years following a new breast cancer diagnosis. This secondary analysis uses data collected from 2009 to 2015 from 227 newly diagnosed, African American women with breast cancer (mean age 56 [SD = 10], 59% household income social support (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey) as well as correlates of baseline levels of social support and predictors of change in individuals' social support. Additional analyses examined whether change in social support over the first year affected depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and general health perceptions (RAND SF-36 subscale) at two years. Being married, reporting greater spirituality, and reporting fewer depressive symptoms at baseline were significantly associated with higher initial levels of perceived social support. Women whose social support declined during the first year after diagnosis reported more severe depressive symptoms and worse general health perceptions at two years. Clinicians should periodically assess perceived social support among African American women with breast cancer to help find support resources for those who have low initial social support and for those whose support declines in the first year after diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buckner, Julia D; Langdon, Kirsten J; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J
Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers.
SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; BRIANCON, S; KRIJNEN, WP; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; MOUM, T; BJELLE, A; VANDENHEUVEL, WJA
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal
Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitranić Nevena N.
Full Text Available Play is a precious aspect of living and irreplaceable importance for not only child well-being and development but for adults and communities, too. Complex current living conditions often minimize the importance of child play and it becomes even more necessary that educational policies support it. The subject of the research is based on the role child play has in educational policy and the aim is formulation of measures and actions which can support child play in educational policy. We examined measures and actions of official educational policies and non government organizations of the United Kingdom of England and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Republic of Serbia. The results show that the problem is deeper than current nonexistence of systemic support to play in Serbia and open the question on which paradigm official educational policy in Serbia approaches to education, and the question of how to bring to awareness the importance of play in order to support it. Relaying on the frameworks of play support policy in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland we suggest some guidelines for social support of child play which might prove sensible and feasible in Serbia.
Reutlinger, Julia; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Schellberg, Dieter; Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Herzog, Wolfgang; Lossnitzer, Nicole
Depressive patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) show less social integration and greater physical impairment as well as poorer compliance than non depressive CHF patients. Using multiple regression analyses, this study (n=84) investigated a potential mediating effect of depression on the relationship between compliance and both social support and physical functioning. Results did not support the hypothesized mediating effect of depression. However, the variables age, depression, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and social support were associated with self-reported compliance. Therefore, a lack of social support and depression should be considered as possible reasons, if patients are noncompliant during the treatment process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Santamaría, Lorri J.
Background: Educational leadership for social justice and equity is the primary leadership response to inclusive and equitable education. This inquiry builds on multicultural education and educational leadership to explore an alternative approach to mainstream leadership practice. Purpose: To examine ways in which educational leaders of color in…
Platt, Jonathan; Keyes, Katherine M; Koenen, Karestan C
Supportive social networks are important to the post-traumatic response process. However, the effects of social network structure may be distinct from the perceived function of those networks. The present study examined the relative importance of role diversity and perceived strength of social support in mitigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were drawn from respondents who report lifetime potentially traumatic events in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 31,650). The Social Network Index (SNI) was used to measure the diversity of social connections. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12) was used to measure the perceived availability of social support within the network. Odds of current PTSD were compared among individuals representing four dichotomous types of social support: high diversity/high perceived strength, high diversity/low perceived strength, low diversity/high perceived strength, and low diversity/low perceived strength to examine which type of support is more protective against PTSD. Unadjusted odds of PTSD were 1.59 (95 % CI 1.39-1.82) for those with low versus high perceived support strength, and 1.10 (0.94-1.28) among those with non-diverse versus diverse social networks. Compared to the reference group (high diversity/high perceived strength), the adjusted odds of current PTSD were higher for two groups: low diversity/low perceived strength (OR = 1.62; 1.33-1.99), and low diversity/high perceived strength (OR = 1.57; 1.3-1.91). The high diversity/low perceived strength group had no greater odds of PTSD (OR = 1.02; 0.81-1.28). The diversity of a social network is potentially more protective against PTSD than the perception of strong social support. This suggests that programs, which engage individuals in social groups and activities may effectively attenuate the risk of PTSD. A better understanding of how these networks operate with respect to PTSD prevention and mitigation holds
Niklas K Steffens
Full Text Available We examine the extent to which multiple social identities are associated with enhanced health and well-being in retirement because they provide a basis for giving and receiving social support. Results from a cross-sectional study show that retirees (N = 171 who had multiple social identities following (but not prior to retirement report being (a more satisfied with retirement, (b in better health, and (c more satisfied with life in general. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed an indirect path from multiple social identities to greater satisfaction with retirement and better health through greater provision, but not receipt, of social support to others. These findings are the first to point to the value of multiple group membership post-retirement as a basis for increased opportunities to give meaningful support to others. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the management of multiple identities in the process of significant life transitions such as retirement.
Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.
The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…
Fontanini, Humberto; Marshman, Zoe; Vettore, Mario
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intermediary social determinants, namely social support and social network with dental caries in adolescents. An adapted version of the WHO social determinants of health conceptual framework was used to organize structural and intermediary social determinants of dental caries into six blocks including perceived social support and number of social networks. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 542 students between 12 and 14 years of age in public schools located in the city of Dourados, Brazil in 2012. The outcome variables were caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1) and current dental caries (component D of DMFT ≥ 1) recorded by a calibrated dentist. Individual interviews were performed to collect data on perceived social support and numbers of social networks from family and friends and covariates. Multivariate Poisson regressions using hierarchical models were conducted. The prevalence of adolescents with caries experience and current dental caries was 55.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Adolescents with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01-2.14) were more likely to have DMFT ≥ 1. Current dental caries was associated with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15-4.44). Social support and social network were influential psychosocial factors to dental caries in adolescents. This finding requires confirmation in other countries but potentially has implications for programmes to promote oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The purpose of the article is evaluating spatial patterns of social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta in 2015. The social vulnerability to heat is an index of socioeconomic status, household composition, land surface temperature and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Land surface temperature and NDVI were derived from the red, NIR and thermal infrared (TIR) of a Landsat OLI/TIRS images collected on September 14, 2015. The research focus is on the variation of heat vulnerability in Greater Atlanta. The study found that heat vulnerability is highly clustered spatially, resulting in "hot spots" and "cool spots". The results show significant health disparities. The hotspots of social vulnerability to heat occurred in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status as measured by low education, low income and more poverty, greater proportion of elderly people and young children. The findings of this study are important for identifying clusters of heat vulnerability and the relationships with social factors. These significant results provide a basis for heat intervention services.
Cederbaum, Julie A; Rice, Eric; Craddock, Jaih; Pimentel, Veronica; Beaver, Patty
Social support is important to the mental health and well-being of HIV-positive women. Limited information exists about the specific structure and composition of HIV-positive women's support networks or associations of these network properties with mental health outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors examine whether support network characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. Survey and network data were collected from HIV-positive women (N = 46) via a web-based survey and an iPad application in August 2012. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models in SAS. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with a greater number of doctors in a woman's network; having more HIV-positive network members was associated with less symptom reporting. Women who reported more individuals who could care for them had more family support. Those who reported feeling loved were less likely to report disclosure stigma. This work highlighted that detailed social network data can increase our understanding of social support so as to identify interventions to support the mental health of HIV-positive women. Most significant is the ongoing need for support from peers.
Nitzsche, Anika; Kuntz, Ludwig; Miedaner, Felix
When the interplay between work and private life does not function correctly (work-home conflict), this constitutes a well-known risk factor for poorer health, increased absenteeism and lower work performance. Information about influencing factors of work-home conflict is therefore indispensable in order to avoid it. In this study, we analyse whether a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity' (organizational social capital) can reduce an employee's conflict between work and private life. This study investigates the link between organizational social capital and work-home conflict in health professionals. This issue was investigated using a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Data from questionnaires completed by physicians and nurses (n=1733) were linked with structural data from 66 neonatal intensive care units in Germany. Using multi-level analyses, we investigated associations between organizational social capital at the ward level and work-home conflict at the level of individual employees, taking into account additional structural and individual characteristics. Employees on wards with greater social capital reported significantly less work-home conflict. Our results support the hypothesis that organizational social capital is an important collective resource. As such, more attention should be given to establishing a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity', and this should be encouraged in a targeted fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hawa, Roula; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen; Loutfy, Mona
We explored how social norms interact with beliefs and social structures (power relations, emotional relations, and gendered division of labor) to influence the experiences of South Asian women with HIV in Canada. The first author conducted semi-structured interviews, and identified five themes using thematic analysis: connection to community/religious institutions, family honor, and restrained/prohibited discussion of sexuality. These norms reproduce hegemonic masculinity; constrain women's social, relational, and economic power; and elevate HIV vulnerability. We present findings to challenge hegemonic masculinity at the international level, and of developing strategies to address both interfamily gender-based violence and racism faced by the South Asians in Canada.
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Schonfeld, I S
In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.
Letourneau, Nicole L; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Cosic, Nela; Ntanda, Henry N; Anis, Lubna; Hart, Martha J; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F
Many studies have identified associations between qualities of maternal-child relationships and childhood asthma, but few have examined associations with childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), a common precursor to asthma. Moreover, maternal psychological distress, including prenatal and postnatal depression, anxiety and stress, may increase risk, while social support from partners may reduce risk for childhood AD. We sought to uncover the association between maternal-infant relationship qualities (maternal sensitivity towards infant behavioral signals, controlling behavior, and unresponsiveness) and child AD after accounting for risk (i.e., prenatal and postnatal maternal depression, anxiety and stress) and protective (i.e., social support) factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected on a subsample of 242 women and their infants enrolled during pregnancy in the ongoing Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition cohort study. Inclusion criteria required mothers to be >16 years of age, English speaking and depression, anxiety and stress in the prenatal and postnatal periods and physician diagnosis of childhood AD at 18 months were gathered via maternal report. Maternal sensitivity, unresponsiveness and controlling behaviours were assessed via videotaped observations using the Child-Adult Relationship Experimental (CARE)-Index at 6 months of infant age. Higher maternal sensitivity, or the inability of the mother to appropriately understand and respond to infant needs based on behavioral signals, predicted reduced odds of AD independent of and in combination with low prenatal and postnatal anxiety and high paternal support. After adjustment, higher maternal controlling behaviours and unresponsiveness also predicted greater odds of AD. Low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for childhood AD, independently and in combination with perinatal anxiety and low social support. Thus, interventions that improve maternal-infant relationship quality, especially
Hess, J; Kurth, I; Henkel, A; Panic, L; Rübben, H; Rossi Neto, R; Hess-Busch, Y
Gender reassignment surgery (GRS) can lead to discrimination. This transition makes great demands on the individual and also affects the social environment. To evaluate the social support of male-to-female (MtF) transgender people. Group A comprised 254 consecutive MtF transsexuals, who received a penile inversion vaginoplasty between 2004 and 2010. These women were surveyed retrospectively. Group B comprised 144 consecutive MtF transsexuals who presented for preoperative counselling. These patients were asked to answer the survey in advance of the planned GRS. The return rate was 46.9 % (A) and 95.1 % (B). In both groups, approximately two-thirds lived with their parents or children at ease. About 13.4 % (A) and 16.9 % (B) estimated the relationship towards their parents and one- seventh (A) or one-sixth (B) woman rated their relationship towards their children as poor. The acceptance of the parents regarding GRS was 65.6 % (A) and 77.1 % (B). In total 20 % (A) and 9.2 % (B) did not, however, accept GRS in their children. The acceptance of children regarding GRS was 64.9 % (A) and 71.1 % (B) with 10.8 % (A) and 6.7 % (B) who did not approve the decision. Social support is an important resource in the context of gender reassignment surgery. Understanding can help to improve the situation for transsexuals and to reduce consecutive healthcare utilisation.
.... A useful resource for clinical practitioners and researchers, Social Support, Health, and Illness addresses the effects of intimate support on a wide variety of medical and psychiatric conditions...
Han, Wei; McCabe, Scott; Wang, Yi; Chong, Alain Yee Loong
Appealing to tourists’ intrinsic interest for high-quality tourism environments, and thus encouraging them to act with a greater sense of personal responsibility toward the environment, could be critical to promoting sustainable tourism. Proliferating media channels makes the choice, style and delivery of pro-environmental messages a key issue for tourism marketers and management. Social media has become a recognized important channel for tourism information, with user-generated content (UGC)...
Lackner, J M; Brasel, A M; Quigley, B M; Keefer, L; Krasner, S S; Powell, C; Katz, L A; Sitrin, M D
This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels.
Verdier, Emilie; Denis, Céline; Bourokba, Nacer; Chauvin, Pierre; Chariot, Patrick
The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area. Arrestees had a median age of 31 years; 92% were males. As compared to the general population, arrestees had a lower level of education (8.6 vs. 7.6%, p analysis of male arrestees and males from the general population showed that the former had worse social and health conditions. These results argue for widespread medical interventions on all arrestees. Medical examination during detention could act as a gateway to health care and social support.
Subjects with late-stage HIV infection reported a lower social adjustment to the disease, a lower quality of life and more severe lifestyle changes. Satisfaction with social support correlated significantly with quality of life and social adjustment. It is therefore concluded that the higher the level of satisfaction with social support, ...
Lee, Roderick Lamar; Kvasny, Lynette M.
Around the globe, people are increasingly using social media for the provision of online social support. Online social support may be especially relevant for parents who have children that are afflicted with rare chronic diseases such as MECP2 Duplication Syndrome. Despite increasing evidence that online social support enhances a person’s psychological well-being, there is little research that seeks to understand how and why various forms of social media facilitate social support. This study ...
Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Grapin, Sally L.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lazarus, Philip J.
In school contexts, social support refers to the overall perception one has of feeling included and cared for in a community of peers, teachers, caregivers, and others. Social support is critical for promoting positive academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Conversely, a lack of perceived social support may be associated with increased…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
McFillin, Roger K; Cahn, Stacey C; Burks, Virginia Salzer; Levine, Martha Peaslee; Loney, Susan Lane; Levine, Richard L
The objective of this study was to examine differences in social information-processing and coping strategies between adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder and asymptomatic peers. Adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder (n = 50) were compared to asymptomatic control participants (n = 59) on a measure of social information-processing. Participants were presented with 4 hypothetical, ambiguous social dilemmas in which the intent of a peer provocateur was unclear. Questions followed each dilemma assessing intent attributions, the participant's emotional reaction, the intensity of the emotion, and coping strategies. The participants in treatment for an eating disorder were significantly more likely to perceive hostile intent from a peer provocateur, reported a greater intensity of negative emotions, and identified a significantly greater number of avoidant coping strategies. Specifically, the eating disorder group identified significantly more intrapunitive avoidant coping strategies that reflect maladaptive and self-destructive means of coping with distressing events. Results indicate social cognitive processing biases and maladaptive coping strategies may be instrumental in perceived loss of control and influence the development/maintenance of eating disorders.
Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M
Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.
Martins, M V; Peterson, B D; Almeida, V; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Costa, M E
Is perceived social support from partner, family, and friends associated with increased infertility-related stress? While men's perceived support did not seem to influence their partners' stress, women's perceptions of spousal and familial support can affect the way men deal with the challenge of infertility. Previous studies showed that low levels of social support are associated with poor psychosocial adjustment and treatment termination in women and men. Studies examining the impact of social support using the couple as unit of analysis are lacking. A cross-sectional sample of 613 Portuguese patients participated in the research, online over a 3-month period, and in a public fertility clinic over 11 months. The final sample comprised 213 married or cohabiting couples (191 from the fertility clinic) who were actively attempting to have a child, were seeking infertility treatment and had not undergone previous preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Perceived social support was assessed through the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and infertility-related stress was assessed with the fertility problem inventory. Hypotheses were tested by applying the actor-partner interdependence model using structural equation modeling. Couples had been living together for an average (±SD) of 6 ± 3.5 years, and attempting a pregnancy for 3.8 ± 2.6 years. Nearly half of the couples had undergone infertility treatment (41.3%). Infertility stress was found to be associated with low family support for women (β = -0.27, P = .003), and low partner support for both men (β = -0.29, P = .001) and women (β = -0.45, P = .006). Both women and men's perceived friend support were not significantly related to male or female infertility stress. Men infertility stress was also associated with their partners low levels of partner (β = -0.24, P = .049) and family support (β = -0.23, P family support), the explained variance of the model in women's fertility stress was greater (R
Tamers, Sara L.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Thompson, Beti; Zheng, Yingye; Cheadle, Allen D.
Objectives To explore the association of baseline co-worker social support with follow-up measures of health care use and sickness absence. Methods Data were obtained on 1,240 employees from 33 worksites, through Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating, a group randomized weight maintenance trial. Co-worker social support, health care utilization, and absenteeism were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire. Generalized Estimating Equations were employed using STATA version 10. Results Higher baseline co-worker social support was significantly associated with a greater number of doctors’ visits (p = 0.015). Co-worker social support was unrelated to number of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or absenteeism. Conclusions The relationship between co-worker social support and health care utilization and absenteeism is complex and uncertain. Future studies should measure more specific outcomes, incorporate important mediating variables, and distill how social networks influence these outcomes. PMID:21685798
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Robinson, James D; Tian, Yan
Research into the impact of social support on health-care patients has focused on the benefits of receiving social support. Although recipients benefit from social support, there are also potential benefits to the providers of social support that have gone relatively unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between the reception and provision of informational social support by cancer patients. Based on the work of Gouldner (1960), this investigation attempts to examine the role reciprocity plays within the social support process. The norm of reciprocity is conceptualized as a generalized moral belief rather than as a simple pattern of exchange between caregivers and care receivers. Use of reciprocity as a generalized moral belief instead of a pattern of behavioral exchange between providers and recipients of social support allows a more thorough integration theoretically and more methodical examination of the role the relationship between providers and recipients plays in this process. Specifically, this investigation employs the notion of optimal matching as part of the mechanism underlying the satisfactions derived from informational social support. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggest that reciprocity is a viable explanation of the mechanism underlying the desire to provide social support to others among cancer patients and among adults who have never been diagnosed with cancer. This relationship between the reception and the provision of informational social support remains even after controlling for age, education, gender, race, social integration, and cancer diagnosis. Implications for the social support literature are discussed.
Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L
A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Hernández-Serrato, María; Enríquez-Rosas, María Del Rocío; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad
In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between social support and healthcare utilization among older Mexican adults. We conducted a prospective study with 4027 older adults aged 65-74 in rural areas in seven Mexican states. Data were collected at baseline (2007) and 14 months later (2009). Healthcare utilization was defined as number of visits to a physician for preventive or curative purposes in the last 6 months. Multidimensional social support was operationalized into two components: structural (living arrangements, marital status and network size) and functional (perceived availability of support; and perceived support across emotional, instrumental, economic and information domains). Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the probability of healthcare use and to examine the association between social support and the number of visits to a physician. Results showed that perceived availability of social support was associated with the probability of visits to a physician (OR 1.44; p social support were associated with the probability of visits to a physician: instrumental (OR 1.55; p social support, measured from a multidimensional viewpoint, and healthcare utilization, in which greater social support was related to a greater extent of use of health services.
Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.
The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze social support on the wife who studies the master. The approach employed in this study was qualitative phenomenological. Samples in this study as many as two respondents, female students master, career woman, and married. In addition, there were secondary informants that comes from the husband, classmates, and coworkers subject. There are 6 secondary informants this research. Data were collected used interviews and observation. Forms interviews used in this study are free guided interviews and using participant observation. The validity of the data in this study using triangulation of sources and methods. The study found that two subjects in the lead role as a wife, staff, and students were able to run third that role with the help of others. But despite the help of others, this study provides new findings that the success of subjects affected their spiritual support that makes the subject able to survive to make the subject is able to do their job
Lee, Eun-Ju; Cho, Eugene
A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook. Social comparison, in turn, lowered perceived social support among heavy Facebook users, whereas inner-directed self-presentation heightened it. Other-directed self-presentation had no significant effect on perceived social support. Results indicate that the desire to avoid social isolation may paradoxically diminish perceived social support by promoting social comparison, while suppressing the expression of true self on Facebook.
Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Hobfoll, S E
A sample of 382 Israeli soldiers who developed combat stress reactions (CSR) during the 1982 Israel-Lebanon War were compared with groups of carefully matched controls who did not develop CSR. Lack of social support from officers was found to be related to greater feelings of loneliness and greater likelihood of CSR in soldiers. Lack of social support from buddies was found to be related to greater loneliness. Intensity of battle was also found to be related to greater feelings of loneliness and increased likelihood of CSR. A path model was tested and supported. The model suggests that battle intensity and officer support lead to CSR directly and indirectly by causing increased feelings of loneliness. Possible cognitive and psychodynamic explanations for the findings are offered. The limitations of making causal statements from retrospective perceptions is discussed.
Ogurlu, Üzeyir; Sevgi-Yalin, Hatun; Yavuz-Birben, Fazilet
This study aimed to examine the relationship between social-emotional learning skills and perceived social support of gifted students. Based on this relationship, the authors also examined to what extent social and emotional learning skills were predictive of social support. In addition, gender variables were compared in social and emotional…
McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme; Dobson, Annette
high levels of social support and engagement may help sustain good health and functional ability. However, the definition of social support in previous research has been inconsistent and findings are mixed. The aim of this analysis was to explore the effect of two aspects of social support on subsequent disability in a group of community dwelling older women and men. data were drawn from two concurrent prospective observational cohort studies of community-based older Australian women (N = 2,013) and men (N = 680). Baseline and follow-up data were drawn from the second (1999) and fifth (2008) surveys of the women and the second (2001) and third (2008) surveys of the men. At baseline, social support was measured by the two subscales (social network and subjective support) of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). The outcome measure was Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). overall, social network size was not associated with subsequent disability in either women or men. After adjusting for health status at baseline, lack of satisfaction with social support was associated with greater difficulties in ADLs and IADLs for both women and men. our results suggest that the provision of social support is insufficient to limit subsequent disability: support provided must be subjectively perceived to be relevant and adequate.
Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia
Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.
Jiang, Li; Drolet, Aimee; Kim, Heejung S
We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking. Older and young adults do not differ in perceptions of the relative costs versus benefits of implicit social support seeking. Finally, we found older adults benefit more from implicit (vs. explicit) social support emotionally than young adults, which further explains why age groups differ in their use of explicit versus implicit social support.
Cole, David A; Nick, Elizabeth A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Roeder, Kathryn M; Spinelli, Tawny
As social media websites have grown in popularity, public concern about online victimization has grown as well; however, much less attention has focused on the possible beneficial effects of online social networks. If theory and research about in-person social networks pertain, then online social relationships may represent an important modern source of or vehicle for support. In a study of 231 undergraduates, three major findings emerged: (1) for people with weaker in-person social support, social media sites provide a source of social support that is less redundant of the social support they receive in person; (2) in ways that were not redundant of each other, both online and in-person social support were associated with lower levels of depression-related thoughts and feelings, and (3) the beneficial effects of online social support (like in-person social support) offset some of the adverse effects of peer victimization. The study suggests that augmenting social relations via strategic use of social media can enhance young people's social support systems in beneficial ways.
Okun, Morris A; Ruehlman, Linda; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer; Fairholme, Chris; Schaub, Rachel
To clarify the contribution of social support and social norms to exercise behavior. A sample of 363 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed social support and social negativity from friends, descriptive and injunctive social norms related to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Esteem social support was the strongest predictor of total and strenuous leisure-time exercise (P leisure-time exercise. Social support and social norms contribute independently to our understanding of variation in the frequency of strenuous leisure-time exercise.
Knowlton, Amy R.; Curry, Aaron; Hua, Wei; Wissow, Lawrence
Social support is associated with better health outcomes among chronically ill individuals, yet support receipt can be stressful. The study examined supporter relationship factors, among n = 156 main-supporter-HIV+support-recipient dyads, associated with recipient's depression (CES-D greater than or equal to 16). Results indicated that support…
Hoyt, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L
Unmitigated agency (UA), a gender-linked characteristic, has been associated with poorer cancer adjustment. Support from one's social network typically predicts adjustment but may be poorly matched to UA. The influence of UA on the utility of social support on adjustment over time is examined. Men with cancer (N=55) were assessed initially and 6 months later on three indicators of adjustment. Multilevel modeling analyses varied by adjustment indicator. UA was associated with increased cancer-related psychosocial symptoms but not depressive symptoms or cancer-related thought intrusion. Social support predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less cancer-related thought intrusion. However, a cross-level interaction revealed that the utility of social support on cancer-related thought intrusion was weaker for men with greater levels of UA. Men with cancer likely respond differently to changes in social support depending on their endorsement of UA. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J
This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.
de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.
Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung
This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.
Harvey-Knowles, Jacquelyn; Faw, Meara H
Cancer caregivers often experience significant challenges in their motivation and ability to comfort cancer survivors, particularly in a spousal or romantic context. Spousal cancer caregivers have been known to report even greater levels of burden and distress than cancer sufferers, yet still take on the role of acting as an informal caregiver so they can attend to their partner's needs. The current study tested whether a theoretical model of supportive outcomes-the dual-process model of supportive communication-explained variations in cancer caregivers' motivation and ability to create high-quality support messages. The study also tested whether participant engagement with reflective journaling on supportive acts was associated with increased motivation or ability to generate high-quality support messages. Based upon the dual-process model, we posited that, following supportive journaling tasks, caregivers of spouses currently managing a cancer experience would report greater motivation but also greater difficulty in generating high-quality support messages, while individuals caring for a patient in remission would report lower motivation but greater ability to create high-quality support messages. Findings provided support for these assertions and suggested that reflective journaling tasks might be a useful tool for improving remission caregivers' ability to provide high-quality social support to survivors. Corresponding theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.
Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…
Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…
Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; López De Roda, Ana Barrón; Arias Astray, Andrés
Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Various dimensions of social support were considered: structural elements, functional social support according to source, and community participation. The results show the existence of significant differences in the characteristics and dimensions of social support depending on sex, ethnicity, and marital status. Further, the central role of the family group is observed for both Aymara and nonindigenous elderly people. The hierarchical regression models obtained result in notable differences in the role of the structural, functional, and community elements of support in explaining depression for the ethnic groups considered.
Mastoras, Sarah M; Saklofske, Donald H; Schwean, Vicki L; Climie, Emma A
This study investigated the role of perceived social support in promoting emotional well-being among children with ADHD. Specifically, it examined how children with ADHD perceive support from key individuals in their lives and the relationships between this support and aspects of emotional well-being. Main versus buffering models of social support in the context of social preference status were also explored. Participants were 55 school-age children with ADHD-combined or hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD-C/HI). Parent and child ratings evaluated source-specific social support, social status, and aspects of self-concept, anxiety, and depression. Children with ADHD reported lower social support than normative samples. Social support had moderate positive associations with self-concept, with source-specific differences, but was not associated with internalizing symptoms. Regression models with social preference status supported a main effect model of perceived social support. Social support may provide a target for resilience-based interventions among children with ADHD in promoting their self-concept and well-being.
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443
Full Text Available Background & objective: Perceived social support in the personnel of any organization is an important psychological factor that affects the efficiency of the workforce and exerts direct and positive effects on the their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investgiate the level of perceived social support in the personnel of a manufacturing industry in Urmia and to determine its relationship with certain demographic variables. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 156 personnel of a manufacturing industry in Urmia. Data collection was conducted using the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire. The results obtained were then analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, including the chi-squared test and the one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean value of perceived social support from coworkers (3.36±0.72 was higher than the mean value of perceived social support from managers (2.99±0.65. Perceived social support from coworkers and managers was found to have a statistically significant relashionship with age, work experience and type of employment contract (P-value<0.05. Conclusion: Given that perceived social support from coworkers and managers fell in the medium range in the present study, managers should make efforts to foster a greater social support in the workplace for their personnel and to create better relationships with them in the attempt to improve their performance in different domains. Due to the greater need of the less-experienced personnel for social support, managers are recommended to show their support through devising bonus schemes, providing emotional support and establishing a better relationship with their personnel.
Johnson, Jennifer E; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J; Justus, Alicia N; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice-involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and extended family strongly predicted lower depression; support from parents and from friends was either not related or only weakly related to depression. Girls reported higher levels of depression, more support from friends and extended family, and less support from parents than did boys. Family, sibling, and overall support were stronger predictors of depression for girls than for boys. Results suggest that nonparent family members, especially siblings and extended family, provide important emotional resources for teens in the criminal justice system. © 2011 SAGE Publications
van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Stevens, M.; Spriensma, A.; van Horn, J.R.
BACKGROUND: Social support is an important factor in the rehabilitation process, as it has a positive influence on patients' health, functioning and recovery. In particular, perceived social support and instrumental support are important after total hip or knee arthroplasty. However, nursing staff
McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene
Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.
Full Text Available As important as it is to fully comprehend the relationship between stress and depression among university students, it is also vital to ascertain the role of perceived social support as an essential psychosocial factor for effectively delimiting the deleterious impact of stress exposure. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether perceived social support functioned as a mediating factor in the relationship between stress and depression among university students. Data was collected from undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. Information on demographics, depression, stress and perceived social support were collated through self-report questionnaires. Results revealed significant gender differences for perceived social support, wherein female students reported lower levels of social support compared to their counterparts. Mediation analysis portrayed that the association between stress and depression was partially accounted for, by the mediating role of perceived social support.
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Full Text Available Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609. A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; Barrón López de Roda, Ana; Arias Astray, Andrés
Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Vario...
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H
Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Y Q; Li, Y F; Jiang, Z X; Zhang, X J; Yuan, X; Zhang, N; Li, X F; Jiang, B F
To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks. Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis, fitted test and estimation. A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members, and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5). Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos), 613 were female sex workers fellows, accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%). Characteristics of small size and non-relative relationships were seen more obviously among OFSWs with non-local registration and the ratings of emotional support (4.42±2.38) was significantly lower than the tangible support (5.73 ± 1.69) (Psocial support from friends who were also female sex workers. Stronger the joint strength between egos and alters, greater the homogeneity between the two was seen. Tighter relations among the alter egos, higher degree of average social support of the egos were acquired.
The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996) translated and…
Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M
Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy
Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753
Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.
Thompson, Ross A
Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.
Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E
We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.
Geckova, Andrea; Simova, E.; van Dijk, J.P.
The importance of grandparents in life of their grandchildren is generally accepted but only very rarely also studied as a problem. The representation of grandparents in the social network of their adolescent grandchildren and the relations of incorporation of grandparents into the social network
Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson
The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marra, Jaime V; McCarthy, Elissa; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Ford, Julian; Rodis, Eleni; Frisman, Linda K
Research has shown that having a supportive social network is generally beneficial for individuals, particularly those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. However, conflict within these networks may diminish the positive effects of social support on well-being, and these effects may be felt acutely within a vulnerable population with multiple needs. This study examined the impact of conflict and social support on parenting behaviors in a sample of mothers who are homeless and were involved in a study of case management interventions of varying intensity. We found that women who reported high emotional and instrumental social support self-reported greater improvements in parenting consistency over time than those who reported lower levels of support. However, three-way interactions showed that conflict in support networks was a risk factor for harsh parenting practices among participants who reported lower levels of instrumental social support. Results suggest that social support may enhance homeless mothers' ability to provide consistent parenting, but that these benefits may be undermined if conflict occurs in combination with limited levels of instrumental social support.
Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P
This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.
Robinson, James D; Turner, Jeanine
Although cancer occurs throughout the life span, many of the most frequently occurring types of cancer increase as we grow older. In fact, only cardiovascular disease accounts for more deaths in adults 65 years of age and older. One of the ways that cancer patients cope or adapt to their illness is through socially supportive communicative interactions and relationships. Cutrona and Russell (1990) argued that social support is multidimensional and suggested that social support is most effective when the support needs of the individual are consistent with the type of social support being offered by the support provider. From the communicative perspective, the notion of optimal matching between the types of social support desired and the type of social support offered is extended to include the type of relationship between the communicants. In addition, it is argued that computer-mediated social support can be superior to face-to-face social support. This article attempts to identify some of the conditions under which this is true.
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm
Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short-term flu......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare.......Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...
Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon
There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.
Nickerson, A; Creamer, M; Forbes, D; McFarlane, A C; O'Donnell, M L; Silove, D; Steel, Z; Felmingham, K; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Bryant, R A
Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury. Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event. Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point. Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.
Youth-headed households in Rwanda live in a context of chronic crisis, where poverty, disease and uncertainty are not exceptional but characterise people's daily lived reality. Struggling under the pressures of economic deprivation, social isolation, abuse and exploitation, these youths experience social suffering and feel ...
Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.
Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth A
To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. 2519 older adults (60+ years). Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report. Sources evaluated include spouse, son, daughter, sibling, neighbor, church member, and friend. Regarding size of social network, participants were asked, "In general, how many close friends do you have?" Multivariable linear regression. After adjustment, there was no evidence of an association between the size of social support network and sedentary behavior. With regard to specific sources of social support, spousal social support was associated with less sedentary behavior (β = -11.6; 95% confidence interval: -20.7 to -2.5), with evidence to suggest that this was only true for men. Further, an inverse association was observed between household size and sedentary behavior, with those having a greater number of individuals in the house having lower levels of sedentary behavior. These associations occurred independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, age, gender, race-ethnicity, measured body mass index, total cholesterol, self-reported smoking status, and physician diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, or diabetes. Spouse-specific emotion-related social support (particularly for men) and household size were associated with less sedentary behavior.
Results: Family source of support was the most available [hypertensive (225; 90.0%); T2D (174; 87.0%)], but government and non-governmental organisation support were largely desired, with financial support preferred, 233(93.2%) hypertensive and 190(95.0%) T2D, respectively. Adherent hypertensive patients with or ...
Crnic, K A; Greenberg, M T; Ragozin, A S; Robinson, N M; Basham, R B
This study examined the relationships of stress and social support to maternal attitudes and early mother-infant interactive behavior. 52 mother-premature infant pairs and 53 mother-full-term infant pairs were seen for structured home interviews at 1 month, and behavioral interactions at 4 months. Maternal life stress, social support, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with parenting were assessed at the 1-month home visit. Although no group differences were found, both stress and support significantly predicted maternal attitudes at 1 month and interactive behavior at 4 months when data were pooled. Mothers with greater stress were less positive in their attitudes and behavior, while mothers with greater support were significantly more positive. Intimate support proved to have the most general positive effects. Additionally, social support moderated the adverse effects of stress on mother's life satisfaction and on several behavioral variables. Maternal social support was further found to have several significant effects on infant interactive behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the ecological significance of social support to parenting and infants' early development.
Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.
Friedman, M Reuel; Coulter, Robert W S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Stall, Ron; Teplin, Linda; Shoptaw, Steve; Surkan, Pamela J; Plankey, Michael W
Though functional social support has been shown to serve as a protective factor for HIV viral load suppression in other populations, scant research has examined this relationship among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We assessed characteristics of social support, effects of social support on HIV viral load, and moderation by social support of the relationship between psychosocial indicators of a synergistic epidemic (syndemic) and HIV viral load. We analyzed longitudinal data from HIV-positive MSM using antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 712). First, we conducted reliability assessments of a one-item social support measure. Then, we conducted a series of generalized longitudinal mixed models to assess our research questions. Moderation was assessed using an interaction term. A three-level (low/medium/high) social support variable demonstrated high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.75). Black and Hispanic MSM reported lower social support than their White counterparts (p social support (p social support (p social support levels were associated with greater viral load suppression and lower viral load means (p Social support moderated the relationships between syndemic and HIV viral load (p social support. Creating strengths-based interventions may also have particularly high impact among HIV-positive MSM with the highest psychosocial burdens.
Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.
Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Vogel, Erin A; Rose, Jason P; Crane, Chantal
Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have become integral in the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. Users of SNSs seek social support and validation, often using posts that illustrate how they have changed over time. The purpose of the present research is to examine how the valence and temporal context of an SNS post affect the likelihood of other users providing social support. Participants viewed hypothetical SNS posts and reported their intentions to provide social support to the users. Results revealed that participants were more likely to provide social support for posts that were positive and included temporal context (i.e., depicted improvement over time; Study 1). Furthermore, this research suggests that visual representations of change over time are needed to elicit social support (Study 2). Results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for SNS users and theoretical implications for the literature on social support and social media.
Albuja, Analia F; Lara, M Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Women who lack social support tend to have a higher risk of postpartum depression. The present study examined the traditional female role, understood here as the adoption of passive and submissive traits specific to Mexican women, as another risk factor for postpartum depressive symptomatology that interacts with social support. Using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of 210 adult Mexican women (20-44 years-old, M age = 29.50 years, SD = 6.34), we found that lacking social support during the third trimester of their pregnancy was associated with greater depressive symptoms at 6 months in the postpartum, although this relationship depended on the level of endorsement of the traditional female role during pregnancy. Lower social support during pregnancy predicted greater postpartum depressive symptoms for women with higher endorsement of the traditional female role, even when accounting for prenatal depressive symptoms. These results suggest that Mexican women's experience of social support may depend on their individual adherence to gender roles. Understanding the association between women's traditional roles and social support in the risk for postpartum depression can improve prevention and educational programs for women at risk.
Farhadifar, Fariba; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Bahrami, Mitra; Zarea, Shamsy
Breast cancer ranks as the first most common cancer among the Iranian women. The regular repeat of mammography with 1-2 year intervals leads to the increased efficiency of early detection of breast cancer. The present study examined the predictors of repeat mammography. It was hypothesized that higher social support is connected with mammography repeat. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women 50 years and older in Sanandaj, Iran. Data was collected by the questionnaire including information on socio demographical variables and measuring social support level. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictive power of demographic variables and dimensions of social support for repeat mammography. Women aged 50-55 years had three times odds of repeat mammography compared to women aged 56-60 years) OR, 3.02). Married women had greater odds of repeat mammography compared to single women (P women with higher social support was 0.93 times greater than the women with lower social support (OR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.91-0.95; P women are less likely repeat mammography than other Asian women. Identifying the associations between perceived social support and repeat mammography may offer detailed information to allow for future study and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural that received pay too little attention to date in the breast cancer literature.
McConkey, R; Collins, S
Past studies have found that people supported in more individualised housing options tend to have levels of community participation and wider social networks than those in other accommodation options. Yet, the contribution of support staff in facilitating social inclusion has received relatively scant attention. In all 245 staff working in either supported living schemes, or shared residential and group homes, or in day centres completed a written questionnaire in which they rated in terms of priority to their job, 16 tasks that were supportive of social inclusion and a further 16 tasks that related to the care of the person they supported. In addition staff identified those tasks that they considered were not appropriate to their job. Across all three service settings, staff rated more care tasks as having higher priority than they did the social inclusion tasks. However, staff in supported living schemes rated more social inclusion tasks as having high priority than did staff in the other two service settings. Equally the staff who were most inclined to rate social inclusion tasks as not being applicable to their job were those working day centres; female rather than male staff, those in front-line staff rather than senior staff, and those in part-time or relief positions rather than full-time posts. However, within each service settings, there were wide variations in how staff rated the social inclusion tasks. Staff working in more individualised support arrangements tend to give greater priority to promoting social inclusion although this can vary widely both across and within staff teams. Nonetheless, staff gave greater priority to care tasks especially in congregated service settings. Service managers may need to give more emphasis to social inclusion tasks and provide the leadership, training and resources to facilitate support staff to re-assess their priorities.
Vogt, Sonja; Weesie, Jeroen
This paper studies how dyadic social support is affected by heterogeneity of the partners.We distinguish heterogeneity with respect to three parameters: the likelihood of needing support; the benefits from receiving support; and the costs of providing support. Hypotheses are based on a
Mirjam de Klerk; Rob Gilsing; Joost Timmermans
Original title: Op weg met de Wmo. The Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning - Wmo) came into force in the Netherlands on 1 January 2007. The aim of the Act is to promote people's social and life skills and ability to participate, and to strengthen social cohesion and quality
van Breda, Ward; Treur, Jan; van Wissen, Arlette
Using recent insights from Cognitive, Affective and Social Neuroscience this paper addresses how affective states in social interactions can be used through social media to analyze and support behaviour for a certain lifestyle. A computational model is provided integrating mechanisms for the impact
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Shelton, Andrew J.; Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Zhu, Wenzhen
This study investigated unique and shared effects of social support and cultural orientation on mental health indicators (depressive and anxiety symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction) of 896 college students. Results indicated that perceived social support predicted mental health variables and that cultural orientation variables (independent and…
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou
The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
... ICT collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation within the Nigerian educational system. The concept of ICT was concisely explained vis-à-vis the social network concept, theory and collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation. Different types of social network are highlighted among which Facebook, ...
These show the central nature of the concept of social support not only to the Yorubas but to most if not all societies. In other words, social support can been seen as a universal phenomenon. This cocept is what is expoused in the present paper with its relevance to the societal well being in general. African Journal for the ...
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak
The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…
Guruge, S; Thomson, M S; George, U; Chaze, F
Social support has positive and negative dimensions, each of which has been associated with mental health outcomes. Social networks can also serve as sources of distress and conflict. This paper reviews journal articles published during the last 24 years to provide a consolidated summary of the role of social support and social conflict on immigrant women's mental health. The review reveals that social support can help immigrant women adjust to the new country, prevent depression and psychological distress, and access care and services. When social support is lacking or social networks act as a source of conflict, it can have negative effects on immigrant women's mental health. It is crucial that interventions, programmes, and services incorporate strategies to both enhance social support as well as reduce social conflict, in order to improve mental health and well-being of immigrant women. Researchers have documented the protective role of social support and the harmful consequences of social conflict on physical and mental health. However, consolidated information about social support, social conflict, and mental health of immigrant women in Canada is not available. This scoping review examined literature from the last 24 years to understand how social support and social conflict affect the mental health of immigrant women in Canada. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Healthstar, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications focusing on mental health among immigrant women in Canada. Thirty-four articles that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed, and are summarized under the following four headings: settlement challenges and the need for social support; social support and mental health outcomes; social conflict and reciprocity; and social support, social conflict, and mental health service use. The results revealed that social support can have a positive effect on immigrant women's mental health and well-being, and facilitate social inclusion and the use of
Hupcey, J E
Social support has been shown to be important for the critically ill patient. However, what constitutes adequate support for these patients has not been investigated. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate patients' perceptions of their need for and adequacy of the social support received while they were critically ill. Thirty adult patients who were critical during some point of their stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) stay were interviewed, once stable. Interviews were tape-recorded and began with an open-ended question regarding the ICU experience. This was followed by open-ended focused questions regarding social support, such as 'Who were your greatest sources of social support while you were critically ill?' 'What did they do that was supportive or unsupportive?' Data were analyzed according to Miles and Huberman (1994). The categories that emerged were need for social support based on patient perceptions (not number of visitors), quality of support (based on perceptions of positive and negative behaviors of supporters) and lack of support. This study found that quality of support was more important than the actual number of visitors. Patients with few visitors may have felt supported, while those with numerous visitors felt unsupported. Patients who felt unsupported also were more critical of the staff and the care they received. Nurses need to individually assess patients regarding their need for support, and assist family/friends to meet these needs.
Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Raeesi; Shahry, Parvin
Social support is emotional and instrumental assistance from family, friends or neighbors, and has an important but different impact on individuals, mainly depending on contextual factors. To determine the status of perceived social support and related personal and family characteristics of medical sciences students in Ahvaz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the target population included the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-2014, of whom 763 were selected by cluster random sampling method. The study tool was a two-part questionnaire containing 48 self-administered questions including 25 questions of measurements of personal and family characteristics and a Persian modified version of Vaux's social support scale (Cronbach's α=0.745). Data were analyzed with T test, ANOVA and chi-square and using SPSS version 16 and 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The mean score of the perceived social support was 17.06±3.6 and 60.3% of them reported low social support. There was a significant relationship among the perceived social support and sex (p=0.02), faculty (psocial support and importance of social support in reducing stress and academic failure, the planners need to provide efficient supportive interventions for students.
The Recovery Approach has been adopted by mental health services worldwide and peer support constitutes one of the main elements of recovery-based services. This article discusses the relevancy of recovery and peer support to mental health social work practice through an exploration of social work ethics and values. Furthermore, it provides an exploration of how peer support can be maximized in groupwork to assist the social work clinician to promote recovery and well-being. More specifically, this article discusses how the narrative therapy concepts of "retelling" and "witnessing" can be used in the context of peer support to promote recovery, and also how social constructionist, dialogical, and systemic therapy approaches can assist the social work practitioner to enhance peer support in recovery oriented groupwork. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela
The purpose of this study was to conduct two meta-analyses. The first examined social support from parents in relation to adolescent hope, and the second examined social support from friends in relation to adolescent hope. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, nine published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Using meta-analytic techniques and the mean weighted r statistic, the results indicated that social support from friends had a stronger mean effect size (ES = .31) than social support from parents (ES = .21); there was a statistically significant difference between the two ESs. Two of the four moderators for the parent social support-adolescent hope relationship were statistically significant. They were quality score and health status. Implications for school nurses and nurses in all settings are addressed, and conclusions are drawn based on the findings.
Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L
Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
This article evaluates the effectiveness of a workable long-term program to provide social support for TBI patients, based on the "Academy of Life" concept. Disability after TBI causes numerous disruptions of normal life, which affect the patient, the family, and society. The patient needs the particular kind of support the program was designed to provide. The study involved 200 married couples with a TBI spouse previously enrolled in the "Academy of Life." The methods included documentation analysis, clinical interviews, the Family Bonds Scale, the Social Isolation Scale, and the Social Functions subscale from a battery used to evaluate QOL after TBI. The subjects were examined before and after completing the program. In the first examination all types of family bonds were found to be severely weakened; there was deep social isolation, loneliness, sadness, a feeling of being surrounded by hostility, and no purposeful social activity. The most common form of support from significant others was pity and unwanted interference, accompanied by lack of understanding and social ostracism. In the second examination there was selective improvement of all parameters, significantly greater in patients without PTSD symptoms. The best effects were achieved in the reduction of social dysfunctions, the growth of purposeful social activity, and improvement in the type of support received, and a reduction of selected parameters of social isolation. The program here described is selectively effective for the social reintegration of TBI-patients, especially those without PTSD symptoms.
Jun 2, 2017 ... Access to family support did not positively influence medication adherence, while access to financial support marginally impacted on outcome among hypertensive and T2D patients. However, un- wavering tendency for therapy affordability significantly influenced adherence and outcome, thus, the need for ...
Brand, Charles; Barry, Lorna; Gallagher, Stephen
The psychosocial pathways underlying associations between benefit finding and quality of life are poorly understood. Here, we examined associations between benefit finding, social support, optimism and quality of life in a sample of 84 caregivers. Results revealed that quality of life was predicted by benefit finding, optimism and social support. Moreover, the association between benefit finding and quality of life was explained by social support, but not optimism; caregivers who reported greater benefit finding perceived their social support be higher and this, in turn, had a positive effect on their overall quality of life. These results underscore the importance of harnessing benefit finding to enhance caregiver quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mikkola, Leena; Suutala, Elina; Parviainen, Heli
ABSTRACT When becoming a specialist, learning-through-service plays a significant role. The workplace affords good opportunities for learning, but the service-learning period may also impose stress on phycisians in specialization training. In medical work, social support has proved to be a very important factor in managing stress. Social support may afford advantages also for learning and professional identity building. However, little was known about how social support is perceived by doctors in specialization training. This study aimed to understand the perceptions of physicians in specialization training regarding social support communication in their workplace during their learning-through-service period. The study was conducted qualitatively by inductively analyzing the physicians’ descriptions of workplace communication. The dataset included 120 essays, 60 each from hospitals and primary healthcare centres. Physicians in specialization training explained the need of social support with the responsibilities and demands of their clinical work and the inability to control and manage their workloads. They perceived that social support works well for managing stress, but also for strengthening relational ties and one’s professional identity. A leader’s support was perceived as being effective, and both senior and junior colleagues were described as an important source of social support. Also co-workers, such as the individual nurse partner with whom one works, was mentioned as an important source of social support. The results of this study indicate that social support works at the relational and identity levels, which is due to the multi-functional nature of workplace communication. For example, consultation functions as situational problem-solving, but also the tone of social interaction is meaningful. Thus, strengthening one’s professional identity or collegial relationships requires further attention to workplace communication. Abbreviations Pi
Mikkola, Leena; Suutala, Elina; Parviainen, Heli
When becoming a specialist, learning-through-service plays a significant role. The workplace affords good opportunities for learning, but the service-learning period may also impose stress on phycisians in specialization training. In medical work, social support has proved to be a very important factor in managing stress. Social support may afford advantages also for learning and professional identity building. However, little was known about how social support is perceived by doctors in specialization training. This study aimed to understand the perceptions of physicians in specialization training regarding social support communication in their workplace during their learning-through-service period. The study was conducted qualitatively by inductively analyzing the physicians' descriptions of workplace communication. The dataset included 120 essays, 60 each from hospitals and primary healthcare centres. Physicians in specialization training explained the need of social support with the responsibilities and demands of their clinical work and the inability to control and manage their workloads. They perceived that social support works well for managing stress, but also for strengthening relational ties and one's professional identity. A leader's support was perceived as being effective, and both senior and junior colleagues were described as an important source of social support. Also co-workers, such as the individual nurse partner with whom one works, was mentioned as an important source of social support. The results of this study indicate that social support works at the relational and identity levels, which is due to the multi-functional nature of workplace communication. For example, consultation functions as situational problem-solving, but also the tone of social interaction is meaningful. Thus, strengthening one's professional identity or collegial relationships requires further attention to workplace communication. Abbreviations PiST: Physician in
Kjær Minke, Linda
setting, and participants revealed that the dog improved social relations between inmates and between staff and inmates. Finally, the dog provided comfort to the incarcerated women when they had to deal with difficult personal feelings. A recommendation for policy makers and prison officials arising from...
Morelli, Nicola; Aguilar, Marc; Concilio, Grazia
In the recent years, new forms of organisation have emerged, that have a disruptive power over the existing social and economic system. This phenomenon is challenging the traditional design approach, based on the idea that designers could design services for citizens and public administrations...
Manickam, Anu; de Graaf, Frank Jan
Developing European transnational clusters is a cornerstone in current EU-policies towards a sustainable competitive and open European economy. Within this conceptual paper relates these objectives to new developments in the application of network IT or, in popular terms, the rise of social media.
This study investigated the possible differences between single individuals and individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships in the domains of emotional (romantic and family) and social loneliness, and of perceived social support from family, friends and significant others. Based on a Polish university-student sample of 315 participants (167 women and 148 men) aged 19 to 25?years (M?=?21.90, SD?=?2.15), single relationship status was related to greater romantic and family loneliness, and ...
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847
Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
den Oudsten, Brenda L.; van Heck, Guus L.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.; Roukema, Jan A.; de Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful
Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.
Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro
Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veiga, Mariana B; Lam, Melanie; Gemeinhardt, Carla; Houlihan, Edwina; Fitzsimmons, Brian P; Hodgson, Zoë G
The benefits of social support in post-surgical recovery are well documented; social support decreases preoperative stress and postoperative recovery time. However, a paucity of studies have examined the effect of social support in the context of pregnancy termination. This study is the first to examine the effect of postoperative accompaniment from the patient, support person and nurses' perspective. This study was carried out in two phases. In Phase I, no accompaniment was allowed in the post-anesthesia recovery room (PAR); in Phase II, accompaniment was permitted. All participants completed pre- and postoperative questionnaires. The perception of accompaniment was overwhelmingly positive in patients and support people. Patients in Phase II demonstrated a high (over 95%) acceptance of accompaniment in the recovery room. It was found that 96.8% reported they would choose to be accompanied in the recovery room again if they had to have another abortion. Support persons felt very strongly that their presence was helpful to the patient. The decrease in pre- to postoperative anxiety levels was significantly greater in those women who were accompanied. However, overall, nurses demonstrated a negative attitude towards accompaniment in the recovery room. In summary, the presence of a support person in the PAR was perceived in a positive manner by patients and support people. However, the reasoning behind the negative opinion of nurses requires further study before PAR accompaniment can be considered a possibility in the context of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ergh, Tanya C; Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Coleman, Renee D
Social support is an important determinant of adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by a family member. The present study examined the extent to which social support moderates the influence of characteristics of the person with injury on caregiver subjective well-being. Sixty pairs of individuals who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and their caregivers (N=120) participated. Years postinjury ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 ( M=4.8, SD=2.6). Cognitive, functional, and neurobehavioral functioning of participants with TBI were assessed using neuropsychological tests and rating scales. Caregiver life satisfaction and perceived social support were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that time since injury was unrelated to life satisfaction. Neurobehavioral disturbances showed an inverse relation with life satisfaction. Social support emerged as an important moderator of life satisfaction. Only among caregivers with low social support was cognitive dysfunction adversely related to life satisfaction. Similarly, a trend suggested that patient unawareness of deficit was associated with caregiver life dissatisfaction only among caregivers with low social support. In contrast, these characteristics were unrelated to life satisfaction among caregivers with adequate social support.
Leonidas, Carolina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio
This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006-2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others - such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others - who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks.
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of the concept of "incomplete family", describes the typology of single-parent families, the necessity of special social psychological and pedagogical support for children from such families and their parents has been proved. The analysis of various concepts of ―support‖has been made. The idea of psychological and pedagogical support of modern incomplete families has been determined. Key words: incomplete family, types of single-parent families, support, social support, psychological and pedagogical support of single-parent families.
Gayer-Anderson, C; Morgan, C
Background. There is strong evidence that those with a long-standing psychotic disorder have fewer social contacts and less social support than comparison groups. There is less research on the extent of social contacts and support prior to or at the onset of psychosis. In the light of recent evidence implicating a range of social experiences and contexts at the onset of psychosis, it is relevant to establish whether social networks and support diminished before or at the time of onset and whether the absence of such supports might contribute to risk, either directly or indirectly. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review of this literature to establish what is currently known about the relationship between social networks, support and early psychosis. Methods. We identified all studies investigating social networks and support in first episode psychosis samples and in general population samples with measures of psychotic experiences or schizotype by conducting systematic searches of electronic databases using pre-defined search terms and criteria. Findings were synthesized using non-quantitative approaches. Results. Thirty-eight papers were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was marked methodological heterogeneity, which limits the capacity to draw direct comparisons. Nonetheless, the existing literature suggests social networks (particularly close friends) and support diminished both among first episode samples and among non-clinical samples reporting psychotic experiences or with schizotype traits, compared with varying comparison groups. These differences may be more marked for men and for those from minority ethnic populations. Conclusions. Tentatively, reduced social networks and support appear to pre-date onset of psychotic disorder. However, the substantial methodological heterogeneity among the existing studies makes comparisons difficult and suggests a need for more robust and comparable studies on networks, support and early psychosis.
Wang, Jingyi; Mann, Farhana; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Ma, Ruimin; Johnson, Sonia
The adverse effects of loneliness and of poor perceived social support on physical health and mortality are established, but no systematic synthesis is available of their relationship with the outcomes of mental health problems over time. In this systematic review, we aim to examine the evidence on whether loneliness and closely related concepts predict poor outcomes among adults with mental health problems. We searched six databases and reference lists for longitudinal quantitative studies that examined the relationship between baseline measures of loneliness and poor perceived social support and outcomes at follow up. Thirty-four eligible papers were retrieved. Due to heterogeneity among included studies in clinical populations, predictor measures and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was conducted. We found substantial evidence from prospective studies that people with depression who perceive their social support as poorer have worse outcomes in terms of symptoms, recovery and social functioning. Loneliness has been investigated much less than perceived social support, but there is some evidence that greater loneliness predicts poorer depression outcome. There is also some preliminary evidence of associations between perceived social support and outcomes in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Loneliness and quality of social support in depression are potential targets for development and testing of interventions, while for other conditions further evidence is needed regarding relationships with outcomes.
Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.
Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…
Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.
Helping someone who is depressed can be very important to the depressed person. A number of supportive family members or friends can often make a big difference. This paper addresses how a social support network can be formed, taking the needs of the support recipient and the possibilities of the
Saeedimoghaddam, M.; Kim, C.
Understanding individual travel behavior is vital in travel demand management as well as in urban and transportation planning. New data sources including mobile phone data and location-based social media (LBSM) data allow us to understand mobility behavior on an unprecedented level of details. Recent studies of trip purpose prediction tend to use machine learning (ML) methods, since they generally produce high levels of predictive accuracy. Few studies used LSBM as a large data source to extend its potential in predicting individual travel destination using ML techniques. In the presented research, we created a spatio-temporal probabilistic model based on an ensemble ML framework named "Random Forests" utilizing the travel extracted from geotagged Tweets in 419 census tracts of Greater Cincinnati area for predicting the tract ID of an individual's travel destination at any time using the information of its origin. We evaluated the model accuracy using the travels extracted from the Tweets themselves as well as the travels from household travel survey. The Tweets and survey based travels that start from same tract in the south western parts of the study area is more likely to select same destination compare to the other parts. Also, both Tweets and survey based travels were affected by the attraction points in the downtown of Cincinnati and the tracts in the north eastern part of the area. Finally, both evaluations show that the model predictions are acceptable, but it cannot predict destination using inputs from other data sources as precise as the Tweets based data.
D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)
textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective on the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization, we propose that evaluations of the support received from the organization and its representatives, and
D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)
textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective, we propose that evaluations of support received from the organization and its representatives and organizational identification interact to predict withdrawal from the job. The relationship of
Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Hyams, Adriana; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason
Perceived social support and hearing handicap were assessed in adults with and without hearing loss who lived in different geographical regions of Alabama. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) assessed emotional and social consequences of hearing loss. The Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and the Social Functioning, Role Emotional and Mental Health scales of the SF-36 were administered. Data were collected from 71 study participants with hearing loss and from 45 adults without hearing loss. Degree of hearing loss and outcomes from the HHIA did not differ between adults who lived in rural or urban settings. Tangible support was poorer for adults with hearing loss who lived in rural settings compared to those who lived in urban settings. For adults without hearing loss, residency was not associated with tangible support. For these adults, income was associated with other types of social support (i.e. informational support, affection, positive social interaction). Adults with hearing loss living in rural areas had poor perceived tangible support. The provision of support to address a hearing loss could be worse for these adults compared to adults who lived in urban settings.
Clementine M. Msengi
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to describe a single multicultural women’s support program known as the Women of Care Project. The program was conducted in a community in the Midwest region of the United States and began in 2005 with a grant from the Open Meadows Foundation. Participants were volunteers who were recruited for the program through pre-existing access points to the Bosnian, African, and Hispanic communities, such as ethnic churches, markets, and key contacts within these communities. The support group format for the Women of Care Program was an open group format in which participants were encouraged to invite their friends to join. The initial support group consisted of women from various cultural origins, including Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Russia, Sierra Leone, Brazil, China, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Bosnia, Mexico, and the United States. This case study was based on focus group discussions, as well as observations and completion of evaluation forms. To analyze data, the focus group discussion notes and summaries were rearranged into recurring themes. The evaluation provided further feedback from the discussions to cement these themes. Findings suggested immigrants, especially women, benefit from support groups. Group involvement could empower women and increase their general sense of well-being in overcoming barriers they may face in transitioning into a new environment. It is recommended that host communities have integration programs which benefit both the host community and the immigrant: a win–win situation.
Stroke is one of the most common conditions with about 45,000 people suffering a first stroke in the Netherlands each year. Although survival after stroke has increased in recent decades, a substantial part of the survivors of stroke remain physically or cognitively impaired and in need of support
van den Brink, R H S; Schutter, N; Hanssen, D J C; Elzinga, B M; Rabeling-Keus, I M; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C; Penninx, B W J H; Oude Voshaar, R C
Poor recovery from depressive disorder has been shown to be related to low perceived social support and loneliness, but not to social network size or frequency of social interactions. Some studies suggest that the significance of social relationships for depression course may be greater in younger than in older patients, and may differ between men and women. None of the studies examined to what extent the different aspects of social relationships have unique or overlapping predictive values for depression course. It is the aim of the present study to examine the differential predictive values of social network characteristics, social support and loneliness for the course of depressive disorder, and to test whether these predictive associations are modified by gender or age. Two naturalistic cohort studies with the same design and overlapping instruments were combined to obtain a study sample of 1474 patients with a major depressive disorder, of whom 1181 (80.1%) could be studied over a 2-year period. Social relational variables were assessed at baseline. Two aspects of depression course were studied: remission at 2-year follow-up and change in depression severity over the follow-up period. By means of logistic regression and random coefficient analysis, the individual and combined predictive values of the different social relational variables for depression course were studied, controlling for potential confounders and checking for effect modification by age (below 60 v. 60 years or older) and gender. Multiple aspects of the social network, social support and loneliness were related to depression course, independent of potential confounders - including depression severity - but when combined, their predictive values were found to overlap to a large extent. Only the social network characteristic of living in a larger household, the social support characteristic of few negative experiences with the support from a partner or close friend, and limited feelings of
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
V??n?nen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, ...
Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt; Duwe, Grant; Hipple, Natalie Kroovand
In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota. In-depth interviews with re-entering sex offenders and program volunteers revealed that 75% of offenders reported weak to moderate levels of social support leaving prison, 70% reported receiving instrumental support in COSAs, and 100% reported receiving expressive support. Findings inform work on social support, structural barriers, and restorative justice programming during sex offender reentry.
Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C
Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more in T-EFT, since this approach emphasizes the therapeutic relationship, while participants with strong social networks and presumably more emotional resources might fare better in the more structured and demanding T-CBT. We found that both level of received support and satisfaction with that support at baseline did moderate treatment outcome. Individuals with high social support showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms in the T-CBT as predicted, but participants with low social support showed a similar reduction in both treatments. This suggests that for participants with high social support, CBT may be a more beneficial treatment for depression compared with EFT.
Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.
Iob, Eleonora; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew
While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health. Hair glucocorticoids such as cortisol and cortisone are emerging as promising biomarkers of long-term retrospective HPA activation. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of positive and negative experiences of social support within key relationships (i.e. spouse/partner, children, other family members, and friends) on cortisol and cortisone. These associations were tested in a sample of 2520 older adults (mean age 68.1) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair samples were collected in wave 6 (2012/13). To understand the impact of cumulative exposure to poor social support, the analysis used self-reported data from waves 4 (2008/09) and 6. Covariates included demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and hair characteristics. In cross sectional analyses, lower positive support from all sources and specifically from children were associated with higher cortisol. Additionally, lower positive support from children was positively associated with cortisone. Similarly, higher overall negative support was related to higher cortisol, and greater negative support from children was also positively associated with cortisone. In longitudinal analyses, there was evidence for positive associations between hair glucocorticoids and cumulative exposure to poorer social support. Experiences of low positive and high negative social support, particularly from children, were both related to higher hair glucocorticoids. Hence, social relationships of
Socio-aesthetic care is increasingly being offered to patients suffering from long-term illnesses such as cancer. Combined with support care, it is performed by a socio-aesthetician having received specific training and can be offered as soon as the diagnosis is announced and until the end of the treatment or the end of life. This comfort care helps patients to reclaim a body transformed by the disease and treatments.
Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Rosenberg, Alan M; Tucker, Lori B; Mosher, Dianne P; Gignac, Monique A M
To examine perceived independence, overprotection, and support, and their association with the employment participation of young adults with rheumatic disease. One hundred and forty-three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%) and juvenile arthritis (45.5%) completed a 30-min online questionnaire of their work and education experiences. Information collected was demographic, health (e.g., pain, fatigue, disease activity), work context (e.g., career satisfaction, helpfulness of job accommodation/benefits, and workplace activity limitations), and psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support, and overprotection). Log-Poisson regression analysis examined factors associated with employment status. Over half of respondents were employed (59%) and 26% were enrolled in school. Respondents reported moderate to high perceptions of independence and social support. However, 27% reported that "quite a bit" to "a great deal" of overprotection characterized their relationships with those closest to them. At the bivariate level, employed participants and those indicating greater perceived independence reported greater social support and less overprotection. Multivariable analysis revealed that being employed was associated with older age, more job accommodations/benefits perceived as being helpful, and greater perceived independence. This is one of the first studies examining the employment of young adults with rheumatic diseases. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial perceptions such as independence and overprotection, in addition to support related to working. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of those close to young adults with rheumatic diseases in supporting independence and encouraging employment.
Caitlin J. Symonette
Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.
Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R
Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.
Full Text Available Several indications that indicate student in low achievement motivation, among others: (1 lack of enthusiasm to follow the lesson, (2 less attention to the teacher, (3 the students have not targeted yet, (4 students tend to ignore the task, (5 (6 students are less harmonious with teachers, (7 students are lazy to learn, and (8 some students feel scared with the teacher. Students 'perceptions of teacher's social support are factors that allegedly influence students' achievement motivation. This study aims to determine the relationship of students' perceptions of the social support of teachers with achievement motivation. The method used throughout this research is quantitative with regression technique. Samples numbered to 206 students of SMA Negeri 1 V Koto Timur Padang Pariaman, and selected by proportional random sampling. The instrument used is the student's perception scale of teacher's social support and achievement motivation. The research findings indicate that there is a significant correlation between around teacher's social support with student achievement motivation.
The impact of parental social support on promoting children's physical activities. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... succe ss at school, while less attention was given to the child's involvement in the physical educat ion
Jun 29, 2016 ... long been linked with health and illness; for instance married adults have a lower ... recover faster than unmarried adults.13 Social support can be defined as those ..... Martire LM, Lustig AP, Schulz R, Miller GE, Helgeson VS.
The study examined tenth grade students' motivation, social support, alienation from school and ... called because it is external to the learning activity itself .... on mathematics achievement (Bandura,. 1997). ...... a Unifying Theory of Behavioral.
literature that supportive social relationships influence students' self-beliefs. Keywords ... consideration in both learning theory and pedagogical practice. Wilkins and Ma ... skills and competencies (Bandura, 1997; OECD, 2013). Mathematics ...
Full Text Available Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors.
Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario
Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856
Berliner, Peter; Navarro Gongóra, José; Espaillat, Vanessa
. The support was centered on (1) providing information; (2) facilitating social regulation of emotions; (3) supporting a social support network for the patient; (4) focusing coping efforts; and (5) normalization of reactions. Finally it is described how the crisis made values of caring, compassion......The article describes how psychosocial support in the immediate and mid-term disaster response for Haitian earthquake survivors in hospitals in the Dominican Republic could ameliorate some of the suffering and prevent the crisis from becoming crystallized into symptoms and complex grief...
Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear, moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.
contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Everyone needs adjustment to get along or survive ones social and physical environment. The widows in this part of the world need it more than anyone due to the hardship culture has placed on them. The study examined the psychological and social support being rendered to the widows for adjustment. One hundred and ...
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the elements of novelty in the documents and acts issued by the representative institutions of the European Union in order to support social enterprises. The paper also analyzed the actions taken to date to implement the plan of measures proposed by the European Commission to stimulate the development of social enterprises.
Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane
As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…
Peek, M Kristen; Howrey, Bret T; Ternent, Rafael Samper; Ray, Laura A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty. Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group. To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ). We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor. Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty. Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority populations.
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Voils, Corrine I; Allaire, Jason C; Olsen, Maren K; Steffens, David C; Hoyle, Rick H; Bosworth, Hayden B
Research with nondepressed adults suggests that social networks and social support are stable over the life course until very late age. This may not hold true for older adults with depression. We examined baseline status and trajectories of social networks and social support at the group and individual levels over five years. The sample consisted of 339 initially depressed adults aged 59 or older (M = 69 years) enrolled in a naturalistic study of depression. Measures of social ties, including social network size, frequency of interaction, instrumental support, and subjective support, were administered at baseline and yearly for five years. Latent growth curve models were estimated for each aspect of social ties. On average, social network size and frequency of interaction were low at baseline and remained stable over time, whereas subjective and instrumental support were high at baseline yet increased over time. There was significant variation in the direction and rate of change over time, which was not predicted by demographic or clinical factors. Because increasing social networks may be ineffective and may not be possible for a portion of people who already receive maximal support, interventions to increase social support may only work for a portion of older depressed adults.
Firley Poliana da Silva Lúcio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the social network of lesbian mothers, from the social contexts of support or restraint. Method: Descriptive, exploratory study, of qualitative approach, based on the theoretical reference of Social Network, with eight lesbian mothers selected through Snowball technique, using semi-structured interview. Data analysis was performed with IRAMUTEQ software, through Similarity Analysis. Results: The social network is configured as: 1 Emotional distance and non-acceptance of motherhood by the family members - primary network elements; 2 Interference in the socio-cultural medium for the effectiveness of the mother-child bond - secondary network elements. Final considerations: Social network is grounded on trivialized and negative conceptions that highlight prejudice and disrespect. The discussion of this theme contributes to a greater visibility of those new family arrangements as well as to reduce stigmas e prejudices that pervade the social network components of these women.
Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Struthers, Jim; Sefko, Julianne A.; Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.
Rationale Low social support has been linked to negative health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Objective We examined associations between perceived social support, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, and neighborhood-level social support in early-stage breast cancer patients and controls. Methods This two-year longitudinal study in the United States included information collected from telephone interviews and clinical records of 541 early-stage patients and 542 controls recruited from 2003 to 2007. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Residential addresses were geocoded and used to develop measures including neighborhood social support (based on MOS-SS scores from nearby controls) and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (a composite index of census tract characteristics). Latent trajectory models were used to determine effects of neighborhood conditions on the stable (intercept) and changing (slope) aspects of social support. Results In a model with only neighborhood variables, greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with patients’ lower stable social support (standardized estimate = −0.12, p = .027); neighborhood-level social support was associated with social support change (standardized estimate = 0.17, p = .046). After adding individual-level covariates, there were no direct neighborhood effects on social support. In patients, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage, insurance status, negative affect, and general health. In controls, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage (p social support differed in patients and controls. Psychosocial and neighborhood interventions may help patients with low social support, particularly patients without partnered relationships in deprived areas. PMID:27017091
Loprinzi, Paul D; Ford, M Allison
Previous work demonstrates that social support is inversely associated with mortality risk. Less research, however, has examined the effects of the size of the social support network on mortality risk among those with and without diabetes, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed through 2011. This study included 1,412 older adults (≥60 years of age) with diabetes and 5,872 older adults without diabetes. The size of the social support network was assessed via self-report and reported as the number of participants' close friends. Among those without diabetes, various levels of social support network size were inversely associated with mortality risk. However, among those with diabetes, only those with a high social support network size (i.e., at least six close friends) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. That is, compared to those with zero close friends, those with diabetes who had six or more close friends had a 49% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). To mitigate mortality risk, a greater social support network size may be needed for those with diabetes.
Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Ropeleski, Mark; Depew, William; Curtis Nickel, J; Vanner, Stephen; Beyak, Michael J
Cognitive and social factors are essential considerations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient management, but existing research is limited. This study aims to expand the IBD literature by examining the relationship between social supports and QoL, while examining mechanisms in these relationships. Consenting patients attending an IBD outpatient clinic were provided a survey package (N = 164). Regressions evaluated predictors of IBD-QoL, and catastrophizing and optimism were examined as mediators between social support and IBD-QoL. Diminished IBD-QoL was predicted by younger age, greater negative spousal responses, and less perceived spousal support. Mediation models showed helplessness catastrophizing to be the lone mediator, acting as a mechanism between both negative spousal responses and perceived spousal support with IBD-QoL. Social interaction variables are associated with IBD-QoL, but patients' experience of helplessness acts to reduce their ability to benefit from social support. Patient care should consider supportive social and cognitive factors to improve IBD-QoL.
Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Van Heck, Guus L; Van der Steeg, Alida F W; Roukema, Jan A; De Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful event (i.e., diagnosis) is associated with quality of life (QOL), when controlling for PASS and SRSS. Women were assessed on PASS and SRSS (World Health Organization QOL assessment instrument-100) before diagnosis (time 1) and 1 (time 2), 3 (time 3), 6 (time 4), 12 (time 5), and 24 months (time 6) after surgical treatment. Personality (neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory and state trait anxiety inventory-trait scale) and fatigue (fatigue assessment scale) were assessed at time 1. Agreeableness and fatigue predicted PASS and SRSS at time 5 and time 6. Trait anxiety had a negative effect on SRSS (ss = -0.22, p personality factors substantially influence the way women with early stage BC perceive social support. Knowledge about these underlying mechanisms of social support is useful for the development of tailor-made interventions. Professionals should be aware of the importance of social support. They should check whether patients have sufficient significant others in their social environment and be sensitive to potential discrepancies patients might experience between availability and adequacy of social support.
Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B
Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors' predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Smith, Patrick J; Snyder, Laurie D; Palmer, Scott M; Hoffman, Benson M; Stonerock, Gregory L; Ingle, Krista K; Saulino, Caroline K; Blumenthal, James A
Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have examined social support as a potential protective factor. We therefore examined the association between pretransplant depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. As a secondary aim, we also examined the associations between psychosocial factors, perioperative outcomes [indexed by hospital length of stay (LOS)], and mortality. We hypothesized that depression would be associated with longer LOS and that the association between depression, social support, and mortality would be moderated by LOS. Participants included lung transplant recipients, transplanted at Duke University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and social support using the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Medical risk factors included forced vital capacity (FVC), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), donor age, acute rejection, and transplant type. Functional status was assessed using six-minute walk distance (6MWD). We also controlled for demographic factors, including age, gender, and native disease. Transplant hospitalization LOS was examined as a marker of perioperative clinical outcomes. Participants included 273 lung recipients (174 restrictive, 67 obstructive, 26 cystic fibrosis, and six "other"). Pretransplant depressive symptoms were common, with 56 participants (21%) exhibiting clinically elevated levels (BDI-II ≥ 14). Greater depressive symptoms were associated with longer LOS [adjusted b = 0.20 (2 days per 7-point higher BDI-II score), P social support (P social support were
Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen
How do we conceptualize social awareness, and what support is needed to develop and maintain social awareness in flexible work settings? The paper begins by arguing the relevance of designing for social awareness in flexible work. It points out how social awareness is suspended in the field...... of tension that exists between the ephemerality and continuity of social encounters, exploring ways to construct identity through relationships by means of social encounters - notably those that are accidental and unforced. We probe into this issue through design research: In particular, we present three......, to belonging, and to care. Analyzing these three prototypes in their microcosmic usage setting results in specific recommendations for the three types of applications with respect to social awareness. The experiences indicate that the metaphors a ‘shared mirror' and ‘breadcrumbs' are promising foundations...
Gordon, Wayne A; Cantor, Joshua; Kristen, Dams-O'Connor; Tsaousides, Theodore
TBI often results in reduced social participation. This decrease in social participation is independent of injury severity and time since injury. Thus, it is one of the many stable hallmarks of TBI. Changes in social participation have been related to many factors, including emotional dysregulation and disturbance and executive dysfunction. While there are evidenced-based treatments available to improve mood and executive functioning, none of the research has examined the impact of the various treatments on social participation or social integration. Therefore, while it is reasonable to expect that individuals who are feeling better about themselves and who improve their approach to day-to-day function will also experience increased social contact, there is no evidence to support this claim. This chapter reviews the literature on post-TBI social integration and its relationship to depression and executive dysfunction. In addition the intervention research in this area is briefly examined. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N
The present study examined the relative contributions of perceptions of social support from parents, close friends, and school on current suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history in a clinical sample of adolescents. Participants were 143 adolescents (64% female; 81% white; range, 12-18 years; M = 15.38; standard deviation = 1.43) admitted to a partial hospitalization program. Data were collected with well-validated assessments and a structured clinical interview. Main and interactive effects of perceptions of social support on SI were tested with linear regression. Main and interactive effects of social support on the odds of SA were tested with logistic regression. Results from the linear regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower school support independently predicted greater severity of SI, accounting for parent and close friend support. Further, the relationship between lower perceived school support and SI was the strongest among those who perceived lower versus higher parental support. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower parental support independently predicted SA history, accounting for school and close friend support. Further, those who perceived lower support from school and close friends reported the greatest odds of an SA history. Results address a significant gap in the social support and suicide literature by demonstrating that perceptions of parent and school support are relatively more important than peer support in understanding suicidal thoughts and history of suicidal behavior. Results suggest that improving social support across these domains may be important in suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suurmeijer, Theo P; Doeglas, Dirk M; Briancon, Serge; Krijnen, Wim P
Investigated if the SSQT allows for meaningful comparisons between patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different countries and explored the dimensionality and invariance of the SSQT dimensions. Based on types of social support, the authors formulated a series of items to measure actual
Gabrielian, Sonya; Young, Alexander S; Greenberg, Jared M; Bromley, Elizabeth
Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers ( n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports. We compared data from consumers in these 3 mutually exclusive categories. Results: All participants described social support as important for finding and maintaining housing. However, participants used formal (provider/case managers) and informal (family/friends) supports in different ways. Participants in stable housing relied on formal and informal supports to obtain/maintain housing. Participants in sheltered housing primarily used formal supports, for example, case management staff. Unstably housed participants used formal and informal supports, but some of these relationships were superficial or of negative valence. Interpersonal problems were prevalent across longitudinal housing status categories. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Social context, including patterns of formal and informal support, was associated with participants' longitudinal housing status. Within interventions to end homelessness, these findings suggest the value of future research to identify, tailor, and implement practices that can help consumers improve their social resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Scott E. Wilks
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.
Full Text Available Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED. Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. Conclusion: The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others – such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others – who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks. Keywords: eating disorders, social networks, social support, family relations, peer relations
Claudia Josefina Arias
Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.
Li, Haifeng; Ji, Yang; Chen, Tianyong
Social support has been widely known as a protective factor for the emotional well-being (EWB) of older adults, but less studies have investigated the roles of different sources of social support (i.e., family and friend support) on different facets of EWB (i.e., positive affect and negative affect) simultaneously. In this study, the associations between family/friend support and positive/negative affect were investigated in a sample of 700 Chinese elderly. The EWB and social support were measured with a 12-item affective wordlist (Kahneman et al., 2004) and a self-prepared questionnaire. The results showed that (1) the order of contact frequency and mutual support followed a hierarchical order from spouse, children, to friends; (2) zero-order correlations of both family support and friend support were associated with more positive affect and less negative affect; and when compared with the relative role of family and friend support, (3) spouse (children if spouse is not available) support had greater contribution on decreasing negative affect, while friend support had greater influence on increasing positive affect, even after controlling the demographic, self-rated health and life events variables. Family and friend support play different roles on the two facets of EWB of the elderly. These results were better explained in light of the task specificity model rather than the hierarchical compensatory model. Moreover, positive affect may be enhanced by friend support (based on personal interests and selectable) rather than family support (bonded by kinship and not selectable), which added evidences to the socioemotional selectivity theory.
Full Text Available Social support has been widely known as a protective factor for the emotional well-being (EWB of older adults, but less studies have investigated the roles of different sources of social support (i.e., family and friend support on different facets of EWB (i.e., positive affect and negative affect simultaneously.In this study, the associations between family/friend support and positive/negative affect were investigated in a sample of 700 Chinese elderly. The EWB and social support were measured with a 12-item affective wordlist (Kahneman et al., 2004 and a self-prepared questionnaire. The results showed that (1 the order of contact frequency and mutual support followed a hierarchical order from spouse, children, to friends; (2 zero-order correlations of both family support and friend support were associated with more positive affect and less negative affect; and when compared with the relative role of family and friend support, (3 spouse (children if spouse is not available support had greater contribution on decreasing negative affect, while friend support had greater influence on increasing positive affect, even after controlling the demographic, self-rated health and life events variables.Family and friend support play different roles on the two facets of EWB of the elderly. These results were better explained in light of the task specificity model rather than the hierarchical compensatory model. Moreover, positive affect may be enhanced by friend support (based on personal interests and selectable rather than family support (bonded by kinship and not selectable, which added evidences to the socioemotional selectivity theory.
Rehman, Uzma; Lund-Thomsen, Peter
In this article, we analyze the various types of social support – informational, instrumenmental, and emotional/psychological help – that are provided at a Sufi lodge in southern Punjab, Pakistan. We argue that the lodge has become an important factor in securing the well-being of individuals...... and families in a context where the state has largely failed in terms of providing social services for its citizens. We conclude that future research in this area could delve deeper into the question of whether, and if so how, such institutions may be a source of social support on a wider basis in Pakistan...
Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy
Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin; Krick, Kathrin
Social development may vary depending on contextual factors, such as attending a day school or a boarding school. The present study compares students from these school types with regard to the achievement of specific social goals, perceived social support, and reported prosocial behaviour. A sample of 701 students was examined. Students from…
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…
the characteristics of supportive institutional and policy environments for tourism social entrepreneurship. It argues that governments can contribute in two broad ways to creating the conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship to flourish: they can develop policies that support and encourage the development......There is no question that poverty, social and economic marginalization are contributing to a growing gap between rich and poor, and that international agencies, governments and the private sector have failed to substantially address these issues. The aim of this chapter is to examine...... and operation of social enterprises as part of an inclusive and sustainable tourism system, and they can assist in the creation of institutional conditions that encourage, legitimize and synergize social entrepreneurship. The chapter offers concrete considerations for policy makers in terms of making...
Lundqvist, Daniel; Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna; Ekberg, Kerstin
Previous research has shown that social support is important for health and performance at work, but there is a lack of research regarding managers' social support at work, and if it needs to be improvedOBJECTIVE:To investigate managers' perception of work-related social support, and facilitators and hindrances that influence their seeking of social support at work. Semi-structured interviews with sixty-two managers in two Swedish organizations. Work-related support, which strengthened their managerial image of being competent, was sought from sources within the workplace. Sensitive and personal support, where there was a risk of jeopardizing their image of being competent, was sought from sources outside the workplace. Access to arenas for support (location of the workplace, meetings, and vocational courses) and the managerial role could facilitate their support-seeking, but could also act as hindrances. Because attending different arenas for support were demanding, they refrained from seeking support if the demands were perceived as too high. Different supportive sources are distinguished based on what supportive function they have and in which arenas they are found, in order to preserve the confidence of the closest organization and to maintain the image of being a competent and performing manager.
1Emmanuel Adu-Tutu Bofah works at Department of Mathematics and ICT Education, University of. University ... Studies have shown that students' social support such as parental and teacher support predict their academic .... mediation model (TM) and associated competing models tested in the present study are presented.
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Hale, Cara J.; Hannum, James W.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Social support is a multifaceted construct recognized as a significant predictor of physical health. In this study, the authors examined several support domains simultaneously in a sample of 247 college students to determine their unique prediction of physical health perceptions and physical symptoms. They also examined gender differences across…
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Full Text Available Intensification of migration flows makes Lithuania one of the immigrants host countries which, like other European Union countries, faces the challenge of integration of immigrants and in this process an important role has a social worker. The aim of research was to reveal the social support strategies used by social workers in solving social problems of immigrants during the process of their integration. The qualitative research using semi-structured interview method and content analysis method was done. The survey results suggest that immigrants during the process of integration face these social problems: the search for housing, employment, legal, financial, lack of access to relevant information. The results revealed that social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, evaluate their nature and level and then apply the appropriate level of intervention. Social workers apply these micro level interventions: information and consultancy of immigrants, mediation and emotional support, which include individual social assistance. Social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, apply these mezzo level interventions: development of social network of immigrants, organization of socio-cultural events, organization and coordination of volunteer activities. Social workers providing social assistance to immigrants' integration process, use the following macro level interventions: dissemination of information onimmigrantissues, conduction and dissemination of researches based on immigrant integration issues, dissemination of best practice of social workers.
Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M
Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon
This paper reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on “chosen families” within LGBT communities more so than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, co-workers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate at White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. PMID:26752447
Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul
Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.
Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Abstract Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with so...
Marjoyre Anne Lindozo Lopes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors affecting the adequate continuous use of intermittent catheterization and its relation with social support.METHOD: sectional, descriptive and correlational study involving 49 patients with neuropathic bladder caused by spinal cord injury.RESULTS: almost all (92% participants continued the intermittent catheterization, but 46.9% made some changes in the technique. The complications (28.6% of the sample were mainly infection and vesicolithiasis. There were high scores for social support in relation to people that were part of the patient's social support.CONCLUSION: All of them noticed great support from the family, but not from the society in general. The difficulties were related to the lack of equipment and inadequate infrastructure, leading to changes that increased urologic complications.
Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Ho, Ya-Fang; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-I
To investigate the relationships among social support, health literacy, and self-management, and the factors influencing self-management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 410 patients was recruited from nephrology clinics. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and chart reviews from January 2013 to February 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors of self-management behaviors and ∆R 2 to determine each variable's explanatory power. Health literacy and social support were positively correlated with self-management behaviors. Furthermore, social support, health literacy, and marital status were significant predictors of self-management behaviors. Social support had a relatively greater explanatory power for self-management behaviors than did health literacy. Particularly, healthcare provider support had the greatest influence on patients' self-management behaviors. Health literacy and social support play independent positive roles in self-management behaviors of patients with CKD, with social support having a particularly dominant role. Further research using a systems approach to improving self-management behaviors is necessary to clarify the role of social support. Health literacy and social support are independently and positively related to self-management. Social support, which is a system-level factor, is a relatively stronger and crucial predictor than is health literacy. Nurses have to refine self-management programs to focus on families and adopt a systems approach to help CKD patients improve their self-management behaviors. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tang, Fengyan; Chi, Iris; Dong, Xinqi
We aimed to investigate the relationship of engagement in social and cognitive activities and social support with the sense of community (SOC) and its components among older Chinese Americans. The Sense of Community Index (SCI) was used to measure SOC and its four component factors: membership, influence, needs fulfillment, and emotional connection. Social engagement was assessed with 16 questions. Social support included positive support and negative strain. Principal component analysis was used to identify the SCI components. Linear regression analysis was used to detect the contribution of social engagement and social support to SOC and its components. After controlling for sociodemographics and self-rated health, social activity engagement and positive social support were positively related to SOC and its components. This study points to the importance of social activity engagement and positive support from family and friends in increasing the sense of community. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background and aims Most studies have regarded smartphone addiction as a condition stemming from individuals' psychological issues, so research has rarely examined it in relation to a lack of social resources and its social impacts. However, this study reinterprets smartphone addiction as a social problem stemming from a lack of offline social networks and resulting in a decline of social engagement. Methods This study drew on a survey of 2,000 children in Korea consisting of 991 males and 1,009 females with an average age of 12 years old. Using the STATA 14 structural equation modeling program, this study examined the relationships between children's lack of social networks, smartphone addiction, and social engagement. Results Social network variables, such as formal organizational membership, quality of relationship with parents, size of the peer group, and peer support, decrease smartphone addiction. Simply having good relationships and reciprocal feelings with peers do not have any influence on the smartphone addiction. The more the children become addicted to smartphones, the less they participate in social engagement. Discussion and conclusions This study provides a new understanding of smartphone addiction by focusing on its social aspects, augmenting prior studies that have addressed psychological factors. Findings suggest that children's lack of social networks may inhibit comfortable social interactions and feelings of support in the offline environment, which can heighten their desire to escape to smartphones. These children, unlike non-addicts, may not take advantage of the media to enrich their social lives and increase their level of social engagement.
Nurdan Eren BODUR
Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of perceived social support in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. It was also observed that perceieved social support from the family has a positive effect on the marital adjustment. The perceived social support level in men in infertil couples is lower than women in the same group, and this outcome is also related with the increasing anxiety in men. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 214-223
Cederbaum, Julie A; Wilcox, Sherrie L; Sullivan, Kathrine; Lucas, Carrie; Schuyler, Ashley
Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed.
Wilcox, Sherrie L.; Sullivan, Kathrine; Lucas, Carrie; Schuyler, Ashley
Objectives: Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. Methods: We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. Results: The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Conclusion: Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed. PMID:28005474
Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B
The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).
Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate
Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen
When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Wu, Liyun; Lewis, Marilyn W
HIV/AIDS, a chronic burden in Ghana, poses social and health outcome concerns to those infected. Examining the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) instrument among 300 Ghanaians from a cross-sectional design, Principal Component Analysis yielded four factors (positive interaction, trust building, information giving, and essential support), which accounted for 85.73% of the total variance in the MOS-SSS. A logistic regression analysis showed that essential support was the strongest predictor of the length of time an individual stayed in the support group, whereas positive interaction indicated negative association. The study's implications for policy, research, and practice were discussed.
This manuscript discusses the development, impact, and several major research findings of studies in the area of social network support and health outcomes. The review focuses largely on the development of online social support networks and the ways in which they may interact with face-to-face support networks to influence physical and psychological health outcomes. The manuscript discusses this area, and it presents a research agenda for future work in this area from an Associate Editor’s pe...
Abstract. Existing work on the effects of social network sites (SNS) on well-being has often stressed that SNS can help people gain social support from their online networks, which positively affects their well-being. However, the majority of studies in this area have been cross-sectional in nature and/or relied on student samples. Using data from six waves of a longitudinal study with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, we first examined whether users and nonusers of SNS differ in online social support and well-being (as indicated by life satisfaction and stress). In a second step, we investigated in more detail how SNS use – more specifically, asking for advice and the number of strong ties on these SNS – are related to online social support, stress, and satisfaction with life. Overall, our results provide no evidence for SNS use and online social support affecting either stress or life satisfaction. SNS users reported more online social support than nonusers did, but also higher levels of stress; the two groups did not differ in overall life satisfaction. With regard to the underlying processes, we found positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between asking for advice on SNS and online social support, indicating that SNS can be an effective tool for receiving social support. However, online social support was not related to higher life satisfaction or reduced stress 6 months later; instead, it seems that SNS users with lower life satisfaction and/or higher stress seek more social support online by asking for advice on SNS. PMID:29147141
Lott, Donalyn; O'Dell, Jade
This study examined the efficacy of general education development (GED®) acquisition and GED® completers' perceptions of college readiness and social capital using a quantitative methodology. Also, the study used a descriptive, cross-sectional research design framed by the social capital theoretical perspective. The conceptual framework developed…
Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Park, Juyeon; Damhorst, Mary Lynn; Bradley, Linda Arthur
We explored the role that social support plays in the lives of women who have undergone bariatric surgery. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 women who had had bariatric surgery (M age = 53.0 years) and analyzed the data using constant comparison processes. We found that individuals in participants' lives offered support by acting as role models and providing information, offering empathy and expressions of concern and caring, assisting with everyday responsibilities, and serving as companions. In turn, these forms of support guided participants' behavior, calmed their concerns, enhanced their self-esteem, relieved them of daily responsibilities, and offered them companionship in their bariatric journeys. Consistent with the existing theory, differently situated individuals specialized in offering particular types of support. Although participants appreciated the support received, many indicated a desire for more or "better" support, pointing to a need for resources guiding supporters in how to best offer support to bariatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Social support interventions have a somewhat chequered history. Despite evidence that social connection is associated with good health, efforts to implement interventions designed to increase social support have produced mixed results. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the relationship between social connectedness and good health, by examining social support interventions with mothers of young children and analysing how support was conceptualised, enacted and valued, in order to advance what we know about providing support to improve health. Context and approach First, we provide a brief recent history of social support interventions for mothers with young children and we critically examine what was intended by ‘social support’, who provided it and for which groups of mothers, how support was enacted and what was valued by women. Second, we examine the challenges and promise of lay social support approaches focused explicitly on companionship, and draw on experiences in two cluster randomised trials which aimed to improve the wellbeing of mothers. One trial involved a universal approach, providing befriending opportunities for all mothers in the first year after birth, and the other a targeted approach offering support from a ‘mentor mother’ to childbearing women experiencing intimate partner violence. Results Interventions providing social support to mothers have most often been directed to women seen as disadvantaged, or ‘at risk’. They have also most often been enacted by health professionals and have included strong elements of health education and/or information, almost always with a focus on improving parenting skills for better child health outcomes. Fewer have involved non-professional ‘supporters’, and only some have aimed explicitly to provide companionship or a listening ear, despite these aspects being what mothers receiving support have said they valued most. Our trial
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to a better definition of the overprotection construct. More specifically, it aims at establishing whether or not it can be considered just an excess of social support. To do this, two instruments, OPSA and UCLA-SSI, developed from different perspectives on the issue, were translated and adapted from English into Spanish. Analysis performed on a diverse sample of 436 subjects show a good reliability of scores obtained with the Spanish versions, as much on the OPSA test (α = .82 with the full format and α = .81 with the short one as on the two selected subscales of the UCLA-SSI test (α = .88 with Need/ Want Support subscale, and α = .90 with the Support Received subscale. The relationship among the different measurements was analyzed in a typical sample of 50 recent myocardial infarction patients, as usual in this field. Results suggest that overprotection differs both in quality and quantity from given social support, but it is however related to needed social support. This new finding seems to indicate that those individuals who are more in need of social support could indeed be the more overprotected ones. Clinical and educational implications of the results are discussed.
Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.
Andrezza Gomes Peretti
Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.
McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S
This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greaney, Mary L.; Puleo, Elaine; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Haines, Jess; Houghton, Serena C.; Emmons, Karen M.
Introduction: Social support is important for behavior change, and it may be particularly important for the complexities of changing multiple risk behaviors (MRB). Research is needed to determine if participants in an MRB intervention can be encouraged to activate their social network to aid their change efforts. Methods: Healthy Directions 2, a…
Thaís Araújo Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: to understand and identify the support network and social support from the perspective of families of children with chronic conditions. Methods: a qualitative study, with content analysis of 134 records, followed by ten semi-structured interviews. Results: the analysis has revealed that the primary caregiver, the mother, participates in a network of limited support, only with the help of her husband, children, grandparents and the child´s godparents. They also have a social network through a multidisciplinary team, which in some cases is not effective. Conclusion: families have a deficient and limited support network and the demand for care rely only on the support of the husband, grandparents, children, and godparents. Social networking refers to the philanthropic institutions, while the aid of public service, basic health unit is basic.
Hunt, N; Robbins, I
People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.
Full Text Available Statistical data show that one in five adults of the European citizen suffer from some type of chronic pain. One of the most common types of chronic pain is chronic low back and neck pain. Emotional factors are currently viewed as important determinants in pain perception and behaviour. The perceived social and emotional support have impact to the individual’s adaptation to chronic disease (Cohen, Wills, 1985. The material: 110 chronic low back pain (CLBP patients (48 male and 62 female; in age from 24 to 60 years, mean: 44.2±8, 0 and pilot study of 23 chronic neck pain (CNP patients (19 female and 4 male; in age from 35 to 60 years, mean: 48, 1 ±6. The assessment methods: structured interview; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. SF-36 ® Health Survey: assessment of emotional and social support. Results and conclusions: CLBP patients in presence of symptoms of depression and elevated level of anxiety matched for socio-demographic features had less sense of social support and marked pain impact to daily activities, lower self rating health relating quality of life. In CLBP patients the sense of social and emotional support had relevant interaction with level of participation in daily activities both in patients with and without mental health problems. This fact has to be considered in process of rehabilitation and in managing of health care of CLBP patients. The results of CNP patients pilot study revealed interesting trend that chronic back and neck pain patients seems to be quite different according to sense of social and emotional support, therefore sense of social and emotional support in different chronic pain patients need further research to improve the process and results of rehabilitation in these patients.
Andrioti, Despena; Kotrotsou, Christina; Tsakatara, Vanta
. Medical social centres operate in 33 Roma settlements all over the country. These centres provide vaccination, health promotion, disease prevention and health education services, as well as support in issuing documents and making appointments with health and social services. We recommend that the National......Roma people form the largest ethnic-minority group in Europe. They account for around 10 to 12 million people, and they face racism, discrimination and social exclusion in most countries. The Roma population of Greece currently numbers around 250 000 individuals. They have Greek nationality...... and enjoy the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as any other Greek citizens. Nevertheless, Roma in Greece face multiple inequalities and social exclusion in terms of housing, employment, education, and health and social services. In this report we present the outcome of a bestpractice initiative...
Patra, Paraskevi; Alikari, Victoria; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Sachlas, Athanasios; Kourakos, Michael; Rojas Gil, Andrea Paola; Babatsikou, Fotoula; Zyga, Sofia
Geriatric depression is more common in nursing homes and social support is a mechanism that mitigates the stressors of life factors and simultaneously promotes wellness and health. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of depression and social support among elderly in nursing homes. During the period February 2016-March 2016 170 elderly residents in nursing homes completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Statistical analysis was conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics 23. 37, 1% of the sample had depressive symptoms. Depression is statistically correlated with age and it is affected by the years of education (p = 0.003), the number of the children (p = 0.006), whether the elderly person is bedridden or not (p elderly performs activities outside the nursing home (0.001). Higher GDS score had those who were illiterate (6.41), those with one or no children (6.82 and 6.59 respectively), the bedridden (6.70), people without visits from relatives (7.69) and without activities outside (5.64). Also, social support is affected by the family status (p elderly performs activities outside the foundation (p elderly population leads to the need for more aid social support.
María José Rodrigo
Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.
Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.
Zapata-López, Bertha I; Delgado-Villamizar, Norma L; Cardona-Arango, Doris
Objective To describe the social and family support networks available to the elderly living in urban areas of the municipality of Angelópolis-Antioquia during the year 2011. Materials A descriptive transversal study was conductedusing the population experience to determine the social support received by the 239 seniors in the urban area of Angelópolis-Antioquia. The data was obtained from primary sources and univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted. Results Mostly women were interviewed (59.8 %) aged between 60 and 74 (66.9 %). The social status that appeared with the highest percentage was "married" (47.3 %) though with the interviewed women the social status with the highest occurrence was "widow" (40.6 %). 69,5 % had an elementary school educational level and 16,7 % had no formal education at all. 60.3 % were registered in the subsidized program. The support from families and friends was qualified as satisfactory. A statistically significant connection was found between gender and undertaking different activities in free time (value of p=0,004). Conclusions the study indicates that loneliness is an aspect that makes the elderly feel unprotected and vulnerable. Despite the general feeling of satisfaction regarding family support, some of them, especially women, expressed feeling mistreated. The data along with the lack of activities for spare time must be taken into account to formulate intervention strategies for effective support networks to improve the situation of this vulnerable population of the municipality.
Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie
The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Alegría, Margarita; Sribney, William
The role of individual versus community level social connections in promoting health is an important factor to consider when addressing Latino health. This analysis examines the relationships between social support, social cohesion, and health in a sample of Latinos in the United States. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the analysis uses ordered logistic regression to explore the relationships of family support, friend support, family cultural conflict, and neighborhood social cohesion with self-rated physical and mental health, taking into account language proficiency and use, nativity, and sociodemographic variables. Family support, friend support, and neighborhood social cohesion were positively related to self-rated physical and mental health, and family cultural conflict was negatively related when controlled only for sex and age. After controlling for education, income, and other demographic measures, only family support was found to have a weak association with self-rated physical health; however, the relationship seemed to be mediated by language. In contrast, family support and family cultural conflict were strongly associated with self-rated mental health, after controlling for language, education, income, and other demographic measures. The study did not find neighborhood social cohesion to be significantly related to either self-rated physical or mental health, after accounting for the effects of the other social connection variables. Language of interview did not explain the highly significant effects of language proficiency and use. Social connections are important for health and mental health, but language and other sociodemographic factors seem to be related to how Latinos establish these social linkages. Further investigation into the role of language in the development and maintenance of social connections may help unravel the mechanisms by which they promote or decrease health.
Okabayashi, Hideki; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal; Akiyama, Hiroko; Sugisawa, Hidehiro
This study addresses the question of whether social support and interpersonal strain from different sources (i.e., spouse, children, and other relatives and friends) have differential impact on mental health. Data for this research came from a national probability sample of 2200 persons aged 60 and over in Japan. Structural equation models were evaluated within the context of two types of social networks: (a) persons who had a spouse and children (n=1299), and (b) those with children only (n=677). Between these two networks, the links among social support, negative relations, and mental health were contrasted. The effects of various sources of social support and negative interactions on mental health vary depending on the specific dimension of mental health as well as the nature of social networks. Among older Japanese who are married with children, social support from spouse has a greater association with positive well-being than social support from children and others. However, cognitive functioning is uncorrelated with all sources of positive and negative social exchanges. In contrast, among those without a spouse, only greater support from children is significantly correlated with higher positive well-being, less distress, and less cognitive impairment.
Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Löfmark, Rurik; Carlsson, Marianne
The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about gender differences in perceptions of coping and social support among patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Women with coronary heart disease have physical, social and medical disadvantages compared with their male counterparts, which can influence their perception of recovery after cardiac events. No review has been found which focuses on gender differences in coping and social support in myocardial infarction patients. A computerized search was conducted using the keywords 'myocardial infarction', 'coping', 'gender differences' and 'social support'. Forty-one articles, published between 1990 and October 2002, were scrutinized. Two studies report that women used more coping strategies than men. Several qualitative studies found that women used a variety of coping strategies. Women minimized the impact of the disease, tended to delay in seeking treatment and did not want to bother others with their health problems. Household activities were important to them and aided their recovery. Men were more likely to involve their spouses in their recovery, and resuming work and keeping physically fit were important to them. Women tended to report that they had less social support up to 1 year after a myocardial infarction compared with men. They received less information about the disease and rehabilitation and experienced lack of belief in their heart problems from caregivers. Further, they received less assistance with household duties from informal caregivers. Men tended to report more support from their spouses than did women. Traditional gender-role patterns may influence the recovery of patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Caregivers may need to be more sensitive to gender-specific needs with regard to risk profiles, social roles, and the patient's own role identity. For many women, especially older ones, household duties and family responsibilities may be an opportunity and a
Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Lovell, Anne M; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B
To compare parental adjustment, social support, and family functioning between families of children with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and a group of demographically similar comparison families, and to examine the impact of disease severity. Questionnaires were completed at home by parents of 54 children with NF1 (54 mothers and 42 fathers) and 51 comparison children (49 mothers and 32 fathers). Few differences between groups were identified for parental distress, social support, or family environment. Greater neurological impairment in children with NF1 was associated with greater distress, more family conflict, less positive mealtime interactions, and less social support from the perspectives of mothers. Overall, parents of children with NF1 appear similar to parents of comparison children. Mothers who have children with NF1 characterized by greater neurological impairment may be at risk for more difficulties. Future work exploring long-term adjustment for these mothers as well as interventions to ameliorate any potential difficulties may be appropriate.
De Nutte, Leen; Okello, James; Derluyn, Ilse
Although social relationships and social support are salient factors for post-war adolescents' psychosocial coping and adjustment, there is only limited information regarding war-affected adolescents' views on social support and the relationships within which social support is provided. This study therefore explored both elements among a clinical sample of 20 adolescents living in post-war Northern Uganda. Following Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, we found a prominent role of the biological mother and other primary biological family members in the upbringing of our participants. Spiritual and material support were perceived to be the most important type of support, respectively, while the adolescents were growing up and in their current lives. These findings provide support for the perception that caregiving systems are adaptable to particular sociocultural contexts. Further, the importance of particular functions of social support could signify a potentially selective buffering effect of these functions in adverse contexts. Because of the importance of the primary biological family and the salient role of parent-child relationships in the face of adversity, future research needs to focus on this particular kind of social relationship in contexts of prolonged collective violence. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rhoades, Harmony; Henwood, Benjamin; Rice, Eric; Harris, Taylor
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is the leading intervention to end chronic homelessness. Little is known, however, about gender differences, including potential disparities in physical and mental health and social support, that might inform services available through PSH. This study included 421 homeless adults, at least 39 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, who were moving into PSH through 26 different agencies in the Los Angeles area. Compared with men entering PSH, homeless women (28% of the sample) were younger (p social networks (Coefficient, 0.79, p social support among homeless adults moving into PSH. PSH cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach. Supportive services within housing should be tailored based on gender and other individual needs. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A
Recent research has focused attention on the role of patients' and clinicians' cultural skills and values in generating inequalities in health care experiences. Yet, examination of how social structural factors shape people's abilities to build, refine, and leverage strategies for navigating the health care system have received less attention. In this paper I place focus on one such social structural factor, social support, and examine how social support operates as a flexible resource that helps people navigate the health care system. Using the case of families navigating pediatric cancer care this study combines in-depth interviews with parents of pediatric cancer patients (N = 80), direct observation of clinical interactions between families and physicians (N = 73), and in-depth interviews with pediatric oncologists (N = 8). Findings show that physicians assess parental visibility in the hospital, medical vigilance, and adherence to their child's treatment and use these judgments to shape clinical decision-making. Parents who had help from their personal networks had more agility in balancing competing demands, and this allowed parents to more effectively meet institutional expectations for appropriate parental involvement in the child's health care. In this way, social support served as a flexible resource for some families that allowed parents to more quickly adapt to the demands of caring for a child with cancer, foster productive interpersonal relationships with health care providers, and play a more active role in their child's health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo
The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the
Balsells, M. Àngels; Pastor Vicente, Crescencia; Molina, María Cruz; Fuentes-Peláez, Núria; Vázquez, Noelia
Research suggests that the social support received from fathers and mothers is a key factor in the reunification process, particularly on a foster child’s return home. However, little is known regarding the nature of this support, its sources and the aspects on which such support should be focused. The aim of this study is to describe the social support that families require at the time of a child’s return to successfully re-establish the family positive dynamics, functioning and routines. Th...
Azim, Mohammad T; Islam, Mazharul M
The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t -test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses' social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.
This study investigated international student adjustment issues and needed social support. Data were obtained from individual interviews with 10 international students at The Ohio State University. Results indicate that international students experience significant problems in their coping with U.S. education, cultural differences, and language…
Berthelsen, Hanne; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Söderfeldt, Björn
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relationships among people at work have previously been found to contribute to the perception of having a good work. The aim of the present paper was to develop scales measuring aspects of social support, trust, and community among dentists, and to evaluate psychometric proper...
Counsellors have been identified as a group of professionals at elevated risk of burnout in general and emotional exhaustion in particular. Considering the nature of the illness, ... the quality of the services they provide. Key words: Emotional exhaustion, perceived social support, burnout syndrome, demographic variables.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Background: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease affecting the lives of patients and their families, with the family characteristics moderating the illness course. The perceived social support received by a patient helps in determining the health and functionality of the patient. Methods: A cross-sectional study was ...
Background: The study aims to determine the correlation between family/social support and adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited by systematic random sampling technique. A physical examination was done to ...
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter
The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…
Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook
Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…
Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert
Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
Source apportionment of social support and quality of life index among drug abuse inmates using multiple linear regression. ... The data from 12 prisons selected in Peninsular Malaysia was collected during the period April and June 2015. The 1753 respondents were selected using simple random sampling. The method of ...
The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...
However, different psychosocial constructs are found in separate settings to ... 509 participants aged 35-80 years from randomly selected health facilities in ... Physical activity level, self-efficacy, social support and perceived barriers of the ... using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, ...
Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others
Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…
Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research, Education and Documentation (Burkina Faso). The Centre d'études de documentation et de ... innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.
Background: The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was developed in the USA. The adequacy of its use in Uganda to guarantee its reliability and validity has not been ascertained. Aim: Thus the aim of the present study was to adapt the MSPSS scale by testing the validity and reliability of the ...
One such major concern pertains to the very general experiences of life of the elderly and associated factors. The purpose of this study was then to specifically assess the subjective quality of life and perceived adequacy of social support and the possible socio-demographic factors making differences in quality of life.
Conclusion: Social support is important in helping the patient with diabetes cope with the disease and to improve adherence to treatment. Health care providers should take cognisance of psychosocial factors in the treatment regime of the patient. Family members should be educated about diabetes, the importance of adherence and long-term complications of the disease.
Kiperman, Sarah; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Howard, Ali
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may endure adverse experiences related to their sexual orientation and gender identity/expression. While social supports are commonly described as protective factors, few researchers have investigated this phenomenon for LGBT youth. The current study used thematic coding to analyze…
Cosio, Saharay E.
Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…
Luther, Edith H.; Canham, Daryl L.; Cureton, Virginia Young
Autism in children has increased significantly in the past 15 years. The challenges and stressors associated with providing services and caring for a child with autism affect families, educators, and health professionals. This descriptive study used a survey to collect data on parents' perceptions of coping strategies and social support.…
Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten
From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Background: Almost no research has examined the impact of explanatory style on social adjustment. We hypothesised that adolescents with a pessimistic style would be less likely to develop and maintain social support networks. Methods: Seven hundred and nineteen students (351 males and 366 females; 2 unknown; M[subscript AGE] = 12.28, SD = 0.49)…
Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.
The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…
Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim
This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…
Full Text Available Well-being and mental health of psychologists and their clients can be strongly linked to the psychologists’ experience of work. We know from general theories of occupational health psychology that certain work factors will have a greater impact on well-being than others. Work engagement is positively related with occupational health, while burnout and workaholic tendencies relate negatively. An individual’s resources can buffer against these negative effects. Specifically, the environmental resource of social support can impede the impact and instance of workaholism and has a positive influence on burnout. Social support is often encouraged by sport psychologists in protecting an athlete’s well-being. Drawing on theory and research from work and organisational, health and social psychology we explore the lived experiences of burnout and work engagement among applied sport psychologists, investigating their perceptions of how these experiences impact their well-being. Thirty participants from five countries were asked, using semi-structured interviews, to recall specific incidents when feelings of work engagement and burnout occurred. We examined the influence of social support and its impact on these incidents. Thematic analysis revealed that burnout is frequently experienced despite high levels of work engagement. Sources of social support differ between groups of high burnout versus low burnout, as does reference to the dimensions of work engagement. Avenues for future research including investigating the role of mindfulness and therapeutic lifestyle changes for practitioners are outlined.
Mitchell, Robb; Pallaris, Kay
) and successfully approaching strangers in public places necessitates considerable skills (Mondada, 2009). Computer scientists, interaction designers, new media artists and other inventive practitioners and researchers have undertaken a wide variety of experimentation with digital means to support social......Interpersonal contact can be crucial to subjective wellbeing (Miesen and Schaafsma, 2008) as social isolation can create vicious spirals of self-destructive behaviour that further decreases lonely individuals’ social skills and motivations towards sociability (Caccioppo and Patrick, 2009). Lacking...... social connection has also been argued to have negative impacts on physiological health (ibid). However, developing new interpersonal connections is an elixir that is easy to prescribe but difficult to supply. Initiating a conversation with strangers is difficult for many people (Crozier, 1990...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Americans are not active at recommended levels. Adolescence is a developmental period when physical activity (PA decreases markedly. Methods This study investigates whether access to environmental PA resources moderates the relationship between psychosocial resources (social support and perceived competence and PA among 192 adolescents. Results Environmental access to PA resources (determined via GIS-based assessment of the number of gyms, schools, trails, parks and athletic fields within 0.5 miles of each participant's home moderated the association between social support and PA; among adolescents with high levels of environmental resources, greater social support was associated with students participating in a greater number of sports in school, whereas no such relationship emerged among adolescents with low environmental resources. Conclusions PA-promotion interventions should aim to enhance both social and environmental resources; targeting either one alone may be insufficient.
Ashe, Karen M; Lapane, Kate L
Women are disproportionately affected by both obesity and food insecurity. Food insecurity occurs when there is limited ability to acquire adequate foods. It is unknown whether social support can reduce the effect of food insecurity on increased obesity. This study seeks to determine whether social support modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of 4672 women aged ≥40 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2008). Individual food insecurity was assessed based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 18-item validated household food security scale. Women were categorized as fully food secure (0 affirmative responses) or food insecure (1-10 affirmative responses). Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Outcomes were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Fourteen percent were food insecure. Women with food insecurity had 1.4 the odds of obesity as those who were fully food secure, adjusting for race/ethnicity and health status (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.62). Food-insecure women were 80% less likely to report strong social support than women who were fully food secure (95% CI 0.11-0.36). Social support as measured in this study did not modify the association between food insecurity and obesity. Women reporting food insecurity reported lower levels of social support and were more likely to experience obesity. Interventions to reduce obesity in women who are food insecure must consider the limited resources available to these women.
Onezi, Hamidi Al; Khalifa, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 473 smokers taking part in smoking cessation intervention programs run by the Riyadh branch of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City and PURITY, a Saudi anti-smoking association. Only subjects who expressed an interest in quitting smoking, and those attempting to quit, were considered for inclusion. The sample was divided into three groups: subjects who subscribed to support groups on Twitter (n = 150), and WhatsApp (n = 150), and a control group of subjects who had not subscribed to any social media support groups (n = 173). A significant difference was found between the mean average numbers of people who quit smoking among the three groups, with social media support proving to be more effective than other traditional methods. Our findings imply that Twitter and WhatsApp users found it easier to quit smoking than those who did not take part in these social media groups. Social media provides a good platform to discuss smoking cessation treatment, and thus reduce smoking relapses. Our findings support the suggestion that more social media support groups should be developed to help people to effectively cease smoking after abstinence. Individuals who struggle to quit smoking should be encouraged to join support groups on their social media platform of choice to increase their likelihood of quitting. Future studies should assess the effectiveness
Full Text Available The given article presents the analysis of the experience of the financial support of the regional programs of social economic development and the areas of usage of internal and external resources of the area. Dynamic and balanced development of regions is one of the most important issues for further establishment of marketing relations and social transformations in Ukraine. The Aim lies in the evaluation of financial support of the approved regional programs and launching the amount of their financing. The assessment of social economic situation in Ivano-Frankivsk region in terms of nationwide tendencies allows asserting that economic growth depends on the amounts and sources provided by the state. To determine close connection between the amount of financing for the programs and gross domestic product, the coefficient of correlation was calculated according to Pierson. It was proved that the amount of financing regional programs of social economic development influences the growth rate of gross domestic product. During research period the activation of regional authority institutions is being surveyed regarding the adoption and financing target regional programs. It was determined that the dynamic activity of the regional community and its territorial units on realization in terms of defined strategic priorities for programs of social economic development will facilitate disproportion reduction and differences in the development of territory units in the region, as well as positively influences the growth of gross domestic product providing steady increase of social welfare. Keywords: social economic regional development, ecology programs, social programs, gross regional domestic product, Pierson’s correlation coefficient. JEL: R 58
Pilkington, Pamela D; Windsor, Tim D; Crisp, Dimity A
This study examined the extent to which associations between volunteering and subjective well-being (SWB) could be related to volunteers having more supportive social networks relative to nonvolunteers. The sample consisted of 561 midlife and older adults (aged 55-94 years) from the TRAnsitions In Later Life study. Multiple mediation analyses examined associations between hours spent volunteering per week; availability of social support from friends, relatives, and neighbors; positive and negative social exchanges; and SWB. The results indicated that the higher life satisfaction and positive affect reported by those who volunteer at moderate levels (up to 7 hr per week) are related to their higher levels of positive social exchanges and greater availability of social support from friends and family, relative to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteer at higher levels (7 hr or more per week) also reported greater levels of positive affect in comparison to nonvolunteers, and this was related to their greater availability of social support from friends. Availability of support from friends accounted for the greatest proportion of the volunteering-SWB associations. The findings suggest that the positive SWB associated with volunteering is related to volunteers' more extensive friend and family networks.
Masoumeh Abbasi Shavazi
Full Text Available Background: Currently with the emergence of the Internet, patients have an opportunity to exchange social support online. However, little attention has been devoted to different dimensions of online social support exchanged in virtual support communities for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: To provide a rich insight, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore and categorize different dimensions of online social support in messages exchanged in a virtual support community for patients with MS. A total of 548 posted messages created during one year period were selected using purposive sampling to consider the maximum variation sampling. Prior-research-driven thematic analysis was then conducted. In this regard, we used the Cutruna and Suhr’s coding system. The messages that could not be categorized with the used coding system were thematically analyzed to explore new additional social support themes. Results: The results showed that various forms of social support including informational, emotional, network, esteem and tangible support were exchanged. Moreover, new additional social support themes including sharing personal experiences, sharing coping strategies and spiritual support emerged in this virtual support community. Conclusion: The wide range of online social support exchanged in the virtual support community can be regarded as a supplementary source of social support for patients with MS. Future researches can examine online social support more comprehensively considering additional social support themes emerging in the present study.
Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub
Roč. 56, č. 6 (2009), s. 91-101 ISSN 0567-8250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Medieval period * Great Moravian population * social -economic structure * demography * Enamel Hypoplasy * Cribra orbitalia * Harris lines * Dental health state * Degenerative changes joints Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Edwards, Lisa M.
The utility of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet,& Farley, 1988) was investigated within a sample of 290 Mexican American adolescents. Results suggested that the three-subscale structure (Family, Friends, and Significant Other) of the MSPSS was confirmed, and adequate internal reliability for the…
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) posits that survivors of a traumatic event have the ability to influence their own outcomes and do so most aptly when they perceive they can exert control over their outcomes. Posttraumatic growth outcomes are associated with a greater perception of controllability, while posttraumatic stress outcomes can be related to the lack of perceived control. In the context of the Virginia Tech shootings, several social factors were examined three months after the trauma ...
Kruithof, Willeke J.; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Schepers, Vera P. M.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.
To describe the course of social support (everyday support, support in problem situations and esteem support) from initial inpatient rehabilitation until 3 years post-stroke and to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of social support with depressive symptoms. Prospective
Kruithof, Willeke J.; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Schepers, Vera P. M.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.
Objective: To describe the course of social support (everyday support, support in problem situations and esteem support) from initial inpatient rehabilitation until 3 years post-stroke and to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of social support with depressive symptoms.
Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie
♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Warner, Echo L; Ellington, Lee; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Cloyes, Kristin G
Social media (SM) is a burgeoning source of social support for young adults (YAs). We explored the language used to communicate about YA cancer on Instagram and for indicators of social support (i.e., number of likes and comments). Instagram posts using #youngadultcancer were randomly selected (N = 50). Text and hashtags were collected, and posts were coded for gender (female and male), treatment status (active treatment and survivorship), type of user (individual and organization), and caregiver status (yes and no). Indicators of social support, valence (e.g., positive vs. negative terms), and lexical content (e.g., emotional terms and pronouns) were measured using Yoshikoder and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count and compared by gender, treatment status, type of user, and caregiver status. Survivors' posts had more likes compared to those in active treatment (mean: 54.5 vs. 32.3, p = 0.03). Individuals' posts had more comments than those of organizations (mean: 5.3 vs. 1.2, p = 0.01). More positive (30%) than negative (13%) terms were used by survivors (p Instagram users communicate about YA cancer and whether the language they use garners social support. Studying online language use may help YA patients, caregivers, and organizations use SM to gain social support.
Piko, Bettina F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M
Interpersonal theory suggests relationships between socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent psychopathology mediated by negative parenting. This study examines the role of perceived parental social support and optimism in understanding adolescents' depression and self-rated health among a sample of Hungarian youth. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data (N = 881) were collected from high-school students (14-20 years old) in Szeged, Hungary (a regional centre in the southeastern region, near to the Serbian border, with a population of 170,000 inhabitants). To analyse the overall structure of the relationship between objective/subjective SES, parental support, optimism and health outcomes (depression, self-perceived health), structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed. Findings suggest the following: (1) SES variables generate social inequalities in adolescent depression through parental social support, particularly maternal support; and (2) parents provide youths with different levels of social support that in turn may strengthen or weaken optimism during the socialization process. In addressing depression prevention and treatment, we may want to take into account socio-economic differences in social networks and levels of optimism, which may influence youths' psychosocial adjustment and development of psychopathology.
Adriano Gonçalves Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS. The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. RESULTS: The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78. The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2, mainly women (58.2% and students who were living with friends (62%. The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6. After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001, thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001 and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Silva, Adriano Gonçalves; Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira
Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD) assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78). The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2), mainly women (58.2%) and students who were living with friends (62%). The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6). After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001), thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001) and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002). The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Armaou, M; Schumacher, L; Grunfeld, E A
Purpose Returning to work is a process that is intertwined with the social aspects of one's life, which can influence the way in which that person manages their return to work and also determines the support available to them. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' perceptions of the role of their social context in relation to returning to work following treatment. Methods Twenty-three patients who had received a diagnosis of either urological, breast, gynaecological, or bowel cancer participated in semi-structured interviews examining general perceptions of cancer, work values and perceptions of the potential impact of their cancer diagnosis and treatment on work. Interviews were analysed using the iterative process of Framework Analysis. Results Two superordinate themes emerged as influential in the return to work process: Social support as a facilitator of return to work (e.g. co-workers' support and support outside of the workplace) and Social comparison as an appraisal of readiness to return to work (e.g. comparisons with other cancer patients, colleagues, and employees in other organisations or professions). Conclusions Two functions of the social context of returning to work after cancer were apparent in the participants' narrative: the importance of social support as a facilitator of returning to work and the utilisation of social comparison information in order to appraise one's readiness to return to work. The role of social context in returning to work has largely been absent from the research literature to date. The findings of this study suggest that social support and social comparison mechanisms may have a significant impact on an individual's successful return to the workplace.
Nordin, Maria; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven
To study coping strategies, social support and responsibility for improvement in chemical intolerance (CI). Limited knowledge of CI among health professionals and lay persons places demands on the chemically intolerant individual's coping strategies and perception of social support and ability to take responsibility for improvement. However, there is sparse literature on these issues in CI. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, quasi-experimental study. Fifty-nine persons with mild, 92 with moderate and 31 with severe CI participated by rating (i) usage and effectiveness of six problem- and six emotion-focused coping strategies, (ii) emotional, instrumental and informative support provided by various sources and (iii) society's and the inflicted individual's responsibility for improvement. The participants reported that the most commonly used and effective coping strategies were avoiding odorous/pungent environments and asking persons to limit their use of odorous/pungent substances (problem-focused strategies) as well as accepting the situation and reprioritising (emotion-focused strategies). High intolerance severity was associated with problem-focused coping strategies and relatively low intolerance with emotion-focused strategies. More emotional than instrumental and informative support was perceived, predominantly from the partner and other family members. Responsibility attributed to society was also found to increase from mild to moderate/severe intolerance. Certain coping strategies are more commonly used and perceived as more effective than others in CI. However, intolerance severity plays a role regarding both coping strategies and responsibility. Emotional support appears to be the most available type of support. For improved care, certain coping strategies may be suggested by nurses, the healthcare system needs to provide better social support to these patients and the issue of responsibility for improvement may be discussed with the patient.
Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the public's preference for financing health care according to people's ability to pay. The authors compared voters' support in 26 Swiss cantons for a legislative proposal to replace regionally rated health insurance premiums (current system) with premiums proportional to income and wealth, and co-financed through the value added tax. The vote took place in May 2003, and the initiative was rejected, with only 27 percent of support nationwide. However, support varied more than threefold, from 13 to 44 percent, among cantons. In multivariate analysis, support was most strongly correlated with the approval rate of the 1994 law on health insurance, which strengthened solidarity between the sick and the healthy. More modest associations were seen between support for the initiative and the health insurance premium of 2003, and proportions of elderly and urban residents in the population. Hence support for more social financing of health care was best explained by past preference for a social health insurance system in the local community.
Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.
Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.
Wagner, Jennifer B; Luyster, Rhiannon J; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A
When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth. Attention was overall greater to eyes than mouth, but this varied as a function of the emotion presented. HRA- showed significantly larger pupil size than LRC. Correlations between scanning at 9 months, pupil size at 9 months, and 18-month social-communicative behavior, revealed positive associations between pupil size and attention to both face and eyes at 9 months in LRC, and a negative association between 9-month pupil size and 18-month social-communicative behavior in HRA-. The present findings point to heightened autonomic arousal in HRA-. Further, with greater arousal relating to worse social-communicative functioning at 18 months, this work points to a mechanism by which unaffected siblings might develop atypical social behavior.
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the quality of intervention and assessment and
Garcia, Clerison Stelvio; Lima, Agnaldo Soares; La-Rotta, Ehideé Isabel Gómez; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira
Several diseases may lead to the need for liver transplantation due to progressive organ damage until the onset of cirrhosis, resulting in changes in interpersonal relationships. Social Support for transplant candidates is an important variable, providing them with psychological and social well-being. This study aims to assess social support in chronic hepatic patients, waiting for liver transplantation. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 119 patients, for convenience sampling, from the liver transplant waiting list at a Brazilian University Hospital Outpatients. The information was collected through semistructured questionnaires, in four stages: 1) socioeconomic and demographic information 2) clinical aspects 3) feelings 4) Social Support Network Inventory (SSNI), to Brazilian Portuguese. The statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA and multivariate linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between the scales of social support and the collected co-variables. Average age was 50.2 ± 11.6, and 87 (73.1%) were men. Patients with alcohol and virus liver disease etiology had the same frequency of 28%. The MELD, without extrapoints, was 16.7 ± 4.9. Global social support family score was 3.72 ± 0.39, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.79. The multivariate analysis presented the following associations, age = [- 0.010 (95% CI = - 0.010 - -0.010); P = 0.001], etiology of hepatic disease = [- 0.212 (95% CI = - 0.37 - -0.05); P = 0.009], happiness = [- 0.214(95% CI = - 0.33 - -0.09) P = 0.001) and aggressiveness = [0.172 (95% CI = 0.040-0.030); P = 0.010). The social support was greater when the patients were younger (18 to 30 years). Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, regardless of whether or not they were associated with virus, had less social support. As for feelings, the absence of happiness and the presence of aggressiveness showed a negative effect on social support.
Bonnie N. Kaiser
Full Text Available This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127 was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1 negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding and 2 lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration. The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.
Pomaki, Georgia; DeLongis, Anita; Frey, Daniela; Short, Kathy; Woehrle, Trish
We examined the role of social support in turnover intention among new teachers. First, we tested and found evidence for a direct negative relationship between social support and turnover intention. Second, we tested the social support buffer hypothesis, and found that teachers with higher social support had lower turnover intention in the face of…
Chair, Sek Ying; Wong, Kam Biu; Tang, Jennifer Yee-Man; Wang, Qun; Cheng, Ho Yu
This study examined the role of social support and other factors in relation to exercise and diet self-efficacy in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample identified from two cardiac rehabilitation centers. Eighty-five participants joined the study. Both self-efficacy measures correlated with social support, in particular in the domains of emotional/informational support and positive social interactions. Stronger social support was independently associated with a higher level of exercise and diet self-efficacy. Patients with a higher body mass index had a lower level of exercise self-efficacy, whereas social drinkers had a lower level of diet self-efficacy. Our data supported an association between social support and self-efficacy. It was suggested that social companions would help patients get greater confidence in overcoming barriers to lifestyle modification. Further studies may investigate what type of social support contributes to improving the self-efficacy beliefs of patients.
Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las expresiones online de violencia ejercida o padecida por las y los adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indagan cuatro fenómenos específicos: las amenazas, los “bondis”, el cyberbullying y los duelos, para lo cual se realizaron veinte entrevistas en profundidad y 3.000 observaciones virtuales de perfiles de la red social Facebook entre 2013 y 2014. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que la mayoría de las expresiones de violencia se enmarcan en una dinámica offline-online. Asimismo, se ofrece evidencia empírica a partir de la cual es posible afirmar que las expresiones de violencia de estos adolescentes se despliegan en torno a la cultura del “aguante”. El artículo se pregunta si en la plataforma icónica del “me gusta” estas expresiones resultan implícitamente funcionales a la red social o si, por el contrario, permiten desplazamientos y reapropiaciones significativas de los usuarios. En definitiva, se abren nuevos interrogantes acerca de la utilización de estas herramientas por parte de adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados y se propone complejizar los enfoques en torno a estos fenómenos.
Prang, Khic-Houy; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Newnam, Sharon
Social support can be an important coping resource for persons recovering from injury. In this study, we examined the effects of family structure and sources of social support on physical health, persistent pain and return to work (RTW) outcomes following musculoskeletal injury (MSI) sustained in a transport accident. Secondary analysis of Transport Accident Commission (TAC) cross-sectional surveys held in 2010 and 2011 was conducted. In total 1649 persons with MSI were identified and included. Family structure was determined by marital status and number of children. Sources of social support were measured as perceived help from family, friends, neighbours and employers. Physical health was measured with the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score of the Short-Form-12 Health Survey Version 2. Persistent pain was defined as self-reported persistent pain experienced in the last 3 months, and RTW was defined as being back at work for ≥3 months at time of interview. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Family and friends' support was associated with better physical health among persons with >1 day hospital stay. Being married or in a de facto relationship was associated with greater PCS score among non-hospitalised persons. Being widowed/separated/divorced was associated with more self-reported persistent pain (odds ratio 1.62 [95 % confidence intervals 1.11-2.37]). Support from family (0.40 [0.24-0.68]), friends (0.29 [0.17-0.47]) and neighbours (0.59 [0.41-0.84]) was associated with less persistent pain. Among women, support from family (0.09 [0.01-0.78]) was negatively associated with RTW, whereas support from friends (3.03 [1.15-8.02]) was positively associated with RTW. These associations were not observed among men. For both men (5.62 [2.77-11.38]) and women (7.22 [2.58-20.20]), support from employers was positively associated with RTW. Family structure and sources of social support had a positive impact on physical health
Lagdon, Susan; Ross, Jana; Robinson, Martin; Contractor, Ateka A; Charak, Ruby; Armour, Cherie
The detrimental impact of early trauma, particularly childhood maltreatment, on mental health is well documented. Although it is understood that social support can act as a protective factor toward mental health for children who experience such adversity, few studies have addressed the experience of childhood maltreatment and the important function of social support in adulthood. The current study aimed to assess the mediating role of social support in the relationship between childhood experiences of maltreatment and mental health outcomes including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and problematic alcohol use in a sample of university students ( N = 640) from Northern Ireland. Results of binary logistic regression analyses indicated that those reporting experiences of childhood maltreatment were at increased odds of mental health outcomes of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, but not alcohol use. Those reporting greater social support were significantly less likely to report on these mental health outcomes. In addition, the indirect paths from childhood maltreatment through social support to PTSD, depression, and anxiety were all significant, suggesting that social support, particularly family support, is a significant mediator of these relationships. Such findings have important implications for the social care response to children experiencing maltreatment and future support for such children as they transition to adolescence and adulthood.
Full Text Available Satisfying the need of physical activity of children and promoting their social skills beginning from early childhood have importance by reason of providing a basis for following years. In this study, establishing process of the training program within the scope of “ Examination the Effects of Physical Education and Sports Activities to the Basic Psychomotor skills and Social Skills for Preschool Children ” named project supported by Karabuk University Coordinatorship of Scientific Research Projects has been mentioned. The training program has been intended to promote the motor and social competence of the children aged 48 months and older. In the study it has been given wide publicity to the stages of literature review, educational attainments and indicators fit for purpose, and taking an expert’s opinion. Commentary on practicing the training program integrated with preschool education program and their importances have been discussed.
Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali
The authors examined cyberbullying victimization in the context of issues of key importance to youth: body esteem, social support, and social self-efficacy. Research has found that traditional peer-bullying victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem in Western societies, especially pertaining to weight (R. Puhl & J. Luedicke, 2012 ). Studies have also found a relationship among bullying victimization, appearance-related bullying, low body esteem, and psychosocial difficulties among youth (L. E. Park, R. M. Calogero, A.F. Young, & A. Diraddo, 2010 ). However, the emergence of cyberbullying, characterized by its own special features (P. K. Smith et al., 2008 ), has raised a salient need to explore the relationship between cyber victimization and body esteem, no less important with social framework, because both are key components in adolescents' lives that may be associated with cyberbullying victimization. The authors examined these relationships among 204 Israeli adolescents 14-16 years old. The results indicate a noteworthy prevalence (45%) of cyber victims. Cyber victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem and low social support and social self-efficacy. Low body esteem and low social support predicted the probability of being a cyber victim. The results extend the knowledge about potential personal and social risk factors for cyber victimization during adolescence. Implications for specific intervention programs are discussed.
Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme
Full Text Available There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the first and second years of public high school. The data were collectively obtained in the classroom using the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents, the Social Support Appraisal Scale and the Psychological Well-being Scale. The results indicated that family configuration is not associated with the psychological well-being of adolescents. The social skills of empathy, self-control, civility, social resourcefulness and affective approach as well as the social support appraisals from friends and family were the best predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to future research and interventions.
Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.
Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda
to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.
Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885
This report describes the perceived stressors, coping strategies, and social supports of a group of adolescent mothers during their first month at home after delivery. In addition to concerns about the baby and the limitations imposed by motherhood, many of the young mothers considered their interpersonal relationships as problematic. Findings suggest that the puerperium was not a time of major distress for most of these young women. Factors contributing to a relatively smooth transition to motherhood were the adolescent's use of anticipatory coping prior to the birth, their extensive reliance on family support once at home, and their past experience with childcare. Sharing childcare with the family was an important component of the support received by these adolescents, and it is suggested that the adolescent's mobilization of social supports may be essential to ther adaptation to motherhood. Professionals were infrequently mentioned as sources of support even though a majority of the sample participated in special adolescent maternity programs. Finally, findings also suggest that problem-focused coping was used more often when dealing with concrete stressors, while emotion-focused coping was used more in response to interpersonal problems.
Daniels, A; Hoffman, M; Lombard, C; Steyn, K; Levitt, N; Katzenellenbogen, J
Social support, by moderating cardiovascular reactivity, has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of stress on blood pressure in American communities. This is the first report to examine the relationship between social support and blood pressure in a South African context, during a period of infrastructure modernisation and political change. A total of 1240 residents (542 men, 698 women) of mixed ethnic origin, older than 14 years and stratified by age and sex, participated in a survey to determine risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Social support was assessed by a questionnaire developed in consultation with the community. It was defined by interactions that may threaten family harmony (score 1) and by networking between relatives, friends, colleagues and neighbours (score 2). Mean blood pressure of the sample was 130/79 mm Hg (s.d. 25/14 mm Hg). Hypertension prevalence was 26.9%. Only 36% of women compared to 57.3% of men (P social support networks were similarly perceived by both sexes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated weakly with score 1 (r = 0.096, P networking between relatives, friends or neighbours, significantly influences blood pressure in this community. Measures of social support thought to moderate blood pressure may have limited cross-cultural application. Attitudinal changes during socio-political transition may impact on the generalisability of instruments for measurement.
Granero-Molina, José; Matarín Jimenez, Tamara María; Ramos Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida Maria; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano
The aim of this study is to describe and understand experiences related to social support for women with fibromyalgia who suffer from sexual dysfunction. An interpretive qualitative research methodology based on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics was used. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with 13 women who averaged 44.8 years of age and 14.3 years since being diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Data were analyzed using Fleming’s method and two themes were identified: ...
Drescher, Larissa S.; Hasselbach, Johanna
It is a known fact that stress negatively affects food choices. Consequentially, this paper analyzes three different research questions using a sample of 330 international students in Germany. Firstly, it is observed if stress affects students’ motivations to eat, i.e. if it triggers changes in the motivation behind food choices. Results show that this is not the case. Secondly, it is tested if social support acts as a buffer on the relationship between stress and healthy eating, similarly to...
Letourneau, Nicole L.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Cosic, Nela; Ntanda, Henry N.; Anis, Lubna; Hart, Martha J.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.
Background Many studies have identified associations between qualities of maternal?child relationships and childhood asthma, but few have examined associations with childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), a common precursor to asthma. Moreover, maternal psychological distress, including prenatal and postnatal depression, anxiety and stress, may increase risk, while social support from partners may reduce risk for childhood AD. We sought to uncover the association between maternal?infant relationshi...
Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol
The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.
Harris, J. Irene; Winskowski, Ann Marie; Engdahl, Brian E.
Research on social support and job satisfaction has yielded mixed results, partly because studies have rarely examined different types of workplace social support, such as collegial support, task support, coaching, and career mentoring. This study identified the relative contributions of different types of social support to job satisfaction and…
Atwood, Molly E; Friedman, Aliza; Meisner, Brad A; Cassin, Stephanie E
Bariatric surgery patients often experience physical and psychosocial stressors, and difficulty adjusting to significant lifestyle changes. As a result, social support groups that provide patients with support, coping skills, and nutritional information are valuable components of bariatric care. Support group attendance at bariatric centers is associated with greater post-surgery weight loss; however, several barriers hinder attendance at in-person support groups (e.g., travel distance to bariatric centers). Consequently, online support forums are an increasingly utilized resource for patients both before and after surgery. This study examined and described the type and frequency of social support provided on a large online bariatric surgery forum. A total of 1,412 messages in the pre- (n = 822) and post-surgery (n = 590) sections of the forum were coded using qualitative content analysis according to Cutrona and Suhr's (1992) Social Support Behavior Code model (i.e., including informational, tangible, esteem, network, and emotional support types). The majority of messages provided informational and emotional support regarding: a) factual information about the bariatric procedure and nutrition; b) advice for coping with the surgery preparation process, and physical symptoms; and c) encouragement regarding adherence to surgical guidelines, and weight loss progress. Network, esteem, and tangible support types were less frequent than informational and emotional support types. The results inform healthcare providers about the types of social support available to bariatric patients on online support forums and, thus, encourage appropriate referrals to this resource.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rhoades, Harmony; Henwood, Benjamin; Rice, Eric; Harris, Taylor
Background Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is the leading intervention to end chronic homelessness. Little is known, however, about gender differences, including potential disparities in physical and mental health and social support, that might inform services available through PSH. Methods 421 homeless adults, at least 39 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, who were moving into PSH through 26 different agencies in the Los Angeles area participated. Results Compared to men entering PSH, homeless women (28% of the sample) were younger (phomeless adults moving into PSH. PSH cannot be a one-size-fits-all approach. Supportive services within housing should be tailored based on gender and other individual needs. PMID:28153741
Haggerty, Julia Hobson; Epstein, Kathleen; Stone, Michael; Cross, Paul
Amenity migration describes the movement of peoples to rural landscapes and the transition toward tourism and recreation and away from production-oriented land uses (ranching, timber harvesting). The resulting mosaic of land uses and community structures has important consequences for wildlife and their management. This research note examines amenity-driven changes to social-ecological systems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, specifically in lower elevations that serve as winter habitat for elk. We present a research agenda informed by a preliminary and exploratory mixed-methods investigation: the creation of a “social-impact” index of land use change on elk winter range and a focus group with wildlife management experts. Our findings suggest that elk are encountering an increasingly diverse landscape with respect to land use, while new ownership patterns increase the complexity of social and community dynamics. These factors, in turn, contribute to increasing difficulty meeting wildlife management objectives. To deal with rising complexity across social and ecological landscapes of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, future research will focus on property life cycle dynamics, as well as systems approaches.
Davis, Matthew A; Anthony, Denise L; Pauls, Scott D
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period. We explored predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from "friends." Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term "surgery" in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.19) for annual income > $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words in the root post were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02, 2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the root post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All
It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could
Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd
To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members
Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme; Zilda Aparecida Perreira Del Prette; Susana Coimbra
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the f...
Goldzweig, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Meirovitz, Amichay; Braun, Michal; Hubert, Ayala; Baider, Lea
The current study presents the development and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Cancer Perceived Agents of Social Support (CPASS). The CPASS is a new self-rating instrument devised in order to enable both cancer patients and their spouses to report on the level of perceived social support they get. The CPASS evaluates the support given by different agents of support (spouse, family, friends and spiritual or religious beliefs) in several dimensions (emotional, cognitive and instrumental). The study sample comprised 662 cancer patients and their spouses recruited during a routine medical evaluation from three major cancer centers in Israel. The participants completed the CPASS and two other standardized instruments: The ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Principal component analysis confirmed a three-factor structure based upon the agent of support (spouse; friends/family; spiritual/religious beliefs). Cronbach's α coefficients for the agent of support indexes were high (0.80-0.95), while Cronbach's α levels for the kind of support were lower (0.45-0.72). Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) also confirmed the theoretical structure of the CPASS. Pearson correlation coefficients to the other study variables were high and significant. As a whole, the CPASS was found to be a valid tool for the current Israeli sample. Theoretical and practical conclusions and socio-cultural implications are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi
Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.
Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane
participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (pself-esteem......Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make....... The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than...
Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T
The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.
Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Weatherley, Richard; Omar, Noralina; Abdullah, Fatimah; Mohamad Aun, Nur Saadah
This article presents the findings of a self-report study of the consequences of being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine Malaysian efforts in assisting informal caregivers, based on an analysis of the issues and concerns raised by the caregivers themselves. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of informal caregivers in 2009. This sample comprised parents, spouses and/or adult siblings, and adult children, caring for their children, spouses or siblings and parents who were chronically ill and/or had a disability. Of 300 prospective participants, only 175 could be located (58%), but all those contacted agreed to participate. Respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire to identify the emotional, financial, social and physical issues consequent upon being a caregiver. Most respondents reported that their care-giving responsibilities had impacted their emotional, financial, social and/or physical well-being. Inadequate and/or uncertain income was by far the greatest concern followed in descending order by social, physical and emotional consequences. The one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three categories of caregivers with respect to physical and emotional consequences. The findings show that care-giving has detrimental effects on the lives of informal caregivers, and that they are in significant need of social support to help them deal with care-giving tasks and responsibilities. Based on the findings, an integrated social support programme is proposed, tailored to the needs of informal caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zinsser, Katherine M; Christensen, Claire G; Torres, Luz
Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poblete, Fernando; Glasinovic, Andrés; Sapag, Jaime; Barticevic, Nicolás; Arenas, Artzy; Padilla, Oslando
Validate an instrument to measure the Perceived Social Support in outpatients who are in treatment to hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus ii. Observational and exploratory design with mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative. Two community health centers from the municipality of Puente Alto (Santiago, Chile). Hypertensive and/or diabetic patients between 18 and 65 years old. A purposive sample was undertaken for the qualitative study, and a random sample for the final survey. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the constructs of social support as perceived by patients. According to expert opinion and literature review, a scale of social support was selected and a pilot study was conducted in 40 patients, then we interviewed in depth to some of those participants. The instrument was modified according the results of this process. The final version was applied to 250 participants. The construct existence was verified in the population. In the adaptation, one item was eliminated. The alpha of Cronbach was 0.89 and the factorial analysis had the same four factors from the original study. Nine new items obtained from the focal groups were added to the instrument, obtaining an alpha of Cronbach of 0.92. The final instrument has good psychometric proprieties, and is applicable in our population. The additional items from the qualitative study improve its internal consistency, but don't add new information about Perceived Social Support. This is consistent with other studies, and suggests the application of the original version of the instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Ziemecki, Piotr; Ziemecka, Anna; Partyka, Iwona
The meaning of non medical forms of support in the treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the paper. Related with psoriasis negative self image and feeling of stigmatization cause various mental disorders. Stress, depression, mental condition affect the appearance of psoriasis. Because of numerous studies and identify the factors and relationships important for psoriasis, patients can take the appropriate psychological and social support. Relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy and support groups have a positive effect on the treatment of psoriasis. They reduce the level of stress in the patient, learn emotional control, adequate self-esteem, which leads to the acceptance of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patient.
De Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury
The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.
Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren; Cluver, Lucie; Kuo, Caroline
Caring for children can be a source of joy and fulfilment, but also a source of stress, especially for caregivers living with illness and/or coping with difficult socio-economic conditions. Risks for poor caregiver mental health are especially salient in many parts of southern Africa affected by a generalised HIV-epidemic, high rates of physical illness, difficult livelihood conditions and an increasing number of orphaned and vulnerable children in need of care. Given limited availability and low uptake of formal mental health services in South Africa, the potential protective role of informal community or "social" resources for caregiver populations requires greater attention. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the relationship between social support and symptomatic anxiety among caregivers of children living in HIV-endemic southern African communities. The data are from household survey interviews with 2477 adult primary caregivers of children aged 10-17 years living in two (urban and rural) resource-deprived HIV-endemic South African communities. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis with interaction terms was conducted to assess whether HIV and other illness were significant stressors for caregiver anxiety, whether social support had main or stress-buffering protective effects on anxiety and whether gender moderated the association between social support and anxiety. Our findings showed significant main effects of social support on caregiver anxiety, but no evidence of stress-buffering effects of support or of gender moderating the support-anxiety relationship. This suggests that social support is a general mental health resource for both male and female caregivers of children in these HIV-endemic communities, regardless of whether they are facing specific stressors related to HIV or other illness. Our results highlight the importance of paying greater attention to the social environment when designing and implementing
García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A
Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.
Kelly, Michelle E; Duff, Hollie; Kelly, Sara; McHugh Power, Joanna E; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian A; Loughrey, David G
Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, and collated data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), genetic and observational studies. Independent variables of interest included subjective measures of social activities, social networks, and social support, and composite measures of social relationships (CMSR). The primary outcome of interest was cognitive function divided into domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, overall memory ability, working memory, verbal fluency, reasoning, attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, overall executive functioning and global cognition. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review; three RCTs, 34 observational studies, and two genetic studies. Evidence suggests a relationship between (1) social activity and global cognition and overall executive functioning, working memory, visuospatial abilities and processing speed but not episodic memory, verbal fluency, reasoning or attention; (2) social networks and global cognition but not episodic memory, attention or processing speed; (3) social support and global cognition and episodic memory but not attention or processing speed; and (4) CMSR and episodic memory and verbal fluency but not global cognition. The results support prior conclusions that there is an association between social relationships and cognitive function but the exact nature of this association remains unclear
Renwick, Laoise; Owens, Liz; Lyne, John; O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Drennan, Jonathan; Sheridan, Ann; Pilling, Mark; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
of untreated psychosis was not linked with the rate of improvement in this outcome. Improved social support could indicate greater reliance on social support or becoming more adept at mobilising resources to meet social needs. Particularly vulnerable groups with very long duration of untreated psychosis confirm the need for earlier intervention or targeted social network interventions to preserve social connectedness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demoralization is a commonly observed feeling state that is characterized by a sense of loss of or threat to one's personal values or goals and a perceived inability to overcome obstacles toward achieving these goals. Demoralization has features in common with burnout and may precede or accompany it. Psychiatrists working in many mental health care organizational settings, be they in the public or private sectors, may be at particular risk for demoralization. This is due partly to stressors that threaten their own professional values because of factors such as programmatic cut backs, budgetary reductions and changing social emphases on the value of mental health treatments. They also may be at risk for demoralization because of the effects on them of the governance styles of the agencies in which they are employed. The leadership or governance style in large organizational settings often is authoritarian, hierarchical and bureaucratic, approaches that are antithetical to the more participative leadership styles favored by many mental health professionals in their clinical activities. Clinical leaders in mental health organizations must exhibit various competencies to successfully address demoralization in clinical staff and to provide a counterbalance to the effects of the governance style of many agencies in which they are employed. Appropriate leadership skills, sometimes too simplistically termed "social support", have been found to reduce burnout in various populations and are likely to lessen demoralization as well. This paper reviews these important leadership issues and the relationship of social support to recognized leadership competencies.
Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H
While perceived social support has received considerable research as a protective factor for suicide ideation, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that mediate its effects. We integrated two theoretical models, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide and Leary's (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995) sociometer theory of self-esteem to investigate two hypothesized mechanisms, utilization of social support and self-esteem. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals must utilize the social support they perceive that would result in increased self-esteem, which in turn buffers them from suicide ideation. Participants were 172 college students who completed measures of social support, self-esteem, and suicide ideation. Tests of simple mediation indicate that utilization of social support and self-esteem may each individually help to mediate the perceived social support/suicide ideation relationship. Additionally, a test of multiple mediators using bootstrapping supported the hypothesized multiple-mediator model. The use of a cross-sectional design limited our ability to find true cause-and-effect relationships. Results suggested that utilized social support and self-esteem both operate as individual moderators in the social support/self-esteem relationship. Results further suggested, in a comprehensive model, that perceived social support buffers suicide ideation through utilization of social support and increases in self-esteem.
Woodhead, Erin L; Northrop, Lynn; Edelstein, Barry
Long-term care nursing staff are subject to considerable occupational stress and report high levels of burnout, yet little is known about how stress and social support are associated with burnout in this population. The present study utilized the job demands-resources model of burnout to examine relations between job demands (occupational and personal stress), job resources (sources and functions of social support), and burnout in a sample of nursing staff at a long-term care facility (N = 250). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that job demands (greater occupational stress) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, more depersonalization, and less personal accomplishment. Job resources (support from supervisors and friends or family members, reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturing) were associated with less emotional exhaustion and higher levels of personal accomplishment. Interventions to reduce burnout that include a focus on stress and social support outside of work may be particularly beneficial for long-term care staff. © The Author(s) 2014.
Andrés Felipe Ardila Rodríguez
Full Text Available The training strategies developed for the social support program bring deficits in accessibility to the chronic ill patients (EC and the CASSA-UDEC’s caretaker (CASSA-UDEC: Centre for Social Health Care at Universidad de Cundinamarca they do not have time to commute, hindering their legal relationship established by the contract. For this reason, a remote care platform (PTD was developed to support users at CASSA-UDEC improving aspects related to coverage, cost, quality, access and appropriation of information from caregivers and chronic ill patients. The design was based on gerontological constructs identifying features such as modularity, object size, usability, ergonomics, and some others, providing a friendly platform for the user with dynamic, modular and high usability content. The Platform provides a space for interaction and aid, which works as a dynamic entity in the job done by CASSA-UDEC giving support in the development of activities, expanding its coverage, access; all thanks to the benefits offered in a virtual mode.
Intan Hashimah Mohd. Hashim
Full Text Available This paper results from a study that was conducted on 209 Form Fourstudents from two schools in Penang. In this study, a semi-structuredinterview covering questions on demographics, a 12-item measure ofself-esteem, and a 20-item measure of well-being was conducted.Students were also asked to report their Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR results as an indicator of their academic performance. To assess stress, coping and social supports, respondents were given a list of possible stressors (e.g., problems with relationships at home and school and were asked to indicate whether or not they were bothered by these stressors, the type of coping that they had used in dealing with these stressors, and the type of social supports that they had received in relation to these stressors. A higher proportion of respondents (77% identified issues related to academics and lessons as a problem compared to other issues (relationships at home, 34%, and relationships at school, 31%. The number of stressors related to everyday life was significantly related to well-being, but not to self-esteem or academic performance. Respondents reported a variety of problem-specificcoping. Supports received were also problem-specific in nature. Thefindings have both applied and theoretical implications.
Flórez, Karen R; Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Troxel, Wendy; DeSantis, Amy; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara
Social support and social networks can elucidate important structural and functional aspects of social relationships that are associated with health-promoting behaviors, including Physical Activity (PA) and weight. A growing number of studies have investigated the relationship between social support, social networks, PA and obesity specifically among African Americans; however, the evidence is mixed and many studies focus exclusively on African American women. Most studies have also focused on either functional or structural aspects of social relationships (but not both) and few have objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional surveys of adult African American men and women living in two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA (N = 799) measured numerous structural features as well as functional aspects of social relationships. Specifically, structural features included social isolation, and social network size and diversity. Functional aspects included perceptions of social support for physical activity from the social network in general as well as from family and friends specifically. Height, weight, and PA were objectively measured. From these, we derived Body Mass Index (BMI) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). All regression models were stratified by gender, and included age, income, education, employment, marital status, physical limitations, and a neighborhood indicator. Greater social isolation was a significant predictor of lower BMI among men only. Among women only, social isolation was significantly associated with increased MVPA whereas, network diversity was significantly associated with reduced MVPA. Future research would benefit from in-depth qualitative investigations to understand how social networks may act to influence different types of physical activity among African Americans, as well as understand how they can be possible levers
Carlos, Diene Monique; Pádua, Elisabete Matallo Marchesini De; Fernandes, Maria Isabel Domingues; Leitão, Maria Neto da Cruz; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho
To identify and analyze the social support network of families involved in violence against children and adolescents, from the perspective of health professionals and families in a municipality of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was a qualitative strategic social study, anchored in the paradigm of complexity. Data were collected from 41 health professionals and 15 families using institutional or personal network maps, and semi-structured interviews. Analysis was conducted by organizing the data, constructing theoretical frameworks, and categorizing resulting information. The category "weaving the network" was unveiled, with family experiences and professionals focused on a logic of fragmentation of care. The creation and implementation of public policy are urgently needed to address the needs of this population, by empowering families and communities and developing research that respects the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon.
Stahlman, Shauna; Bechtold, Kali; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan
Men who have sex with men (MSM) face sexual identity stigma in many settings, which can increase risk for HIV by limiting access to care. This paper examines the roles of social support, sexual identity stigma, and sexual identity disclosure among MSM in Lesotho, a lower-middle income country within South Africa. Qualitative data were collected from 23 in-depth interview and six focus group participants and content analysis was performed to extract themes. Four primary themes emerged: 1) Verbal abuse from the broader community is a major challenge faced by MSM in Lesotho, 2) participants who were open about their sexual identity experienced greater stigma but were more self-sufficient and had higher self-confidence, 3) relationships between MSM tend to be conducted in secrecy, which can be associated with unhealthy relationships between male couples and higher risk sexual practices, and 4) MSM community organisations provide significant social and emotional support. Friends and family members from outside the MSM community also offer social support, but this support cannot be utilised by MSM until the risk of disclosing their sexual identity is reduced. Greater acceptance of same-sex practices would likely result in more open, healthy relationships and greater access to social support for MSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vella, Elizabeth J; Kamarck, Thomas W; Shiffman, Saul
This study sought to determine the role of hostility in moderating the effects of positive social interactions on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Participants (341 adults) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and underwent ABP monitoring, assessed every 45 min during waking hours across 6 days. An electronic diary measuring mood and social interactions was completed at each ABP assessment. The dependent variables from the ABP monitor included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Different patterns of ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (ADBP) responding to social interactions perceived as intimate or supportive among high- versus low-hostile individuals were observed. Higher intimacy ratings were linked to reductions in ADBP among low-hostile but not high-hostile individuals. Conversely, high-hostile, but not low-hostile, individuals showed increases in ADBP to situations rated high in social support. Although findings for ambulatory systolic blood pressure were nonsignificant, the pattern of results was similar to ADBP. Hostile individuals may find offers of support stressful and may fail to benefit from intimacy during daily life. The pathogenic effects of hostility may be mediated in part by responses to social interactions, both positive and negative. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Maldonado-Cisneros, Maritza; Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe
Prenatal care ensures favorable results for maternal-fetal health and, to that end, it must be provided early, periodically, comprehensively and with high coverage. To find out the social determinants of prenatal care in women affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security during 2014. Cross-sectional study where the association of social conditions, social support and family functioning with inadequate prenatal care was analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed; hypothesis tests were used with chi-square (95% level of confidence). The prevalence ratio and Mann-Whitney's U-test were estimated to compare medians and logistic regression. Of the interviewed women, 58.1% had inadequate prenatal care, mainly associated with unplanned pregnancy, poor social support, low level of education and higher marginalization. Not having leaves of absence granted by employers was the main barrier in those women who did not attend health services. There is a need for strategies to be designed and implemented to enable understanding the interaction between different biological and social dimensions of the health-disease process and reduce health inequities that affect pregnant women, in order to achieve good prenatal care and to implement alternative models guaranteeing its efficiency. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.
Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
The research presented in this article investigated the social support provided in the workplace for persons with visual impairments. The results reveal the more frequently demonstrated forms of positive and negative social support, the range of social support, and the level of satisfaction with this support.
Martin, Suzanne; Kelly, Greg; Kernohan, W George; McCreight, Bernadette; Nugent, Christopher
The integration of smart home technology to support health and social care is acquiring an increasing global significance. Provision is framed within the context of a rapidly changing population profile, which is impacting on the number of people requiring health and social care, workforce availability and the funding of healthcare systems. To explore the effectiveness of smart home technologies as an intervention for people with physical disability, cognitive impairment or learning disability, who are living at home, and to consider the impact on the individual's health status and on the financial resources of health care. We searched the following databases for primary studies: (a) the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Register, (b) the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2007), and (c) bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (1966 to March 2007), EMBASE (1980 to March 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2007). We also searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE). We searched the electronic databases using a strategy developed by the EPOC Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series analyses (ITS). Participants included adults over the age of 18, living in their home in a community setting. Participants with a physical disability, dementia or a learning disability were included. The included interventions were social alarms, electronic assistive devices, telecare social alert platforms, environmental control systems, automated home environments and 'ubiquitous homes'. Outcome measures included any objective measure that records an impact on a participant's quality of life, healthcare professional workload, economic outcomes, costs to healthcare provider or costs to participant. We included measures of service satisfaction
Chung, Jae Eun
An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.
Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.
Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.
Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754
Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K
Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.
Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?
Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene
Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.
Mohammad T. Azim
Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS and perceived religious endorsement (PRE on career commitment (CC of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t-test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses’ social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.
Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L
People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Several studies have observed a syndrome of shifting values within different cultures over the past five decades. This work investigates whether these cultural changes have been followed by changes in individual attitudes regarding state authority in Brazil. Using data from the World Values Survey, we tested the hypotheses proposed by Ronald Inglehart that the increasing prevalence of self-expression and secular-rational values has been followed by an increasing societal emphasis on civic autonomy over state authority. The results do not provide evidence to support this hypothesis for Brazil. Instead, the study shows a stable pattern of support for state authority in the past three decades despite the increasing level of self-expression values. The study suggests that these attitudes are related to long-lasting characteristics of the political culture and public expectations regarding the role of the state in reducing social inequality in Brazil.
supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...... maltreatment and sexual abuse. While being offer for bullying increases the risk of suicidal thoughts and low self-esteem, when accounted for other risk factors....... children haven’t? The study is based on standardized personal interview with a national sample of 3,000 young people, supplemented with prospective longitudinal register data. The hypotheses are that the adolescents who have experienced child maltreatment during childhood but also had experienced...
Full Text Available Stressful events have been implicated in the evolution of mood disorders. In addition to brain neurotransmitters and growth factors, the view has been offered that these disorders might be provoked by the activation of the inflammatory immune system as well as by de novo changes of inflammatory cytokines within the brain. The present review describes the impact of social stressors in animals and in humans on behavioral changes reminiscent of depressive states as well as on cytokine functioning. Social stressors increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation as well as in brain regions that have been associated with depression, varying with the animal’s social status and/or behavioral methods used to contend with social challenges. Likewise, in humans, social stressors that favor the development of depression are accompanied by elevated circulating cytokine levels and conversely, conditions that limit the cytokine elevations correlated with symptoms attenuation or reversal. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potentially powerful effects of social support, social identity, and connectedness in maintaining well-being and in diminishing symptoms of depression.
Reimuller, Alison; Shadur, Julia; Hussong, Andrea M
We examined the moderating effects of parenting on the temporal relationship between negative affect and subsequent alcohol use in adolescents as an indicator of self-medication. Specifically, we tested whether youth are more likely to self-medicate if they receive less parental social support. We used a multi-method, multi-reporter strategy and an experience sampling paradigm to examine these mechanisms in an elevated-risk sample preparing for the transition to high school. Seventy-one adolescents and their parents completed home-based interviews and adolescents completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol in which they reported their alcohol use daily and their affect thrice daily. Parent-reported family communication, though no other parental support indicators, moderated the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Plotting of interactions showed a greater likelihood of drinking on days characterized by greater negative affect only in adolescents with higher levels of parent-reported family communication. This study offers tentative support for parental support as a moderator of the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Parental support may be a response to alcohol use and self-medication in teens such that parents become more involved and open in talking with their teens when they notice these patterns of behavior. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slattery, Éadaoin; McMahon, Jennifer; Gallagher, Stephen
Researchers have consistently documented the relationship between optimism and benefit finding; however, there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms mediating their association. This cross-sectional study sought to elucidate the mediating role of positive reappraisal and social support in the optimism-benefit finding relationship in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities by testing a parallel multiple mediation model. One hundred and forty-six parents caring for children with developmental disabilities completed an online survey assessing optimism, positive reappraisal, social support and benefit finding. Optimism was not directly related to benefit finding but rather influenced it indirectly through positive reappraisal and social support. Specifically, higher levels of optimism predicted greater positive reappraisal and social support, which in turn led to greater benefit finding in parents. These results underscore the importance of targeting parents' perceptions of benefits through both positive reappraisal and social support in order to help them cope with the demands of the caregiving context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meng, Jingbo; Martinez, Lourdes; Holmstrom, Amanda; Chung, Minwoong; Cox, Jeff
The article presents a narrative review of scholarship on social support through social networking sites (SNSs) published from 2004 to 2015. By searching keywords related to social support and SNSs in major databases for social sciences, we identified and content analyzed directly relevant articles (N = 88). The article summarizes the prevalence of theory usage; the function of theory usage (e.g., testing a theory, developing a theory); major theories referenced; and methodologies, including research designs, measurement, and the roles of social support and SNS examined in this literature. It also reports four themes identified across the studies, indicating the trends in the current research. Based on the review, the article presents a discussion about study sites, conceptualization of social support, theoretical coherence, the role of social networks, and the dynamic relationships between SNS use and social support, which points out potential avenues for shaping a future research agenda.
Dannielle E. Kelley
Full Text Available Most social support research has examined support from an individual patient perspective and does not model the broader social context of support felt by caregivers. Understanding how social support networks may complement healthcare services is critical, considering the aging population, as social support networks may be a valuable resource to offset some of the demands placed on the healthcare system. We sought to identify how caregivers' perceived organizational and interpersonal support from their social support network influences care-recipient health.We created a dyadic dataset of care-recipient and caregivers from the first two rounds of the National Health and Aging Trends survey (2011, 2012 and the first round of the associated National Study of Caregivers survey (2011. Using structural equation modeling, we explored how caregivers' perceived social support is associated with caregiver confidence to provide care, and is associated with care-recipient health outcomes at two time points. All data were analyzed in 2016.Social engagement with members from caregivers' social support networks was positively associated with caregiver confidence, and social engagement and confidence were positively associated with care-recipient health at time 1. Social engagement positively predicted patient health at time 2 controlling for time 1. Conversely, use of organizational support negatively predicted care-recipient health at time 2.Care-recipients experience better health outcomes when caregivers are able to be more engaged with members of their social support network. Keywords: Informal caregiving, Social support, Social support network, Patient-caregiver dyads
Lara B Aknin
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.
Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I
Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.
The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.
Elklit, Ask; Østergård Kjær, Kamilla; Lasgaard, Mathias; Palic, Sabina
Young refugees from the former Yugoslavia commonly testify to having been exposed to multiple, traumatic experiences, which may contribute to the development of serious mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Using selfreport scales the present study investigated the prevalence of PTSD as well as factors associated with PTSD in a group of 119 Bosnian refugee youths (mean age 18.5). The group was special in that they had no right to seek asylum in the host country for the first couple of years of their stay. It is suspected that this circumstance had an effect on their wellbeing. Between 35-43% of the youth were found to be in the clinical range for a PTSD diagnosis. Female gender, problem-focused, and avoidant coping strategies, were significant predictors of PTSD. The protective effects of social support were, however, not observed for this group. There is a need for more studies, which address the factors that mediate and moderate effects of social support and effectiveness of different coping strategies in refugee youth dealing with different circumstances of the refugee experience.
Dmitry V. Lifintsev
Full Text Available The overview and theoretical study of social support for children and adolescents is presented. The issues of social development of children and adolescents in terms of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and Kahn’s and Antonucci’s Convoy Model of Social Relations are discussed. The sources, forms and types of social support for the early, pre-school, primary school and adolescents are analyzed. The paper specifies the following issues: the parent-child relationships and characteristics of social support in early childhood can affect the development of the structure and quality of human social relations network throughout his/her life. Social networks and the organization of social support for adolescents are detailed. The patterns of social support of adolescents may affect their psychosocial well-being. The social support systems used by modern adolescents are described. The controversial issues of seeking social support as the leading coping strategy are raised. Various ways of seeking social support for adolescence are analyzed. The importance of parents, teachers and peers in providing social support for children and adolescents is shown. The author’s view of social support as one of the resources of the child’s autonomy, which can be developed only in certain respects, i.e. respect for personal boundaries and accepting differences in individual values and needs, the independence aspiration supported by respect and interest, unpunished by shame or the threat of rejection.
Kapulsky, Leonid; Tang, Alice M; Forrester, Janet E
Previous research has identified an association between food insecurity and depression in a variety of world regions in both healthy and HIV-infected individuals. We examined this association in 183 HIV-infected Hispanic adults from the greater Boston area. We measured depression with the Burnam depression screen and food insecurity with the Radimer/Cornell Questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed with an adapted version of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were created with depression as the outcome variable and food insecurity as the main predictor. In bivariate analyses, food insecurity was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 5.5; p = 0.03]. When we accounted for social support, food insecurity was no longer significant. We found no differences in the quality or quantity of dietary intake between the food insecure and food secure groups. Our findings highlight the importance of social support in the association between food insecurity and depression. Food insecurity may reflect social support more than actual dietary intake in this population.
Balsters, Martijn J H; Krahmer, Emiel J; Swerts, Marc G J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
The tearing effect refers to the relevance of tears as an important visual cue adding meaning to human facial expression. However, little is known about how people process these visual cues and their mediating role in terms of emotion perception and person judgment. We therefore conducted two experiments in which we measured the influence of tears on the identification of sadness and the perceived need for social support at an early perceptional level. In two experiments (1 and 2), participants were exposed to sad and neutral faces. In both experiments, the face stimuli were presented for 50 milliseconds. In experiment 1, tears were digitally added to sad faces in one condition. Participants demonstrated a significant faster recognition of sad faces with tears compared to those without tears. In experiment 2, tears were added to neutral faces as well. Participants had to indicate to what extent the displayed individuals were in need of social support. Study participants reported a greater perceived need for social support to both sad and neutral faces with tears than to those without tears. This study thus demonstrated that emotional tears serve as important visual cues at an early (pre-attentive) level.
Takada, Sae; Weiser, Sheri D; Kumbakumba, Elias; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Haberer, Jessica E; Kawuma, Annet; Bangsberg, David R; Tsai, Alexander C
Cross-sectional studies show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma is negatively correlated with social support. The purpose of this study is to examine the bidirectional relationship between social support and HIV stigma. We collected quarterly data from a cohort of 422 people living with HIV in Uganda, followed for a median of 2.1 years. We used multilevel regression to model the contemporaneous and 3-month-lagged associations between social support and both enacted and internalized stigma. Lagged enacted stigma was negatively correlated with emotional and instrumental social support, and lagged instrumental social support was negatively correlated with enacted stigma. Internalized stigma and emotional social support had reciprocal lagged associations. Interventions to reduce enacted stigma may strengthen social support for people living with HIV. Improved social support may in turn have a protective influence against future enacted and internalized stigma.
Weiser, Sheri D.; Kumbakumba, Elias; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Kawuma, Annet; Bangsberg, David R.; Tsai, Alexander C.
Background Cross-sectional studies show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma is negatively correlated with social support. Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the bidirectional relationship between social support and HIV stigma. Methods We collected quarterly data from a cohort of 422 people living with HIV in Uganda, followed for a median of 2.1 years. We used multilevel regression to model the contemporaneous and 3-month-lagged associations between social support and both enacted and internalized stigma. Results Lagged enacted stigma was negatively correlated with emotional and instrumental social support, and lagged instrumental social support was negatively correlated with enacted stigma. Internalized stigma and emotional social support had reciprocal lagged associations. Conclusions Interventions to reduce enacted stigma may strengthen social support for people living with HIV. Improved social support may in turn have a protective influence against future enacted and internalized stigma. PMID:24500077
Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong
The current study examined whether gender, HIV-related stigma, social support, and the interaction between gender and social support are associated with coping responses among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Guangxi, China. A total of 2987 PLWHA in Guangxi participated from October 2012 to August 2013. Multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and social support as main factors in the model, and stigma and other variables as covariates. After controlling for demographic variables and stigma, there were significant main effects of emotional social support (F = 1.61, p social support (F = 1.67, p social support (F = 3.67, p social support (F = 1.33, p social support differences in the coping strategies among PLWHA in Guangxi, China.
Pedersen, Susanne S.; Spinder, Helle; Erdman, Ruud A M
Social support is a known buffer of psychological distress and has also been shown to influence adverse medical outcomes.......Social support is a known buffer of psychological distress and has also been shown to influence adverse medical outcomes....
Cole, Duncan; Rengasamy, Emma; Batchelor, Shafqat; Pope, Charles; Riley, Stephen; Cunningham, Anne Marie
Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.
Full Text Available This article discusses a business-school collaborative learning partnership in the Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD in Greater Sendai. This partnership is further linked to a broader context of multi-stakeholder public participation in the RCE that was set up to advance the ESD agenda in the region. The authors propose a conceptual framework for multi-stakeholder, ESD-based social learning within the RCE with the aim of enabling the creation of a sustainability-literate society. This proposal is based on the results of students’ prior experience in ESD activities, optimal age for ESD learning and future job choices presented in this paper, together with a reported article that the levels of sustainability of the two sectoral organizations were mixed and hence need improvement. The paper argues that it will be good to focus on bridging the business and education sectors by building ESD capacity of the children and youth in the formal education sector. It contends this could be done through collaborative learning using the government-mandated “Period of Integrated Studies” (PIS in the Japanese primary and secondary school curriculum. Additionally, it will be appropriate for the RCE Greater Sendai Steering Committee to facilitate and coordinate the learning processes and also promote networking and cooperative interactions among the actors and stakeholders in the region. Recommendations for improvement of the learning partnerships in RCE Greater Sendai are made for consideration at the local and national policy levels.
SHOK HONG OOI
Many young people interact and thus receive and communicate social support over the online world, particularly through Facebook. This paper focuses on how Malaysian university students perceived social support over Facebook. More specifically, this study focuses on how perceived social support influence university students’ life satisfaction. Participants were 800 university students from southern of Malaysia (178 male and 622 female). The finding showed that social support is related to univ...
Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D
Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.
Gerhart, James I; Asvat, Yasmin; Lillis, Teresa A; Fung, Henry; Grosse, Johanna; Hobfoll, Stevan E
Social support and its relationship to psychological distress are of interest in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as patients are dependent on caregivers pre-, during, and posttransplant. Although social support is critical for managing stress and trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may erode social support and evoke conflict and abandonment within the support system. This study aimed to evaluate whether PTSS were associated with lower support and social conflict in a sample of patients undergoing HSCT. Prospective relationships between PTSS, perceived social support, and social conflict were assessed in 88 participants across the first three months of HSCT (T0 Baseline; T1 +30; T2 +60; T3 +90). When individuals experienced increase above their own average levels of PTSS, they reported concurrent increase in social conflict (p social support in the following month (p = .026). Results suggest PTSS during stem cell transplantation may evoke social conflict, but over time, the support system may recalibrate to be more supportive. Patients undergoing HSCT may benefit from family and social-level interventions that specifically target the incidence of interpersonal conflict as it unfolds during the initial stages of HSCT.
Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.
Nätterlund, B; Ahlström, G
The progressive muscular weakness brought on by muscular dystrophy causes the sufferer many problems in everyday life. Earlier studies in Sweden have shown that adults with hereditary muscular dystrophy often have difficulty in gaining access to rehabilitation. For this reason a special rehabilitation programme was drawn up and carried out, extending over a period of 18 months. The purpose of the study is to describe the participants' experience of social support in connection with the programme. Thirty-seven participants (21 women and 16 men) were interviewed. The analytical method was phenomenological, incorporating validation by independent judges. Nine overall themes emerged from the interviews: psychosocial support, meeting other people with muscular dystrophy, knowledge and learning, adjustment in daily life, coping with illness-related problems, adjustment at work, management of physical disability, medical examination and treatment, and involvement of relatives. The results indicate that the participants encountered staff with a sense of commitment and felt themselves to be 'seen and confirmed'. From the discussions and the contact with others in the same situation there arises a sense of affinity and a better understanding of one's own situation. There was appreciation of the education about the disease, its hereditary aspect, technical aids, grants and physical training. Hardly any of the participants spoke of knowing such things before. In conclusion there was approval of the received support, and recognition that persons with muscular dystrophy should be given access to recurrent rehabilitation.
Harris, J. Irene; Moritzen, Sara K.; Robitschek, Christine; Imhoff, Anne; Lynch, Jonathan L. A.
Assesses the relative contributions of social support and interest-occupation congruence in job satisfaction and tenure. Congruence predicted 13% of the variance in job satisfaction for men while social support accounted for 10% of the variance in job satisfaction for women. Neither congruence nor social support predicted tenure. (Contains 35…
Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Dong, Yue; Branscum, Paul
International students are challenged due to the abrupt change in social support. The purpose of this study was to operationalize different sources of social support and evaluate determinants of mental health among international students (n = 328). An instrument was developed to measure four distinct sources of social support. Repeated measures…
Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, van C.; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, van W.A.
Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical
Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, C. van; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, W.A. van
Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
van den Berg, Joost W.; Verberg, Christel P. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
CONTEXT Social support helps prevent burnout and promotes its positive opposite, work engagement. With higher work engagement performance increases. The context-specific aspects of social support for medical educators, in their educator role, are unknown. To help facilitate social support our study
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
van den Berg, Joost W.; Verberg, Christel P. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Social support helps prevent burnout and promotes its positive opposite, work engagement. With higher work engagement performance increases. The context-specific aspects of social support for medical educators, in their educator role, are unknown. To help facilitate social support our study
Scheiber, IBR; Weiss, BM; Frigerio, D; Kotrschal, K
In general, support by social allies may reduce stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. Social support was mainly known from mammals, particularly primates, and has been studied in birds only recently. Basically two types are known: (i) 'active social support',
Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.
The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Full Text Available To determine the influence of social support on cognitive impairment among elderly Malaysians. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted using a representative sample for Penang, Malaysia. The Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ was used to screen for cognitive impairment and Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3 was used to measure social support.
Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.
Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…
Conclusion: Patients who receive more family social support, are more willing to say about their problem to other peoples, and use condom more frequently than other patients in their sexual activities. Since the majority of the studied patients received weak social support, it is recommended to improve and promote their social support by informing and educating their families.
Boerjan, Martine; Bluyssen, Simone J M; Bleichrodt, Robert P; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; van Goor, Harry
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of job-related autonomy and social support provided by consultants and colleagues on the stress-related health complaints of surgical residents in the Netherlands. All (n = 400) Dutch residents in training in general surgery were sent validated self-report questionnaires. Odds ratios were calculated predicting health and exposure to long-term stress for gender, number of working hours, type of hospital, level of social support, job-related autonomy and training phase. The interactions between job-related autonomy and level of social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and all variables, were analysed. A total of 254 of 400 (64%) residents returned questionnaires that were eligible for analysis. Residents experienced more health complaints than the average member of the Dutch working population (4.0 versus 2.5; p = 0.000). Male and senior residents were significantly 'healthier' than female and junior residents, respectively. Social support by consultants was a strong predictor of health and social support by colleagues showed a significant interaction with gender. Women and residents in university hospitals experienced less social support by consultants than men and residents in general teaching hospitals. Residents working in university hospitals experienced lower levels of job-related autonomy and less support from colleagues in comparison with those working in general teaching hospitals. A working week of > 60 hours adversely affected health and job-related autonomy. Social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and job control, are important factors that interact with the work-associated, stress-related health of residents in training in general surgery. Residents report a greater number of health complaints than the average member of the working population, especially female and junior residents. General teaching hospitals seem to provide better support at work than