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Sample records for greater smoking abstinence

  1. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

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    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Withdrawal-Related Changes in Delay Discounting Predict Short-Term Smoking Abstinence.

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    Miglin, Rickie; Kable, Joseph W; Bowers, Maureen E; Ashare, Rebecca L

    2017-06-01

    Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence). During each visit, participants completed measures of time perception, decision making (ie, discount rates), craving, and withdrawal. Following the second laboratory session, subjects underwent a well-validated model of short-term abstinence (quit week) with small monetary incentives for each day of biochemically confirmed abstinence. Smokers significantly overestimated time during abstinence, compared to smoking-as-usual (p = .021), but there were no abstinence effects on discount rates (p = .6). During the quit week, subjects were abstinent for 3.5 days (SD = 2.15) and smoked a total of 12.9 cigarettes (SD = 15.8). Importantly, higher discount rates (ie, preferences for immediate rewards) during abstinence (abstinence minus smoking difference score) predicted greater number of days abstinent (p = .01) and fewer cigarettes smoked during the quit week (p = .02). Withdrawal-related change in time reproduction did not predict relapse (p = .2). These data suggest that individuals who have a greater preference for immediate rewards during abstinence (vs. smoking-as-usual) may be more successful at maintaining short-term abstinence when provided with frequent (eg, daily) versus less frequent incentive schedules (eg, 1 month). Abstinence-induced changes in decision making may be important for identifying smokers who may benefit from interventions that incentivize abstinence such as contingency management (CM). The present results

  3. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers.......Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  4. Contingency management for college student smokers: The role of drinking as a moderator and mediator of smoking abstinence during treatment.

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    Cassidy, Rachel N; Jackson, Kristina M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Tevyaw, Tracy O' L; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Miller, Mollie E; Colby, Suzanne M

    2018-05-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective for promoting smoking abstinence; however, moderators and mediators of CM treatment efficacy in young adult populations are under-explored. We leveraged fine-grained data from a large randomized controlled trial: 1) to determine whether early attainment of sustained abstinence mediated the effect of treatment on abstinence; 2) to test whether heavy drinking moderated the effect of treatment on abstinence; and 3) to test a serial mediation model of the effects of drinking during early treatment on sustained smoking abstinence. College student smokers (N=110) were randomized to receive either CM treatment or noncontingent reinforcement (NR) over a 21-day treatment period. All participants received $5 for providing twice-daily breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. In CM, additional money was provided for samples that indicated smoking reduction (Initial Phase; first 7days), and for samples ≤5ppm (Abstinence Phase; following 14days). CM treatment led to greater sustained abstinence relative to NR. Longer sustained abstinence in the Initial Phase partially mediated the effect of treatment on sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. Heavier pretreatment drinkers had shorter periods of sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase; this effect was greater in CM. A serial mediation model determined that increased drinking during the Initial Phase led to decreased sustained abstinence, which then led to decreased sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. These data provide a greater understanding of how heavy drinking and early sustained abstinence may affect success during treatment in young adults undergoing contingency management treatment for smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

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    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F J; Donny, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p reward. These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

  6. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

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    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media.

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    Tamersoy, Acar; De Choudhury, Munmun; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-09-01

    Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported "badge" information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy.

  8. Anterior insula activation during inhibition to smoking cues is associated with ability to maintain tobacco abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M. Gilman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n = 22 and non-smoking controls (CON; n = 19 completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. Following the scan session, smokers were required to quit smoking, and maintenance of abstinence was evaluated as part of a 12-week smoking cessation trial. We evaluated pre-cessation brain activity during NoGo trials in smokers who were versus were not able to quit smoking. We then compared fMRI and inhibitory control measures between smokers and non-smokers. We did not find differences between SMK and CON in performance or activation to smoking or neutral cues. However, compared to SMK who relapsed, SMK who attained biochemically-validated abstinence at the end of the smoking cessation trial had greater neural activation in the anterior insula during NoGo trials specifically with smoking-related cues. Results indicate that within SMK, decreased inhibitory control activation during direct exposure to drug-related stimuli may be a marker of difficulty quitting and relapse vulnerability. Keywords: Smoking cessation, Tobacco, fMRI, Insula, Cue, Relapse, Anterior cingulate cortex, ACC

  9. Probing the Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Acute Smoking Abstinence on Drug and Nondrug Reinforcement During a Cognitive Task.

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    Schlienz, Nicolas J; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-06-01

    Smoking abstinence is theorized to increase smoking reinforcement and decrease nondrug reinforcement. A separate literature demonstrates the detrimental effects of abstinence on cognition. The present study integrates these two areas by examining the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and smoking abstinence on behavior and a neurophysiological index of response monitoring (ie, error-related negativity [ERN]) during a cognitive task. After a screening visit, adult smokers attended two laboratory visits, once while smoking and once while abstinent. Participants completed a flanker task under cigarette-, money-, and no-reinforcement conditions. The initial 15 participants had an easier reaction time (RT) requirement; to ensure sufficient error rates for ERN computation, a harder RT deadline was employed for the remaining 21 participants. Smoking abstinence reduced speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude only among participants tested with the harder RT deadline. Cigarette and money reinforcement each increased speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude compared to no reinforcement. The effect of cigarette reinforcement tended to be greater during abstinence for speeded accuracy but not the ERN. The effect of money reinforcement was unaffected by abstinence. The impact of smoking abstinence on reinforcement may depend on task demands. However, the effects of cigarette and money reinforcement generalize well from operant paradigms to cognitive tasks, fostering integration between the two literatures. Results provided modest evidence of abstinence-induced increases in smoking reinforcement; the absence of abstinence-induced reductions in nondrug reinforcement is consistent with recent work in suggesting that such effects are limited to a subset of sensory reinforcers. This study draws attention to the need for greater integration of reinforcement and cognition to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to smoking relapse. Results emphasize thoughtful

  10. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers.

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    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E

    2018-09-01

    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abstinence

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    ... Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abstinence KidsHealth / For Teens / Abstinence Print en español La abstinencia sexual What Is It? Abstinence is not having sex. A person who decides to practice abstinence has ...

  12. Use of an online smoking cessation community promotes abstinence: Results of propensity score weighting.

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    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A

    2015-12-01

    We estimated the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Participants (N = 492) were adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a Web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: "None," "Passive," and "Both" (passive + active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Patterns of community use were: None = 198 (40.2%), Passive = 110 (22.4%), and Both = 184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None = 4.2% (95% CI = 1.5-6.9); Passive = 15.1% (95% CI = 8.4-21.9); Both = 20.4% (95% CI = 13.9-26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Exercise attenuates negative effects of abstinence during 72 hours of smoking deprivation.

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    Conklin, Cynthia A; Soreca, Isabella; Kupfer, David J; Cheng, Yu; Salkeld, Ronald P; Mumma, Joel M; Jakicic, John M; Joyce, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Exercise is presumed to be a potentially helpful smoking cessation adjunct reputed to attenuate the negative effects of deprivation. The present study examined the effectiveness of moderate within-session exercise to reduce 4 key symptoms of smoking deprivation during 3 72-hr nicotine abstinence blocks in both male and female smokers. Forty-nine (25 male, 24 female) sedentary smokers abstained from smoking for 3 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions. At each session, smokers' abstinence-induced craving, cue-induced craving, negative mood, and withdrawal symptom severity were assessed prior to and after either exercise (a.m. exercise, p.m. exercise) or a sedentary control activity (magazine reading). Abstinence-induced craving and negative mood differed as a function of condition, F(2, 385) = 21, p exercise, but exercise overall led to greater pre-post reduction in abstinence-induced craving, t(385) = 6.23, p exercise also led to a larger pre-post reduction in cue-induced craving in response to smoking cues, F(2, 387) = 8.94, p = .0002; and withdrawal severity, F(2, 385) = 3.8, p = .02. Unlike the other 3 measures, p.m. exercise reduced withdrawal severity over control, t(385) = 2.64, p = .009, d = 0.27, whereas a.m. exercise did not. The results support the clinical potential of exercise to assist smokers in managing common and robust negative symptoms experienced during the first 3 days of abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Randomized Trial of Adjunct mHealth Abstinence Reinforcement With Transdermal Nicotine and Counseling for Smoking Cessation.

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    Alessi, Sheila M; Rash, Carla J; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    Abstinence reinforcement is efficacious for improving smoking treatment outcomes, but practical constraints related to the need for multiple in-person carbon monoxide (CO) breath tests daily to verify smoking abstinence have limited its use. This study tested an mHealth procedure to remotely monitor and reinforce smoking abstinence in individuals' natural environment. Eligible treatment-seeking smokers (N = 90) were randomized to (1) usual care and ecological monitoring with abstinence reinforcement (mHealth reinforcement) or (2) without reinforcement (mHealth monitoring). Usual care was 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine and twice-weekly telephone counseling. Following training, an interactive voice response system prompted participants to conduct CO tests 1-3 daily at pseudorandom times (7 am to 10 pm) for 4 weeks. When prompted, participants used a study cell phone and CO monitor to complete a CO self-test, video record the process, and submit videos using multimedia messaging. mHealth reinforcement participants could earn prizes for smoking-negative on-time CO tests. The interactive voice response generated preliminary earnings immediately. Earnings were finalized by comparing video records against participants' self-reports. mHealth reinforcement was associated with a greater proportion of smoking-negative CO tests, longest duration of prolonged abstinence, and point-prevalence abstinence during the monitoring/reinforcement phase compared to mHealth monitoring (p mHealth reinforcement has short-term efficacy. Research on methods to enhance and sustain benefits is needed. This study suggests that mHealth abstinence reinforcement is efficacious and may present temporal and spatial opportunities to research, engage, and support smokers trying to quit that do not exist with conventional (not technology-based) reinforcement interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  15. Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of hospital-initiated smoking interventions.

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    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Rigotti, Nancy A; Cummins, Sharon E; Harrington, Kathleen F; Sherman, Scott E; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Tindle, Hilary A; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictors of failed biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence among participants enrolled in trials of hospital-initiated smoking cessation interventions. Comparison of characteristics between participants who verified and those who failed to verify self-reported abstinence. Multi-site randomized clinical trials conducted between 2010 and 2014 in hospitals throughout the United States. Recently hospitalized smokers who reported tobacco abstinence 6 months post-randomization and provided a saliva sample for verification purposes (n = 822). Outcomes were salivary cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at 10 and 15 ng/ml cut-points. Predictors and correlates included participant demographics and tobacco use; hospital diagnoses and treatment; and study characteristics collected via surveys and electronic medical records. Usable samples were returned by 69.8% of the 1178 eligible trial participants who reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence. The proportion of participants verified as quit was 57.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 54.4, 61.2; 10 ng/ml cut-off] or 60.6% (95% CI = 57.2, 63.9; 15 ng/ml). Factors associated independently with verification at 10 ng/ml were education beyond high school education [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.11], continuous abstinence since hospitalization (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 2.02, 3.94), mailed versus in-person sample (OR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.96, 5.21) and race. African American participants were less likely to verify abstinence than white participants (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.93). Findings were similar for verification at 15 ng/ml. Verification rates did not differ by treatment group. In the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Withdrawal symptoms upon a short motivational 26-hour smoking abstinence program in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Keizer

    2018-03-01

    Results are at odds with usual observations of increased discomfort associated with smoke deprivation and suggest that mental health patients may tolerate short abstinence periods, without worsening of their mental health condition. Although not systematically observed, craving may remain an obstacle for a subgroup of patients. We hypothesize that behavioural associations, habits and environmental factors could be more important obstacles when stopping smoking than usual withdrawal effects. _________ *Keizer, I., Gex-Fabry, M., Croquette, P. and Khan, A. N. (2016. A Short Motivational Program Based on Temporary Smoking Abstinence: Towards Increased Self-Efficacy to Quit in Psychiatric Inpatients . Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 7:4.

  18. Employment characteristics and socioeconomic factors associated with disparities in smoking abstinence and former smoking among U.S. workers.

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    Fagan, Pebbles; Shavers, Vickie L; Lawrence, Deirdre; Gibson, James Todd; O'Connell, Mary E

    2007-11-01

    This study examines the associations among employment and socioeconomic factors and the outcomes, current smoking, cigarette abstinence and former smoking among adult U.S. workers ages 18-64 (n=288,813). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations among the variables using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Lower odds of current smoking was observed among part-time workers compared to those working variable hours and multiple job holders compared to persons holding one job. The self-employed, part-time workers and multiple job holders had higher odds of former smoking than comparison groups. Employment factors were not associated with short-term abstinence or 12-month abstinence from smoking, but income, education, marital status, and duration of smoking were associated with 12-month abstinence. These data suggest that while employment factors are associated with current and former smoking, socioeconomic factors are associated with long-term quitting.

  19. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

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    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

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    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  1. The Role of BMI Change on Smoking Abstinence in a Sample of HIV-Infected Smokers

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    Gritz, Ellen R.; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI=1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI=1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  2. Working Memory Deficits Predict Short-term Smoking Resumption Following Brief Abstinence*

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    Patterson, Freda; Jepson, Christopher; Loughead, James; Perkins, Kenneth; Strasser, Andrew A.; Siegel, Steven; Frey, Joseph; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-01-01

    As many as one-half of smokers relapse in the first week following a quit attempt, and subjective reports of cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. This study examined whether objective cognitive performance after three days of abstinence predicts smoking resumption in a 7-day simulated quit attempt. Sixty-seven treatment-seeking smokers received either varenicline or placebo (randomized double-blind) for 21 days. Following medication run-up (days 1-10), there was a 3-day mandatory (biochemically confirmed) abstinence period (days 11-13) during which working memory (Letter-N-Back Task) and sustained attention (Continuous Performance Task) were assessed (day 13). Participants were then exposed to a scheduled smoking lapse and instructed to try to remain abstinent for the next 7 days (days 15-21). Poorer cognitive performance (slower correct reaction time on Letter-N-Back task) during abstinence predicted more rapid smoking resumption among those receiving placebo (p=.038) but not among those receiving varenicline. These data lend further support for the growing recognition that cognitive deficits involving working memory are a core symptom of nicotine withdrawal and a potential target for the development of pharmacological and behavioral treatments. PMID:19733449

  3. A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ward

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants’ attempts to understand customers’ smoking preferences in order to: (i tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users. At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Sarah; Holland, Richard; Notley, Caitlin

    2018-01-01

    E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants’ attempts to understand customers’ smoking preferences in order to: (i) tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii) offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users). At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking. PMID:29425117

  5. The theory of planned behavior as applied to preoperative smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Ehlers, Shawna; Warner, David O

    2014-01-01

    Abstinence from smoking on the morning of surgery may improve outcomes. This study examined the explicatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior on the morning of surgery, testing the hypothesis that the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) will predict intent to abstain from smoking the morning of surgery, and that intent will predict behavior. TPB constructs were assessed in 169 pre-surgical patients. Smoking behavior on the morning of surgery was assessed by self-report and CO monitoring. Correlations and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to determine associations between measures and behavior. All TPB measures, including intent as predicted by the TPB, were correlated with both a lower rate of self-reported smoking on the morning of surgery and lower CO levels. The SEM showed a good fit to the data. In the SEM, attitude and PBC, but not subjective norm, were significantly associated with intent to abstain, explaining 46% of variance. The effect of PBC on CO levels was partially mediated by intent. The amount of variance in behavior explained by these TPB constructs was modest (10% for CO levels). Thus, attitude and perceived behavioral control explain a substantial portion of the intent to maintain preoperative abstinence on the morning of elective surgery, and intent and perceived behavioral control explain a more modest but significant amount of the variance in actual smoking behavior. Clinical Trials.gov registration: NCT01014455.

  6. A measure of smoking abstinence-related motivational engagement: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani N; Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on measuring motivation and readiness to quit smoking, little research has assessed gross motivational changes after a smoker has made an attempt to quit smoking. Unlike previous single-item global measures of motivation to remain abstinent, we developed the abstinence-related motivational engagement (ARME) scale to evaluate the degree to which abstinence motivation is reflected by an ex-smoker's daily experience in areas that include cognitive effort, priority, vigilance, and excitement. The aim of this study was to collect reliability and initial construct validity data on this new measure. Participants were 199 ex-smokers recruited from the community and smoking cessation Web sites. Participants completed online measures including a global motivation measure, the ARME scale, demographic questionnaire, and a measure of cessation self-efficacy. The 16-item ARME questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89). Analyses provided support for convergent, discriminant, and construct validity of the scale. ARME demonstrated the predicted correlation with a traditional measure of global cessation motivation, yet, also as predicted, only the ARME was negatively associated with length of abstinence. Moreover, as hypothesized, ex-smokers engaged in the quitting process via ongoing smoking Web site participation showed higher ARME scores than a comparison community sample. A five-item short form demonstrated similar psychometric properties. This study provided initial support for the ARME construct and offers two versions of a reliable instrument for assessing this construct. Future research will examine the ARME as a predictor of cessation outcome and a potential target for relapse prevention.

  7. Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; West, Robert; Bulgiba, Awang; Shahab, Lion

    2011-02-01

    Much is known about the predictors of success in quitting smoking. In particular, nicotine dependence, but not strength of motivation to stop, appears to predict abstinence. However, to date, studies have come almost exclusively from Western countries. More data are needed on the cross-cultural generalizability of these findings. One hundred and ninety-eight smokers attending 5 stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia completed a questionnaire prior to their target quit date and were followed up 3 months after this date. Predictors included sociodemographic variables, smoking patterns, past history of quitting, characteristics of current quit attempt, and smoking motives as well as nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND]) and self-rated strength of motivation of stop. At 3-month follow-up, 35.4% (95% CI: 28.7-42.0) of participants reported being abstinent. A backward elimination multiple logistic regression identified a number of significant predictors of success, including strength of motivation to stop (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28-7.25). FTND did not predict success. Motivation and nicotine dependence may play different roles in explaining variation in ability to stop smoking in different cultures.

  8. Effects of exercise on the desire to smoke and physiological responses to temporary smoking abstinence: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Gant, Nicholas; Sollers, John J; Bullen, Chris; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Exercise has been shown to attenuate cigarette cravings during temporary smoking abstinence; however, the mechanisms of action are not clearly understood. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of three exercise intensities on desire to smoke and explore potential neurobiological mediators of desire to smoke. Following overnight abstinence, 40 participants (25 males, 18-59 years) completed three 15 min sessions of light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer in a randomized crossover design. Ratings of desire to smoke were self-reported pre- and post-exercise and heart rate variability was measured throughout. Saliva and blood were analyzed for cortisol and noradrenaline in a sub-sample. Exercise influenced desire to smoke (F [2, 91] = 7.94, p exercise. There were also significant time x exercise intensity interaction effects for heart rate variability and plasma noradrenaline (F [8, 72] = 2.23, p = 0.03), with a bias in noradrenaline occurring between light and vigorous conditions (adjusted mean difference [SE] = 2850 ng/ml [592], p exercise. There was no interaction of time x exercise intensity for plasma and salivary cortisol levels. These findings support the use of vigorous exercise to reduce cigarette cravings, showing potential alterations in a noradrenergic marker.

  9. Anxiety and depressed mood decline following smoking abstinence in adult smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point - prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Results Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (p<0.001). Depressed mood was lower for abstainers than non-abstainers at Week 1 (p<0.05), but no longer at Week 6 (p=0.83). Treatment with OROS-MPH relative to placebo showed significant reductions at Week 6 after TQD for both anxiety (p<0.05) and depressed mood (p<0.001), but not at Week 1. Differential abstinence effects of gender were observed. Anxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Conclusion Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. PMID:26272693

  10. A contingent payment model of smoking cessation: effects on abstinence and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Tidey, Jennifer W; Holmes, Heather W; Badger, Gary J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to characterize nicotine withdrawal during a 5-day period in which smokers who were not trying to quit were offered monetary incentives to abstain while residing in their usual environments. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. In two groups, monetary payment was delivered contingent on breath carbon monoxide levels (CO< or =8 ppm) indicating recent smoking abstinence, with the amount of payment differing between the two groups. The third group was a control group in which payment was delivered independent of smoking status. Participants provided CO samples three times per day (morning, afternoon- and evening) for 5 days (Monday-Friday). At each evening visit, all participants completed a nicotine withdrawal questionnaire and other questionnaires. Contingent payment significantly decreased expired-air CO and salivary cotinine levels as compared with the control group. No significant differences in abstinence were noted as a function of the amount paid. Participants in both contingent payment groups reported significantly more withdrawal symptoms than those in the noncontingent control group, including increases in anxiety and nervousness, impatience and restlessness, hunger, and desire to smoke. Such contingent payment procedures may provide an effective method for studying nicotine withdrawal in smokers that does not require the costly and inconvenient practice of housing research participants on a closed ward to prevent smoking.

  11. Smoking abstinence 1 year after acute coronary syndrome: follow-up from a randomized controlled trial of varenicline in patients admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Sarah B; Dehghani, Payam; Roy, Nathalie; Old, Wayne; Grondin, François R; Bata, Iqbal; Iskander, Ayman; Lauzon, Claude; Srivastava, Nalin; Clarke, Adam; Cassavar, Daniel; Dion, Danielle; Haught, Herbert; Mehta, Shamir R; Baril, Jean-François; Lambert, Charles; Madan, Mina; Abramson, Beth L; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2018-03-26

    Patients who continue to smoke after acute coronary syndrome are at increased risk of reinfarction and death. We previously found use of varenicline to increase abstinence 24 weeks after acute coronary syndrome; here we report results through 52 weeks. The EVITA trial was a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive varenicline or placebo for 12 weeks, in conjunction with low-intensity counselling. Smoking abstinence was assessed via 7-day recall, with biochemical validation using exhaled carbon monoxide. Participants lost to follow-up or withdrawn were assumed to have returned to smoking. Among the 302 participants, abstinence declined over the course of the trial, with 34.4% abstinent 52 weeks after acute coronary syndrome. Compared with placebo, point estimates suggest use of varenicline increased point-prevalence abstinence (39.9% v. 29.1%, difference 10.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01% to 21.44%; number needed to treat 10), continuous abstinence (31.1% v. 21.2%, difference 9.9%, 95% CI -0.01% to 19.8%) and reduction in daily cigarette smoking by 50% or greater (57.8% v. 49.7%, difference 8.1%, 95% CI -3.1% to 19.4%). Varenicline and placebo groups had similar occurrence of serious adverse events (24.5% v. 21.9%, risk difference 2.7%, 95% CI -7.3% to 12.6%) and major adverse cardiovascular events (8.6% v. 9.3%, risk difference -0.7%, 95% CI -7.8% to 6.5%). Varenicline was efficacious for smoking cessation in this high-risk patient population. However, 60% of patients who received treatment with varenicline still returned to smoking. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00794573. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  12. [Wound healing complications in smokers, non-smokers and after abstinence from smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, O; Kapalschinski, N; Skorzinski, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Homann, H H; Muehlberger, T

    2012-07-01

    The pulmonary and cardiovascular ramifications of smoking are well documented and this also applies to increased wound healing complications in smokers. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether preoperatively refraining from smoking would affect the incidence of wound healing disorders. Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 295 patients underwent aesthetic (n = 167) or reconstructive surgery (n = 128). They were divided into three groups: A (n = 98) non-smokers for at least 2 years, B (n = 99) patients who refrained from smoking 6 weeks prior to surgery and C (n = 98) smokers. Smoking abstinence was verified by cotinine tests. Wound healing complications were defined as dehiscent wounds, wound infections, atypical scar formation and adiponecrosis. Smokers developed wound healing complications in 48.2% of cases, non-smokers in 21.0% and patients who had stopped smoking for 6 weeks in 30.8% of cases (p = 0.006). Elective surgery should only be performed on non-smokers and smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 6 weeks to reduce wound healing complications as far as possible.

  13. Predictors of lapse in first week of smoking abstinence in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; Dedert, Eric A

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective research suggests smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) lapse more quickly after their quit date. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research is needed to confirm the presence of early smoking lapse in PTSD and form conceptualizations that inform intervention. Smokers with (n = 55) and without (n = 52) PTSD completed alarm-prompted EMA of situational and psychiatric variables the week before and after a quit date, and self-initiated EMA following smoking lapses. Blood samples at baseline and on the quit date allowed assessment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA(S)). PTSD was related to shorter time to lapse (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.106-2.544). Increased smoking abstinence self-efficacy was related to longer time to lapse (HR = 0.608, 95% CI: 0.430-0.860). Analyses of participants' real-time reports revealed that smokers with PTSD were more likely to attribute first-time lapses to negative affect ( = 5.412, p = .020), and trauma reminders (Fisher's exact p = .003**). Finally, the quit date decrease in DHEA(S) was related to shorter time to lapse (HR = 1.009, 95% CI: 1.000-1.018, p smoking lapse in PTSD, and add to evidence that early lapse occasions are more strongly related to trauma reminders, negative affect, and cravings in smokers with PTSD.

  14. Behavioral and neural markers of cigarette-craving regulation in young-adult smokers during abstinence and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Faulkner, Paul; M Cox, Chelsea; London, Edythe D

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette craving contributes substantially to the maintenance of tobacco use disorder. Behavioral strategies to regulate craving may facilitate smoking cessation but remain underexplored. We adapted an emotion-regulation strategy, using proximal/distal self-positioning, to the context of cigarette craving to examine craving regulation in 42, daily smokers (18-25 years old). After overnight abstinence from smoking, before and after smoking their first cigarette of the day, participants viewed videos of natural scenes presenting young adults who were either smoking cigarettes ("smoke") or not ("non-smoke"). Before each video, participants were instructed to imagine themselves either immersed in the scene ("close") or distanced from it ("far"). They rated their craving after each video. Task-based fMRI data are presented for a subsample of participants (N = 21). We found main effects of smoking, instruction, and video type on craving-lower ratings after smoking than before, following the "far" vs. "close" instructions, and when viewing non-smoke vs. smoke videos. Before smoking, "smoke" vs. "non-smoke" videos elicited activation in, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, mid-occipital cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, and midbrain. Smoking reduced activation in anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal poles. Activation was reduced in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex after the "far" vs. the "close" instruction, suggesting less engagement with the stimuli during distancing. The results indicate that proximal/distal regulation strategies impact cue-elicited craving, potentially via downregulation of the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, and that smoking during abstinence may increase cognitive control capacity during craving regulation.

  15. Effects of resistance exercise on the HPA axis response to psychological stress during short-term smoking abstinence in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Vingren, Jakob L; Fragala, Maren S; Flanagan, Shawn D; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Szivak, Tunde K; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to mental challenge, withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, and cognitive stress during 24-hour smoking abstinence. 8 sedentary smokers (mean±SD age: 20.1±1.7y; height: 171.6±10.8cm; body mass: 70.4±12.0kg; smoking history: 2.9±0.8y) completed a 24-hour ad libitum smoking trial (SMO) followed by two 24-hour smoking abstinence trials. During abstinence trials, participants performed six whole body resistance exercises (EX) or a control condition (CON) in the morning, followed by mental challenge tasks in the afternoon. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and salivary and serum cortisol were measured during each visit at rest (REST), and then before (PRE-EX), immediately after (IP-EX), and 30min after exercise (30-EX); and before (PRE-MC), immediately after (IP-MC), and 30min after mental challenge (30-MC). Resistance exercise significantly (p≤0.05) elevated plasma ACTH and serum cortisol at IP-EX during EX compared with SMO and CON trials. Resting ACTH, salivary and serum cortisol concentrations at Pre-MC did not differ between EX and CON trials. The HPA axis response to mental challenge was similar after EX and CON trials. Finally, resistance exercise did not reduce withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, or stress. Resistance exercise did not substantially alter resting HPA hormones or the HPA response to mental challenge tasks during 24h of smoking abstinence. © 2013.

  16. Smoking and periodontal disease in pregnancy: Another chance for permanent smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of publications confirm the association between periodontitis and general health. It is widely accepted that maternal periodontitis is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and preterm low birth weight (<2500 g. These risks increase further in women who smoke. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlations between periodontitis, smoking and adverse pregnancy outcomes and to emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary approach among health professionals (e.g. gynecologists/obstetricians, family physicians, dentists, periodontists and nurses in order to reduce such risks. Pregnancy is an ideal time for permanent smoking cessation. This condition provides an important 'teachable moment' to motivate smokers to change behavior that increases health risks for both fetus/infant and mother.

  17. Greater gains from smoke-free legislation for non-smoking bar staff in Belfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Finian; Devlin, Anne; McElwee, Gerry; Gavin, Anna

    2009-12-01

    In April 2007, smoke-free legislation was enacted in workplaces throughout N. Ireland. The effects of this legislation on bar workers' health and their exposure to second-hand smoke at home, work and social environment, and their attitudes to the legislation before and after its implementation remain to be documented. A self-completed questionnaire of bar staff in 35 Belfast bars, before (March 2007, n = 110) and after the legislation (July 2007, n = 110). Smokers (excluding 'social smokers') made up 41.6% of respondents. After the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, the reductions in the proportion of bar workers reporting various respiratory symptoms ranged from 1.3% to 18.6% for smokers and from 21.9% to 33.2% for non-smokers. Likewise, the reductions for various sensory symptoms ranged from 7.3% to 17.7% for smokers and from 29.6% to 46.8% for non-smokers. Reduction in wheeze, cough and throat symptoms after the legislation were much greater for non-smokers than smokers. The proportion of bar staff who reported satisfaction with the legislation remained unchanged across the surveys. Decreases in perceived exposure to second-hand smoke occurred at work, home and in social settings. After the legislation's enactment, a majority of bar workers felt the workplace was healthier (98%). These first findings show reduced reported symptoms among bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers, after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in N. Ireland, though greater among non-smokers. There was also a reported fall in the hours of second-hand smoke exposure in the home for this group of workers which has a high prevalence of smokers.

  18. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  19. Financial incentives for smoking cessation among depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women: effects on smoking abstinence and depression ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether pregnant and newly postpartum smokers at risk for postpartum depression respond to an incentive-based smoking-cessation treatment and how the intervention impacts depression ratings. This study is a secondary data analysis. Participants (N = 289; data collected 2001-2013) were smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in 4 controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Women were assigned either to an intervention wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on abstaining from smoking or to a control condition wherein they received vouchers of comparable value independent of smoking status. Treatments were provided antepartum through 12-weeks postpartum. Depression ratings (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-1A) were examined across 7 antepartum/postpartum assessments. Women who reported a history of prior depression or who had BDI scores ≥ 17 at the start of prenatal care were categorized as depression-prone (Dep+), while those meeting neither criterion were categorized as depression-negative (Dep-). The intervention increased smoking abstinence independent of depression status (p postpartum BDI ratings as well as the proportion of women scoring in the clinical range (≥17 and >21) compared with the control treatment (ps ≤ .05). Treatment effects on depression ratings were attributable to changes in Dep+ women. These results demonstrate that depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women respond well to this incentive-based smoking-cessation intervention in terms of achieving abstinence, and the intervention also reduces the severity of postpartum depression ratings in this at-risk population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparison of two approaches in achieving smoking abstinence among patients in an outpatient clinic: a phase 2 randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Yan Ho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Having a disease and requiring medical attention present an excellent 'teachable moment' for smoking cessation interventions. However, nicotine is addictive and quitting is difficult, with a high rate of relapse, particularly among chronic smokers. Our previous smoking cessation projects in the community have revealed that many smokers who are reluctant to quit are interested in reducing the number of cigarettes they smoke per day. Therefore, smoking reduction may be an important alternative strategy for promoting smoking cessation. This Phase 2 randomized controlled trial of smokers who had medical follow-ups in an outpatient clinic compared the effectiveness of two approaches to smoking cessation: quitting immediately and cutting down to quit. Methods A total of 100 subjects were randomized into two groups, 50 in the quit immediately group, who received an intervention on abruptly quitting, and 50 in the cut down to quit group, who received an intervention on gradual reduction. All subjects were followed up at 6 and 12 months via telephone, and their smoking status was assessed. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence of abstinence at 6 and 12 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was employed. Results On average, subjects had smoked 11.31 cigarettes per day over 37 years and 96% had mild nicotine dependence. At the 6-month follow-up, the self-reported quit rate of subjects in the quit immediately group was significantly higher than in the cut down to quit group (18.0% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.04. However, this difference was not significant at the 12-month follow-up (12.0% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.16. Conclusions These data suggest that quitting immediately might be more effective than cutting down to quit in smokers who need to quit sooner, such as those with diseases requiring medical attention. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the cut down to quit approach requires further testing.

  1. Effectiveness of intensive smoking reduction counselling plus combination nicotine replacement therapy in promoting long-term abstinence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not ready to quit smoking: Protocol of the REDUQ trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, Petra; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Limited tobacco dependence treatment resources exist for smoking COPD patients not ready to quit. Smoking reduction may be a viable treatment approach if it prompts quit attempts and subsequent abstinence. This article describes the protocol of the REDUQ (REDUce and Quit) study, which

  2. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Passos Sobreiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  3. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly Silveira; Arap, Sami

    2005-07-07

    Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals' semen characteristics. Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  4. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Efeitos cardiovasculares da abstinência do fumo no repouso e durante o exercício submáximo em mulheres jovens fumantes Cardiovascular effects of smoking abstinence at rest and during submaximal exercise in young female smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilto Yamaguchi da Pureza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da abstinência do fumo nas respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício físico progressivo submáximo em mulheres sedentárias fumantes. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram medidas de forma não invasiva em mulheres jovens não fumantes (MNF, n = 7 e fumantes (MF, n = 7, sem e com abstinência do fumo por 24 horas, em repouso, durante a realização do teste submáximo em bicicleta ergométrica e na recuperação. RESULTADOS: Em repouso, a PAD e a FC foram maiores nas MF (76 ± 1mmHg e 86 ± 5bpm quando comparadas com as MNF (68 ± 2mmHg e 72 ± 2bpm. Após 24 horas sem o tabaco essas medidas foram normalizadas. Durante o exercício, a PAS e a FC aumentaram nos grupos estudados. A PAD foi maior nas MF (~15% em relação às MNF em todos os estágios do exercício. Na situação de abstinência, a PAD aumentou somente no último estágio de exercício. Na recuperação tanto a PAD quanto a FC foram maiores nas MF, na situação basal e com abstinência de 24h, quando comparadas as MNF. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados demonstram que mulheres jovens fumantes apresentam prejuízo em parâmetros hemodinâmicos em repouso e em resposta ao exercício submáximo, os quais, podem ser em parte revertidos pela abstinência em curto prazo do uso do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of tobacco smoking abstinence on cardiovascular responses to progressive submaximal physical exercise in sedentary female smokers. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were non-invasively measured in young non-smoking women (NSW, n = 7 and smoking women (SW, n = 7, with and without tobacco abstinence for 24 hours, at rest, during the accomplishment of a submaximal bicycle ergometric test and recovery period. RESULTS: At rest, DBP and HR were higher in the SW group

  6. The importance of resilience and stress to maintaining smoking abstinence and cessation: a qualitative study in Australia with people diagnosed with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Muller, Robert; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2011-05-01

    This study explored stress in relation to smoking and how non-smokers (never-smoked and ex-smokers) are 'resilient' to smoking in a population where there is a high prevalence of smoking (people diagnosed with depression). In-depth oral history interviews were conducted with 34 adult participants from metropolitan Adelaide, and who were medically diagnosed with depression. Participants were recruited according to their smoking status (currently smoking, ex-smoker, and never-smoked). Smoking was taken-up and maintained for a number of reasons that included perceived high levels of stress. Resilience to stress in relation to smoking was also a major theme. Non-smoking participants tended to be more resilient to stress. Ex-smokers were able to quit for a number of varied reasons during critical transition points in their lives. The never-smoked participants reported successful strategies to cope with stress but not all of them were necessarily healthy. There was often interplay between external factors and the individual's internal properties that led to a building or an erosion of resilience. Smokers and ex-smokers have indicated a strong relationship between stress and tobacco use. Ex-smokers and the never-smoked participants have demonstrated how being 'resilient' to stress can be important to smoking abstinence. The finding that external factors can interact with internal properties to build resilience in relation to stress and smoking is important for policy and practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  8. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Stephen V; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-11-10

    Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers). Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  10. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Adriaan; Lemaigre, Valentine; Salhi, Bihiyga; Van Gucht, Dinska; Tibboel, Helen; Van Bockstaele, Bram; De Houwer, Jan; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Nackaerts, Kristiaan

    2015-07-01

    It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers. Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session. EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores. These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided.

  11. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Mahler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? METHODS: We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers. Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. RESULTS: Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. CONCLUSIONS: In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  12. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and Aug...

  13. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

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    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  14. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  15. Do predictors of smoking relapse change as a function of duration of abstinence? Findings from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Partos, Timea

    2018-07-01

    To estimate predictors of time to smoking relapse and test if prediction varied by quit duration. Longitudinal cohort data from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country survey with annual follow up collected between 2002 and 2015. Canada, United States, United Kingdom and Australia. A total of 9171 eligible adult smokers who had made at least one quit attempt during the study period. Time to relapse was the main outcome. Predictor variables included pre-quit baseline measures of nicotine dependence, smoking and quitting-related motivations, quitting capacity and social influence, and also two post-quit measures, use of stop-smoking medications and quit duration (1-7 days, 8-14 days, 15-31 days, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years and 2+ years), along with socio-demographics. All factors were predictive of relapse within the first 6 months of quitting but only wanting to quit, quit intentions and number of friends who smoke were still predictive of relapse in the 6-12-month period of quitting [hazard ratios (HR) = 1.20, P < 0.05; 1.13, P < 0.05; and 1.21, P < 0.001, respectively]. Number of friends smoking was the only remaining predictor of relapse in the 1-2 years quit period (HR = 1.19, P = 0.001) with none predictive beyond the 2-year quit period. Use of stop-smoking medications during quit attempts was related negatively to relapse during the first 2 weeks of quitting (HR = 0.71-0.84), but related positively to relapse in the 1-6-month quit period (HR = 1.29-1.54). Predictive effects of all factors showed significant interaction with quit duration except for perceiving smoking as an important part of life, prematurely stubbing out a cigarette and wanting to quit. Among adult smokers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia, factors associated with smoking relapse differ between the early and later stages of a quit attempt, suggesting that the determinants of relapse change as a function of abstinence

  16. Cue-elicited craving in heroin addicts at different abstinent time: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Following short-term abstinence, greater activation was found in response to heroin cues compared to neutral cues in bilateral temporal, occipital, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus, cerebellum, and left hippocampus. In contrast, activations in bilateral temporal and occipital and deactivations in bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left posterior cingulate, insula, thalamus, dorsal striatum, and bilateral cerebellum were observed following long-term abstinence. Direct comparisons between conditions showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following short-term abstinence. In addition, short-term abstinence had more serious withdrawal symptoms than the long-term. The present findings indicate that compared to short-term, long-term abstinence manifests less serious withdrawal symptoms and significantly decreases neural responses to heroin-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, memory, and action planning. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence can decrease the salience of conditioned cues, thereby reducing the risk of relapses. The study's limitations are noted.

  17. Assessment of the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in healthy Japanese smokers using a novel tobacco vapor product compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Takeshige, Yuki; Nakaya, Kyoko; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2018-07-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to demonstrate a reduction in exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), and to assess product use behavior, in Japanese healthy adult smokers who switched to a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). 60 smokers were randomly assigned for 5 days to either (a) a group who switched to an NTV (n = 20), (b) a group who continued to smoke their own brand of conventional cigarettes (CC, n = 20) or (c) a smoking abstinence group (SA, n = 20). Fifteen biomarkers of exposure (BoEs) to 14 HPHCs and pyrene were measured at baseline, day 3 and 5. Product use behavior was assessed by measuring product consumption, nicotine uptake and puffing topography. During investigations, increases were observed in product consumption and total puff volume in NTV group subjects as compared to baseline. Additionally, nicotine uptake in the NTV group was approximately half that observed in the CC group. BoE values were significantly reduced in the NTV group as compared to those in the CC group. Significantly, the magnitude of the reduction in exposure to HPHCs observed in the NTV group (49-94%) was close to that observed for the SA group (39-95%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal

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    Riccardo Polosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR, asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1 and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2 months. Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

  19. The safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine in achieving six-month continuous smoking abstinence in tuberculosis patients - protocol for a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Omara; Barua, Deepa; Boeckmann, Melanie; Elsey, Helen; Fatima, Razia; Gabe, Rhian; Huque, Rumana; Keding, Ada; Khan, Amina; Kotz, Daniel; Kralikova, Eva; Newell, James N; Nohavova, Iveta; Parrott, Steve; Readshaw, Anne; Renwick, Lottie; Sheikh, Aziz; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2018-04-20

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients who quit smoking have much better disease outcomes than those who continue to smoke. Behavioural support combined with pharmacotherapy is the most effective strategy in helping people to quit, in general populations. However, there is no evidence for the effectiveness of this strategy in TB patients who smoke. We will assess the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine - a low-cost plant-derived nicotine substitute - for smoking cessation in TB patients compared with placebo, over and above brief behavioural support. Two-arm, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre (30 sites in Bangladesh and Pakistan), individually randomised trial. TB treatment centres integrated into public health care systems in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Newly diagnosed (in the last four weeks) adult pulmonary TB patients who are daily smokers (with or without dual smokeless tobacco use) and are interested in quitting (n= 2,388). The primary outcome measure is biochemically verified continuous abstinence from smoking at six months post-randomization, assessed using Russell Standard criteria. The secondary outcome measures include continuous abstinence at 12 months, lapses and relapses; clinical TB outcomes; nicotine dependency and withdrawal; and adverse events. This is the first smoking cessation trial of cytisine in low- and middle-income countries evaluating both cessation and tuberculosis (TB) outcomes. If found effective, cytisine could become the most affordable cessation intervention to help TB patients who smoke. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Trial Protocol: randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Deborah; Hajek, Peter; Aveyard, Paul

    2010-10-07

    Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily

  1. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  2. Nicotine replacement therapy to aid gradual cessation in smokers with no intention to quit: Association between reduction quantity and later abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Tak Derek Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Greater percentage reduction by at least one-third and progressive reduction predicted abstinence in those who reduced smoking. Such new evidence can guide the improvement of clinical service for tobacco dependency treatment and support further studies on smoking reduction and cessation.

  3. Should the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentration as a means of verifying self-reported smoking abstinence be reduced in clinical treatment programmes? Evidence from a Malaysian smokers' clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei-Hum; West, Robert; Mariapun, Jeevitha; Chan, Caryn Mei-Hsien; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Jit, Swinder

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) threshold for confirming smoking abstinence in clinical practice be reduced below 10 ppm. Optimal thresholds may vary across regions. Data are needed to assess the impact of such a change on claimed success. A total of 253 smokers who attended the Tanglin quit smoking clinic in Malaysia were followed-up 1, 3 and 6 months after the target quit date. All participants received a standard behavioural support programme and were prescribed either varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy. Expired-air CO was measured at every visit. Respondents' smoking status was assessed using a range of different CO thresholds (3, 5 and 10 ppm) and the impact on quit rates was calculated. Predictors of success as defined using the different thresholds were assessed. The 6-month abstinence rates were: 1 month - 54.9% at 10 ppm, 54.9% at 5 ppm and 48.6% at 3 ppm; 3 months - 36.0% at 10 ppm, 35.2% at 5 ppm and 30.4% at 3 ppm; 6 months - 24.1% at 10 ppm, 24.1% at 5 ppm and 20.6% at 3 ppm. Older smokers were more likely to be recorded as abstinent at 6 months regardless of the threshold used. Reducing the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentrations to verify claimed smoking abstinence from 10 ppm to 5 ppm makes minimal difference to documented success rates in Malaysian smoker's clinic patients. Reducing to 3 ppm decreases success rates slightly. Predictors of success at stopping appear to be unaffected by the threshold used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  5. Smoking status predicts cancer patients' quality of life over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martinez

    2018-03-01

    These results extend previous findings showing that QOL improves in cancer patients who quit smoking. Specifically, patients who quit smoking experience a greater reduction in depression and pain levels at all time points, and the reduction increases over time. In the case of fatigue, the results suggest that patients experience the greatest improvement with longer (≥ 4 months abstinence.

  6. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  7. Gender differences in negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence differ between African American and White adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-06-15

    Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline session, adult daily smokers (10 cigarettes per day; women: n=297, 83.8% Non-Hispanic African American; men: n=492, 86.2% Non-Hispanic African American) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours abstinent vs. non-abstinent) and completed self-report measures of negative affect followed by a laboratory analogue smoking reinstatement task. We found a gender race interaction for several negative affect states and composite negative affect (ßs=-.12 to -.16, psNon-Hispanic White women compared to Non-Hispanic White men exhibited greater abstinence-induced increases in anger, anxiety, and composite negative affect (ßs=-.20 to -.29, psNon-Hispanic African American smokers (ßs=.00 to -.04, ps>.05). These findings suggest that negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence may be a clinically important and intervenable factor that can inform cessation interventions specifically for Non-Hispanic White women smokers. Further empirical exploration of mechanisms underlying interactions of gender and race in tobacco addiction may benefit smoking cessation efforts in Non-Hispanic African American women smokers. The current study contributes to a scant body of research examining the intersectional influence of race and gender on abstinence-induced negative affect-a central, motivationally prepotent feature of tobacco withdrawal. Using a laboratory-based design to experimentally manipulate abstinence, we provide evidence

  8. The effects of prolonged abstinence on the processing of smoking cues: an ERP study among smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Littel (Marianne); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Processing bias is an important feature of substance abuse. The issue whether processing bias is a more or less permanent feature of nicotine addiction remains to be resolved. The present study addresses the role of smoking status on smoking-related processing bias. We

  9. Expectancies for the effectiveness of different tobacco interventions account for racial and gender differences in motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Leventhal, Adam M; Stevens, Erin N; Trent, Lindsay R; Clark, C Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2014-09-01

    Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. African Americans' stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women's stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  11. Memory retrieval of smoking-related images induce greater insula activation as revealed by an fMRI-based delayed matching to sample task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Amy C; Ross, Robert S; Farmer, Stacey; Frederick, Blaise B; Nickerson, Lisa D; Lukas, Scott E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic and difficult to treat disorder. While environmental stimuli associated with smoking precipitate craving and relapse, it is unknown whether smoking cues are cognitively processed differently than neutral stimuli. To evaluate working memory differences between smoking-related and neutral stimuli, we conducted a delay-match-to-sample (DMS) task concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nicotine-dependent participants. The DMS task evaluates brain activation during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of working memory. Smoking images induced significantly more subjective craving, and greater midline cortical activation during encoding in comparison to neutral stimuli that were similar in content yet lacked a smoking component. The insula, which is involved in maintaining nicotine dependence, was active during the successful retrieval of previously viewed smoking versus neutral images. In contrast, neutral images required more prefrontal cortex-mediated active maintenance during the maintenance period. These findings indicate that distinct brain regions are involved in the different phases of working memory for smoking-related versus neutral images. Importantly, the results implicate the insula in the retrieval of smoking-related stimuli, which is relevant given the insula's emerging role in addiction. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Effects of a brisk walk on blood pressure responses to the Stroop, a speech task and a smoking cue among temporarily abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adrian; Katomeri, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    A review and meta-analysis by Hamer et al. (2006) showed that a single session of exercise can attenuate post-exercise blood pressure (BP) responses to stress, but no studies examined the effects among smokers or with brisk walking. Healthy volunteers (n=60), averaging 28 years of age and smoking 15 cigarettes daily, abstained from smoking for 2 h before being randomly assigned to a 15-min brisk semi-self-paced walk or passive control condition. Subject characteristics, typical smoking cue-elicited cravings and BP were assessed at baseline. After each condition, BP was assessed before and after three psycho-social stressors were carried out: (1) computerised Stroop word-colour interference task, (2) speech task and (3) only handling a lit cigarette. A two-way mixed ANCOVA (controlling for baseline) revealed a significant overall interaction effect for time by condition for both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Univariate ANCOVAs (to compare between-groups post-stressor BP, controlling for pre-stressor BP) revealed that exercise attenuated systolic BP and diastolic BP responses to the Stroop and speech tasks and SBP to the lit cigarette equivalent to an attenuated SBP and DBP of up to 3.8 mmHg. Post-exercise attenuation effects were moderated by resting blood pressure and self-reported smoking cue-elicited craving. Effects were strongest among those with higher blood pressure and smokers who reported typically stronger cravings when faced with smoking cues. Blood pressure responses to the lit cigarette were not associated with responses to the Stroop and speech task. A self-paced 15-min walk can reduce smokers' SBP and DBP responses to stress, of a magnitude similar on average to non-smokers.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  14. Effects of nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette use on symptom relief during initial tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2017-08-01

    Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i.e., placebo, 0 mg/ml) contain nicotine or after no e-cig. Relief was greater after nicotine versus placebo e-cig (p < .05) but not after placebo versus no e-cig, showing relief was due to nicotine per se and not simple e-cig use behavior. Using a crossover design in Study 2, smokers preparing to quit soon engaged in 2 experimental 4-day quit periods on separate weeks. In weeks 1 and 3, all received a nicotine or placebo e-cig on Monday to use ad libitum while trying to abstain from smoking on Tuesday through Friday. (Week 2 involved resumption of ad libitum smoking.) MNWS and Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU) craving were assessed at daily visits following 24-hr abstinence. Of 17 enrolled, 12 quit for ≥24 hr at least once, allowing test of relief because of e-cig use on quit days. Withdrawal and craving were reduced because of nicotine versus placebo e-cig use (both p < .05). In sum, compared with placebo e-cigs, nicotine e-cigs can relieve smoking abstinence symptoms, perhaps in a manner similar to Food and Drug Administration-approved nicotine replacement therapy products, although much more research with larger samples is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Abstinent adult daily smokers show reduced anticipatory but elevated saccade-related brain responses during a rewarded antisaccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Denlinger, Rachel; Sparacino, Gina; Donny, Eric C

    2014-08-30

    Chronic smoking may result in reduced sensitivity to non-drug rewards (e.g., money), a phenomenon particularly salient during abstinence. During a quit attempt, this effect may contribute to biased decision-making (smoking>alternative reinforcers) and relapse. Although relevant for quitting, characterization of reduced reward function in abstinent smokers remains limited. Moreover, how attenuated reward function affects other brain systems supporting decision-making has not been established. Here, we use a rewarded antisaccade (rAS) task to characterize non-drug reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control, key elements underlying decision-making, in abstinent smokers vs. non-smokers. Abstinent (12-hours) adult daily smokers (N=23) and non-smokers (N=11) underwent fMRI while performing the rAS. Behavioral performances improved on reward vs. neutral trials. Smokers showed attenuated activation in ventral striatum during the reward cue and in superior precentral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex during response preparation, but greater responses during the saccade response in posterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Smokers' attenuated anticipatory responses suggest reduced motivation from monetary reward, while heightened activation during the saccade response suggests that additional circuitry may be engaged later to enhance inhibitory task performance. Overall, this preliminary study highlights group differences in decision-making components and the utility of the rAS to characterize these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhaled Steroids and Active Smoking Drive Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Symptoms and Biomarkers to a Greater Degree Than Airflow Limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silkoff, Philip E; Singh, Dave; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2018-01-01

    RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease, and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study was to correlate...... clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics in a well-profiled COPD cohort. METHODS: A total of 67 COPD subjects (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1]: 45%-80% predicted) and 63 healthy smoking and nonsmoking controls underwent multiple assessments including...... patient questionnaires, lung function, and clinical biomarkers including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), induced sputum, and blood. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), and to a lesser extent current smoking, was more associated with symptom control...

  17. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  18. Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n=28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a "recovery of function" in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gratitude, abstinence, and alcohol use disorders: Report of a preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers : Comparing the present with the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Borland, Ron; Buunk, Bram P.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. In the present study we argue that ex-smokers compare their present to their past when they still smoked to conclude whether they make good progress towards a satisfactory state of continued abstinence. These temporal comparisons

  1. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  3. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  4. Preventing postpartum smoking relapse: an opportunity for neonatal nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Sharron

    2009-08-01

    Smoking during pregnancy and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke have harmful and sometimes devastating effects on the health of the newborn. Although interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy demonstrate effectiveness for increasing smoking abstinence, the majority of women relapse in the postpartum period. However, modifying contributing factors for relapse may improve the success of sustained abstinence. Many parents are eager to quit smoking and willing to participate in smoking cessation interventions. Through a population-based approach to healthcare, neonatal nurses are in an ideal position to prevent relapse and to promote smoking abstinence; they can coordinate and lead efforts for establishing smoking cessation strategies that integrate obstetric, newborn, and pediatric services.

  5. Glutamatergic neurometabolites during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Joseph; Tobias, Marc C; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D

    2014-10-31

    The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5-15%, Pright inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (Pabuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (Pright inferior frontal cortex. Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced changes in pain sensitivity: a cross-sectional investigation between abstinent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    Chronic smoking has been linked with alterations in endogenous pain regulation. These alterations may be pronounced when individuals quit smoking because nicotine withdrawal produces a variety of psychological and physiological symptoms. Smokers interested in quitting (n = 98) and nonsmokers (n = 37) completed a laboratory session including cold pressor test (CPT) and heat thermal pain. Smokers set a quit date and completed the session after 48 h of abstinence. Participants completed the pain assessments once after rest and once after stress. Cardiovascular and nicotine withdrawal measures were collected. Smokers showed blunted cardiovascular responses to stress relative to nonsmokers. Only nonsmokers had greater pain tolerance to CPT after stress than after rest. Lower systolic blood pressure was related to lower pain tolerance. These findings suggest that smoking withdrawal is associated with blunted stress response and increased pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L

    2001-10-01

    Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.

  9. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Minami, Haruka; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Brown, Richard A

    2018-04-02

    Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect enhancing and craving reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects. Participants (N = 57; 68.4% women) were low-active daily smokers randomized to cessation treatments plus either group-based aerobic exercise (AE) or a health-education control (HEC). Mood, anxiety, and craving were assessed before and after each intervention session for each of the 12 weeks. Carbon monoxide (CO) breath samples ≤ 5ppm indicated smoking abstinence. During the prequit sessions, significantly greater decreases in anxiety following AE sessions relative to HEC sessions were observed. Changes in mood and craving were similar after AE and HEC sessions prior to quitting. Postquit attempt, significant reductions in craving and anxiety were observed after AE sessions but not following HEC. During the postquit period, positive mood increased following AE sessions relative to HEC only among individuals who were abstinence on that day. AE may be effective in acutely reducing anxiety prior to a quit attempt and both anxiety and craving following the quit attempt regardless of abstinence status. The mood-enhancing effects of AE may occur only in the context of smoking abstinence. The current findings underscore the importance of examining the acute effects of aerobic exercise prior to and after a cessation attempt and as a function of smoking status. Given the equivocal results from previous studies on the efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, increasing our understanding of how aerobic exercise produces its

  10. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  11. Efficacy of an experiential, dissonance-based smoking intervention for college students delivered via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Heckman, Bryan W; Fink, Angelina C; Small, Brent J; Brandon, Thomas H

    2013-10-01

    College represents a window of opportunity to reach the sizeable number of cigarette smokers who are vulnerable to lifelong smoking. The underutilization of typical cessation programs suggests the need for novel and more engaging approaches for reaching college smokers. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a dissonance-enhancing, Web-based experiential intervention for increasing smoking cessation motivation and behavior. We used a 4-arm, randomized design to examine the efficacy of a Web-based, experiential smoking intervention (Web-Smoke). The control conditions included a didactic smoking intervention (Didactic), a group-based experiential intervention (Group), and a Web-based nutrition experiential intervention (Web-Nutrition). We recruited 341 college smokers. Primary outcomes were motivation to quit, assessed immediately postintervention, and smoking abstinence at 1 and 6 months following the intervention. As hypothesized, the Web-Smoke intervention was more effective than control groups in increasing motivation to quit. At 6-month follow-up, the Web-Smoke intervention produced higher rates of smoking cessation than the Web-Nutrition control intervention. Daily smoking moderated intervention outcomes. Among daily smokers, the Web-Smoke intervention produced greater abstinence rates than both the Web-Nutrition and Didactic control conditions. Findings demonstrate the efficacy of a theory-based intervention delivered over the Internet for increasing motivation to quit and smoking abstinence among college smokers. The intervention has potential for translation and implementation as a secondary prevention strategy for college-aged smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Large-scale brain network coupling predicts acute nicotine abstinence effects on craving and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks--salience, executive control, and default mode--will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = -0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = -0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = -0.65, P = .001). Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may be critical in cognitive/affective alterations that underlie nicotine dependence.

  13. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  14. Is the intention-behaviour gap greater amongst the more deprived? A meta-analysis of five studies on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Ng, Yin-Lam; Griffin, Simon J; Sutton, Stephen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-02-01

    Unhealthy behaviour is more common amongst the deprived, thereby contributing to health inequalities. The evidence that the gap between intention and behaviour is greater amongst the more deprived is limited and inconsistent. We tested this hypothesis using objective and self-report measures of three behaviours, both individual- and area-level indices of socio-economic status, and pooling data from five studies. Secondary data analysis. Multiple linear regressions and meta-analyses of data on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation from 2,511 participants. Across five studies, we found no evidence for an interaction between deprivation and intention in predicting objective or self-report measures of behaviour. Using objectively measured behaviour and area-level deprivation, meta-analyses suggested that the gap between self-efficacy and behaviour was greater amongst the more deprived (B = .17 [95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]). We find no compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that the intention-behaviour gap is greater amongst the more deprived. What is already known on this subject? Unhealthy behaviour is more common in those who are more deprived. This may reflect a larger gap between intentions and behaviour amongst the more deprived. The limited evidence to date testing this hypothesis is mixed. What does this study add? In the most robust study to date, combining results from five trials, we found no evidence for this explanation. The gap between intentions and behaviour did not vary with deprivation for the following: diet, physical activity, or medication adherence in smoking cessation. We did, however, find a larger gap between perceived control over behaviour (self-efficacy) and behaviour in those more deprived. These findings add to existing evidence to suggest that higher rates of unhealthier behaviour in more deprived groups may be reduced by the following: ◦ Strengthening behavioural control mechanisms (such as executive

  15. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (pmotivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Financial strain and smoking cessation among men and women within a self-guided quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Langdon, Kirsten J; Nguyen, Nga T; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Financial strain, defined as an unfavorable asset-to-needs ratio, has been associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation in the context of a structured clinical study providing cessation assistance. This study reports on a secondary data analysis that assessed the association of financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence within a structured clinical study of smokers making a self-guided cessation attempt. Participants (N=58; 65.5% men) were enrolled in a study about anxiety sensitivity and smoking cessation whereby they were instructed to initiate a self-guided quit attempt. Relations between financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence on the quit day and at Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 post-quit were assessed using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, sex, race, education, partner status, pre-quit cigarettes smoked per day, and time. Associations between financial strain and abstinence in the whole sample were marginal (aOR=.94, 95% CI=.87-1.01, observations=293; p=.07). However, sex was a significant moderator: greater financial strain was associated with lower odds of abstinence for men (aOR=.90, 95% CI=.80-1.00, observations=201; p=.05), but not women (aOR=1.05, 95% CI=.91-1.21, observations=92; p=.48). Results indicated that financial strain was associated with lower odds of cessation among men undergoing a self-guided quit attempt in the context of a structured clinical study. These data suggest that financial strain may be an important socioeconomic determinant of smoking cessation and support its relevance for better understanding socioeconomic-based smoking-related health disparities. Future work may benefit by exploring sex-specific models of financial strain in the context of smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide imaging association study implicates functional activity and glial homeostasis of the caudate in smoking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David C; Molfese, David L; Jin, Jennifer L; Titus, Alexander J; He, Yixuan; Li, Yafang; Vaissié, Maxime; Viswanath, Humsini; Baldwin, Philip R; Krahe, Ralf; Salas, Ramiro; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-09-19

    Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent"). While abstinent smokers did not differ from non-smokers with respect to pairwise resting state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 12 brain regions of interest, RSFCs involving the caudate and putamen of sated smokers significantly differed from those of non-smokers (P smoking status (P = 0.015). Moreover, abstinent smokers with lower CR experienced greater withdrawal symptoms (P = 0.024), which suggests CR may be related to smoking urges. Associations between genetic variants and CR, adjusted for smoking status, were identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genes containing or exhibiting caudate-specific expression regulation by these variants were enriched within Gene Ontology terms that describe cytoskeleton functions, synaptic organization, and injury response (P < 0.001, FDR < 0.05). By integrating genomic and imaging data, novel insights into potential mechanisms of caudate activation and homeostasis are revealed that may guide new directions of research toward improving our understanding of addiction pathology.

  18. Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Emmons, Karen; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking. This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P family-based smoking cessation intervention for the families in the well-child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers. Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inpatient Addiction Consultation for Hospitalized Patients Increases Post-Discharge Abstinence and Reduces Addiction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Metlay, Joshua P; Chang, Yuchiao; Herman, Grace E; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and drug use results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders are overrepresented in general medical settings. Hospital-based interventions offer an opportunity to engage with a vulnerable population that may not otherwise seek treatment. To determine whether inpatient addiction consultation improves substance use outcomes 1 month after discharge. Prospective quasi-experimental evaluation comparing 30-day post-discharge outcomes between participants who were and were not seen by an addiction consult team during hospitalization at an urban academic hospital. Three hundred ninety-nine hospitalized adults who screened as high risk for having an alcohol or drug use disorder or who were clinically identified by the primary nurse as having a substance use disorder. Addiction consultation from a multidisciplinary specialty team offering pharmacotherapy initiation, motivational counseling, treatment planning, and direct linkage to ongoing addiction treatment. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite score for alcohol and drug use and self-reported abstinence at 30 days post-discharge. Secondary outcomes included 90-day substance use measures and self-reported hospital and ED utilization. Among 265 participants with 30-day follow-up, a greater reduction in the ASI composite score for drug or alcohol use was seen in the intervention group than in the control group (mean ASI-alcohol decreased by 0.24 vs. 0.08, p drug decreased by 0.05 vs. 0.02, p = 0.003.) There was also a greater increase in the number of days of abstinence in the intervention group versus the control group (+12.7 days vs. +5.6, p drug, and days abstinent all remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, employment status, smoking status, and baseline addiction severity (p = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively). In a sensitivity analysis, assuming that patients who were lost to follow-up had no change from baseline

  1. Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life, But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Adriaens, Karolien; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone ...

  2. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  3. Happiness as a Buffer of the Association Between Dependence and Acute Tobacco Abstinence Effects in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liautaud, Madalyn M; Leventhal, Adam M; Pang, Raina D

    2017-09-27

    African-American (AA) smokers are at disproportionate risk of tobacco dependence, utilizing smoking to regulate stress, and poor cessation outcomes. Positive emotional traits may function as coping factors that buffer the extent to which dependence increases vulnerability to adverse responses to acute tobacco abstinence (i.e., tobacco withdrawal). This laboratory study examined subjective happiness (SH; dispositional orientation towards frequent and intense positive affect [PA] and life satisfaction) as a moderator of the relation between tobacco dependence and subjective and behavioral abstinence effects among AA smokers. AA smokers (N=420, 39.0% female) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and SH followed by two counterbalanced experimental sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hr abstinent) involving self-report measures of composite withdrawal, urge to smoke, and mood, and a behavioral smoking task in which participants could: (a) earn money to delay smoking reinstatement, and (b) subsequently purchase cigarettes to smoke. Tobacco dependence was positively associated with increased abstinence effects in composite withdrawal, urge to smoke, PA, and latency to smoking reinstatement (pssmokers. The current study contributes to a growing body of literature examining the potentially advantageous role of positive emotional traits to smokers. We do so by identifying a relatively understudied psychological construct within tobacco research-subjective happiness-that may suppress the extent to which more severe tobacco dependence increases risk for subjective withdrawal-related distress during acute smoking abstinence in African American smokers. In doing so, the study provides a primer for future targeting of subjective happiness and other positive emotional traits as means to understand and treat acute tobacco abstinence effects among dependent African American smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  4. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Nielsen, P R; Lauritzen, J B

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and hazardous drinking are common and important risk factors for an increased rate of complications after surgery. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include organic dysfunctions that can recover with abstinence. Abstinence starting 3-8 weeks before surgery will significantly...... smoking and hazardous drinking, and interventions appropriate for the surgical setting applied....

  5. Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life, But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucht, Dinska Van; Adriaens, Karolien; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-07-17

    (1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0.96, 1.00) smoked before they started vaping. A great majority agreed that unlike with other smoking-cessation aids, they could quit smoking (81%, 95% CI 0.79, 0.90) due to vaping. Almost all customers were regular vapers (93.6%, 95% CI 0.89, 0.96) who used state-of-the-art open system devices without modifications and e-liquid with 10 mg/mL nicotine on average. Vapers reported using e-cigs to quit smoking, because e-cigs are healthier, and for financial reasons. The majority (52.6%, 95% CI 0.46, 0.60) perceived vaping as not that harmful to not harmful at all , but one fifth (21.8%, 95% CI 0.16, 0.28) believed vaping to be harmful. More than half (57.8%, 95% CI 0.50, 0.65) reported gaining more pleasure from vaping than from smoking. A substantial majority (84.2%, 95% CI 0.78, 0.89) agreed that their health had improved since they started vaping; (4) Conclusions: Findings are similar to those obtained in other vape shop studies, but also to the results of convenience samples of less-well-defined populations.

  6. Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life, But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinska Van Gucht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2 Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3 Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0.96, 1.00 smoked before they started vaping. A great majority agreed that unlike with other smoking-cessation aids, they could quit smoking (81%, 95% CI 0.79, 0.90 due to vaping. Almost all customers were regular vapers (93.6%, 95% CI 0.89, 0.96 who used state-of-the-art open system devices without modifications and e-liquid with 10 mg/mL nicotine on average. Vapers reported using e-cigs to quit smoking, because e-cigs are healthier, and for financial reasons. The majority (52.6%, 95% CI 0.46, 0.60 perceived vaping as not that harmful to not harmful at all, but one fifth (21.8%, 95% CI 0.16, 0.28 believed vaping to be harmful. More than half (57.8%, 95% CI 0.50, 0.65 reported gaining more pleasure from vaping than from smoking. A substantial majority (84.2%, 95% CI 0.78, 0.89 agreed that their health had improved since they started vaping; (4 Conclusions: Findings are similar to those obtained in other vape shop studies, but also to the results of convenience samples of less-well-defined populations.

  7. Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life, But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Adriaens, Karolien; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0.96, 1.00) smoked before they started vaping. A great majority agreed that unlike with other smoking-cessation aids, they could quit smoking (81%, 95% CI 0.79, 0.90) due to vaping. Almost all customers were regular vapers (93.6%, 95% CI 0.89, 0.96) who used state-of-the-art open system devices without modifications and e-liquid with 10 mg/mL nicotine on average. Vapers reported using e-cigs to quit smoking, because e-cigs are healthier, and for financial reasons. The majority (52.6%, 95% CI 0.46, 0.60) perceived vaping as not that harmful to not harmful at all, but one fifth (21.8%, 95% CI 0.16, 0.28) believed vaping to be harmful. More than half (57.8%, 95% CI 0.50, 0.65) reported gaining more pleasure from vaping than from smoking. A substantial majority (84.2%, 95% CI 0.78, 0.89) agreed that their health had improved since they started vaping; (4) Conclusions: Findings are similar to those obtained in other vape shop studies, but also to the results of convenience samples of less-well-defined populations. PMID:28714914

  8. Financial strain and smoking cessation among racially/ethnically diverse smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Costello, Tracy J; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Wetter, David W

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the influence of financial strain on smoking cessation among Latino, African American, and Caucasian smokers of predominantly low socioeconomic status. Smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation study (N = 424) were followed from 1 week prequit through 26 weeks postquit. We conducted a logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between baseline financial strain and smoking abstinence at 26 weeks postquit after control for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational level, annual household income, marital status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time to first cigarette of the day. Greater financial strain at baseline was significantly associated with reduced odds of abstinence at 26 weeks postquit among those who completed the study (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.94; P = .01). There was a significant association as well in analyses that included those who completed the study in addition to those lost to follow-up who were categorized as smokers (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.96; P = .02). Greater financial strain predicted lower cessation rates among racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Our findings highlight the impact of economic concerns on smoking cessation and the need to address financial strain in smoking cessation interventions.

  9. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  10. Success rates in smoking cessation: Psychological preparation plays a critical role and interacts with other factors such as psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Bertrand; Perriot, Jean; d'Athis, Philippe; Chazard, Emmanuel; Brousse, Georges; Quantin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the results of smoking cessation attempts. Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from a smoking cessation clinic between 1999 and 2009 (1,361 patients). Smoking cessation was considered a success when patients were abstinent 6 months after the beginning of cessation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between abstinence and different factors. The significant factors were a history of depression (ORadjusted = 0.57, p = 0.003), state of depression at the initial consultation (ORa = 0.64, p = 0.005), other psychoactive substances (ORa = 0.52, psuccess was four times higher). A high score in the Richmond test had a greater impact on success with increasing age (significant interaction: p = 0.01). In exclusive smokers, the contemplation level in the Prochaska algorithm was enough to obtain a satisfactory abstinence rate (65.5%) whereas among consumers of other psychoactive substances, it was necessary to reach the preparation level in the Prochaska algorithm to achieve a success rate greater than 50% (significant interaction: p = 0.02). The psychological preparation of the smoker plays a critical role. The management of smoking cessation must be personalized, especially for consumers of other psychoactive substances and/or smokers with a history of depression.

  11. Changes in tobacco consumption in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia versus non-psychiatric controls during 28-days of cannabis abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Dermody, Sarah S; George, Tony P

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are highly co-morbid in the general population and in patients with schizophrenia. Given the putative causal mechanisms facilitating co-use, it is important to determine how cannabis cessation may influence concurrent tobacco use. Using a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm, we prospectively examined changes in tobacco consumption in patients with schizophrenia and controls with cannabis dependence and daily cigarette use. Cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and controls (n = 20) completed the study with abstinence rates of 42% and 55%, respectively. Participants completed measures of substance use, withdrawal, and clinical symptoms weekly. Urine samples were collected twice weekly to biochemically verify abstinence. Patients reported a greater increase in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) on Day 7 relative to baseline (2.97 cigarette increase for abstinent subgroup, p cannabis use related to greater increases in CPD relative to baseline in the patient subsample (simple slope = -2.31, p = .05), but by Day 28, CPD returned to baseline levels independent of cannabis use. CPD changes were unrelated to cannabis withdrawal. Results were similar for changes in caffeine consumption, but not for alcohol. Findings suggest transient tobacco substitution for cannabis in patients with schizophrenia. This provides further support for a strong association between cannabis and tobacco in schizophrenia. Future studies should focus on targeting underlying mechanisms that promote co-use to better address potential changes in concurrent substance use during treatment interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Varenicline: a novel pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Berlin, Ivan; Hering, Thomas

    2009-07-09

    Varenicline is an orally administered small molecule with partial agonist activity at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Varenicline was approved by both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency of the EU in 2006 as an aid to smoking cessation. Subsequently, varenicline has been approved in over 80 other countries. Varenicline is almost entirely absorbed following oral administration, and absorption is unaffected by food, smoking or the time of day. Varenicline undergoes only minimal metabolism and approximately 90% of the drug is excreted in the urine unchanged. Varenicline has a mean elimination half-life after repeated administration of approximately 24 hours in smokers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve is increased in patients with moderate or severe renal failure. No clinically relevant varenicline-drug interactions have been identified. In two identical, randomized, double-blind, phase III clinical trials in healthy, motivated-to-quit, mainly Caucasian smokers aged 18-75 years in the US, 12 weeks of treatment with varenicline 1 mg twice daily was associated with significantly higher abstinence rates over weeks 9-12 than sustained-release bupropion 150 mg twice daily or placebo. In a separate phase III trial, an additional 12 weeks of treatment in smokers achieving abstinence in the first 12 weeks was associated with greater abstinence through to week 52 than placebo treatment. Varenicline treatment was also associated with significantly higher rates of abstinence than placebo treatment in randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in smokers in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. In a randomized, open-label, multi-national, phase III trial, varenicline treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of abstinence than transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy. In these trials, varenicline treatment was associated with lower urge to smoke and satisfaction from smoking in relapsers than placebo or

  13. Subjective social status predicts quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.

  14. ABSTINENCE OF ILLICIT DRUGS, ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO IN THETREATMENT WITH METHADONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čuk Rupnik

    2008-06-01

    In this research by the abstinence of heroin the program of CPTAID fits to successful ones.By smoking of tobacco the patients treated with methadone are very endangered population. The percentage of chronicaly infected by hepatitis C viruses is lower compared to themajority of other European countries

  15. Breastfeeding and abstinence among the Yoruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, T E

    1977-08-01

    Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted.

  16. The smoker's health project: a self-determination theory intervention to facilitate maintenance of tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C; Patrick, Heather; Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L; Lavigne, Holly McGregor

    2011-07-01

    A previous randomized clinical trial based on self-determination theory (SDT) and consistent with the Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence demonstrated that an intensive intervention could change autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence, which in part facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence. The current article describes a pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial of three SDT-based intensive tobacco-dependence interventions. Eligible participants are randomized to one of the three treatment conditions designed to facilitate long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence, namely, Community Care (CC), which includes the 6 month SDT-based intervention previously shown to promote autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, medication use, and tobacco abstinence; Extended Need Support (ENS), which extends the 6 month SDT-based intervention to 12 months and trains an important other to provide support for smokers' basic psychological needs; and Harm Reduction (HR), which provides extended need support and recommends medication use for participants who do not want to stop smoking completely within 30 days but who are willing to reduce their cigarette use by half. The primary outcome is 12 month prolonged abstinence from tobacco, which is assessed one year following termination of treatment (two years post-randomization). Secondary outcomes include 7- and 30 day point prevalence tobacco abstinence, number of days using smoking-cessation medication, change in autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence, and perceived need support from important others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of abstinence on left ventricular performance in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla; Berger, F.; Garver, P.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve asymptomatic men who were chronic alcoholics (42.3+-10.7 years, mean age +- 1 SD) underwent supine bicycle exercise and gated cardiac blood pool imaging 4-7 days after alcohol withdrawal and then again 32-65 days after abstinence (42.2+-15.0 days). Workloads and exercise stages were identical during both exercise studies. Rest and exercise heart rates, blood pressures, cardiac outputs, double products, and systemic vascular resistances were similar in both studies. Ejection fraction (EF) was higher after abstinence at peak exercise (0,68+-0,07 vs. 0.61+-0.08 P<0.05); end-systolic volume (ESV) was smaller at rest and at peak exercise after abstinence (P<0.05). During the first exercise study, 6 of 12 (50%) subjects did not increase their EF by 0.05 units and 4 of 12 (33%) had no EF increase after abstinence. Even the original ''normal'' responders had greater rest and exercise EFs after abstinence. In the first exercise study end diastolic volume (EDV) rose during exercise (P<0.05) while ESV did not change. After abstinence, EDV did not change during exercise, while ESV declined (P<0.05). These results show that latent cardiac dysfunction exists in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics, which is partially although not completely resolved by abstinence of brief periods. (orig.)

  18. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  19. The motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers: comparing the present with the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Borland, Ron; Buunk, Bram P

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. In the present study we argue that ex-smokers compare their present to their past when they still smoked to conclude whether they make good progress towards a satisfactory state of continued abstinence. These temporal comparisons are thought to be central in the motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers. The power of temporal comparisons to predict relapse was tested in two related samples of ex-smokers (N=152 and N=197), together with two other relevant psychological factors; positive outcome expectations of smoking and self-efficacy expectations. In the first sample of ex-smokers, only temporal comparisons predicted relapse after 2 months. In the second sample of ex-smokers, temporal comparisons mediated the relation between perceived positive outcomes of smoking and relapse after 6 months. In addition, in predicting relapse after 6 months, temporal comparisons interacted with self-efficacy. The present study suggests that temporal comparisons comprise the cognitive aspect of the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. This conceptualization of the motivation in ex-smokers can be used in practice to prevent relapse.

  20. Mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment versus cognitive behavioral therapy and usual care for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Anderson, Natalie K; Houchins, Sean C; Vinci, Christine; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W

    2017-11-01

    To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias. Biochemically confirmed 7-day smoking abstinence was assessed at 4 and 26 weeks postquit. Although the parent study did not find a significant treatment effect on abstinence, mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine treatment effects on hypothesized mechanisms, and indirect effects of treatments on abstinence were tested. Participants receiving MBAT perceived greater volitional control over smoking and evidenced lower volatility of anger than participants in both other treatments. However, there were no other significant differences between MBAT and CBT. Compared with those receiving UC, MBAT participants reported lower anxiety, concentration difficulties, craving, and dependence, as well as higher self-efficacy for managing negative affect without smoking. Indirect effects of MBAT versus UC on abstinence occurred through each of these mechanisms. Whereas several differences emerged between MBAT and UC, MBAT and CBT had similar effects on several of the psychosocial mechanisms implicated in tobacco dependence. Results help to shed light on similarities and differences between mindfulness-based and other active smoking cessation treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  2. Voluntary temporary abstinence from alcohol during "Dry January" and subsequent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Robinson, Emily; Bond, Rod

    2016-03-01

    Research suggests that temporary abstinence from alcohol may convey physiological benefits and enhance well-being. The aim of this study was to address a lack of information about: (a) correlates of successful completion of a planned period of abstinence, and (b) how success or failure in planned abstinence affects subsequent alcohol consumption. 857 British adults (249 men, 608 women) participating in the "Dry January" alcohol abstinence challenge completed a baseline questionnaire, a 1-month follow-up questionnaire, and a 6-month follow-up questionnaire. Key variables assessed at baseline included measures of alcohol consumption and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). In bivariate analysis, success during Dry January was predicted by measures of more moderate alcohol consumption and greater social DRSE at baseline. Multivariate analyses revealed that success during Dry January was best predicted by a lower frequency of drunkenness in the month prior to Dry January. Structural equation modeling revealed that participation in Dry January was related to reductions in alcohol consumption and increases in DRSE among all respondents at 6-month follow-up, regardless of success, but indicated that these changes were more likely among people who successfully completed the challenge. The findings suggest that participation in abstinence challenges such as Dry January may be associated with changes toward healthier drinking and greater DRSE, and is unlikely to result in undesirable "rebound effects": very few people reported increased alcohol consumption following a period of voluntary abstinence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. NEONATAL ABSTINENCE SYNDROME - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS refers to the constellation of signs and symptoms exhibited by a newborn of drug-abusing mother. NAS is multisystemic disorder, most frequently involving central nervous and gastrointestinal systems with irritability, high-pitched cry, hyperactive reflexes, increased muscle tone, tremors, generalized convulsions, feeding and sleeping disorders, tachycardia, tachypnea, apnea, termolability and sweating, frequent hiccups, yawning and sneezing, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration.Intrauterine narcotic disposition can give some other adverse effects beside NAS: fetal distress, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, increased incidence of congenital anomalies (cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, cleft palate, biliar atresia. Significantly increased risks of sudden infant’s death syndrome (SIDS, abnormalities in neurocognitive and behavioral development and deficiency in motor functions have also been noticed after the long-term surveys of these children.This paper is a case report of a newborn with developed clinical signs of NAS, but it also discusses diagnostics and management of such cases

  4. The relationship of dysthymia, minor depression, and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Pilver, Corey E; Desai, Rani A; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    Although data clearly link major depression and smoking, little is known about the association between dysthymia and minor depression and smoking behavior. The current study examined changes in smoking over 3 years for current and former smokers with and without dysthymia and minor depression. Participants who were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and completed the Wave 2 assessment were included in these analyses (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of current dysthymia, lifetime dysthymia, and minor depression (a single diagnostic category that denoted current and/or lifetime prevalence) on continued smoking for Wave 1 current daily smokers and continued abstinence for Wave 1 former daily smokers. Wave 1 current daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23, 3.70) or minor depression (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.07, 2.18) were more likely than smokers without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 former daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20, 0.96) and lifetime dysthymia (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15, 0.91) were less likely than those without the diagnosis to remain abstinent from smoking at Wave 2. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant, suggesting that the impact of dysthymia and minor depression on smoking behavior is similar among men and women. Current dysthymia and minor depression are associated with a greater likelihood of continued smoking; current and lifetime dysthymia are associated with a decreased likelihood of continued smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterogeneity in the Effects of Reward- and Deposit-based Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S.; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A.; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Targeting different smoking cessation programs to smokers most likely to quit when using them could reduce the burden of lung disease. Objectives: To identify smokers most likely to quit using pure reward-based financial incentives or incentive programs requiring refundable deposits to become eligible for rewards. Methods: We conducted prespecified secondary analyses of a randomized trial in which 2,538 smokers were assigned to an $800 reward contingent on sustained abstinence from smoking, a refundable $150 deposit plus a $650 reward, or usual care. Measurements and Main Results: Using logistic regression, we identified characteristics of smokers that were most strongly associated with accepting their assigned intervention and ceasing smoking for 6 months. We assessed modification of the acceptance, efficacy, and effectiveness of reward and deposit programs by 11 prospectively selected demographic, smoking-related, and psychological factors. Predictors of sustained smoking abstinence differed among participants assigned to reward- versus deposit-based incentives. However, greater readiness to quit and less steep discounting of future rewards were consistently among the most important predictors. Deposit-based programs were uniquely effective relative to usual care among men, higher-income participants, and participants who more commonly failed to pay their bills (all interaction P values patient characteristics. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01526265). PMID:27064456

  6. Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfo, Amy B; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Tidey, Jennifer W

    2009-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n=15) and non-psychiatric controls (CS; n=18) all of whom were heavy smokers and daily caffeine users. Participants were tested under non-abstinent and 5-hour abstinent conditions. SS tended to report greater daily levels of caffeine use than CS. Although this difference was not significant, that may be due to the small sample sizes as the size of this effect was large. Daily caffeine intake was significantly correlated with daily smoking rate in SS but not CS. A significant interaction between group and cue type after controlling for caffeine intake indicated that exposure to smoking cues increased urge for caffeinated beverages in SS but not CS. These results indicate support for associative connections between cigarette smoking cues and craving for caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia.

  7. Measurement of smoking: surveys and some recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, R H; Rosen, T J; Williams, C

    1982-01-01

    A survey of smoking cessation researchers found considerable disagreement in the measurement procedures used to determine treatment outcome. The survey investigated (1) the duration of the measurement interval used to determine abstinence and smoking rate; (2) procedures for classifying people who smoke after treatment but are abstinent at follow-up; and (3) procedures for classifying people who use marijuana or tobacco products other than cigarettes. The marked disagreement among researchers' survey responses was compounded by the failure of their published articles to explain how smoking had been measured and scored. The Discussion identifies long-term abstinence as the most critical problem; its measurement was least consistent procedurally across studies yet most important for comparing them. Recommendations are made for establishing measurement and reporting conventions.

  8. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN ABSTINENTS AND VOTERS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Puhalo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aims to find out if there is a difference between women voters and abstinents in Bosnia and Herzegovina, considering certain socio-psychological characteristics. For the purpose of this research we used Likert scales to measure: tolerance to other ideas, nationalism, ethical superiority, attitude towards leader, conformism, liberalism/conservativism and locus of control. This research was con-ducted in May 2007 on the sample of 547 women voters and 214 women abstinents. Results show that socio-demographic characteristics differ potential women voters from women abstinents. Women who are more active (educated, employed or mem-bers of some political party in their everyday life are more likely to go to the electi-ons and vote. Discriminative analysis showed that women voters and abstinents significantly differed at four of total seven variables. The difference between women voters and abstinents is in ethical superiority, acceptance of nationalism, tolerance to other ideas and attitude towards leader. Therefore it seems that women abstinents have greater democratic potential than women voters.

  10. Contingency management in the 21st century: technological innovations to promote smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Raiff, Bethany R

    2011-01-01

    Information technology represents an excellent medium to deliver contingencies of reinforcement to change behavior. Recently, we have linked the Internet with a science-based, behavioral treatment for cigarette smoking: abstinence reinforcement therapy. Under abstinence reinforcement interventions, incentives are provided for objective evidence of abstinence. Several studies suggest that the intervention is effective in initiating abstinence. The intervention addresses limitations (access, cost, sustainability, and dissemination potential) inherent in traditional abstinence reinforcement delivery models. It can also be applied to vulnerable, at-risk populations, and to other behavior to promote health. Information technologies offer unprecedented and rapidly expanding opportunities to facilitate behavior change.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Medications: A National Prospective Cohort From Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chang

    Full Text Available Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters.In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015, a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052, bupropion (n = 823, NRT gum (n = 1944 or NRT patch (n = 4,149. The 7-day, 1-month or 6-month point-prevalence was calculated based on self-reported last smoking event via telephone interview after 6 months. Logistic regression modellings estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for achieving abstinence using different modalities (NRT patch as referent. Models included age, sex, education, marital status, geographic region, smoke-years, nicotine-dependence level, medical institution, number of clinic visits and medication use duration. Analyses were further stratified by sex and dependence severity.Participants were predominantly male (83% with a mean age of 43.7±12.6 years. Varenicline users were more likely than NRT patch users to achieve abstinence, based on 7-day point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.19-1.44, 1-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.36, CI: 1.24-1.50 or 6-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.14-1.47. Compared with NRT patch, varenicline was associated with greater odds of being abstinent in women (OR = 1.29, CI: 1.01-1.65, men (OR = 1.31, CI: 1.18-1.46, those with light/moderate dependence (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.24-1.63 or smokers with severe dependence (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.04-1.37, based on 7-day point-prevalence. Differences in effectiveness were not observed between users of bupropion, NRT gum and NRT patch.In smoking cessation clinics in Taiwan, varenicline users reported higher

  12. Intra-individual changes in Stroop-related activations linked to cigarette abstinence in adolescent tobacco smokers: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a crucial time for initiation of tobacco-smoking. Developing more effective treatment interventions for tobacco-smoking in youth is therefore critical to reduce smoking rates in both adolescent and adult populations. Elucidation of the neural mechanisms of successful behavioral change (abstinence) will allow for improvement of therapies based on known brain mechanisms. Twenty-one adolescent tobacco-smokers (14-19 years) participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cognitive control (Stroop) task prior to randomization to smoking cessation treatment (trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy/placebo and contingency management for attendance/abstinence; NCT01145001). Fourteen adolescents also participated in fMRI scanning following completion of the six-week trial. fMRI data were analyzed using random-effects models in SPM12. Paired t-tests were used to identify group-level changes (main effect of treatment exposure) in neural functional responses. Regression models were used to identify individual-level changes associated with treatment-outcomes (percent days abstinent, maximum days of consecutive abstinence). Main effects of Stroop task performance (contrast of incongruent versus congruent trials) were seen across a priori ROIs at both pre- and post-treatment (pFWEoptimal treatment responses in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  14. Impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment on smoking cessation intervention in ADHD smokers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Somoza, Eugene C; Brigham, Gregory S; Liu, David S; Green, Carla A; Covey, Lirio S; Croghan, Ivana T; Adler, Lenard A; Weiss, Roger D; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; Lewis, Daniel F; Dorer, Emily M

    2010-12-01

    High smoking rates in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and nicotine's amelioration of ADHD suggest that effective ADHD treatment might facilitate abstinence in smokers with ADHD. The present study evaluated if using osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) to treat ADHD enhances response to smoking cessation treatment in smokers with ADHD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial with a 1-month follow-up was conducted at 6 clinical sites between December 2005 and January 2008. Adults (aged 18-55 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and interested in quitting smoking were randomly assigned to OROS-MPH titrated to 72 mg/d (n = 127) or placebo (n = 128). All participants received brief weekly individual smoking cessation counseling for 11 weeks and 21 mg/d nicotine patches starting on the smoking quit day (day 27) through study week 11. Outcome measures included prolonged smoking abstinence and DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score. Of 255 randomly assigned participants, 204 (80%) completed the trial. Prolonged abstinence rates, 43.3% and 42.2%, for the OROS-MPH and placebo groups, respectively, did not differ significantly (OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.63-1.79; P = .81). Relative to placebo, OROS-MPH evidenced a greater reduction in DSM-IV ADHD-RS score (P ADHD did not improve smoking cessation success; OROS-MPH, relative to placebo, effectively treated ADHD and was safe and generally well tolerated in this healthy sample of adult ADHD smokers. clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT00253747. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. The Smoker’s Health Project: A self-determination theory intervention to facilitate maintenance of tobacco abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Patrick, Heather; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Lavigne, Holly McGregor

    2011-01-01

    A previous randomized clinical trial based on self-determination theory (SDT) and consistent with the Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence demonstrated that an intensive intervention could change autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence which in part facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence. The current article describes a pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial of three SDT-based intensive tobacco-dependence interventions. Eligible participants are randomized to one of three treatment conditions designed to facilitate long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence, namely, Community Care (CC), which includes the 6-month SDT-based intervention previously shown to promote autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, medication use, and tobacco abstinence; Extended Need Support (ENS), which extends the 6-month SDT-based intervention to 12 months and trains an important other to provide support for smokers’ basic psychological needs; and Harm Reduction (HR), which provides extended need support and recommends medication use for participants who do not want to stop smoking completely within 30 days but who are willing to reduce their cigarette use by half. The primary outcome is 12-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco, which is assessed one year following termination of treatment (two years post-randomization). Secondary outcomes include 7- and 30-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence, number of days using smoking-cessation medication, change in autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence, and perceived need support from important others. PMID:21382516

  16. Food addiction: detox and abstinence reinterpreted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  18. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  20. Distress, race/ethnicity and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2015-09-01

    Distress is a modifiable risk factor for smoking maintenance. This study aimed to assess racial/ethnic differences in distress pre- and post-cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, and relations with abstinence. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were conducted. University-based smoking cessation laboratory in South Florida, USA. The sample comprised 234 treatment-seekers recruited from the community (18% white, 60% African American and 22% Hispanic). All participants received eight sessions of group CBT plus 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine patches (TNP). Demographics and smoking history [baseline], perceived stress and depressive symptoms [baseline and end of therapy (EOT)], carbon monoxide-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (p.p.a.) at EOT, 3 months post-CBT (primary outcome) and 6 months (self-report). Compared with whites, African Americans reported greater baseline perceived stress (P = 0.03) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.06); no EOT differences were found. African Americans (P perceived stress reduction, and African Americans reported greater reductions in depressive symptoms (P perceived stress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)) and depressive symptoms [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated inversely with 7-day p.p.a. at 3 months. Reductions in perceived stress [AOR = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)] and depressive symptoms at the EOT [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated with cessation, such that reduced distress increased the odds of abstinence. The interactions between race/ethnicity and distress on 7-day p.p.a. were not significant at any assessment point. Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African Americans and Hispanics. High levels of distress were associated with reduced odds of abstinence through 6

  1. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bergen

    Full Text Available The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine, has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3. Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  2. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  3. Quitting smoking does not increase the risk of major depressive episodes among users of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L D; Barrera, A Z; Delucchi, K; Penilla, C; Pérez-Stable, E J; Muñoz, R F

    2010-03-01

    Limited evidence has suggested that quitting smoking increases the incidence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), particularly for smokers with a history of depression. Further evidence for this increase would have important implications for guiding smoking cessation. Spanish- and English-speaking smokers without a current MDE (n=3056) from an international, online smoking cessation trial were assessed for abstinence 1 month after their initial quit date and followed for a total of 12 months. Incidence of screened MDE was examined as a function of abstinence and depression history. Continued smoking, not abstinence, predicted MDE screened at 1 month [smoking 11.5% v. abstinence 7.8%, odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.78, p=0.02] but not afterwards (smoking 11.1% v. abstinence 9.8%, OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.77-1.45, p=0.74). Depression history predicted MDE screened at 1 month (history 17.1% v. no history 8.6%, OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29-2.27, pincreased MDE, even for smokers with a history of depression, although a history of depression was. Instead, not quitting was associated with increased MDE shortly following a quit attempt. Results from this online, large, international sample of smokers converge with similar findings from smaller, clinic-based samples, suggesting that in general, quitting smoking does not increase the incidence of MDEs.

  4. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  5. Small financial incentives increase smoking cessation in homeless smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Kesh, Anshula; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Although over 70% of homeless individuals smoke, few studies have examined the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of shelter-based smoking cessation clinic usual care (UC) to an adjunctive contingency management (CM) treatment that offered UC plus small financial incentives for smoking abstinence. Sixty-eight homeless individuals in Dallas, Texas (recruited in 2012) were assigned to UC (n=58) or UC plus financial incentives (CM; n=10) groups and were followed for 5 consecutive weeks (1 week pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit). A generalized linear mixed model regression analysis was conducted to compare biochemically-verified abstinence rates between groups. An additional model examined the interaction between time and treatment group. The participants were primarily male (61.8%) and African American (58.8%), and were 49 years of age on average. There was a significant effect of treatment group on abstinence overall, and effects varied over time. Follow-up logistic regression analyses indicated that CM participants were significantly more likely than UC participants to be abstinent on the quit date (50% vs. 19% abstinent) and at 4 weeks post-quit (30% vs. 1.7% abstinent). Offering small financial incentives for smoking abstinence may be an effective way to facilitate smoking cessation in homeless individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular genetics of nicotine dependence and abstinence: whole genome association using 520,000 SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Donna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical genetic studies indicate that nicotine dependence is a substantially heritable complex disorder. Genetic vulnerabilities to nicotine dependence largely overlap with genetic vulnerabilities to dependence on other addictive substances. Successful abstinence from nicotine displays substantial heritable components as well. Some of the heritability for the ability to quit smoking appears to overlap with the genetics of nicotine dependence and some does not. We now report genome wide association studies of nicotine dependent individuals who were successful in abstaining from cigarette smoking, nicotine dependent individuals who were not successful in abstaining and ethnically-matched control subjects free from substantial lifetime use of any addictive substance. Results These data, and their comparison with data that we have previously obtained from comparisons of four other substance dependent vs control samples support two main ideas: 1 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs whose allele frequencies distinguish nicotine-dependent from control individuals identify a set of genes that overlaps significantly with the set of genes that contain markers whose allelic frequencies distinguish the four other substance dependent vs control groups (p vs unsuccessful abstainers cluster in small genomic regions in ways that are highly unlikely to be due to chance (Monte Carlo p Conclusion These clustered SNPs nominate candidate genes for successful abstinence from smoking that are implicated in interesting functions: cell adhesion, enzymes, transcriptional regulators, neurotransmitters and receptors and regulation of DNA, RNA and proteins. As these observations are replicated, they will provide an increasingly-strong basis for understanding mechanisms of successful abstinence, for identifying individuals more or less likely to succeed in smoking cessation efforts and for tailoring therapies so that genotypes can help match smokers

  7. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  8. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  9. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The impact of adolescent binge drinking and sustained abstinence on affective state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Nicole M; Winward, Jennifer L; Lau, Lily L; Wagner, Chase C; Brown, Sandra A

    2013-08-01

    While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. This study examined negative mood states among 2 groups of 16- to 18-year-old high school students; youth with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at 3 time points during a 4- to 6-week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared with nondrinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: M = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however, differences in affect were not observed after 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that boys may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than girls with sustained abstinence. Findings suggest that high-dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Lydia A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim

    2018-08-01

    Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana ≥5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maintenance pharmacotherapy normalizes the relapse curve in recently abstinent tobacco smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evins, A Eden; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Schoenfeld, David A; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Cather, Corinne; Pachas, Gladys N; Cieslak, Kristina M; Maravic, Melissa Culhane

    2017-05-01

    To compare the effect of maintenance pharmacotherapy on sustained abstinence rates between recently abstinent smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (SBD) and general population smokers without psychiatric illness. We performed a person-level, pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials of maintenance varenicline, conducted in adult smokers with SBD and general population smokers, controlling for severity of dependence. Smokers abstinent after 12-weeks of open varenicline treatment were randomly assigned to ≥12-weeks maintenance varenicline or identical placebo. In those assigned to maintenance placebo, the abstinence rate at week-24 was lower in those with SBD than for those without psychiatric illness (29.4±1.1% vs. 61.8±0.4%, OR:0.26, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.52, psmokers assigned to maintenance pharmacotherapy, however, there was no effect of diagnosis on abstinence rates at week-24 (87.2±0.8% vs. 81.9±0.2%, OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 0.53, 5.32, p=0.38). Time to first lapse was shortest in those with SBD assigned to maintenance placebo (Q1=12days, 95%CI: 4, 16), longer in those without psychiatric illness assigned to maintenance placebo (Q1=17days, 95%CI: 17, 29), still longer in general-population smokers assigned to maintenance varenicline (Q1=88, 95% CI:58,91, and longest in those with SBD who received maintenance varenicline (Q1>95days, 95%CI:non-est), (Χ 2 3df =96.99, p<0.0001; all pairwise comparisons p<0.001). Following a standard 12-week course of pharmacotherapy, people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were more likely to relapse to smoking without maintenance varenicline treatment. Maintenance pharmacotherapy could improve longer-term tobacco abstinence rates and reduce known smoking-related health disparities in those with SMI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Analysis of quality of life in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) who give up smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Ruiz, C A; Pascual Lledó, J F; Cícero Guerrero, A; Cristóbal Fernández, M; Mayayo Ulibarri, M; Villar Laguna, C

    2017-09-13

    To analyse the impact in COPD patients' quality of life who stop smoking. We studied a group of COPD patients who received smoking cessation treatment. All patients were treated with bronchodilators according to the severity of their disorder. This treatment was not changed during the process of smoking cessation. Patients received a smoking cessation programme that consisted of a combination of pharmacological treatment plus cognitive-behavioural treatment. All subjects fill in CAT questionnaire before starting smoking cessation programme and after 6 months of abstinence. All subjects included had stop smoking. The study included 59 patients, with 27 (45.8%) males, and a mean age of 61.8 (7.5) years. Mean CAT score before quitting was 18.9 (7.3) points, and after 6 months of abstinence was 8.1 (6.1) points, P=.038. Multiple regression analysis showed: a) the higher the baseline CAT score the greater is the difference after quitting, at 6 months, at same age, gender, and grade of severity of COPD, and b) the older the age, the lower is the difference between baseline CAT score and the 6 months CAT score. Smoking cessation is associated with improvement in the quality of life in COPD patients. Those with worse quality of life get the biggest benefit from quitting, although this difference can be diminished in ageing patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  15. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking cue distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R. Ross; Nichols, Travis T.; LeBreton, James M.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies suggest that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. The current study adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that performance of daily smokers (n=17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. Results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low load condition relative to the high load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. Results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions. PMID:27012714

  16. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions.

  17. Sleep Disturbance During Smoking Cessation: Withdrawal or Side Effect of Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo ( n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline ( n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT). The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR ( p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT ( p = 0.004). Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.

  18. Atomoxetine in abstinent cocaine users: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise E. DeVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Data presented are from a sex-differences secondary analysis of a human laboratory investigation of single doses of atomoxetine (40 mg and 80 mg versus placebo in abstinent individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD. Subjective drug effects, cognitive performance and cardiovascular measures were assessed. The primary atomoxetine dose analyses (which do not consider sex as a factor are reported in full elsewhere (DeVito et al., 2017 [1].

  19. Characteristics associated with intervention and follow-up attendance in a secondhand smoke exposure study for families of NICU infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Thomas F; Green, Charles; Evans, Patricia W; Stotts, Angela L

    2015-07-01

    The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an ideal setting to intervene with an under served population on secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Unfortunately, attrition may compromise outcomes. Baseline characteristics associated with intervention and follow-up attendance were investigated in mothers who participated in a novel SHSe prevention study designed for households with a smoker and a NICU-admitted infant. Intervention participants received two motivational, NICU-based counseling sessions; usual care participants received pamphlets. Home-based follow-up assessments occurred at 1, 3 and 6 months. Sociodemographic, smoking history, and psychosocial factors were analyzed. Mothers from households with greater numbers of cigarettes smoked and fewer children had higher odds of both intervention and follow-up attendance. Maternal smoking abstinence (lifetime), more adults in the home and higher perceived interpersonal support were also associated with higher odds of follow-up visit completion. Innovative strategies are needed to engage mothers in secondhand smoke interventions, especially mothers who smoke, have lower levels of social support and have greater childcare responsibilities.

  20. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  1. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  2. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  3. Smoking cessation in Argentina: a gender-based perspective from GATS results

    OpenAIRE

    Brunilda Casetta

    2018-01-01

    Background It is a common belief that men are more successful in quitting than women. However, results from the evidence are controversial. While some studies do not show differences in number of quit attempts and abstinence rates by gender, other sources find abstinence is more difficult for women. In Argentina, more girls than boys smoke, but men smoke more than women. This study aimed to measure the quitting effect evaluating the characteristics of current and f...

  4. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  5. Heterogeneity in the Effects of Reward- and Deposit-based Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D; French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-10-15

    Targeting different smoking cessation programs to smokers most likely to quit when using them could reduce the burden of lung disease. To identify smokers most likely to quit using pure reward-based financial incentives or incentive programs requiring refundable deposits to become eligible for rewards. We conducted prespecified secondary analyses of a randomized trial in which 2,538 smokers were assigned to an $800 reward contingent on sustained abstinence from smoking, a refundable $150 deposit plus a $650 reward, or usual care. Using logistic regression, we identified characteristics of smokers that were most strongly associated with accepting their assigned intervention and ceasing smoking for 6 months. We assessed modification of the acceptance, efficacy, and effectiveness of reward and deposit programs by 11 prospectively selected demographic, smoking-related, and psychological factors. Predictors of sustained smoking abstinence differed among participants assigned to reward- versus deposit-based incentives. However, greater readiness to quit and less steep discounting of future rewards were consistently among the most important predictors. Deposit-based programs were uniquely effective relative to usual care among men, higher-income participants, and participants who more commonly failed to pay their bills (all interaction P values rewards, deposits were more effective among black persons (P = 0.022) and those who more commonly failed to pay their bills (P = 0.082). Relative to rewards, deposits were more commonly accepted by higher-income participants, men, white persons, and those who less commonly failed to pay their bills (all P incentives suggests potential benefits of targeting behavior-change interventions based on patient characteristics. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01526265).

  6. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Jennifer L; Bekman, Nicole M; Hanson, Karen L; Lejuez, Carl W; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test - Computerized Version (PASAT-C) to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Participants, ages 16 to 18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically matched, nondrinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at 3 time points: HED was first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over 4 subsequent weeks of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. From the findings, it was observed that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk of escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. The impact of social media-based support groups on smoking relapse prevention in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onezi, Hamidi Al; Khalifa, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 473 smokers taking part in smoking cessation intervention programs run by the Riyadh branch of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City and PURITY, a Saudi anti-smoking association. Only subjects who expressed an interest in quitting smoking, and those attempting to quit, were considered for inclusion. The sample was divided into three groups: subjects who subscribed to support groups on Twitter (n = 150), and WhatsApp (n = 150), and a control group of subjects who had not subscribed to any social media support groups (n = 173). A significant difference was found between the mean average numbers of people who quit smoking among the three groups, with social media support proving to be more effective than other traditional methods. Our findings imply that Twitter and WhatsApp users found it easier to quit smoking than those who did not take part in these social media groups. Social media provides a good platform to discuss smoking cessation treatment, and thus reduce smoking relapses. Our findings support the suggestion that more social media support groups should be developed to help people to effectively cease smoking after abstinence. Individuals who struggle to quit smoking should be encouraged to join support groups on their social media platform of choice to increase their likelihood of quitting. Future studies should assess the effectiveness

  8. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Erin

    2017-01-01

    NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.

  9. Cigarette craving and stressful social interactions: The roles of state and trait social anxiety and smoking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Cohen, Lee M

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is a risk factor for the maintenance and relapse of smoking behaviors. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the effects of state and trait levels of SA as well as smoking to cope with symptoms of SA on craving during a social stressor task in abstinent conditions. Participants (n = 60) were daily smokers, aged 18-30. Participants attended two sessions: a baseline session and a second session, wherein they engaged in a social stressor task while deprived from nicotine for 24 h. Subjective ratings of cigarette craving and state levels of SA were assessed six times throughout the task. Data were analyzed via multilevel modeling. Both trait SA and some forms of smoking to cope with symptoms of SA were more likely to predict increased craving during times of high, relative to low, social stress. Further, individuals with higher state SA, greater smoking to cope behaviors, and those who experience greater relief of social distress by smoking experienced greater craving throughout the task. These effects remained after controlling for nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depression, and other symptoms of anxiety and stress. Smoking to cope with symptoms of SA did not moderate the relationship between state SA and craving. Smokers high in SA (state and trait) and smoking to cope with symptoms of SA may be at risk for continued smoking and relapse because of the intensity of cravings they experience during stressful social situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Memory performance in abstinent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, Gary; Howchar, Hennedy; Marsh, Ali

    2007-02-01

    Research with animals and humans has suggested that acute and subacute use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA "ecstasy") may lead to memory impairment. However, research is limited by (1) low power due to small sample sizes, (2) the possible confound of polydrug use, and (3) the failure to consider intelligence as a covariate. The present study compared the memory performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III of 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational MDMA users with 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational polydrug users. Despite significantly greater polydrug use amongst these MDMA users, no significant group differences in memory were observed. Regression of total lifetime amount of MDMA use also did not predict memory performance after accounting for intelligence. In addition, the length of time since abstinence (at least 2 wk.) was not associated with an increase in memory performance. Greater total lifetime cocaine use, rather than total lifetime MDMA use, was significantly associated with greater decrements in General Memory and Delayed Verbal Memory performance.

  11. The DRD4 exon III VNTR, bupropion, and associations with prospective abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Andrew W; Javitz, Harold S; Su, Li; He, Yungang; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E

    2013-07-01

    DRD4 Exon III Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) variation was found to interact with bupropion to influence prospective smoking abstinence, in a recently published longitudinal analyses of N = 331 individuals from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of bupropion and intensive cognitive-behavioral mood management therapy. We used univariate, multivariate, and longitudinal logistic regression to evaluate gene, treatment, time, and interaction effects on point prevalence and continuous abstinence at end of treatment, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively, in N = 416 European ancestry participants in a double-blind pharmacogenetic efficacy trial randomizing participants to active or placebo bupropion. Participants received 10 weeks of pharmacotherapy and 7 sessions of behavioral therapy, with a target quit date 2 weeks after initiating both therapies. VNTR genotypes were coded with the long allele dominant resulting in 4 analysis categories. Covariates included demographics, dependence measures, depressive symptoms, and genetic ancestry. We also performed genotype-stratified secondary analyses. We observed significant effects of time in longitudinal analyses of both abstinence outcomes, of treatment in individuals with VNTR long allele genotypes for both abstinence outcomes, and of covariates in some analyses. We observed non-significantly larger differences in active versus placebo effect sizes in individuals with VNTR long allele genotypes than in individuals without the VNTR long allele, in the directions previously reported. VNTR by treatment interaction differences between these and previous analyses may be attributable to insufficient size of the replication sample. Analyses of multiple randomized clinical trials will enable identification and validation of factors mediating treatment response.

  12. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  13. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  14. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P

    2013-12-23

    Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675.

  15. The interplay of history of depression and craving in terms of smoking relapse among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Paulus, Daniel J; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez-Vispo, Carmela; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Becoña, Elisardo; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an interconnection between history of major depressive disorder and smoking, there has been relatively limited scientific attention oriented on the interplay between history of major depressive disorder and smoking maintenance processes. The current study sought to address whether history of major depressive disorder and post-cessation craving interact in the prediction of relapse among treatment-seeking smokers. Separate models were evaluated as a function of sex. Participants (n = 319, Mage = 41.7, 62.1% female) were treatment-seeking smokers who were abstinent at the end of six weekly 1-hour sessions involving psychosocial treatment for cessation. Participants completed a baseline assessment and reported post-cessation craving. Smoking status was assessed at 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up after the end of treatment. There was a significant interactive effect evident for females (B = 0.05, OR = 1.05, p = 0.013), but not males. The form of the interaction indicated females with history of major depressive disorder and greater post-treatment craving evinced the highest rate of relapse. Findings suggest that history of major depressive disorder and post-treatment craving are related to increased risk of relapse for female, but not male, smokers. Sex differences play a fundamental role in the explanation of the interaction of history of major depressive disorder and craving post-treatment in smoking relapse. Considering sex differences related to smoking relapse may help to tailor smoking cessation treatments.

  16. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  17. Abstinence And Faithfulness Programmes For Prevention Of Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions have been raised on whether abstinence and faithfulness programs work, particularly for young people. Research is needed for evidence-based documentation of the effectiveness or otherwise of abstinence and faithfulness programmes in young people. This review was conducted in three stages: identification ...

  18. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  19. Do withdrawal-like symptoms mediate increased marijuana smoking in individuals treated with venlafaxine-XR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meredith A; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mariani, John J; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A; Nunes, Edward V; Levin, Frances R

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis-dependent participants with depressive disorder are less likely to achieve abstinence with venlafaxine-XR (VEN-XR) treatment. Individuals on VEN-XR reported more severe withdrawal, despite not reducing their smoking behavior. We hypothesized that withdrawal-like symptoms, likely medication side effects, led to continued marijuana smoking in this group. We conducted a secondary analysis using Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) scores and urine THC to test whether severity of withdrawal-like symptoms mediates the relationship between VEN-XR treatment and continued marijuana smoking. We included 103 participants (VEN-XR=51, Placebo=52). Marijuana use was dichotomized into smoking (THC>100 ng/ml) and non-smoking (THC ≤ 100 ng/ml) weeks. MWC scores were obtained weekly. We used three models in a regression based mediation analysis. The estimated risk of smoking marijuana was greater for individuals on VEN-XR in weeks 7-9, even when controlling for MWC scores (week 7 Risk Difference (RD)=0.11, p=0.034; week 8 RD=0.20, p=0.014), and higher scores mediated this effect. In weeks 10 and 11, the estimated effect was stronger (week 10 RD=0.03, p=0.380; week 11 RD=0.07, p=0.504), and worse withdrawal-like symptoms more fully accounted for continued marijuana smoking in the VEN-XR group, according to the models. Individuals treated with VEN-XR had more severe withdrawal-like symptoms, which mediated their continued marijuana smoking. Noradrenergic agents, such as VEN-XR, may negatively impact treatment outcomes in cannabis-dependent patients attempting to reduce or stop their use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Opiate v CNS depressant therapy in neonatal drug abstinence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandall, S R; Doberczak, T M; Mauer, K R; Strashun, R H; Korts, D C

    1983-04-01

    Paregoric and phenobarbital, administered randomly in 153 passively addicted neonates, initially appeared to control neonatal abstinence signs equally well. However, seven of the 62 phenobarbital-treated newborns had abstinence-associated seizures within the first month of life, while none of 49 paregoric-treated neonates had seizures. Forty-two neonates initially requiring no specific pharmacotherapy for abstinence signs were born to mothers taking less methadone hydrochloride just before delivery. Five of those 42 neonates, however, had seizures within the first 14 days of life. Seizure occurrence could not be predicted from analysis of early abstinence patterns. We consider paregoric to be the treatment of choice for the neonatal abstinence syndrome. Phenobarbital use should be monitored with serum drug levels and modification of recommended dosage regimens considered.

  1. Self-perceived ability to cope with stress without smoking predicts successful smoking cessation 12 months later in a quitline setting: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nohlert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Telephone-based smoking cessation services ('quitlines' are both effective and cost-effective. Knowledge of modifiable baseline factors in real-life settings with heterogeneous participants is essential for the development and improvement of treatment protocols to assist in telephone-based smoking cessation. The aim was to assess self-efficacy as a predictor for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up at the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ. Methods The data were collected from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of proactive and reactive service at the SNTQ. Included were 612 clients calling the SNTQ between February 2009 and September 2010. Outcome measures were self-reported point prevalence and 6-month continuous abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Plausible predictors of smoking cessation were assessed at the first call and in a baseline questionnaire. Self-efficacy was measured by three questions: (1 the likelihood of being smoking free in 1 year; (2 the ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking; and (3 the likelihood of using medication against craving if necessary. The associations between predictors and outcome were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Results Of the three self-efficacy predictors for abstinence at month 12, only the perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking remained significant in the adjusted analyses (odds ratio, OR, 1.1 for point prevalence and 1.2 for 6-month continuous abstinence. The overall strongest predictor in the adjusted analyses was smoking status in the week before baseline (OR 2.7 for point prevalence and 3.1 for 6-month continuous abstinence. Conclusions The perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking at baseline predicted the subjects' abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. An assessment of/adjustment for stress and depressive mood may be appropriate in future smoking cessation

  2. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.

  3. Effects of cigarette smoking on lexical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C R; Gentry, M V; Meliska, C J

    1999-02-01

    10 habitual smokers, aged 19-25 yr., were randomly assigned to smoke either a very low nicotine "Placebo" cigarette (.05-mg nicotine delivery as estimated by the FTC method) or a Nicotine cigarette (.7-mg estimated nicotine delivery). Each participant was asked to abstain from smoking for 4 to 7 hr. prior to testing. After completing a presmoking test of lexical decision-making, participants smoked either a Nicotine or Placebo cigarette and were then retested for reaction times and accuracy on the lexical decision test. When presented the most difficult lexical decisions, participants responded significantly faster after smoking a Nicotine cigarette than they did before smoking; smoking a Placebo cigarette did not affect reaction times. Response accuracy was unaffected by smoking either kind of cigarette. These results suggest that smoking a nicotine cigarette may improve attention or memory retrieval after several hours of smoking abstinence.

  4. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  5. Aspiring to physical health: the role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2009-02-01

    To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change=.05), relative to community care (mean change=-.13), t=2.66, p<.01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z'=1.68, p<.01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z'=2.16, p<.01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (beta=.08, p<.05). Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use.

  6. Acute effects of glucose tablets on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and sustained attention in 12-h abstinent tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakas, P; Foulds, J

    2002-05-01

    Glucose administration may decrease desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. Moreover, glucose administration has been associated with improved performance on measures of attention in healthy humans but evidence remains modest. The present study aimed to determine whether reported craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms can be relieved, and sustained attention on the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task improved, with the administration of 12 g oral glucose in nicotine-deprived smokers. Forty-one smokers, abstinent for 12 h, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to examine the effect of glucose on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and attention. Participants completed the RVIP task once and then rated craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms before chewing four 3 g glucose tablets (experimental group) or four matched placebo tablets (control group). Following tablet consumption participants rated craving and withdrawal symptoms at 5-min intervals for 20 min. Subsequently a second RVIP task was performed, followed by a final rating of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Any effect of glucose across time was not statistically significant on craving, withdrawal symptoms, or performance on the RVIP task. There were no differences between the groups in measures of 'satisfaction' or 'sickness'. The present study failed to find a significant effect of 12 g oral glucose on tobacco craving, withdrawal symptoms, or sustained attention in relatively young tobacco smokers after 12 h of tobacco abstinence.

  7. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael H; Taylor, Adrian H; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-08-29

    Taking regular exercise may help people give up smoking by moderating nicotine withdrawal and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. To determine whether exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoking cessation programme, are more effective than a smoking cessation intervention alone. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in April 2014, and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus in May 2014. We included randomized trials which compared an exercise programme alone, or an exercise programme as an adjunct to a cessation programme, with a cessation programme (which we considered the control in this review). Studies were required to recruit smokers or recent quitters and have a follow-up of six months or more. Studies that did not meet the full inclusion criteria because they only assessed the acute effects of exercise on smoking behaviour, or because the outcome was smoking reduction, are summarised but not formally included. We extracted data on study characteristics and smoking outcomes. Because of differences between studies in the characteristics of the interventions used we summarized the results narratively, making no attempt at meta-analysis. We assessed risk of selection and attrition bias using standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified 20 trials with a total of 5,870 participants. The largest study was an internet trial with 2,318 participants, and eight trials had fewer than 30 people in each treatment arm. Studies varied in the timing and intensity of the smoking cessation and exercise programmes offered. Only one included study was judged to be at low risk of bias across all domains assessed. Four studies showed significantly higher abstinence rates in a physically active group versus a control group at end of treatment. One of these studies also showed a significant benefit for exercise versus control on abstinence at the three-month follow

  8. Efficacy of a Nurse-Delivered Intervention to Prevent and Delay Postpartum Return to Smoking: The Quit for Two Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I; Fish, Laura J; Lyna, Pauline; Peterson, Bercedis L; Myers, Evan R; Gao, Xiaomei; Swamy, Geeta K; Brown-Johnson, Angela; Whitecar, Paul; Bilheimer, Alicia K; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2016-10-01

    Most pregnant women who quit smoking return to smoking postpartum. Trials to prevent this return have been unsuccessful. We tested the efficacy of a nurse-delivered intervention in maintaining smoking abstinence after delivery among pregnant women who quit smoking that was tailored on their high risk of relapse (eg, had strong intentions to return). We recruited 382 English-speaking spontaneous pregnant quitters from 14 prenatal clinics and randomized them to receive either a smoking abstinence booklet plus newsletters about parenting and stress (control) or a nurse-delivered smoking abstinence intervention that differed in intensity for the high and low risk groups. Our primary outcome was smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum. Using intent-to-treat analyses, there was a high rate of biochemically validated smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum but no arm differences ( 36% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-43] vs. 35% [95% CI: 28-43], P = .81). Among women at low risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was significantly higher in the control arm (46%) than in the intervention arm (33%); among women at high risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was slightly lower but not different in the control arm (31%) than in the intervention arm (37%). Low-risk women fared better with a minimal intervention that focused on parenting skills and stress than when they received an intensive smoking abstinence intervention. The opposite was true for women who were at high risk of returning to smoking. Clinicians might need to tailor their approach based on whether women are at high or low risk of returning to smoking. Results suggest that high-risk and low-risk women might benefit from different types of smoking relapse interventions. Those who are lower risk of returning to smoking might benefit from stress reduction that is devoid of smoking content, whereas those who are higher risk might benefit from smoking relapse prevention. © The

  9. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  10. Contingency management improves smoking cessation treatment outcomes among highly impulsive adolescent smokers relative to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Pittman, Brian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive adolescents have difficulty quitting smoking. We examined if treatments that provide behavioral incentives for abstinence improve treatment outcomes among impulsive adolescent smokers, who have been shown to be highly sensitive to reward. We ran secondary data analyses on 64 teen smokers (mean age=16.36 [1.44]; cigarettes/day=13.97 [6.61]; 53.1% female; 90.6% Caucasian) who completed a four-week smoking cessation trial to determine whether impulsive adolescents differentially benefit from receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), contingency management (CM), or the combination of the two (CM/CBT). Indices of treatment efficacy included self-report percent days abstinent and end of treatment biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence (EOT abstinence). We assessed self-reported impulsivity using the Brief Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. We used univariate Generalized Linear Modeling to examine main effects and interactions of impulsivity and treatment condition as predictors of self-reported abstinence, and exact logistic regression to examine EOT abstinence. CM/CBT and CM were comparably effective in promoting abstinence, so analyses were conducted comparing the efficacy of CBT to treatments with a CM component (i.e., CM and CM/CBT). CBT and deficient self-regulation predicted lower self-reported abstinence rates within the total analytic sample. Treatments containing CM were more effective than CBT in predicting 1) self-reported abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents (% days abstinent: CM 77%; CM/CBT 81%; CBT 30%) and 2) EOT point prevalence abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents and adolescents with significant deficits in self-regulation. CM-based interventions may improve the low smoking cessation rates previously observed among impulsive adolescent smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...... Eight trials enrolling a total of 1156 people met the inclusion criteria. One of these did not report cessation as an outcome. Two trials initiated multisession face to face counselling at least 6 weeks before surgery whilst six used a brief intervention. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was offered......; pooled RR 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 25.46, two trials) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.63, five trials) respectively. Four trials evaluating the effect on long-term smoking cessation found a significant effect; pooled RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.33). However, when pooling intensive...

  12. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD can be detected and quantified by analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG; however the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the ECG have not been characterized.Standard 12-lead ECGs were performed at baseline and 3 years after subjects enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. ECGs were interpreted using the Minnesota Code ECG Classification. The effects of (i smoking burden on the prevalence of ECG findings at baseline, and (ii smoking and smoking cessation on ECG changes after 3 years were investigated by multivariable and multinomial regression analyses.At baseline, 532 smokers were (mean [SD] 43.3 (11.5 years old, smoked 20.6 (7.9 cigarettes/day, with a smoking burden of 26.7 (18.6 pack-years. Major and minor ECG criteria were identified in 87 (16.4% and 131 (24.6% of subjects, respectively. After adjusting for demographic data and known CVD risk factors, higher pack-years was associated with major ECG abnormalities (p = 0.02, but current cigarettes/day (p = 0.23 was not. After 3 years, 42.9% of subjects were abstinent from smoking. New major and minor ECG criteria were observed in 7.2% and 15.6% of subjects respectively, but in similar numbers of abstinent subjects and continuing smokers (p>0.2 for both. Continuing smokers showed significant reduction in current smoking (-8.4 [8.8] cigarettes/day, p<0.001 compared to baseline.In conclusion, major ECG abnormalities are independently associated with lifetime smoking burden. After 3 years, smoking cessation was not associated with a decrease in ECG abnormalities, although cigarettes smoked/day decreased among continuing smokers.

  13. Effects of physician counseling on the smoking behavior of asbestos-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Ewart, C.K.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Wood, J.; Emmett, E.A.; Permutt, S.

    1984-01-01

    Physician antismoking advice has been shown to increase smoking cessation, particularly among patients who have medical problems or perceive themselves to be at risk. The present study tested three hypotheses: (a) providing 3 to 5 min of behavioral counseling regarding a cessation strategy would be more effective than simply warning the smoker to quit smoking; (b) smokers with abnormal pulmonary function would be more likely to comply with medical advice than would smokers with normal pulmonary function; and (c) that smokers with abnormal pulmonary function who receive behavioral counseling would be the group most likely to achieve prolonged abstinence. Asbestos-exposed smoking men undergoing screening in a mandated program for naval shipyard workers were categorized as having normal or abnormal pulmonary status on the basis of chest X ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT). They were then randomly assigned within PFT categories to receive either a simple warning or 3 to 5 min of behavioral cessation counseling from the physician who gave them the results of their pulmonary tests. Subjects smoking status was evaluated at 3- and 11-month intervals following the physician intervention. Smokers who received behavioral counseling were more likely to quit and remain abstinent over the 11-month period (8.4% abstinent) than were smokers given a minimal warning (3.6% abstinent). Prolonged abstinence rates among abnormal PFT subjects (3.7%) did not differ from those of normals (5.9%). The group with normal PFT who received behavioral counseling achieved the highest level of abstinence (9.5%)

  14. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Population-level effects of automated smoking cessation help programs: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; Benda, Peter

    2013-03-01

    To test the population impact of offering automated smoking cessation interventions via the internet and/or by mobile phone. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with five conditions: offer of (i) minimal intervention control; (ii) QuitCoach personalized tailored internet-delivered advice program; (iii) onQ, an interactive automated text-messaging program; (iv) an integration of both QuitCoach and onQ; and (v) a choice of either alone or the combined program. Australia, via a mix of internet and telephone contacts. A total of 3530 smokers or recent quitters recruited from those interested in quitting, and seeking self-help resources (n = 1335) or cold-contacted from internet panels (n = 2195). The primary outcome was self-report of 6 months sustained abstinence at 7 months post-recruitment. Only 42.5% of those offered one of the interventions took it up to a minimal level. The intervention groups combined had a non-significantly higher 6-month sustained abstinence rate than the control [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-2.24] (missing cases treated as smokers), with no differences between the interventions. Among those who used an intervention, there was a significant overall increase in abstinence (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.04-3.67), but not clearly so when analysing only cases with reported outcomes. Success rates were greater among those recruited after seeking information compared to those cold-contacted. Smokers interested in quitting who were assigned randomly to an offer of either the QuitCoach internet-based support program and/or the interactive automated text-messaging program had non-significantly greater odds of quitting for at least 6 months than those randomized to an offer of a simple information website. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives: Relationships among multiple motivational domains and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-04-01

    Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of comprehensive and abstinence-only sexuality education in young African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lindsay M; Sly, Kaye F; Girard, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of sexual behavior and condom use in African American adolescents, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality and abstinence-only education to reduce adolescent sexual behavior and increase condom use. Participants included 450 adolescents aged 12-14 years in the southern United States. Regression analyses showed favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior and social norms significantly predicted recent sexual behavior, and favorable attitudes toward condoms significantly predicted condom usage. Self-efficacy was not found to be predictive of adolescents' sexual behavior or condom use. There were no significant differences in recent sexual behavior based on type of sexuality education. Adolescents who received abstinence-only education had reduced favorable attitudes toward condom use, and were more likely to have unprotected sex than the comparison group. Findings suggest that adolescents who receive abstinence-only education are at greater risk of engaging in unprotected sex. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Broyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50 in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence and 18 nonusers completed (1 a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2 a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process.

  19. Changes in circulating peptide YY and ghrelin are associated with early smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48h of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session. Results showed that relapsers experienced greater levels of distress (ps <0.01). While nonsmokers and abstainers showed no change in ghrelin across the initial 48h, relapsers declined (p <0.01). With PYY, relapsers increased (p <0.05) across the early abstinent phase. PYY and ghrelin may be useful predictors of relapse, specifically in reference to early withdrawal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The neurocognitive effects of Hypericum perforatum Special Extract (Ze 117) during smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, D A; Scholey, A B; Pipingas, A; Silberstein, R B; Kure, C; Zangara, A; Kras, M; Stough, C

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of current treatments for smoking cessation are relatively poor. More research is required to address the biological mechanisms underpinning nicotine withdrawal and drug treatments for smoking cessation. We assessed the neurocognitive effects of Remotiv® (Hypericum perforatum Special Extract - Ze 117), Nicabate CQ Nicotine Replacement therapy (NRT) and combined NRT/HP during conditions of smoking abstinence in 20 regular smokers aged between 18 and 60 years over a period of 10 weeks during smoking cessation. A Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task was completed at baseline, 4 weeks prior to quitting, as well as at the completion of the study, following the 10 weeks of treatment. Brain activity was recorded during the completion of the SWM task using Steady-State Probe Topography. Reaction time and accuracy on the SWM task were not found to be significantly different between treatment groups at retest. Differences in SSVEP treatment profiles at retest are discussed, including stronger SSVEP Amplitude increase in posterior-parietal regions for the HP and NRT groups and greater fronto-central SSVEP Phase Advance in the HP group. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relapse to smoking following release from smoke-free correctional facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljević, Cheneal; de Andrade, Dominique; Coomber, Ross; Kinner, Stuart A

    2018-06-01

    Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with reduced post-release smoking levels compared to pre-incarceration levels. 94% of participants relapsed to smoking within two months of release; 72% relapsed on the day of release. 62% of participants smoked significantly less per day after compared with before incarceration. Living with a partner (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.77, 95%CI 1.02-7.52), expressing support for smoke-free prison policies (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.12-5.32), intending to remain abstinent post-release (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.88-9.82), and intending to quit in the future (OR 3.88, 95%CI 1.66-9.07) were associated with reduced smoking post-release. Use of illicit drugs post-release was negatively associated with reduced smoking post-release (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.79). In multivariate analyses, pre-release intention to remain smoke-free was associated with reduced smoking post-release (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.01-7.14). Relapse to smoking after release from smoke-free prisons is common, but many who relapse smoke less than before incarceration, suggesting that smoke-free prison policies may reduce post-release tobacco smoking. There is a need for tailored, evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions for people recently released from prison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic approach bias towards smoking cues is present in smokers but not in ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Kühn, S.; Javadi, A.H.; Korucuoglu, O.; Wiers, R.W.; Walter, H.; Gallinat, J.; Bermpohl, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale :Drug-addicted individuals show automatic approach tendencies towards drug-related cues, i.e., an approach bias (ApB). Nevertheless, little is known about ApB in tobacco smokers and about the presence of ApB after smoking abstinence. Objectives: We investigated ApB to smoking cues in heavy

  3. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  4. Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: Implications for nicotine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Kim, Su-Young; Colby, Suzanne; Conti, David; Giovino, Gary A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hyland, Andrew; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Niaura, Raymond; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Toll, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smoking cessation outcome. This paper used data from four placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials and one international epidemiologic study to determine relations between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; Kozlowski et al., 1994), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS; Shiffman et al., 2004) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al. 2004) with cessation success. Results showed that much of the predictive validity of the FTND could be attributed to its first item, time to first cigarette in the morning, and this item had greater validity than any other single measure. Thus, the time to first cigarette item appears to tap a pattern of heavy, uninterrupted, and automatic smoking and may be a good single-item measure of nicotine dependence. PMID:18067032

  5. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  6. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-17

    Jun 17, 2016 ... area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with ..... emotional turmoil or guilt that comes with being sexually .... to be encouraged toward an informed process of making their.

  7. young south africans' views on , and perceptions of abstinence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... Abstinence interventions encourage unmarried individuals to abstain from sexual activity as ... faithfulness, while somewhat less frequent, is targeted at married ... of adolescent women than of adolescent men (32% vs 28%).

  8. Predictors of smoking lapse in a human laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Moallem, Nathasha R; Guzman, Iris; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-07-01

    During a smoking quit attempt, a single smoking lapse is highly predictive of future relapse. While several risk factors for a smoking lapse have been identified during clinical trials, a laboratory model of lapse was until recently unavailable and, therefore, it is unclear whether these characteristics also convey risk for lapse in a laboratory environment. The primary study goal was to examine whether real-world risk factors of lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking lapse. After overnight abstinence, 77 smokers completed the McKee smoking lapse task, in which they were presented with the choice of smoking or delaying in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Primary outcome measures were the latency to initiate smoking behavior and the number of cigarettes smoked during the lapse. Several baseline measures of smoking behavior, mood, and individual traits were examined as predictive factors. Craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal, withdrawal severity, and tension level were negatively predictive of latency to smoke. In contrast, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, withdrawal severity, level of nicotine dependence, craving for the positive effects of smoking, and craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal were positively predictive of number of cigarettes smoked. The results suggest that real-world risk factors for smoking lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of lapse. Future studies using the McKee lapse task should account for between subject differences in the unique factors that independently predict each outcome measure.

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of the Smoking and Physical Activity Outcomes From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Exercise Assisted Reduction to Stop Smoking Intervention in Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom Paul; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Green, Colin; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Economically disadvantaged smokers not intending to stop may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing their smoking. This study assessed the effects of a behavioral intervention promoting an increase in physical activity versus usual care in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Disadvantaged smokers who wanted to reduce but not quit were randomized to either a counseling intervention of up to 12 weeks to support smoking reduction and increased physical activity (n = 49) or usual care (n = 50). Data at 16 weeks were collected for various smoking and physical activity outcomes. Primary analyses consisted of an intention to treat analysis based on complete case data. Secondary analyses explored the impact of handling missing data. Compared with controls, intervention smokers were more likely to initiate a quit attempt (36 vs. 10%; odds ratio 5.05, [95% CI: 1.10; 23.15]), and a greater proportion achieved at least 50% reduction in cigarettes smoked (63 vs. 32%; 4.21 [1.32; 13.39]). Postquit abstinence measured by exhaled carbon monoxide at 4-week follow-up showed promising differences between groups (23% vs. 6%; 4.91 [0.80; 30.24]). No benefit of intervention on physical activity was found. Secondary analyses suggested that the standard missing data assumption of "missing" being equivalent to "smoking" may be conservative resulting in a reduced intervention effect. A smoking reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged smokers which involved personal support to increase physical activity appears to be more effective than usual care in achieving reduction and may promote cessation. The effect does not appear to be influenced by an increase in physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spirometry as a motivational tool to improve smoking cessation rates: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Niewoehner, Dennis; Kane, Robert L; MacDonald, Roderick; Joseph, Anne M

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining spirometric testing and providing those results to individuals who smoke has been advocated as a motivational tool to improve smoking cessation. However, its effectiveness is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine if this approach improves rates of smoking cessation. Data sources included MEDLINE (1966 to October 2005), the Cochrane Library, and experts in the field. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolled at least 25 smokers per arm, evaluated spirometry with associated counseling or in combination with other treatments, followed subjects at least 6 months, and provided smoking abstinence rates. Results from nonrandomized studies also were summarized. The primary outcome was patient-reported long-term (at least 6 months) sustained abstinence with biological validation. Additional outcomes included self-reported abstinence and point-prevalence abstinence. Seven RCTs (N = 6,052 subjects) met eligibility criteria. Follow-up duration ranged from 9 to 36 months. In six trials, the intervention group received concomitant treatments previously demonstrated to increase cessation independently. The range of abstinence was 3%-14% for control subjects and 7%-39% among intervention groups, statistically significantly in favor of intervention in four studies. The only RCT that assessed the independent contribution of spirometry in combination with counseling demonstrated a nonsignificant 1% improvement in patient-reported point-prevalence abstinence at 12 months in the group that received spirometry plus counseling versus counseling alone (6.5% versus 5.5%). Findings from observational studies were mixed, and the lack of controls makes interpretation problematic. Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether obtaining spirometric values and providing that information to patients improves smoking cessation compared with other smoking cessation methods. Spirometric values are of limited benefit as a predictor of smoking

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Friend and Partner Relationship Quality, and Posttreatment Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721

  12. A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in ...

  13. Changes in circulating leptin levels during the initial stage of cessation are associated with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Leptin has been linked to tobacco craving and withdrawal-related symptoms. Very few studies have examined leptin prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers. We examine leptin concentrations prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers to assess the associations of leptin with psychological symptoms and smoking relapse during ad libitum smoking, the first 48 h post quit, and 4 weeks post-cessation. Self-report psychological, anthropomorphic, and biological measures (cotinine, carbon monoxide, and plasma leptin) were collected before and after 48 h of smoking abstinence. Smokers were stratified at 28 days post quit as abstinent or relapsed if they had smoked daily for seven consecutive days at any point in the 28 days. Leptin concentration (square root transformed ng/ml) increased over the 48-h abstinence, but only in female abstainers. In contrast, leptin was very stable across time for nonsmokers, relapsers, and males. Cox regression supported that increased leptin was associated with decreased risk of relapse. Leptin was correlated negatively with withdrawal symptoms for abstainers only. Females produce more leptin than males and this level increases from ad libitum smoking to 48-h post quit. The current analysis indicates that a leptin increase early in cessation predicts abstinence. The increase in women, but not men, in response to abstinence provides further evidence of important gender differences. The negative correlation between leptin and withdrawal symptoms indicates a possible protective effect of leptin. Further research is ongoing to elucidate the psychological and biological determinants of this effect.

  14. Persistence of the effect of the Lung Health Study (LHS) smoking intervention over eleven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert P; Connett, John E; Rand, Cynthia S; Pan, Wei; Anthonisen, Nicholas R

    2002-10-01

    Research on the long-term persistence of effects of interventions aimed at smoking cessation is limited. This paper examined the quitting behavior of individuals who were randomized to a smoking cessation intervention (SI) or to usual care (UC), at a point approximately 11 years later. The initial sample consisted of 5,887 adult smokers in 10 clinics who had evidence of airways obstruction. Two-thirds of the original participants were offered an intensive 12-week smoking cessation intervention. Of these, 4,517 were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study. Randomized group assignment was a strong predictor of smoking behavior after 11 years, in that 21.9% of SI participants and only 6.0% of UC participants maintained abstinence throughout the interval. Logistic regressions identified covariates associated with abstinence. A higher proportion of abstinence was observed in participants that had been assigned to SI (OR = 4.45), were older (OR = 1.11, increment 5 years), had more years of education (OR = 1.05), and fewer cigarettes/day at baseline (OR = 0.90, increment 10 cigarettes). Smokers exposed to an aggressive smoking intervention program and who sustain abstinence for a five-year period are very likely to still be abstinent after 11 years. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA)

  15. Exploration of Incarcerated Men's and Women's Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Roberts, Mary B; van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-05-01

    A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults' attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child's health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [SE] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child's health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child's health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  16. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  17. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  18. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: Treatment Development, Feasibility and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Day, Anne; Clerkin, Elise; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M; Brown, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Low positive and high negative affect predict low rates of smoking abstinence among smokers making a quit attempt. Positive Psychotherapy can both increase positive affect and decrease negative affect and therefore may be a useful adjunct to behavioral smoking counseling. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation (PPT-S) intervention that integrates standard smoking cessation counseling with nicotine patch and a package of positive psychology interventions. We delivered PPT-S to 19 smokers who were low in positive affect at baseline. Rates of session attendance and satisfaction with treatment were high, and most participants reported using and benefiting from the positive psychology interventions. Almost one-third of participants (31.6%) sustained smoking abstinence for 6 months after their quit date. Future studies to assess the relative efficacy of PPT-S compared to standard smoking cessation treatment are warranted.

  19. Contingency management for tobacco smoking during opioid addiction treatment: a randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscough, Tom Stephen; Brose, Leonie S; Strang, John; McNeill, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Smoking rates among individuals in treatment for opioid addiction are close to five times that of the general public. Moreover, drug-addicted smokers have a premature mortality rate four times greater than drug-addicted non-smokers. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether contingency management (CM) can be successfully added to evidence-based stop smoking treatment in individuals undergoing treatment for opioid addiction and assess preliminary evidence for its impact. Forty tobacco smokers currently undergoing treatment for opioid addiction. Escalating with reset CM as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment. Financial incentives will be administered over a 5-week period for either biochemically verified abstinence from smoking or attendance at the clinic. Participants will be randomised to conditions stratified on current levels of smoking (high or low). To assess whether a CM intervention can be successfully added to standard stop smoking services treatment, in patients undergoing outpatient treatment for opioid addiction. This will be measured as the number of people completing the 5 weeks of the intervention. Ethics approval for the study was granted on the 16 June 2016 by the London-city and east (reference 16/LO/0990) ethics committee. The pilot study was retrospectively registered on clincaltrials.gov in January 2017 (ID: NCT03015597). A SPIRIT checklist and figure are available for this protocol. It is planned that the results of this study will be published in an academic journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  1. Cognitive performance in long-term abstinent elderly alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon

    2007-11-01

    To date, there is a wealth of literature describing the deleterious effects of active alcoholism on cognitive function. There is also a growing body of literature on the extent of cognitive recovery that can occur with abstinence. However, there is still a dearth of published findings on cognitive functioning in very long-term abstinence alcoholics, especially in the elderly population. The current study examines 91 elderly abstinent alcoholics (EAA) (49 men and 42 women) with an average age of 67.3 years, abstinent for an average of 14.8 years (range 0.5 to 45 years), and age and gender comparable light/nondrinking controls. The EAA group was divided into 3 subgroups: individuals that attained abstinence before age 50 years, between the ages 50 and 60 years, and after age 60 years. Attention, verbal fluency, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, spatial processing, and auditory working memory were assessed. The AMNART and cranium size were used as estimates of brain reserve capacity, and the association of all variables with alcohol use measures was examined. Overall, the EAA groups performed comparably to controls on the assessments of cognitive function. Only the abstinent in group before 50 years of age performed worse than controls, and this was only in the domain of auditory working memory. EAAs had larger craniums than their controls. This effect was strongest for those who drank the longest and had the shortest abstinence. Such individuals also performed better cognitively. Our data showed that elderly alcoholics that drank late into life, but with at least 6 months abstinence can exhibit normal cognitive functioning. Selective survivorship and selection bias probably play a part in these findings. Cognitively healthier alcoholics, with more brain reserve capacity, may be more likely to live into their 60s, 70s, or 80s of age with relatively intact cognition, and to volunteer for studies such as

  2. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  5. Cigarette smoking as an expression of independence and freedom among inmates in a tobacco-free prison in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Roberts, Mary B; Stein, Lynda A R; Friedmann, Peter D; Martin, Stephen A; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2014-02-01

    Most adults report initiation of cigarette smoking during adolescence, a time also marked by developmental striving for independence and freedom. Tobacco use may retain its association with independence and/or freedom into adulthood. This association may contribute to continued tobacco use and/or increased risk of relapse to smoking among some individuals. This study examines the relationship between cigarette smoking and perceptions of independence and freedom among inmates in a tobacco-free prison in the northeastern United States. Questionnaires administered to 247 male and female inmates 6 weeks prior to scheduled prison release assessed demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence, attitudes toward smoking, and plans for tobacco use or abstinence after prison release. Perceptions of smoking as an expression of independence and freedom were measured using 2 items. Smoking was assessed 3 weeks postrelease. Constructs of freedom and independence were correlated but did not overlap completely. Both constructs were negatively associated with plans for smoking abstinence after prison release, and with perceived costs of continued smoking. Number of cigarettes smoked postrelease and perception of the pros of smoking were associated with freedom, but not independence. Associations of smoking as an expression of freedom and independence may negatively influence plans for renewed smoking after a forced abstinence. Additional research is needed to determine the degree to which these 2 constructs predict smoking behavior and whether they can be used to improve interventions for incarcerated smokers.

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  8. Smoking Prevention for Students: Findings From a Three-Year Program of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Lester, Leanne; Foxcroft, David R; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) program on tobacco smoking. The program taught about licit and illicit drugs in an integrated manner over 2 years, with follow up in the third year. It focused on minimizing harm, rather than achieving abstinence, and employed participatory, critical-thinking and skill-based teaching methods. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was conducted with a student cohort during years 8 (13 years), 9 (14 years), and 10 (15 years). Twenty-one schools were randomly allocated to the DEVS program (14 schools, n = 1163), or their usual drug education program (7 schools, n = 589). One intervention school withdrew in year two. There was a greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including tobacco, in all 3 years. Intervention students talked more with their parents about smoking at the end of the 3-year program. They recalled receiving more education on smoking in all 3 years. Their consumption of cigarettes had not increased to the same extent as controls at the end of the program. Their change in smoking harms, relative to controls, was positive in all 3 years. There was no difference between groups in the proportionate increase of smokers, or in attitudes towards smoking, at any time. These findings indicate that a school program that teaches about all drugs in an integrated fashion, and focuses on minimizing harm, does not increase initiation into smoking, while providing strategies for reducing consumption and harm to those who choose to smoke.

  9. Relapse prevention and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J R; Glaros, A G

    1986-01-01

    A multicomponent smoking relapse prevention treatment based on Marlatt and Gordon's (1980) model of the relapse process was developed and evaluated. Behavior-analytic methods were used to develop assessment instruments, training situations, and coping responses. The prevention components were presented in the context of a basic broad-spectrum stop-smoking program, and were compared with the basic program plus discussion control, and the basic program alone. Smoking-related dependent variables generally did not differ between groups at any time from pre-treatment to 12 month follow-up. Only the subjects in the relapse prevention condition improved problem-solving and social skills needed to cope with high-risk situations. These subjects also tended to take longer to relapse and smoke fewer cigarettes at the time of relapse. Subjects above the median level of competence on measures of social skill at post-treatment remained abstinent significantly longer. Maintenance of non-smoking was found to be related to the degree of competence with which individuals deal with high-risk situations. Results are discussed in relation to models of compliance with therapeutic regimens.

  10. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Cognitive–Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B.; Sales, Suzanne D.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Goldstein, Michael G.; Burgess, Ellen S.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smokers with past major depressive disorder (MDD) received 8 group sessions of standard, cognitive–behavioral smoking cessation treatment (ST; n = 93) or standard, cognitive–behavioral smoking cessation treatment plus cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression (CBT-D; n = 86). Although abstinence rates were high in both conditions (ST, 24.7%; CBT-D, 32.5%, at 1 year) for these nonpharmacological treatments, no main effect of treatment was found. However, secondary analyses revealed significant interactions between treatment condition and both recurrent depression history and heavy smoking (≥25 cigarettes a day) at baseline. Smokers with recurrent MDD and heavy smokers who received CBT-D were significantly more likely to be abstinent than those receiving ST (odds ratios = 2.3 and 2.6, respectively). Results suggest that CBT-D provides specific benefits for some, but not all, smokers with a history of MDD. PMID:11495176

  12. Outcome predictors of smoking cessation treatment provided by an addiction care unit between 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the predictors of smoking cessation treatment outcomes in a sample with a high rate of medical and psychiatric disorders and addictions. Methods: Analysis of predictors of success of a 6-week treatment provided by an addiction care unit (CAPS-AD to 367 smokers in Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Forty variables were collected at baseline. Success was defined as abstinence from smoking for a period of at least 14 consecutive days, including the last day of treatment. Twenty variables were selected for the logistic regression model. Results: The only condition correlated with successful treatment after logistic regression was smoking one's first cigarette 5 minutes or more after waking (beta = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.11-3.10, p = 0.018. Subjects with hypertension and alcohol use disorders and those who were undergoing psychiatric treatment showed success rates comparable to or greater than the average success rate of the sample (34.2-44.4%. Conclusions: These findings support the importance of the variable time to first cigarette in treatment outcomes for a sample with a high rate of clinical and psychiatric disorders. Good success rates were observed for pharmacological treatment, which was combined with group therapy based on cognitive-behavioral concepts and integrated into ongoing treatment of other addictions and psychiatric disorders.

  13. Reversible brain shrinkage in abstinent alcoholics, measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, G.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U.; Petersen, D.; Mann, K.

    1988-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the intracranial CSF volume was compared before and after 5 weeks of confirmed abstinence in 9 alcohol-dependent patients. All patients showed a highly significant reduction in CSF volume in accordance with reexpansion of the brain after alcohol abstinence. T2 values for white matter, estimated by linear regression from 16 echoes of a CPGM sequence, however, showed no significant increase such as occurs in rehydration. This indicates, that alcohol-induced reversible brain atrophy cannot be attributed to fluctuation of free water in the brain only.

  14. Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa A; Emery, Rebecca L

    2016-04-01

    Most women who quit smoking during pregnancy will relapse postpartum. Previous efforts to prevent postpartum relapse have been unsuccessful at increasing rates of sustained abstinence. To evaluate the relative efficacy of 2 different approaches to prevent postpartum smoking relapse. Pregnant women who recently had quit smoking were recruited before the end of pregnancy. Intervention sessions were conducted through a combination of telephone calls and in-person visits beginning at delivery and continuing through 24 weeks postpartum. Participants completed assessments at the prenatal baseline and at 12, 24, and 52 weeks postpartum. Participants were recruited between March 2008 and December 2012. The dates of the analysis were April 2014 to February 2015. Women received postpartum-adapted, behavioral smoking relapse prevention intervention and were randomly assigned to an enhanced cognitive behavioral intervention that included additional specialized strategies and content focused on women's postpartum concerns about mood, stress, and weight (Strategies to Avoid Returning to Smoking [STARTS]) or a supportive, time and attention-controlled comparison (SUPPORT). Intervention began before delivery and continued through 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed sustained tobacco abstinence at 52 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes were self-reported mood, levels of perceived stress, and degree of concern about smoking-related weight gain. The study cohort comprised 300 participants (150 randomly assigned to each group). Their mean (SD) age was 24.99 (5.65) years. Overall, 38.0% (114 of 300), 33.7% (101 of 300), and 24.0% (72 of 300) of the sample maintained abstinence at 12, 24, and 52 weeks' postpartum, respectively. There were no differences between the intervention groups in abstinence or time to relapse. Self-reported depressive symptoms and perceived stress significantly improved over time, and improvements were similar for both

  15. Alcohol and drug treatment involvement, 12-step attendance and abstinence: 9-year cross-lagged analysis of adults in an integrated health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study explored causal relationships between post-treatment 12-step attendance and abstinence at multiple data waves and examined indirect paths leading from treatment initiation to abstinence 9-years later. Adults (N = 1945) seeking help for alcohol or drug use disorders from integrated healthcare organization outpatient treatment programs were followed at 1-, 5-, 7- and 9-years. Path modeling with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients was used to test causal relationships. Cross-lagged paths indicated greater 12-step attendance during years 1 and 5 and were casually related to past-30-day abstinence at years 5 and 7 respectfully, suggesting 12-step attendance leads to abstinence (but not vice versa) well into the post-treatment period. Some gender differences were found in these relationships. Three significant time-lagged, indirect paths emerged linking treatment duration to year-9 abstinence. Conclusions are discussed in the context of other studies using longitudinal designs. For outpatient clients, results reinforce the value of lengthier treatment duration and 12-step attendance in year 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive environmental modification of depressive phenotype and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female C57BL/6J mice during abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y Pang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a commonly reported co-morbidity during rehabilitation from alcohol use disorders and its presence is associated with an increased likelihood of relapse. Interventions which impede the development of depression could be of potential benefit if incorporated into treatment programs. We previously demonstrated an ameliorative effect of physical exercise on depressive behaviours in a mouse model of alcohol abstinence. Here, we show that environmental enrichment (cognitive and social stimulation has a similar beneficial effect. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key physiological system regulating stress responses and its dysregulation has been separably implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and addiction disorders. We performed a series of dexamethasone challenges and found that mice undergoing 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence had significantly greater corticosterone and ACTH levels following a DEX-CRH challenge compared to water controls. Environmental enrichment during alcohol abstinence corrected the abnormal DEX-CRH corticosterone response despite a further elevation of ACTH levels. Examination of gene expression revealed abstinence-associated alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, corticotrophin releasing hormone (Crh and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc1 mRNA levels which were differentially modulated by environmental enrichment. Overall, our study demonstrates a benefit of environmental enrichment on alcohol abstinence-associated depressive behaviours and HPA axis dysregulation.

  17. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  18. Adolescent heavy drinkers' amplified brain responses to alcohol cues decrease over one month of abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Demographically matched adolescents (16.0-18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 h). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group×time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. The HD group exhibited greater (pbrain regions, differences in BOLD response were no longer apparent following a month of abstinence, suggesting a decrease in alcohol cue reactivity among adolescent non-dependent heavy drinkers as a consequence of abstaining from alcohol. These results highlight the malleability of adolescent brain function despite no formal intervention targeting cue reactivity. Increased understanding of the neural underpinnings of cue reactivity could have implications for prevention and intervention strategies in adolescent heavy alcohol users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking ces...... in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.......OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking...... cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support. First-line pharmacological drugs for smoking cessation are nicotine replacement products (patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, lozenge/tablets), varenicline and bupropion SR...

  20. Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment...... for symptomatic gallstone disease. Studies about the impact of alcohol and smoking on the post-cholecystectomy state are few and future studies should be performed. Pancreatitis is associated with both excessive alcohol intake and smoking in observational studies. Interpretation of associations with pancreatitis...... is hampered by an incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms and by the co-existence of excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence is recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis, but higher-level evidence is needed....

  1. Environmental enrichment facilitates cocaine abstinence in an animal conflict model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Scott; Ranaldi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we sought to discover if housing in an enriched environment (EE) is an efficacious intervention for encouraging abstinence from cocaine seeking in an animal "conflict" model of abstinence. Sixteen Long-Evans rats were trained in 3-h daily sessions to self-administer a cocaine solution (1 mg/kg/infusion) until each demonstrated a stable pattern of drug-seeking. Afterward, half were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, obstacles, and a running wheel, while the other half were given clean, standard laboratory housing. All rats then completed daily 30-min sessions during which the 2/3 of flooring closest to the self-administration levers was electrified, causing discomfort should they approach the levers; current strength (mA) was increased after every day of drug seeking until the rat ceased activity on the active lever for 3 consecutive sessions (abstinence). Rats housed in EE abstained after fewer days and at lower current strengths than rats in standard housing. These results support the idea that EE administered after the development of a cocaine-taking habit may be an effective strategy to facilitate abstinence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  3. The Problematic Promotion of Abstinence: An Overview of Sex Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Patricia; Edmundson, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Presents the results of a content evaluation of the abstinence-based sexuality education curriculum, "Sex Respect," focusing on the curriculum's message and presentation. Results indicate Sex Respect omits basic content and includes misinformation, especially in the areas of human sexual response and reproductive health, and needs revision.…

  4. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  5. General and smoking cessation weight concern in a Hispanic sample of light and intermittent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrau-Cribbs, Erica; Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed general and cessation related weight concerns in a Hispanic sample of light (≤10 cigarettes per day) and intermittent (non-daily smoking) smokers (LITS) participating in a brief smoking cessation intervention. Three hundred and fifty-four Hispanic LITS (Mage=34.2, SD=14; 51.1% male; 57.9% Mexican American; 59.0% daily light, 41.0% intermittent) completed baseline measures assessing demographics, tobacco use/history, stage of change (SOC), general weight concern, and cessation related weight concern. Three multiple logistic regression models examined potential predictors (i.e., age, gender, SOC, cigarettes per month, smoking status [daily vs non-daily], weight, cessation related weight concern, general weight concern) of general weight concern, cessation related weight concern, and past 30day abstinence (controlling for the intervention). Study results indicated that a majority of participants reported general weight concern (59.6%), and slightly more than a third (35.6%) reported post cessation weight gain concern (mean and median weight tolerated before relapse were within the 10-12lb range). Lower weight and endorsing general weight concern were associated with cessation related weight concern. Female gender, higher weight, and endorsing cessation related weight concern were associated with general weight concern. Monthly cigarette use was associated with smoking cessation at the three-month follow-up. The results indicate a substantial prevalence of general weight concern and non-trivial rates of cessation related weight concern in Hispanic LITS attempting to quit, and greater success in quitting among those who reported lower rates of cigarettes smoked per month. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Engagement Within a Mobile Phone-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adolescents and its Association With Participant Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Castro, Raquel; Haug, Severin; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    Although mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation programs are a promising way to promote smoking cessation among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents might actually use them. The aim of this study was to determine adolescents' trajectories of engagement with a mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation program over time and the associations these trajectories have with baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes. We performed secondary data analysis on a dataset from a study that compared a mobile phone-delivered integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention with a smoking cessation only intervention for adolescents recruited in vocational and upper secondary school classes (N=1418). Throughout the 3-month intervention, participants in both intervention groups received one text message prompt per week that either assessed smoking-related target behaviors or encouraged participation in a quiz or a message contest. Sequence analyses were performed to identify engagement trajectories. Analyses were conducted to identify predictors of engagement trajectory and associations between engagement trajectories and treatment outcomes. Three engagement trajectories emerged: (1) stable engagement (646/1418, 45.56%), (2) decreasing engagement (501/1418, 35.33%), and (3) stable nonengagement (271/1418, 19.11%). Adolescents who were younger, had no immigrant background, perceived more benefits of quitting smoking, and reported binge drinking preceding the baseline assessment were more likely to exhibit stable engagement. Due to different reach of more engaged and less engaged participants at follow-up, three statistical models (complete-cases, last-observation-carried-forward, and multiple imputation) for the associations of engagement trajectory and smoking outcome were tested. For 7-point smoking abstinence, no association was revealed to be statistically significant over all three models. However, decreasing engagement with the program was associated

  7. Visceral sensitivity, anxiety, and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Norton, Peter J; Smits, Jasper A J; Buckner, Julia D; Garey, Lorra; Manning, Kara

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognized that smoking is related to abdominal pain and discomfort, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Research has shown that visceral sensitivity, experiencing anxiety around gastrointestinal sensations, is associated with poorer gastrointestinal health and related health outcomes. Visceral sensitivity also increases anxiety symptoms and mediates the relation with other risk factors, including gastrointestinal distress. No work to date, however, has evaluated visceral sensitivity in the context of smoking despite the strong association between smoking and poor physical and mental health. The current study sought to examine visceral sensitivity as a unique predictor of cigarette dependence, threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), and perceived barriers for cessation via anxiety symptoms. Eighty-four treatment seeking adult daily smokers (M age =45.1years [SD=10.4]; 71.6% male) participated in this study. There was a statistically significant indirect effect of visceral sensitivity via general anxiety symptoms on cigarette dependence (b=0.02, SE=0.01, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.006, 0.05]), smoking abstinence somatic expectancies (b=0.10, SE=0.03, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.19]), smoking abstinence harmful experiences (b=0.13, SE=0.05, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.25]), and barriers to cessation (b=0.05, SE=0.06, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.01, 0.13]). Overall, the present study serves as an initial investigation into the nature of the associations between visceral sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, and clinically significant smoking processes among treatment-seeking smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which anxiety accounts for relations between visceral sensitivity and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  9. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  10. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  11. Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration. The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin. All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives. These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.

  12. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  14. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S; Wagner, E H; Grothaus, L C

    1990-06-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation was evaluated with 2 samples (ns = 1.217 and 151) of smokers who requested self-help materials for smoking cessation. Exploratory and confirmatory principal components analysis on a 36-item Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale supported the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction. A 4-factor model, with 2 intrinsic dimensions (concerns about health and desire for self-control) and 2 extrinsic dimensions (immediate reinforcement and social influence), was defined by 20 of the 36 RFQ items. The 20-item measure demonstrated moderate to high levels of internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Logistic regression analyses indicated that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were more likely to achieve abstinence from smoking.

  16. A randomized trial of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.

  17. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial: a randomised controlled trial of physical activity for smoking cessation in pregnancy with an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Lewis, Sarah; Aveyard, Paul; Manyonda, Isaac; West, Robert; Lewis, Beth; Marcus, Bess; Riaz, Muhammad; Taylor, Adrian H; Barton, Pelham; Daley, Amanda; Essex, Holly; Esliger, Dale; Coleman, Tim

    2015-10-01

    = 392 PA, n = 393 control). There was no significant difference in the rate of abstinence at the end of pregnancy between the PA group (7.7%) and the control group (6.4%) [odds ratio for PA group abstinence 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 2.10]. For the PA group compared with the control group, there was a 33% (95% CI 14% to 56%), 28% (95% CI 7% to 52%) and 36% (95% CI 12% to 65%) significantly greater increase in self-reported minutes of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA from baseline to 1 week, 4 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Accelerometer data showed that there was no significant difference in PA levels between the groups. There were no significant differences between the groups for change in maternal weight, depression, withdrawal symptoms or urges to smoke. Adverse events and birth outcomes were similar between the groups except for there being significantly more caesarean births in the control group than in the PA group (28.7% vs. 21.3%; p exercise and PA counselling does not add to the effectiveness of behavioural support for smoking cessation. Only 10% of participants had PA levels accessed by accelerometer and it is, therefore, unclear whether or not the lack of an effect on the primary outcome is the result of insufficient increases in PA. Research is needed to identify the smoking populations most suitable for PA interventions and methods for increasing PA adherence. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48600346. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 84. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  18. Predictors of medication adherence and smoking cessation among smokers under community corrections supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Stevens, Erin N; Schiavon, Samantha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit. Logistic regression analyses examined associations of smoking variables with medication adherence and successful abstinence. Mediation analysis evaluated the indirect effects of medication adherence on smoking abstinence. The strongest associate of medication adherence was previous use of bupropion, while the strongest associate of smoking abstinence was medication adherence. Mediation analysis indicated that previous use of bupropion indirectly increased cessation rates through the pathway of increased medication adherence. These results highlight the importance of medication adherence for smoking cessation among community corrections smokers. Providing exposure to medication may be a promising intervention to increase medication adherence and subsequent cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Survey of restaurants regarding smoking policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alcia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Knight, Susan; Hiller, Marc; Pelletier, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The New Hampshire Indoor Smoking Act was implemented in 1994 to protect the public's health by regulating smoking in enclosed places. A survey was conducted of New Hampshire restaurants to determine smoking policies, to determine restaurant characteristics associated with smoking policies, and to evaluate compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act. A list of New Hampshire restaurants was obtained from a marketing firm. Establishments were selected randomly until 400 had completed a 22-question telephone survey. Forty-four percent of restaurants permitted smoking. Characteristics positively associated with permitting smoking were being a non-fast-food restaurant, selling alcohol, selling tobacco, and having greater than the median number of seats. Of restaurants permitting smoking, 96.1% had a designated smoking area, 87.0% had a ventilation system to minimize secondhand smoke, 83.6% had a physical barrier between smoking and nonsmoking areas, and 53.1% exhibited signs marking the smoking area. Forty percent of restaurants permitting smoking met all four requirements of the Indoor Smoking Act. Smoking policies differ, by type of restaurant. Compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act is low.

  1. Smoking and thyroid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2013-01-01

    Current smoking in population surveys is associated with a slight dose-dependent fall of serum TSH, likely secondary to a rise of serum FT4 and FT3 induced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system; it is independent of iodine intake. In contrast, the slightly greater thyroid size in smokers

  2. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaughter, Kathryn L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-05-26

    Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings-an intense desire or longing for a cigarette-are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers' manage their cravings are needed. To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App-Store, with 1526 smokers visiting the online

  3. Exploration of Incarcerated Men’s and Women’s Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary B.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A. R.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults’ attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Methods: Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Results: Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child’s health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [ SE ] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child’s health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child’s health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. PMID:26014453

  4. [Cost effectiveness of workplace smoking policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Tamara; van den Borne, Inge

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the motivations of companies to set out a policy for controlling smoking, the economic benefits for the company resulting from such a policy and the costs, broken down by European Union countries. The literature on the costs of implementing a policy related to smoking at the workplace is reviewed. The main objective of policies related to smoking at the workplace is that of safeguarding employees from environmental tobacco smoke. Other reasons are cutting costs, improving the company image, and reducing absenteeism, occupational accidents, internal quarrels and extra costs due to cigarette smoking, protection against environmental tobacco smoke does not entail any higher costs for companies, and economic advantages are visible. The benefits are by far greater than the costs involved, particularly on a long-range basis, and seem to be greater when smoking at the workplace is completely prohibited and no smoking areas are set.

  5. Analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and elective self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Merton A

    2004-01-01

    Recent contributions to the psychoanalytic literature propose new ways of understanding analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and self-disclosure. They advocate elective self-disclosure by the analyst as an antidote to the allegedly game-playing quality of transference and resistance analysis. The analytic relationship, they assert, becomes unreal when attempts are made to observe the principles of neutrality and abstinence. Both are seen as ill-conceived because of the irreducible subjectivity and unwarranted authority of the analyst. These relational and interactional views are criticized because (1) they ignore the fact that transference and resistance analysis have from Freud onward been accepted as minimal criteria qualifying a clinical process as psychoanalytic; (2) elective self-disclosure carries metapsychological implications dismissing not only Freud's theory of motivation but motivation as a basic feature of human personality; (3) they do not recognize interpersonal relations as mental events and so do not consider the ego's ability to create intrapsychic representations of object relations; (4) elective self-disclosures within the empathic parameters of the analytic situation are themselves unreal compared to the reality of the patient's experience with other objects. Abstinence and neutrality as ideals facilitate maintenance of an internal holding environment or container for the analyst's countertransference.

  6. Postpartum sexual abstinence, breastfeeding, and childspacing, among Yoruba women in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyisetan, B J

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the traditional practice of sexual abstinence during lactation has broken down among Yoruba women residents in urban areas. The first major finding is that there is a gradual erosion of the tradition, and the dominant factors of modernization are education of the woman and the use of contraception. The second major finding is that the breakdown of postpartum sexual taboos has statistically significant negative consequences on duration of lactation, although the negative impact of woman's education is greater. The third major finding is that duration of breastfeeding reduces birth interval significantly only when it is less than 15 months, and that both durations of breastfeeding and birth intervals have declined over time. The first two findings suggest further reductions in the proportion of women who abstain from sexual relations during lactation and in durations of breastfeeding as more women become more educated. Significant declines in birth intervals may follow soon after.

  7. Pulse carboxyhemoglobin-oximetry and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova-Djokić, L; Milosević, S; Skrbić, R; Salabat, R; Voronov, G; Igić, R

    2011-01-01

    We used a pulse carbon monoxide (CO)-oximeter to measure the levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in smokers and non-smokers. Our goal was to determine if this device could not only define smoking status, but also to increase accuracy of self-reported data at various surveys on smoking. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Twenty-two of them were current daily smokers; 12 participants were non-smokers who lived alone or with a nonsmoker, and who worked in non-smoking environment. Nicotine dependency level was determined by the modified Fagerstrom questionnaire. Blood COHb levels were measured with a pulse CO-oximeter (Masimo, Radical 7). The COHb levels in both moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers increased significantly after they smoked a single cigarette. This increase persisted for more than 6 h in the moderate/heavy smokers, while in the light smokers COHb levels returned to the baseline level after one hour. The pulse rate of all smokers increased significantly 20 min after smoking. We conclude that the CO-oximeter can detect smoking by moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers if they smoked 6 h or 20 min earlier, respectively. We concluded that it could be used as a validation test for smoking at the time of admission to the surgical facility and to increase smoking abstinence during preoperative and postoperative periods. This noninvasive, simple and inexpensive test may also be used at various surveys to increase accuracy of self-reports on smoking.

  8. Sex differences in smoking cue reactivity: craving, negative affect, and preference for immediate smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Female smokers have greater difficulty quitting, possibly due to increased reactivity to smoking-related cues. This study assessed sex differences in craving, affect, and preference for immediate smoking after cue exposure. Regular smokers (n = 60; 50% female) were exposed to smoking and neutral cues in separate, counterbalanced sessions. Outcomes included changes in craving and affect and preference for immediate smoking following cue exposure. Findings indicated that women exhibited greater preference for immediate smoking (p = .004), and reported greater cue-induced increases in cigarette craving (p = .046) and negative affect (p = .025). These data suggest that women may have greater difficulty inhibiting smoking after cue exposure, possibly as a consequence of greater increases in craving and negative affect. Findings suggest a mechanism that may contribute to greater cessation failure among female smokers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  10. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  11. [Prevention of coronary heart disease: smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, T; Meinertz, T

    2005-01-01

    antithrombotic vs prothrombotic factors, and decrease of fibrinolytic activity. Given the enormous health hazard of tobacco use, complete abstinence from smoking should be achieved. Smoking cessation counselling should be given to healthy subjects and even more vigorously to patients with manifested disease. Every effort should be undertaken to prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Brief tobacco dependence treatment is effective, and every smoker should be offered at least brief treatment at every office visit. More intensive treatment is more effective in producing long-term abstinence from tobacco. Nicotine replacement therapy (nicotine patches or gum), clinician-delivered social support, and skills training are the three most effective components of smoking cessation treatment. A framework for tobacco control measures is necessary to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. Recommendations on specific tobacco control interventions are: 1. increase in tobacco taxes; 2. comprehensive tobacco advertising bans; 3. legislation prohibiting smoking in work and public places; 4. prohibiting the sales of tobacco products to persons under 18; 5. comprehensive disclosure of the physical, chemical and design characteristics of all tobacco products; 6. training of health professionals to promote smoking prevention and cessation interventions; and 7. development of a national network of smoking cessation treatment services.

  12. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  13. One year effectiveness of an individualised smoking cessation intervention at the workplace: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Lafuente, U; Guallar-Castillon, P; Garteizaurrekoa, D.; Sainz, M; Diez, A; Foj, A; Banegas, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers‘ tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5–8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2–3 minutes) over a three month period.

  14. Comorbidity effects on cocaine dependence treatment and examination of reciprocal relationships between abstinence and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, Jesse B; Conti, Kimberly; Wallace, Dennis; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Mrug, Sylvie; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2015-02-01

    We examined comorbid disorders' prevalence, their impact on abstinence, and the impact of depressive symptoms on abstinence and of abstinence on depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial's data on outcomes from treating cocaine dependence were used. It compared abstinence-contingent housing and work to contingency management plus behavioral day treatment. Regardless of original trial arm assignment, groups of participants with no additional Axis I disorders (n = 87) and 1 or more additional Axis I disorders (n = 113) were compared for abstinence. Changes in depression symptoms, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, were analyzed as a function of 4 cohorts of increased consecutive weeks abstinent. An autoregressive cross-lagged path model examined reciprocal relationships between depression and abstinence. Most prevalent additional disorders were depressive disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Additional disorders did not significantly affect abstinence. Cohorts with more abstinence were linearly related to lower depression symptoms. The cross-lagged model showed that longer abstinence predicted decreases in depressive symptoms at 6 months. However, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in abstinence. Our study adds to others that have found an effective treatment targeted at specific problems such as substance abuse, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder that may have the side benefit of reducing depression. Additionally, we find that depression does not interfere with effective substance abuse treatment for cocaine dependency. This may be the 1st formal analysis comparing the ability of cocaine abstinence to predict future depressive symptoms versus depressive symptoms to predict future cocaine abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. EMPLOYMENT-BASED ABSTINENCE REINFORCEMENT PROMOTES OPIATE AND COCAINE ABSTINENCE IN OUT-OF-TREATMENT INJECTION DRUG USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Holtyn, August F.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Strain, Eric C.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatmen...

  16. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  17. Mobile Phone Apps for Smoking Cessation: Quality and Usability Among Smokers With Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferron, Joelle C; Brunette, Mary F; Geiger, Pamela; Marsch, Lisa A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. Objective Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based o...

  18. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  19. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  20. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Goelz, Patricia M.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to play an important role in cognitive function and nicotine dependence. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease, increases prefrontal dopamine levels, with cognitive benefits that may vary by COMT genotype. We tested whether tolcapone alters working memory-related brain activity and performance in abstinent smokers. Methods In this double-blind crossover study, 20 smokers completed 8 days of treatment with tolcapone and placebo. In both medication periods, smokers completed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI scans while performing a working memory N-back task after 24 h of abstinence. Smokers were genotyped prospectively for the COMT val158met polymorphism for exploratory analysis. Results Compared to placebo, tolcapone modestly improved accuracy (p = 0.017) and enhanced suppression of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (p = 0.002). There were no effects of medication in other a priori regions of interest (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, or posterior cingulate cortex). Exploratory analyses suggested that tolcapone led to a decrease in BOLD signal in several regions among smokers with val/val genotypes, but increased or remained unchanged among met allele carriers. Tolcapone did not attenuate craving, mood, or withdrawal symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusions Data from this proof-of-concept study do not provide strong support for further evaluation of COMT inhibitors as smoking cessation aids. PMID:24095246

  2. Improving Adherence to Smoking Cessation Treatment: Smoking Outcomes in a Web-based Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Cha, Sarah; Erar, Bahar; Amato, Michael S

    2018-03-15

    Partial adherence in Internet smoking cessation interventions presents treatment and evaluation challenges. Increasing adherence may improve outcomes. To present smoking outcomes from an Internet randomized trial of two strategies to encourage adherence to tobacco dependence treatment components: (i) a social network (SN) strategy to integrate smokers into an online community and (ii) free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition to intent-to-treat analyses, we used novel statistical methods to distinguish the impact of treatment assignment from treatment utilization. A total of 5,290 current smokers on a cessation website (WEB) were randomized to WEB, WEB + SN, WEB + NRT, or WEB + SN + NRT. The main outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 and 9 months post-randomization. Adherence measures included self-reported medication use (meds), and website metrics of skills training (sk) and community use (comm). Inverse Probability of Retention Weighting and Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting jointly addressed dropout and treatment selection. Propensity weights were used to calculate Average Treatment effects on the Treated. Treatment assignment analyses showed no effects on abstinence for either adherence strategy. Abstinence rates were 25.7%-32.2% among participants that used all three treatment components (sk+comm +meds).Treatment utilization analyses revealed that among such participants, sk+comm+meds yielded large percentage point increases in 3-month abstinence rates over sk alone across arms: WEB = 20.6 (95% CI = 10.8, 30.4), WEB + SN = 19.2 (95% CI = 11.1, 27.3), WEB + NRT = 13.1 (95% CI = 4.1, 22.0), and WEB + SN + NRT = 20.0 (95% CI = 12.2, 27.7). Novel propensity weighting approaches can serve as a model for establishing efficacy of Internet interventions and yield important insights about mechanisms. NCT01544153.

  3. Smoking, activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population sample without cardiopulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozoris, N T; O'donnell, D E

    2015-01-01

    Whether reduced activity level and exercise intolerance precede the clinical diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disorders in smokers is not known. We examined activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population-based sample without overt cardiopulmonary disease, differentiating by smoking history. This was a multiyear cross-sectional study using United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999-2004. Self-reported activity level and incremental exercise treadmill testing were obtained on survey participants ages 20-49 years, excluding individuals with cardio-pulmonary disease. Three thousand seven hundred and one individuals completed exercise testing. Compared to never smokers, current smokers with >10 pack years reported significantly higher odds of little or no recreation, sport, or physical activity (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.35). Mean perceived exertion ratings (Borg 6-20) at an estimated standardized workload were significantly greater among current smokers (18.3-18.6) compared to never (17.3) and former smokers (17.9) (psmoking abstinence was associated with significantly lower likelihood of low estimated peak oxygen uptake categorization (psmoking cessation, these results set the stage for future studies that examine mechanisms of activity restriction in young smokers and the utility of measures of activity restriction in the earlier diagnosis of smoking-related diseases.

  4. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  5. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  6. A randomised trial of glucose tablets to aid smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; May, Sylvia; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter; Vangeli, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Oral glucose has been found to decrease tobacco craving among abstaining smokers. One study has demonstrated an effect of glucose on short-term abstinence. There is a need to examine any long-term benefit of glucose on abstinence. To assess whether glucose tablets improve 6-month continuous abstinence rates compared with low-calorie placebo tablets. Smokers attempting to stop (n = 928) were randomised to receive glucose or sorbitol (placebo) in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. All participants received group-based psychological support, and approximately half (n = 474) received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), buproprion, or both. Smokers were seen weekly for 5 weeks and used tablets ad libitum, with a recommended minimum of 12 per day. Participants were recruited through general practitioner referral, word of mouth, and advertising. The participants were 38% male, smoked an average of 23.5 cigarettes per day, and had a mean age of 44 years. There were no significant pretreatment differences between groups. The primary outcome measure was continuous, CO-verified abstinence from the target quit date for 6 months. No significant effect of glucose tablets on abstinence was found (14.6% vs 13.4% abstinence in the glucose and placebo groups, respectively). However, there was a significant interaction with a glucose effect observed in smokers also receiving other medication (18.2% vs 12.6%, p < 0.05) but not otherwise (10.7% vs 14.3% ; p < 0.05 for the interaction). No significant effect of glucose tablets over and above sweet tasting tablets could be detected overall, but the possibility of an effect as an adjunct to NRT or bupropion merits further investigation.

  7. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  8. Randomized trial of a smartphone mobile application compared to text messaging to support smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Borland, Ron; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Shane, James H; Zimmerman, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    Text messaging has successfully supported smoking cessation. This study compares a mobile application with text messaging to support smoking cessation. Young adult smokers 18-30 years old (n = 102) participated in a randomized pretest-posttest trial. Smokers received a smartphone application (REQ-Mobile) with short messages and interactive tools or a text messaging system (onQ), managed by an expert system. Self-reported usability of REQ-Mobile and quitting behavior (quit attempts, point-prevalence, 30-day point-prevalence, and continued abstinence) were assessed in posttests. Overall, 60% of smokers used mobile services (REQ-Mobile, 61%, mean of 128.5 messages received; onQ, 59%, mean of 107.8 messages), and 75% evaluated REQ-Mobile as user-friendly. A majority of smokers reported being abstinent at posttest (6 weeks, 53% of completers; 12 weeks, 66% of completers [44% of all cases]). Also, 37% (25%of all cases) reported 30-day point-prevalence abstinence, and 32% (22% of all cases) reported continuous abstinence at 12 weeks. OnQ produced more abstinence (ptext messaging. Text messaging may work better because it is simple, well known, and delivered to a primary inbox. These advantages may disappear as smokers become more experienced with new handsets. Mobile phones may be promising delivery platforms for cessation services using either smartphone applications or text messaging.

  9. Selective attention to smoking cues in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, Anne K; Bey, Katharina; Frommann, Ingo; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Bludau, Julia; Block, Verena; Sträter, Birgitta; Schütz, Christian G; Wagner, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Repeated drug use modifies the emotional and cognitive processing of drug-associated cues. These changes are supposed to persist even after prolonged abstinence. Several studies demonstrated that smoking cues selectively attract the attention of smokers, but empirical evidence for such an attentional bias among successful quitters is inconclusive. Here, we investigated whether attentional biases persist after smoking cessation. Thirty-eight former smokers, 34 current smokers, and 29 non-smokers participated in a single experimental session. We used three measures of attentional bias for smoking stimuli: A visual probe task with short (500ms) and long (2000ms) picture stimulus durations, and a modified Stroop task with smoking-related and neutral words. Former smokers and current smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed an attentional bias in visual orienting to smoking pictures in the 500ms condition of the visual probe task. The Stroop interference index of smoking words was negatively related to nicotine dependence in current smokers. Former smokers and mildly dependent smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed increased interference by smoking words in the Stroop task. Neither current nor former smokers showed an attentional bias in maintained attention (2000ms visual probe task). In conclusion, even after prolonged abstinence smoking cues retain incentive salience in former smokers, who differed from non-smokers on two attentional bias indices. Attentional biases in former smokers operate mainly in early involuntary rather than in controlled processing, and may represent a vulnerability factor for relapse. Therefore, smoking cessation programs should strengthen self-control abilities to prevent relapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  11. Impact of the Choosing the Best Program in Communities Committed to Abstinence Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lieberman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available States vary in standards for sex education, some requiring an emphasis on abstinence. Schools seek to identify curricula that reflect local community values and meet state standards. Choosing the Best (CTB, a classroom-based abstinence education curriculum, has been implemented in 75 Georgia school districts since 1995. CTB Inc., sought to determine if this popular program had an impact on abstinence attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Six Georgia public schools (1,143 ninth graders participated in the study in 2009-2010. Four randomly assigned schools received the CTB curriculum, taught by trained CTB staff. Two control schools received their usual textbook-based abstinence lessons. Surveys were conducted at the beginning and end of 9th grade, and the beginning of 10th grade. Data demonstrated significant impact of CTB at the end of 9th grade on commitment to abstinence, proabstinence beliefs and attitudes, intentions to maintain abstinence, and lower onset of sexual intercourse, and at the beginning of 10th grade on proabstinence attitudes. In two communities that sought an abstinence education approach, CTB had a short-term impact on abstinence attitudes, commitment, and behaviors, and a longer term impact on abstinence attitudes only.

  12. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruyt, A.; Lemaigre, V.; Salhi, B.; van Gucht, D.; Tibboel, H.; van Bockstaele, B.; de Houwer, J.; van Meerbeeck, J.; Nackaerts, K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. Objectives: The main objective of

  13. Ibudilast may improve attention during early abstinence from methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birath, J Brandon; Briones, Marisa; Amaya, Stephanie; Shoptaw, Steven; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Tsuang, John; Furst, Benjamin; Heinzerling, Keith; Obermeit, Lisa; Maes, Lauryn; McKay, Charles; Wright, Matthew J

    2017-09-01

    Inattention is a deficit related to instilling abstinence from methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study aimed to determine whether ibudilast (IB; 50mg bid) improves attentional abilities compared to placebo during early abstinence from MA dependence. Attention was assessed in 11 MA-dependent non-treatment seeking participants in a phase IB safety-interaction trial. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II), a measure of sustained attention and response inhibition, was administered at baseline and on day 22, 48h post a MA challenge under placebo (P; n=6) or IB 50mg bid (n=5). Group differences were compared using Mann-Whitney U Tests. Groups were similar at baseline in premorbid intellectual functioning, attention deficit hyperactivity symptom scores, impulsivity ratings, and education level, but differed in age. Demographically corrected T-scores for CPT-II performances were utilized. Although no group differences in sustained attention existed at baseline, at follow-up, the IB group (Mdn=44.4) showed reduced variability in response times compared with the P group (Mdn=69.9), U=0.00, z=-2.74, p=.006, r=.83. The IB group (Mdn=45.8) also gave fewer perseverative responses than the P group (Mdn=67.0), U=2.00, z=-2.50, p=.01, r=.75. No other significant differences were observed. Findings suggest that IB may have a protective effect on sustained attention during early abstinence from MA dependence. This may guide thinking about mechanism of action should IB demonstrate efficacy as a treatment for MA dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relations Between False Positive and Negative Screens and Smoking Cessation and Relapse in the National Lung Screening Trial: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Gorelick, Jeremy J; Sicks, JoRean D; Park, Elyse R; Graham, Amanda L; Abrams, David B; Gareen, Ilana F

    2016-01-01

    Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months). During five years of follow-up, annual point prevalence quit rates ranged from 11.6%-13.4%; 48% of current smokers reported a quit attempt and 7% of long-term former smokers relapsed. Any false positive screening result was associated with subsequent increased point (multivariable hazard ratio HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.35) and sustained (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.43) abstinence among smokers. Recent quitters with ≥1 false positive screen were less likely to relapse (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.96). Screening result was not associated with relapse among long-term former smokers or among baseline smokers who quit during follow-up. A false positive screen was associated with increased smoking cessation and less relapse among recent quitters. Consistently negative screens were not associated with greater relapse among long-term former smokers. Given the Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover smoking cessation and lung screening, the impact and cost-effectiveness of lung screening could be further enhanced with the addition of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Peak provoked craving: an alternative to smoking cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2013-06-01

    Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue-reactivity studies have been questioned recently. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be difficult to tease apart cue-based and abstinence-based cravings. Moreover, conventional cue-reactivity procedures typically generate levels of craving with only minimal clinical relevance. We argue here that sometimes it is unfeasible-and in some instances conceptually misguided-to disentangle abstinence-based and cued components of cigarette cravings. In light of the challenges associated with cue-reactivity research, we offer an alternative approach to smoking cue-exposure experimental research focusing on peak provoked craving (PPC) states. The PPC approach uses nicotine-deprived smokers and focuses on urges during smoking cue-exposure without subtracting out urge ratings during control cue or baseline assessments. This design relies on two factors found in many cue-exposure studies-nicotine deprivation and exposure to explicit smoking cues-which, when combined, can create powerful craving states. The PPC approach retains key aspects of the cue-exposure method, and in many circumstances may be a viable design for studies examining robust laboratory-induced cravings. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Clinical ratings and plasma HVA during cocaine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S D; Yeragani, V K; Lodhi, R; Galloway, M P

    1989-08-01

    Six patients were evaluated over a 21-day period during inpatient recovery from chronic repeated cocaine use. Serial evaluations of Hamilton depression rating, cocaine craving, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (pMHPG) concentrations were determined. There was a distinct increase in cocaine craving between 1 and 2 weeks after the last cocaine use. Levels of pHVA also increased at the time of heightened craving. The data provide preliminary evidence to suggest that changes in cocaine craving during abstinence are positively correlated with changes in dopamine turnover.

  17. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  18. Utilizing Patient E-learning in an Intervention Study on Preoperative Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jean; Raveendran, Raviraj; Chuang, Junior; Friedman, Zeev; Singh, Mandeep; Patras, Jayadeep; Wong, David T; Chung, Frances

    2018-05-01

    Patients who smoke put themselves at increased risk for serious surgical complications, yet it is not currently routine practice to educate patients about the risk of complications due to smoking. Computer-based smoking cessation programs are increasingly being utilized in the general population and may overcome some of the barriers such as lack of time, knowledge, and training to provide interventions. Our objective was to develop and implement a patient e-learning program designed for surgical patients as part of a multifaceted program aimed at assisting them to quit smoking and to determine the factors cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with abstinence. In this prospective multicenter study, smokers undergoing elective noncardiac surgery participated in a preoperative smoking cessation program consisting of a patient e-learning program, brief advice, educational pamphlet, tobacco quitline referral, letter to the primary care physician, and pharmacotherapy. The patient e-learning program described (1) the benefits of quitting smoking before surgery; (2) how to quit smoking; and (3) how to cope while quitting. The 7-day point prevalence (PP) abstinence on the day of surgery and at 1, 3 and 6 six months after surgery was separately assessed, and factors most associated with abstinence were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to estimate effect of the factors associated with abstinence longitudinally. The reach of the program was assessed with the number of smokers who participated in the program versus the number of patients who were referred to the program. A total of 459 patients (68.9% of eligible patients) participated. The 7-day PP abstinence at day of surgery, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months was 22%, 29%, 25%, and 22%, respectively. The variables predicting abstinence at 6 months were use of pharmacotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 7.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3

  19. Does acute tobacco smoking prevent cue-induced craving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation aids appear to be limited in their ability to prevent craving triggered by exposure to smoking-associated stimuli; however, the extent to which cue-induced cravings persist following denicotinized or nicotine-containing tobacco smoking is not known. Thirty (17 male) ⩾12-hour abstinent dependent smokers completed two sessions during which they smoked a nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarette. Instructions regarding the nicotine content of the cigarette varied across sessions, and all participants were exposed to a neutral cue followed by a smoking cue after cigarette consumption. Craving was assessed before and after cigarette consumption and cue exposure. Reduced intentions to smoke were associated with both nicotine expectancy (pSmoking-associated stimuli increased craving regardless of nicotine expectancy or administration (p-valuessmoking, neither smoking-related nicotine administration nor expectation prevents increases in craving following exposure to smoking-associated stimuli. These findings suggest that cue-induced craving may be resistant to various pharmacological and psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers.

  1. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  2. Reduced Nicotine Content Expectancies Affect Initial Responses to Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Smyth, Joshua M; Strasser, Andrew A; Branstetter, Steven A

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial. During each session, participants smoked their preferred brand cigarette - blinded and described as containing "usual," "low," and "very low" nicotine content - through a topography device and completed CO and subjective response assessments. Although nicotine content was identical, compared to the "usual" content cigarette, participants experienced less craving reduction after smoking the "very low" nicotine cigarette, and rated its smoke as weaker (p marketing and labeling are likely important considerations if a federal nicotine reduction policy is initiated.

  3. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale Gabriella

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary. The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette, a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated. Methods In this prospective proof-of-concept study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40 regular smokers (unwilling to quit experimenting the 'Categoria' e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend a total of five study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-24 was shown in 13/40(32.5% participants; their median of 25 cigs/day decreasing to 6 cigs/day (p Conclusion The use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit (http://ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01195597.

  4. The effects of caffeine abstinence on sleep: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  6. Smoking attenuates wound inflammation and proliferation while smoking cessation restores inflammation but not proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Toft, Birgitte Grønkær; Rygaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Full-thickness 5 mm punch biopsy wounds were made lateral to the sacrum in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. After 1 week, the wounds were excised and fixed. The smokers were then randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo patch. The sequence...... independent histopathologists, and for the analysis, proportional odds models and random effect models for repeated measurements were applied. Macrophages and PINP-stained fibroblasts were reduced in the smokers' wounds (0.28 [0.14-0.58] [OR, 95%CI]; p=0.01 and 0.37[0.19-0.70]; p...

  7. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  8. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  9. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  11. Exercise counseling to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: the Fit2Quit randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Roberts, Vaughan; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Christopher; Prapavessis, Harry; Glover, Marewa; Jiang, Yannan; Brown, Paul; Leung, William; Taylor, Sue; Tsai, Midi

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise has been proposed as a potential smoking cessation aid. This study aimed to determine the effects of an exercise counseling program on cigarette smoking abstinence at 24 weeks. A parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adult cigarette smokers (n = 906) who were insufficiently active and interested in quitting were randomized to receive the Fit2Quit intervention (10 exercise telephone counseling sessions over 6 months) plus usual care (behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care alone. There were no significant group differences in 7-day point-prevalence and continuous abstinence at 6 months. The more intervention calls successfully delivered, the lower the probability of smoking (OR, 0.88; 95 % CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01) in the intervention group. A significant difference was observed for leisure time physical activity (difference = 219.11 MET-minutes/week; 95 % CI 52.65-385.58; p = 0.01). Telephone-delivered exercise counseling may not be sufficient to improve smoking abstinence rates over and above existing smoking cessation services. (Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000637246.).

  12. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage......, 44% of the 12-week abstainers were abstinent from the target quit date (TQD), while the rest stopped smoking later. We examined the relationship between quit pattern and the varenicline versus placebo difference in continuous abstinence rates at week 52 and contributions of baseline patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: With increasing delay in initial quitting, 12-month success rates declined. Participants who had their last cigarette at week 11 of open-label treatment had quit rates at 52 weeks of 5.7% compared with 54.9% in those who last smoked in week 1 [odds ratio (OR) 20.3 (6.3, 65.9); P

  14. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  15. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  16. Perceived smoking norms, socioenvironmental factors, personal attitudes and adolescent smoking in China: a mediation analysis with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Jintao; Liu, Hongjie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-04-01

    To gather information on inter-relationships among risk factors affecting adolescent smoking for tobacco control in China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer. Longitudinal data were collected six months apart in 2003 from 813 students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 from two schools in Beijing, China. Linear regression was used to assess both the direct effect from predictor variables (smoking among influential others, pro-tobacco media, and attitudes toward smoking) on cigarette use and the indirect effect mediated through the perceived smoking norms (percentage of smokers among peers). Among the 803 subjects (mean age of 15.5 years, SD = 1.7; 52.1% female), 18.3% of males and 1.7% of females smoked in the past 30 days. Smoking among influential others (best friends, father, mother, male teachers, female teachers, and adults in general) and perceived positive psychological and social rewards from smoking at baseline were associated with number of cigarettes smoked at follow-up, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco media was not significantly associated with smoking. The mediated effect was greater for adult smoking (70% to 90%) than for best friend smoking (11% to 16%). Smoking among influential others and attitudes toward smoking influence adolescent smoking both directly and indirectly. The finding of the indirect effect mediated through perceived smoking norms expands our knowledge on smoking etiology. Effective adolescent smoking intervention programs in China need to include a component targeting adult smoking to reduce perceived smoking norms.

  17. Predictive value of the transtheoretical model to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Several authors have questioned the transtheoretical model. Determining the predictive value of each cognitive-behavioural element within this model could explain the multiple successes reported in smoking cessation programmes. The purpose of this study was to predict point-prevalent smoking abstinence at 2 and 6 months, using the constructs of the transtheoretical model, when applied to a pooled sample of individuals who were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event. The study follows a predictive correlation design. Recently hospitalized patients (n=168) with cardiovascular disease were pooled from a randomized, controlled trial. Independent variables of the predictive transtheoretical model comprise stages and processes of change, pros and cons to quit smoking (decisional balance), self-efficacy, and social support. These were evaluated at baseline, 2 and 6 months. Compared to smokers, individuals who abstained from smoking at 2 and 6 months were more confident at baseline to remain non-smokers, perceived less pros and cons to continue smoking, utilized less consciousness raising and self-re-evaluation experiential processes of change, and received more positive reinforcement from their social network with regard to their smoke-free behaviour. Self-efficacy and stages of change at baseline were predictive of smoking abstinence after 6 months. Other variables found to be predictive of smoking abstinence at 6 months were an increase in self-efficacy; an increase in positive social support behaviour and a decrease of the pros within the decisional balance. The results partially support the predictive value of the transtheoretical model constructs in smoking cessation for cardiovascular disease patients.

  18. Factors Associated with Intentions to Engage in Vaginal Intercourse among Sexually Abstinent Missouri High School Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Timothy; Wilson, Kelly L.; McNeill, Elisa B.; Rosen, Brittany L.; Moore, Nancy Daley; Smith, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examine personal characteristics, alcohol consumption, normative beliefs, household factors, and extracurricular engagement associated with intentions to have intercourse before marriage among abstinent students. Methods: Data were analyzed from 245 freshmen enrolled in a school-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program. Two…

  19. Worth the Wait? The Consequences of Abstinence-Only Sex Education for Marginalized Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    "Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…

  20. Neoliberal Narratives and the Logic of Abstinence Only Education: Why Are We Still Having This Conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2018-01-01

    Given the lack of citizen or medical support for abstinence-only education, we ask how abstinence-education maintains such a stronghold in America and other Western democracies' public policy and consciousness. Our response has three parts. In the first, we outline the disproportionately negative health outcomes of sex education experienced by…

  1. Behavioral factors predicting response to employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Washington, Wendy Donlin; Knealing, Todd W; Wong, Conrad J; Kolodner, Ken; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about $10 per hr. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work (n = 28) or Work Only (n = 28) condition and could work for an additional 26 weeks. Abstinence & Work participants had to provide cocaine-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Work Only participants only had to work to earn pay. For Work Only participants, cocaine abstinence during baseline and the intervention period were significantly ( r s = .72, p workplace attendance was marginally correlated ( r s = .32, p = .098) with cocaine abstinence during the intervention period. Furthermore, participants who provided over 60% cocaine-negative urine samples during the intervention period (i.e., responders) had significantly higher baseline rates of opiate abstinence ( p workplace attendance ( p = .042) than non-responders. Employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence may be improved by increasing opiate abstinence and workplace attendance prior to initiating the cocaine-abstinence intervention.

  2. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence...

  3. Abstinence, Sex, and Virginity: Do They Mean What We Think They Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.; Kimberly, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous definitions concerning which behaviors constitute sex, abstinence, and virginity may lead to arbitrary interpretations of meaning or miscommunication, which could be particularly problematic in health care, educational, and research contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare definitions of sex, abstinence, and…

  4. Quasi-morphine abstinence behaviour GABA-ergic mechanisms and their localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Laan

    1981-01-01

    textabstractDi-n-propylacetate (DPA), generally known to be an anti-epileptic drug, induces a behavioural syndrome in rats resembling morphine abstinence behaviour, which is called, therefore, quasi-morphine abstinence beh~viour. An increase in GABA-ergic activity is probably responsible for this

  5. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD reporting 12-month biochemical validated abstinence rates. The different interventions were grouped into four categories: usual care, minimal counselling, intensive counselling and intensive counselling + pharmacotherapy ('pharmacotherapy'). For each category the average 12-month continuous abstinence rate and intervention costs were estimated. A dynamic population model for COPD was used to project the long-term (cost-) effectiveness (25 years) of 1-year implementation of the interventions for 50% of the patients with COPD who smoked compared with usual care. Uncertainty and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in the calculation of the abstinence rates, the type of projection, intervention costs and discount rates. Nine studies were selected. The average 12-month continuous abstinence rates were estimated to be 1.4% for usual care, 2.6% for minimal counselling, 6.0% for intensive counselling and 12.3% for pharmacotherapy. Compared with usual care, the costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for minimal counselling, intensive counselling and pharmacotherapy were euro 16 900, euro 8200 and euro 2400, respectively. The results were most sensitive to variations in the estimation of the abstinence rates and discount rates. Compared with usual care, intensive counselling and pharmacotherapy resulted in low costs per QALY gained with ratios comparable to results for smoking cessation in the general population. Compared with intensive counselling, pharmacotherapy was cost saving and dominated the other interventions.

  6. Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J.; Kypriotakis, George; Li, Liang; Arduino, Roberto C.; Fletcher, Faith E.; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a pressing public health concern, and efforts to evaluate cessation treatments are needed. The purpose of the present study was to assess potential mechanisms of a cell phone-delivered intervention for HIV-positive smokers. Methods Data from 350 PLWH enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation treatment trial were utilized. Participants were randomized to either usual care (UC) or a cell phone intervention (CPI) group. The independent variable of interest was treatment group membership, while the dependent variable of interest was smoking abstinence at a 3-month follow-up. The hypothesized treatment mechanisms were depression, anxiety, social support, quit motivation and self-efficacy change scores. Results Abstinence rates in the UC and CPI groups were 4.7% (8 of 172) and 15.7% (28 of 178), respectively. The CPI group (vs. UC) experienced a larger decline in depression between baseline and the 3-month follow-up, and a decline in anxiety. Self-efficacy increased for the CPI group and declined for the UC group. Quit motivation and social support change scores did not differ by treatment group. Only self-efficacy met the predefined criteria for mediation. The effect of the cell phone intervention on smoking abstinence through change in self-efficacy was statistically significant (p<.001) and accounted for 17% of the total effect of the intervention on abstinence. Conclusions The findings further emphasize the important mechanistic function of self-efficacy in promoting smoking cessation for PLWH. Additional efforts are required to disentangle the relationships between emotional, distress motivation, and efficacious smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25542824

  7. Facets of impulsivity in the relationship between antisocial personality and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Trotman, Adria J-M; Fishman, Shira; Lejuez, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    Most individuals who enter drug treatment programs are unable to maintain long-term abstinence. This problem is especially relevant for those presenting with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). In examining potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between ASPD and abstinence, one factor that may be especially useful is the personality variable of impulsivity. Thus, the current study examined ASPD status in relation to longest abstinence attempt among 117 substance use treatment-seeking individuals, considering the mediating role of five facets of impulsivity: urgency, perseverance, premeditation, control, and delay discounting. Results indicated that individuals with ASPD evidenced shorter previous abstinence attempts and lower levels of perseverance and control than those without ASPD. Further, lower levels of control were associated with shorter abstinence attempts. Finally, control mediated the relationship between ASPD and longest quit attempt. These results suggest the potential value of multiple facets of impulsivity in efforts to understand relapse and subsequent treatment development efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Massachusetts Medicaid members that smoked in 2008: Characteristics associated with smoking status in 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis D Henry

    Full Text Available The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively. Surveys collected demographic and health information, asked members whether they smoked cigarettes "every day, some days or not at all', and asked questions to assess smoking intensity among current smokers. The 2014 survey included an open ended-question asking members "what helped the most" in quitting or quit attempts. We observed a significant decrease in members reporting smoking "every/some days" of 15.5 percentage points (p < .0001 from 2008 to 2014, and a significant decrease in smokers reporting smoking "more than 10 cigarettes on days smoked" of 16.7 percentage points (p < .0001. Compared to smokers, former smokers more frequently reported health concerns, the influence of family members, and the use of e-cigarettes as helping the most in quitting. Expanded access to tobacco cessation treatment under the Affordable Care Act may have help to reduce the high smoking rates among Medicaid enrollees. Additionally, smokers' concerns about health and the influence of family and friends provide opportunities for targeted intervention and messaging about quitting.

  9. Evaluación de un programa de deshabituación tabáquica en el medio laboral Evaluation of a worksite smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sala

    2005-10-01

    performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of smokers and to invite them to participate in a smoking cessation program. The intervention involved an individual visit with medical history, measurement of carbon monoxide in expired air and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy followed by 12 sessions of group therapy over 1 year to reinforce abstinence. Follow-up to evaluate abstinence took place at 6, 12 and 24 months. A post-intervention survey was carried out to evaluate the program's effectiveness. Results: A total of 1,203 questionnaires were sent with a response rate of 51%. Thirty-three percent of the subjects (n = 204 were smokers and 101 smokers enrolled in the program. Abstinence rates at 12 and 24 months were 45% and 33% respectively with no differences between sexes. Low and moderate nicotine dependence was associated with a greater probability of abstinence at 6 (OR = 6.7; p = 0.01 and 12 months (OR = 5.4: p = 0.05, adjusted by sex, age, and compliance with nicotine replacement therapy. The prevalence of smokers in the post-intervention questionnaire was 19%. In addition, 26% (n = 10 of subjects who quit smoking in the 12-month study period without participating in the program reported quitting because of the program. Conclusions: The results indicate that worksite smoking cessation programs can substantially contribute to reducing the prevalence of smoking.

  10. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  11. Psychological, pharmacological, and combined smoking cessation interventions for smokers with current depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Secades-Villa

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis (ID: CRD42016051017 of smoking cessation interventions for patients with current depression. We examined the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments in improving abstinence rates and depressive symptoms. The following electronic databases were used for potentially eligible studies: PUBMED, PSYCINFO, DIALNET and WEB OF KNOWLEDGE. The search terms used were: smoking cessation, depressive disorder, depression, mood, depressive, depressed, smoking, smokers, nicotine, nicotine dependence, and tobacco cigarette smoking. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality assessment tool (EPHPP. Of the 6,584 studies identified, 20 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of studies were 16 randomized controlled trials and 4 secondary studies. Studies included three types of intervention: psychological (6/30%, pharmacological (6/30% or combined (8/40%. Four trials comprised special populations of smokers. Four studies received a strong methodological quality, 7 were scored as moderate and 9 studies received a weak methodological rating. Analyses of effectiveness showed that smoking cessation interventions appear to increase short-term and long-term smoking abstinence in individuals with current depression. Subgroup analyses revealed stronger effects among studies that provided pharmacological treatments than in studies using psychological treatments. However, the evidence is weak due to the small number of studies. Smoking abstinence appears to be associated with an improvement in depressive symptoms. Heterogeneity in protocols in similar types of treatment also prevent firm conclusions being drawn on the effectiveness of any particular treatment model to optimally manage abstinence among depressed smokers. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence base.

  12. Effects of length of abstinence on decision-making and craving in methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibin Wang

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The majority of drug abusers are incapable of sustaining abstinence over any length of time. Accumulating evidence has linked intense and involuntary craving, Impulsive decision-making and mood disturbances to risk for relapse. However, little is known about temporal changes of these neuropsychological functions in methamphetamine (METH-dependent individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of length of abstinence on decision-making, craving (baseline and cue-induced, and emotional state in METH-addicted individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 183 adult METH-dependent patients at an addiction rehabilitation center who were abstinent for 6 days (n = 37, 14 days (n = 33, 1 month (n = 31, 3 months (n = 30, 6 months (n = 26, or 1 year (n = 30 and 39 healthy subjects were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to assess decision-making performance. Depression, anxiety, and impulsivity were also examined. One hundred thirty-nine METH abusers who were abstinent for the aforementioned times then underwent a cue session, and subjective and physiological measures were assessed. RESULTS: METH dependent individuals who were abstinent for longer periods of time exhibited better decision-making than those who were abstinent for shorter periods of time. And self-reported emotional symptoms improved with abstinence. METH abusers' ratings of craving decreased with the duration of abstinence, while cue-induced craving increased until 3 months of abstinence and decreased at 6 months and 1 year of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: We present time-dependent alterations in decision-making, emotional state, and the incubation of cue-induced craving in METH-dependent individuals, which might have significant clinical implications for the prevention of relapse.

  13. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  14. Exercise-based smoking cessation interventions among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Ussher, Michael; Marcus, Bess H

    2013-01-01

    Although smoking rates are lower among women than men, women are less likely to quit smoking in cessation trials. This is in part due to their tendency to smoke to help prevent or mitigate negative mood/affect, depression and/or postcessation weight gain. Exercise helps to alleviate women's fear of postcessation weight gain and reduces their cessation-related mood symptoms, making it a theoretically ideal smoking cessation intervention for women. In addition, short bouts of exercise decrease cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms among temporarily abstinent smokers. However, results from exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to date have been mostly nonsignificant. This paper describes the theoretical mechanisms (psychological, behavioral, physiological and neurobiological) and practical reasons underlying our belief that exercise-based smoking cessation interventions should not yet be abandoned despite their current paucity of supporting evidence. It also presents ideas for modifying future exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to increase adherence and, as a result, more accurately evaluate the effect of exercise on smoking cessation.

  15. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  16. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  17. Clinical presentation and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordean A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alice Ordean,1 Brian C Chisamore21Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, St Joseph's Health Centre, and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Exposure to prescription medications and illicit drug use during pregnancy has been associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The clinical presentation consists of neurological respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vasomotor disturbances. All infants require observation and supportive care to ensure appropriate adaptation and growth in the newborn period. A smaller percentage may also require additional pharmacotherapy, depending on the specific gestational substance exposure. Women should be counseled antenatally about the possible neonatal effects, and mother–baby dyad care should be implemented for this particular patient population.Keywords: neonatal withdrawal, opioids, marijuana, cocaine, benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  18. [Motivations for cannabis cessation, coping and adaptation strategies, and perceived benefits: impact on cannabis use relapse and abstinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, E; Septfons, A; Chabrol, H

    2013-12-01

    While cannabis has been recognized as the most illicit drug use in the world, few studies focusing on cannabis self-change and cannabis relapse or abstinence in adult non-treatment samples have been conducted. The first aim of this study was to understand cannabis self-change motives, coping and adaptation strategies and evaluating perceived benefits from cannabis cessation. The second aim was to compare, in a convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers, motivations to quit smoking cannabis, coping and adaptive strategies, as well as perceived benefit from cessation between cannabis abstinent and participants who relapse. Sixty-three participants (31 men and 32 women) who attempted to quit cannabis in a non-controlled environment without medical help and were enrolled. They completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a self-report questionnaire collecting information in three areas: sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history (including any associated problems), and participants' characteristics regarding their "most difficult" (self-defined) attempt to quit in a non-controlled environment. For this study the index quit attempt was characterized in two areas: reasons for quitting marijuana, coping strategies used while quitting. Two additional questionnaires were added to the MJQQ; the Brief Cope, and a questionnaire assessing perceived benefit of the cannabis quit attempt. The participants were on average 28.5 years old (±5.1), and started using cannabis on average at 15.8 years (±2.8). Seventy-four percent (n=45) of the participants met the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence before cannabis cessation. T-tests were used to compare abstainers and participants who relapsed after the quit attempt. Realizing that cannabis induces disabling cognitive disorders such as affection of memory, concentration and attention were reported by 71% of the participant as a motivation for quitting cannabis use. Then, being more

  19. Trauma-Focused Smoking Cessation for Smokers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Friedberg, Fred; Li, Xiaotong; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Vujanovic, Anka A; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-session, group-based comprehensive smoking cessation and trauma management (CSC-T) treatment among daily smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster with elevated WTC-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to CSC-T (N = 44; 63.6% white; 27.3% female; mean age = 51.32 ± 7.87) or comprehensive smoking cessation (CSC) alone (N = 46; 71.7% white; 28.3% female; mean age = 48.74 ± 10.66), which was comparable in length and time. Assessments included a diagnostic clinical interview and self-report measures of PTSD and respiratory symptoms, and smoking behavior, and biologically confirmed smoking abstinence. Evaluations occurred at a baseline visit, each treatment session, and at 1-, 2-, 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks post-treatment. The two treatments did not differ in regard to PTSD symptom improvement. After quit day (week 6), the two groups had similar 7-day (~15%) and 6-month (~20%) abstinence rates as well as average number of cigarettes smoked, and PTSD and respiratory symptoms. It is possible that the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy skills specific to quitting smoking, group-based support, and degree of therapist contact, that were available in both treatments may have played a role in equalizing the abstinence rates between the two conditions. Although the current study found no evidence that the CSC-T was superior to the CSC alone treatment, the abstinence rates observed were high relative to previous trials of smokers with diagnosed PTSD. Further development of smoking cessation programs tailored to the needs of smokers with PTSD symptoms continues to be needed. This study suggests that a CSC program aids in smoking abstinence for smokers with PTSD symptoms and that incorporating trauma management skills, may not add additional benefits for abstinence and PTSD and respiratory symptom relief. Further work is needed to

  20. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  1. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  2. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  3. Protective influences of N-acetylcysteine against alcohol abstinence-induced depression by regulating biochemical and GRIN2A, GRIN2B gene expression of NMDA receptor signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawalkar, Rutuja; Changotra, Harish; Gupta, Girdhari Lal

    2018-04-25

    significant reversal effect of NAC on the serotonin level following alcohol abstinence was greater in the hippocampus as compared to the third-day alcohol withdrawal group. The increased expression levels of GRIN2A and GRIN2B following ethanol abstinence were reversed with a higher dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) treatment. In conclusion, the results of the study reveal that NAC has remarkable protective effects in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression by modulating alcohol markers, serotonin levels and GRIN2A, GRIN2B gene expression of NMDAR signaling pathway in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  5. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  6. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  7. [Interventions for smoking cessation in 2018].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kader, J; Airagnes, G; D'almeida, S; Limosin, F; Le Faou, A-L

    2018-06-01

    Smoking cessation treatments have been proved effective to stop smoking. For pharmacological treatments, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as well as bupropion allow to increase 6 month-abstinence rates by more than 80% in comparison with placebo while varenicline prescription doubles success rates in the same conditions. These results mean that for 10 smokers who quit with placebo, 18 are expected to quit with NRT or bupropion and 28 are expected to quit with varenicline. Varenicline is 50% more effective than nicotine patch and 70% more effective than nicotine gum. Nevertheless, a combination including NRT patch and oral nicotine forms is as effective as varenicline, thus leading to encourage the prescription of a combination NRT when NRT are chosen. For these three pharmacological treatments, cardiovascular as well as neuropsychiatric tolerance were not found statistically different from placebo in randomized controlled trials. Yet, bupropion prescription leads to an increasing risk of seizure (1/1000 to 1/1500). For behavioral treatment, motivational interviewing as well as cognitive behavior therapies are been proven to be effective to stop smoking but few smokers have access to this treatment. Smoking cessation mobile application and smartphone application seem to be promising in terms of effectiveness and might be useful to reach more smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise to Enhance Smoking Cessation: the Getting Physical on Cigarette Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, Harry; De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lindsay; Faulkner, Guy; Maddison, Ralph; Batten, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Exercise has been proposed as a useful smoking cessation aid. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention program, with built-in maintenance components, on post-intervention 14-, 26- and 56-week cessation rates. Female cigarette smokers (n = 413) participating in a supervised exercise and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) smoking cessation program were randomized to one of four conditions: exercise + smoking cessation maintenance, exercise maintenance + contact control, smoking cessation maintenance + contact control or contact control. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence. Abstinence differences were found between the exercise and equal contact non-exercise maintenance groups at weeks 14 (57 vs 43 %), 26 (27 vs 21 %) and 56 (26 vs 23.5 %), respectively. Only the week 14 difference approached significance, p = 0.08. An exercise-aided NRT smoking cessation program with built-in maintenance components enhances post-intervention cessation rates at week 14 but not at weeks 26 and 56.

  10. The importance of supporting autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C; Niemiec, Christopher P; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2009-06-01

    The Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence (Fiore et al. 2000) recommends supporting autonomy and perceived competence to facilitate tobacco abstinence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive tobacco-dependence intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) and intended to support autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. One thousand and six adult smokers were recruited into a randomized cessation-induction trial. Community care participants received cessation pamphlets and information on local treatment programs. Intervention participants received the same materials and were asked to meet four times with counselors over 6 months to discuss their health in a manner intended to support autonomy and perceived competence. The primary outcome was 24-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco. The secondary outcome was 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 24 months postintervention. Smokers in the intervention were more likely to attain both tobacco abstinence outcomes and these effects were partially mediated by change in both autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence from baseline to 6 months. Structural equation modeling confirmed the SDT model of health-behavior change in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. An intervention based on SDT and consistent with the PHS Guideline, which was intended to support autonomy and perceived competence, facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence.

  11. Protracted abstinence from distinct drugs of abuse shows regulation of a common gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Merrer, Julie; Befort, Katia; Gardon, Olivier; Filliol, Dominique; Darcq, Emmanuel; Dembele, Doulaye; Becker, Jerome A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder. Prolonged abstinence from drugs of abuse involves dysphoria, high stress responsiveness and craving. The neurobiology of drug abstinence, however, is poorly understood. We previously identified a unique set of hundred mu-opioid receptor-dependent genes in the extended amygdala, a key site for hedonic and stress processing in the brain. Here we examined these candidate genes either immediately after chronic morphine, nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or alcohol, or following 4 weeks of abstinence. Regulation patterns strongly differed among chronic groups. In contrast, gene regulations strikingly converged in the abstinent groups and revealed unforeseen common adaptations within a novel huntingtin-centered molecular network previously unreported in addiction research. This study demonstrates that, regardless the drug, a specific set of transcriptional regulations develops in the abstinent brain, which possibly contributes to the negative affect characterizing protracted abstinence. This transcriptional signature may represent a hallmark of drug abstinence and a unitary adaptive molecular mechanism in substance abuse disorders. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou França Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. Methods In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. Results We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Conclusion Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence are associated with tobacco use. University-based prevention campaigns

  14. The effects of a smoking cessation programme on health-promoting lifestyles and smoking cessation in smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ai Hee; Lee, Suk Jeong; Oh, Seung Jin

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for not only the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia but also recurrences of vascular stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate health-promoting lifestyles and abstinence rate after a smoking cessation programme. Sixty-two smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 30) received 10 phone counselling sessions and 21 short message service messages for abstinence and coronary disease prevention, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only the standard education. After the intervention, 14 members of the experimental group had switched to a non-smoking status, confirmed biochemically; moreover, their physical activity and stress management scores increased significantly. However, self-efficacy of smoking cessation was not reflected in the cotinine levels. Thus, it is necessary not only to increase self-efficacy but also to determine the factors that affect the success of smoking cessation so that they can be included in the intervention. Our results suggest that phone counselling and short message service messaging might be important tools for the realization of smoking cessation and lifestyle changes among patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  16. Exploration of central dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in morphine abstinent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Bocheng; Wang Shizhen; Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhengping; Zhang Manda

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was designed to investigate the variation of DAT and D2 receptor in morphine administered and 1,2,3 day abstinent rats. Morphine exposure was induced by repeated morphine (i.p.) treatment for 8 days. Conditioned place preference test was conducted to evaluate the drug seeking behaviour and morphine dependence of rats with morphine exposure. Biodistribution of the imaging agents 125 I-β-CIT and 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the central DAT and D2 receptor during morphine exposure and 1,2,3 day's abstinence. Results reveal the following facts. (1) The morphine abstinent rats showed diarrhea and body-shake 1 day after morphine withdrawal. (2) For morphine group, 125 I-β-CIT %ID/g in ST and NAC was higher than that of the 1,2,3 day's abstinent rats and control (P 0.05). (3) 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST, NAC and HIP in morphine rats were lower than those of the abstinent and control rats (P 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST and NAC gradually increased with the abstinent days. While in ST the %ID/g among the abstinent rats was all lower than that of the control rats, in NAC the %ID/g was still lower in 1 day's abstinent rats (P 0.05), indicating the reduction of hyper-activated DAT and the increase of down-regulatory D2 receptor induced by morphine during morphine withdrawal. Our results confirmed that the dopamine system, especially DAT and D2 receptor in mesolimbic and meso-striatum pathway, has been implicated in morphine treatment. The rewarding properties of morphine and the somatic expression of morphine abstinence were related to changes in mesolimbic and meso-striatum dopaminergic activity. (authors)

  17. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  18. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Aveyard, Paul; Adams, Jean

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between future orientation (how individuals consider and value outcomes in the future) and smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months post quit-date in individuals enrolled in a smoking cessation study. Cohort analysis of randomized controlled trial data. UK primary care. Adults aged ≥18 years smoking ≥15 cigarettes daily, prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks. Future orientation was measured prior to quitting and at 4 weeks post-quitting using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale. Smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months was confirmed biochemically. Those lost to follow-up were assumed to not be abstinent. Potential confounders adjusted for were: age, gender, educational attainment, nicotine dependence and longest previous period quit. A total of 697 participants provided data at baseline; 422 provided information on future orientation at 4 weeks. There was no evidence of an association between future orientation at baseline and abstinence at 4 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.05, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80-1.38] or 6 months (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.60-1.20). There was no change in future orientation from baseline to 4 weeks and no evidence that the change differed between those who were and were not quit at 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient = -0.04, 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.08). In smokers who are prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks, the extent of future orientation is unlikely to be a strong predictor of quitting over 4 weeks or 6 months and any increase in future orientation following quitting is likely to be small. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Faysal M; Zagarins, Sofija E; Pischke, Karen M; Saiyed, Shamila; Bettencourt, Ann Marie; Beal, Laura; Macys, Diane; Aurora, Sanjay; McCleary, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is well documented. However, due to relapse rates and side effects, hypnotherapy is gaining attention as an alternative treatment option. The aim of this one-center randomized study was to compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy alone, as well as hypnotherapy with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to conventional NRT in patients hospitalized with a cardiac or pulmonary illness. We evaluated self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 12 and 26 weeks post-hospitalization. Patients (n=164) were randomized into one of three counseling-based treatment groups: NRT for 30 days (NRT; n=41), a 90-min hypnotherapy session (H; n=39), and NRT with hypnotherapy (HNRT; n=37). Treatment groups were compared to a "self-quit" group of 35 patients who refused intervention. Hypnotherapy patients were more likely than NRT patients to be nonsmokers at 12 weeks (43.9% vs. 28.2%; p=0.14) and 26 weeks after hospitalization (36.6% vs. 18.0%; p=0.06). Smoking abstinence rates in the HNRT group were similar to the H group. There was no difference in smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks between "self quit" and participants in any of the treatment groups. In multivariable regression analysis adjusting for diagnosis and demographic characteristics, H and HNRT were over three times more likely than NRT participants to abstain at 26-weeks post-discharge (RR=3.6; p=0.03 and RR=3.2; p=0.04, respectively). Hypnotherapy is more effective than NRT in improving smoking abstinence in patients hospitalized for a smoking-related illness, and could be an asset to post-discharge smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  2. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy v varenicline alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Noor

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting.Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT.Methods. A post-hoc analysis of the data of 435 subjects who participated in a 24-week, multicentre trial in South Africa was performed. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of age, sex, age at smoking initiation, daily cigarette consumption, nicotine dependence, and reinforcement assessment on abstinence rates at 12 and 24 weeks. Point prevalence and continuous abstinence rates were self-reported and confirmed biochemically with exhaled carbon monoxide readings.Results. The significant predictors of continuous abstinence at 12 and 24 weeks on multivariate analysis were lower daily cigarette consumption (odds ratio (OR 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21 - 2.87, p=0.005 and OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.12 - 2.98, p=0.02, respectively and older age (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.31, p=0.049 and OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.13 - 2.84, p=0.01, respectively. There was no difference in the predictors of success in the univariate analysis, except that older age predicted point prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.15, p=0.049. The findings were inconclusive for an association between abstinence and lower nicotine dependence, older age at smoking initiation and positive reinforcement.Conclusion. Older age and lower daily cigarette consumption are associated with a higher likelihood of abstinence in patients using varenicline, regardless of the addition of NRT.

  3. Smoking in non-student Mexican adolescents with asthma: relation with family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José

    2012-02-01

    The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  5. A pilot randomised controlled trial of the feasibility of using body scan and isometric exercises for reducing urge to smoke in a smoking cessation clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveyard Paul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main cause of relapse in smokers attempting to quit is inability to resist urges to smoke. Pharmacotherapy ameliorates but does not entirely prevent urges to smoke when abstinent, so other methods to resist urges to smoke might be helpful. Exercise is effective, but aerobic exercise is often impractical when urges strike. Two techniques, body scan and isometric exercise, have been shown to reduce urge intensity and nicotine withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers. It is unclear whether they would be used or effective in typical smokers attempting to quit. Methods In a pilot trial set in a UK smoking cessation clinic, 20 smokers were randomised to receive emails containing .mp3 files and .pdf illustrations of the instructions for doing the body scan and isometric exercises. Twenty smokers received no other intervention, although all 40 were receiving weekly behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy. Carbon monoxide confirmed abstinence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, urges to smoke, and use of the techniques to resist urges were recorded weekly for four weeks after quit day. Results 60–80% of quitters reported using the isometric exercises each week and 40–70% reported using the body scan to deal with urges. On average, these techniques were rated as 'slightly helpful' for controlling the urges. There were no large or significant differences in withdrawal symptoms or urge intensity between the two groups. The risk ratio and 95% confidence interval for exercises compared with controls for prolonged confirmed abstinence at four weeks was 0.82 (0.44–1.53. 81% of quitters intended to continue using isometric exercises and 25% body scan, while 81% and 50% respectively would recommend using these techniques to others trying to stop. Conclusion Isometric exercises, and to a lesser extent body scan, were popular and perceived as somewhat helpful by quitters. The trial showed that these techniques were

  6. Effects of smoking on fatty acids composition of croaker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smoked croakers analysed without skin (skinless).The relationship of PUFA to SFA for fresh and smoked croakers were greater than 0.4 and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios of both the fresh and smoked croaker were far less than one (1) thus constituting an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and a highly healthy food.

  7. Effects of smoking cues and argument strength of antismoking advertisements on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers' self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21-65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers' behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers' reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. The effect of smoking cues on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments.

  8. Effects of Smoking Cues and Argument Strength of Antismoking Advertisements on Former Smokers’ Self-efficacy, Attitude, and Intention to Refrain From Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. Methods: The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21–65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. Results: The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers’ behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers’ reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. Conclusions: The effect of smoking cues on former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments. PMID:22949578

  9. Association of established smoking among adolescents with timing of exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Titus, Linda J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-04-04

    It is not known whether exposure to smoking depicted in movies carries greater influence during early or late adolescence. We aimed to quantify the independent relative contribution to established smoking of exposure to smoking depicted in movies during both early and late adolescence. We prospectively assessed 2049 nonsmoking students recruited from 14 randomly selected public schools in New Hampshire and Vermont. At baseline enrollment, students aged 10-14 years completed a written survey to determine personal, family, and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to depictions of smoking in the movies (early exposure). Seven years later, we conducted follow-up telephone interviews to ascertain follow-up exposure to movie smoking (late exposure) and smoking behavior. We used multiple regression models to assess associations between early and late exposure and development of established smoking. One-sixth (17.3%) of the sample progressed to established smoking. In analyses that controlled for covariates and included early and late exposure in the same model, we found that students in the highest quartile for early exposure had 73% greater risk of established smoking than those in the lowest quartile for early exposure (27.8% vs 8.6%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14 to 2.62). However, late exposure to depictions of smoking in movies was not statistically significantly associated with established smoking (22.1% vs 14.0%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.44). Whereas 31.6% of established smoking was attributable to early exposure, only an additional 5.3% was attributable to late exposure. Early exposure to smoking depicted in movies is associated with established smoking among adolescents. Educational and policy-related interventions should focus on minimizing early exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

  10. Assessment of Executive Functions in Methamphetamineaddicted Individuals: Emphasis on Duration of Addiction and Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farhadian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that although executive functions may be improved by protracted abstinence, executive dysfunctions are not completely relieved, and specific attention to planning and implementation of intervention programs are necessary.

  11. Effects of sustained abstinence among treated substance-abusing homeless persons on housing and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Wallace, Dennis; Vuchinich, Rudy; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2010-05-01

    We examined whether cocaine-dependent homeless persons had stable housing and were employed 6, 12, and 18 months after they entered a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 treatments. One group (n = 103) received abstinence-contingent housing, vocational training, and work; another group (n = 103) received the same intervention plus cognitive behavioral day treatment. We examined baseline and early treatment variables for association with long-term housing and employment. Although the enhanced-treatment group achieved better abstinence rates, the groups did not differ in long-term housing and employment stability. However, consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment (and to a lesser extent, older age and male gender) predicted long-term housing and employment stability after adjustment for baseline differences in employment, housing, and treatment. Our data showed a relationship of abstinence with housing stability. Contrasting these results with the increasingly popular Housing First interventions reveals important gaps in our knowledge to be addressed in future research.

  12. Maintien de l'abstinence chez les patients alcoolo-dependants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintien de l'abstinence chez les patients alcoolo-dependants: étude comparee de la disponibilite et du cout du traitement par le baclofene, l'acamprosate, et la naltrexone a Cotonou (Benin) et a Lome (Togo)

  13. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.

  14. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  15. The romanticization of abstinence: Fan response to sexual restraint in the Twilight series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stevens Aubrey, Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, and Melissa A. Click

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Meyer's Twilight series has been criticized for its regressive gender representations. To understand its continuing appeal, we problematize the messages of abstinence and romance in the series, and contextualize fans' response with a discussion of postfeminist culture.

  16. Commitment contracts and team incentives: a randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Dow, William H; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2013-11-01

    Treatment for tobacco dependence is not available in many low-resource settings, especially in developing countries. To test the impact of a novel mix of monetary and social incentives on smoking abstinence in rural communities of Thailand. An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking. Smokers were not blinded to treatment status, although the assessor of the biochemical urine test was. All adult smokers living in the study area were eligible to participate; 215 adult smokers from 42 villages in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand, participated. Fourteen smokers who lacked teammates were dropped. A total of 201 smokers were assigned to a two-person team, and then randomly assigned by team (in a 2:1 ratio) with computer-generated random numbers to receive smoking-cessation counseling (control group) or counseling plus offer of a commitment contract, team incentives, and text message reminders for smoking cessation at 3 months (intervention group). The primary outcome was biochemically verified 7-day abstinence at 6 months, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes include study participation, biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months, self-reported abstinence at 14 months, and the incremental cost per quitter of the intervention, nicotine gum, and varenicline in Thailand. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2012. The trial enrolled 215 (10.5%) of 2055 smokers. The abstinence rate was 46.2% (61/132) in the intervention group and 14.5% (10/69) in the control group (adjusted OR 7.5 [3.0-18.6]) at 3 months; 44.3% (58/131) and 18.8% (13/69) at the primary end point of 6 months (adjusted OR 4.2 [1.8-9.7]); and 42.0% (55/131) and 24.6% (17/69) at 14 months (adjusted OR 2.2 [1.0-4.8]). The purchasing power parity-adjusted incremental cost per quitter from the intervention is $281 (95% CI=$187, $562), less than for nicotine gum ($1780, 95% CI=$1414, $2401) or varenicline ($2073, 95% CI=$1357, $4388) in

  17. Understanding the prevalence of lifetime abstinence from alcohol: An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    The level of alcohol consumption and related burden in a country are strongly impacted by the prevalence of abstinence from alcohol use. The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lifetime abstinence from alcohol use with economic wealth (as measured in the gross domestic product [GDP]) and Muslim religion on a country level. An ecological study was performed using aggregate data of 183 countries for the year 2010. Lifetime abstinence among men and women was predicted using fractional response regression models with the natural logarithm of GDP-PPP (purchasing power parity) and the proportion of Muslim population as predictors. The models were further adjusted by the country's median age and World Health Organization region. Precision of prediction was investigated. Descriptive analyses showed a strong negative association between GDP-PPP and lifetime abstinence in countries without a Muslim majority and a GDP-PPP up to 20,000 international dollars. Regression models confirmed the negative association with GDP-PPP and showed a strong positive association between lifetime abstinence and the proportion of Muslim population. Stratified sensitivity analyses showed that in countries without a Muslim majority only GDP-PPP showed a statistically significant association whereas in Muslim majority countries only the proportion of Muslims was associated with the prevalence of lifetime abstinence. Particularly in countries with a lower GDP and without Muslim majority the prevalence of lifetime abstinence from alcohol use is strongly negatively associated with GDP-PPP. Future research should analyze the accordance in trends of GDP and lifetime abstinence over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atomoxetine in abstinent cocaine users: Cognitive, subjective and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Herman, Aryeh I; Konkus, Noah S; Zhang, Huiping; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    No pharmacotherapies are approved for the treatment of cocaine use disorders (CUD). Behavioral treatments for CUD are efficacious for some individuals, but recovery rates from CUD remain low. Cognitive impairments in CUD have been linked with poorer clinical outcomes. Cognitive enhancing pharmacotherapies have been proposed as promising treatments for CUD. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, shows potential as a treatment for CUD based on its efficacy as a cognitive enhancer in other clinical populations and impact on addictive processes in preclinical and human laboratory studies. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, abstinent individuals with CUD (N=39) received placebo, 40 and 80mg atomoxetine, over three sessions. Measures of attention, response inhibition and working memory; subjective medication effects and mood; and cardiovascular effects were collected. Analyses assessed acute, dose-dependent effects of atomoxetine. In addition, preliminary analyses investigating the modulation of atomoxetine dose effects by sex were performed. Atomoxetine increased heart rate and blood pressure, was rated as having positive and negative subjective drug effects, and had only modest effects on mood and cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The therapeutic action of psychoanalysis: abstinence and informative experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chused, J F

    1996-01-01

    In recent years a number of analytic concepts have been subject to scrutiny, with the value of interpretations, the usefulness of abstinence, the possibility of neutrality, all questioned. One reason for the skepticism about interpretations, in particular, is that before a patient can use an interpretation for psychic change, his perceptual frame must change, a process that is rarely initiated by the verbal content of an interpretation alone. Instead, alterations in perception usually require experiences which are discordant with expectations. In this paper the author demonstrates how the nonverbal elements of an intervention, the action communications, provide informative experiences, creating the dissonance between expectation and eventuality which makes psychic change possible. Case vignettes are presented to illustrate this point as well as to support the idea that when nonverbal experiences contribute to lasting change within a patient, the therapeutic benefit does not accrue primarily from the gratification provided by the experience, but from how the experience informs the patient about his mode of thinking, perceiving, and reacting.

  20. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  1. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  2. Smoking habits in the randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial with low-dose CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the final results of the effect of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT on the smoking habits of participants in a 5-year screening trial. METHODS: The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) was a 5-year screening trial that enrolled 4104 subjects; 2052 were randomised...... to annual low-dose CT (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were current and ex-smokers (≥4 weeks abstinence from smoking) with a tobacco consumption of ≥20 pack years. Smoking habits were determined annually. Missing values for smoking status at the final screening...... round were handled using two different models. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in annual smoking status between the CT group and control group. Overall the ex-smoker rates (CT + control group) significantly increased from 24% (baseline) to 37% at year 5 of screening (p

  3. Neuronal mechanisms underlying development of nicotine dependence: implications for novel smoking-cessation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Markou, Athina

    2011-07-01

    Tobacco smoking causes high rates of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Despite the availability of smoking-cessation medications, maintenance of long-term abstinence is difficult, and most individuals who attempt to quit smoking relapse. Although tobacco smoke contains many substances, researchers and policymakers agree that nicotine is a major cause of tobacco dependence. Understanding the neural substrates of nicotine dependence is essential for the development of more effective antismoking medications than those currently available. This article focuses on the neural substrates, especially nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, that mediate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence. Neuroadaptations in the function of the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which have been shown to be critically involved in nicotine dependence, are also reviewed. Finally, the article discusses progress in the discovery and development of smoking-cessation medications.

  4. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    of these, all trial participants were provided with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Three other trials in adults did not detect significant long term effects. One of these provided access to a website as an adjunct to counselling and bupropion, one compared web-based counselling, proactive telephone-based counselling or a combination of the two as an adjunct to varenicline. The third only provided a list of Internet resources. One further short-term trial did show a significant increase in quit rates at 3 months. A trial in college students increased point prevalence abstinence after 30 weeks but had no effect on sustained abstinence. Two small trials in adolescents did not detect an effect on cessation compared to control, whilst a third small trial did detect a benefit of a web-based adjunct to a group programme amongst adolescents.Ten trials, all in adult populations, compared different Internet sites or programmes. There was some evidence that sites that were tailored and interactive might be more effective than static sites, but this was not detected in all the trials that explored this factor. One large trial did not detect differences between different Internet sites. One trial of a tailored intervention as an adjunct to NRT use showed a significant benefit but only had a 3-month follow up. One trial detected evidence of a benefit from tailored email letter compared to a non-tailored one. Trials failed to detect a benefit of including a mood management component (three trials), or an asynchronous bulletin board. Higher abstinence rates were typically reported by participants who actively engaged with the programme (as reflected by the number of log-ins). Results suggest that some Internet-based interventions can assist smoking cessation, especially if the information is appropriately tailored to the users and frequent automated contacts with the users are ensured, however trials did not show consistent effects.

  5. The effects of exercise on cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Smokers show heightened activation toward smoking-related stimuli and experience increased cravings which can precipitate smoking cessation relapse. Exercise can be effective for modulating cigarette cravings and attenuating reactivity to smoking cues, but the mechanism by which these effects occur remains uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomised crossover design, overnight abstinent smokers (n = 20) underwent an exercise (10-min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and passive control (seating for the same duration) treatment, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. After each treatment, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanning while viewing a random series of blocked smoking or neutral images. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. There was a significant interaction effect (treatment × time) for desire to smoke, F (2,32) = 12.5, p exercise at all time points compared with the control treatment. After both exercise and rest, significant areas of activation were found in areas of the limbic lobe and in areas associated with visual attention in response to smoking-related stimuli. Smokers showed increased activation to smoking images in areas associated with primary and secondary visual processing following rest, but not following a session of exercise. The study shows differing activation towards smoking images following exercise compared to a control treatment and may point to a neuro-cognitive process following exercise that mediates effects on cigarette cravings.

  6. Cannabis abstinence during treatment and one-year follow-up: relationship to neural activity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Hedy; DeVito, Elise E; DeLeone, Cameron M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis is among the most frequently abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity before treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and 1-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task before a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions, including those strongly implicated in cognitive-control and addiction-related processes (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not differ significantly in response times (cannabis-dependent, N=12; healthy-comparison, N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during 1-year posttreatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic 'control' regions (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic 'salience/reward/learning' regions (eg, ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent individuals from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long-term follow

  7. Low effective organizational strategies in visual memory performance of unmedicated alcoholics during early abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Mahlberg, Richard; Schroeder, Franziska; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Wrase, Jana; Wertenauer, Florian; Bschor, Tom; Esser, Guenter; Heinz, Andreas; Kienast, Thorsten

    2010-12-14

    Alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence show an impairment of cognitive functions which can be seen in poor implementation of newly learned skills for avoiding relapse. Executive dysfunction may persist during abstinence in alcohol-dependent persons, thus mitigating long-term abstinence. This study assessed visual memory function and choice of organizational strategies in alcoholics, as these are major factors necessary to implement ongoing behavior changes which are required for maintaining abstinence. We investigated 25 severely alcohol-dependent male patients between days 7 to 10 of abstinence, immediately after clinical withdrawal symptoms have ceased, compared to 15 healthy age, sex, and education matched controls. Pharmacological therapy had been terminated at least four half-lifes before inclusion into the study. Visual perceptual learning and organizational strategies were assessed with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (R-OCF). There were no group differences in copying or recalling the figure, but time differences occurred. Alcoholics and healthy controls performed worse in recalling than in copying. But, alcoholics used less effective organizational strategies. There was a deficit in choice of organizational strategy in newly abstinent and unmedicated alcohol-dependent patients. Due to the imperfect organizational strategies, alcoholics might need auxiliary therapeutic care to strengthen their cognitive ability.

  8. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harms pregnant women and the fetus. China has the world's largest number of smokers and a high male smoking prevalence rate. To compare exposure to SHS among rural and urban Chinese non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands, and analyze factors associated with the level of SHS exposure and hair nicotine concentration. Sichuan province, China. In all 1,181 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands recruited from eight district/county Women and Children's hospitals. The women completed a questionnaire in April and May 2008. Based on systematic sampling, 186 pregnant women were selected for sampling the nicotine concentration in their hair. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine correlates with self-reported SHS exposure (total and at home); linear regression was conducted for the sub-sample of hair nicotine concentrations. Secondhand smoking exposure rates, hair nicotine levels. About 75.1% of the non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands reported regular SHS exposure. The major source of exposure was through their husband. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of greater SHS exposure (total and at home) and hair nicotine concentration was increased for women who were rural, had a husband with greater cigarette consumption, less knowledge about SHS, less negative attitudes about SHS, and no smoke-free home rules. The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS.

  9. Neuroscience of nicotine for addiction medicine: novel targets for smoking cessation medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco smoking constitutes a significant burden on healthcare budgets all over the world. Therefore, promoting smoking cessation is an important goal of health professionals and policy makers throughout the world. Nicotine is a major psychoactive component in tobacco that is largely responsible for the widespread addiction to tobacco. A majority of the currently available FDA-approved smoking cessation medications act via neuronal nicotinic receptors. These medications are effective in approximately half of all the smokers, who want to quit and relapse among abstinent smokers continues to be high. In addition to relapse among abstinent smokers, unpleasant effects associated with nicotine withdrawal are a major motivational factor in continued tobacco smoking. Over the last two decades, animal studies have helped in identifying several neural substrates that are involved in nicotine-dependent behaviors including those associated with nicotine withdrawal and relapse to tobacco smoking. In this review, first the role of specific brain regions/circuits that are involved in nicotine dependence will be discussed. Next, the review will describe the role of specific nicotinic receptor subunits in nicotine dependence. Finally, the review will discuss the role of classical neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid) as well as endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid signaling in nicotine dependence. The nicotinic and nonnicotinic neural substrates involved in nicotine-dependent behaviors can serve as possible targets for future smoking cessation medications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of stage-matched intervention for smoking cessation in cardiac out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S C; Leung, Doris Y P; Wong, David C N; Lau, Chu-Pak; Wong, Vivian T; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a stage-matched smoking cessation counselling intervention for smokers who had cardiac diseases. A total of 1860 Chinese cardiac patients who smoked at least one cigarette in the past 7 days and aged 18 years or above recruited from cardiac out-patient clinics in Hong Kong hospitals were allocated randomly to an intervention group or control group. The intervention group (n = 938) received counselling matched with their stage of readiness to quit by trained counsellors at baseline, 1 week and 1 month. The control group (n = 922) received brief counselling on healthy diet at baseline. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day and 30-day point prevalence (PP) of tobacco abstinence at 12 months after baseline. The secondary outcome measures included biochemically validated abstinence at 12-month follow-up, self-reported 7-day and 30-day PP abstinence and reduction of cigarette consumption by 50% at 3 and 6 months. By intention-to-treat analysis, the intervention and control groups showed no significant difference in self-reported 7-day PP abstinence (intervention: 26.5% versus control: 25.5%; P = 0.60) and 30-day PP (intervention: 25.4% versus control: 24.2%; P = 0.55), biochemically validated abstinence (intervention: 6.6% versus control: 4.9%; P = 0.14) and overall quit attempts of least 24 hours (intervention: 40.3% versus control: 34.3%; P = 0.007) at the 12-month follow-up, adjusted for the baseline stage of readiness to quit smoking. An intervention, based on the Stages of Change model, to promote smoking cessation in cardiac patients in China failed to find any long-term benefit. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  12. Procedural and declarative memory performance, and the memory consolidation function of sleep, in recent and abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C.; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew; Jones, Katy; Morgan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on declarative memory (Rivermead Behavioral Memory task - RBMT), on procedural learning (Finger Tapping Task - FTT), and on the memory consolidation function of sleep for these two tasks. Testing occurred in 2 afternoon testing sessions, 24 hours apart so that a full period of sleep was allowed between them. Groups were: Non-drug taking Controls (n=24); Recent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy and/or MDMA 2–3 days before the first testing session (n=25), and Abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before the first session (n=17). The recent ecstasy/MDMA users performed significantly worse than controls on the RBMT (mean recall 76.1% of control group recall), but did not differ from controls on FTT performance. Correspondingly there was a significant regression between the continuous variable of recency of ecstasy/MDMA use and RBMT performance. However, there was an interaction between ecstasy/MDMA use and subsequent other drug use. Controls had similar RBMT scores to recent ecstasy/MDMA users who did not take other drugs 48 – 24 hours before testing, but scored significantly better than recent ecstasy/MDMA users who took various other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48 – 24 hours before testing. For both tasks the control, recent ecstasy/MDMA and abstinent ecstasy/MDMA users did not differ in their change of performance across 24 hours; there was thus no evidence that ecstasy/MDMA impairs the memory consolidation function of sleep for either declarative or procedural memory. For participants in the two ecstasy/MDMA groups greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets was associated with significantly more deficits in procedural memory. Furthermore, greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets and of cocaine, were also associated with significantly more deficits in declarative memory. PMID:20615932

  13. Feasibility, Efficacy and Cost Analysis of Promoting Smoking Cessation at Outdoor Smoking "hotspots": a Pre-post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Lam, Tai Hing; Li, William Ho Cheung; Wang, Man Ping; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-06-24

    To motivate smokers to quit, there is a need for enhanced smoking cessation (SC) recruitment and for innovative and proactive approaches to SC. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy and cost of promoting SC in public outdoor areas where smokers gather to smoke (smoking hotspots). We selected 14 smoking hotspots in Hong Kong for SC promotion in 2015. University students were trained as SC ambassadors to deliver brief SC intervention, and to recruit smokers for telephone follow-up. The proportion of smokers accepting the intervention components was recorded. Self-reported abstinence in the past 7 days and knowledge of smoking and health were assessed at the 6-month follow-up. The average costs of each smoker receiving our intervention and quitting were also compared. Of 3,080 smokers approached, 1,278 (41.5%) accepted the souvenir and 920 (29.9%) received brief advice. Of the 210 (6.8%) who consented to the follow-up, 24.5% were aged 15-29 and 46.4% were aged 30-49. Of the 151 smokers successfully contacted within 1 month after recruitment, 16 (10.6%; 1.3% of the 1,278 who received any form of intervention) reported abstinence, and their overall knowledge improved. The average costs for a smoker to receive brief advice, consent to follow-up by telephone, attempt to quit and quit successfully at the 6-month follow-up were US$30, US$132, US$601 and US$1,626, respectively. Promoting SC at smoking hotspots could be a feasible way to achieve satisfactory quitting outcomes at low cost and is useful in the absence of the strengthening of tobacco policies. Our study indicates that outdoor smoking hotspots are feasible platforms for promoting smoking cessation and recruiting smokers for cessation services; satisfactory outcomes can be achieved at a reasonable cost. Our promotion was particularly useful for recruiting young smokers and those who want to quit. It is feasible and efficacious to raise smokers' awareness of smoking cessation when other tobacco control

  14. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    consistent evidence that smoking bans reduced exposure to SHS in workplaces, restaurants, pubs and in public places. There was a greater reduction in exposure to SHS in hospitality workers compared to the general population. We failed to detect any difference in self-reported exposure to SHS in cars. There was no change in either the prevalence or duration of reported exposure to SHS in the home as a result of implementing legislative bans. Twenty-three studies reported measures of active smoking, often as a co-variable rather than an end-point in itself, with no consistent evidence of a reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the ban. Total tobacco consumption was reduced in studies where prevalence declined. Twenty-five studies reported health indicators as an outcome. Self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms were measured in 12 studies, with lung function measured in five of them. There was consistent evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions for cardiac events as well as an improvement in some health indicators after the ban. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to a reduction in exposure to passive smoking. Hospitality workers experienced a greater reduction in exposure to SHS after implementing the ban compared to the general population. There is limited evidence about the impact on active smoking but the trend is downwards. There is some evidence of an improvement in health outcomes. The strongest evidence is the reduction seen in admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is an increase in support for and compliance with smoking bans after the legislation.

  15. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module.

  16. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.

  17. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: Diagnostic dilemmas in the maternity ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić-Mitrović Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS refers to a newborn neurological, gastrointestinal and/or respiratory disorder if a newborn was exposed to psychoactive substances in the intrauterine period. NAS is difficult to diagnose due to unreliability of the data on addictive substances use during pregnancy, limited possibilities of the prenatal exposure diagnosis and postnatal substance detection, which all lead to diagnostic dilemmas. Objective. The aim of this study was to indicate the problems in patients with early NAS diagnosis in the maternity ward and the importance of clinical presentation used as a guide toward the diagnosis. Methods. This retrospective study included five term eutrophic newborns with high Apgar score, good adaptation in the first day and with clinical presentation of NAS during the second day of life. The clinical presentation was dominated by irritability, increased wakefulness, increased muscle tone, shrilly crying, tremors, problems with accepting food, tachypnea, subfebrility and hyperhidrosis. Finnegan scale was introduced in order to diagnose NAS and apply the therapy. Single-medication therapy of phenobarbitone was applied in four cases and a combination of phenobarbitone and morphine in one case. For toxicological analysis newborns’ urine samples were used. Results. Conditions such as perinatal asphyxia, infection, hunger, polycythemia, hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia were excluded. Finnegan score implied that pharmacological treatment had to be administered. The discrepancy between the NAS anamnesis and toxicological analysis existed. Response to the treatment was positive in all cases. Conclusion. NAS is a multisystemic disorder and should be suspected when it is noticed that children exhibit characteristic signs. However, other pathological conditions have to be excluded. Quantification according to the adopted scales for NAS leads toward appropriate treatment and recovery of the newborns.

  18. [Effectiveness of Varenicline with counseling programs on smoking cessation in a targeted clinical setting in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; He, Yao; Zuo, Fang; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi; Cheng, Kk; Chan, Sc; Lam, Th

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Varenicline for smoking cessation in a community-based smoking-cessation-clinic (SCC) in Chinese smokers. A prospective observational study was conducted in Beijing, China. 799 smokers (762 men and 37 women) were assessed on data gathered from structured questionnaires at baseline and follow up programs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Trained physician counselors provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. 272 subjects were additionally prescribed Varenicline according to their own choice and reported data were compared to those without Varenicline. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1, 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. At 6-month and by intention-to-treat, the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate with Varenicline and counseling, was significantly higher than the group with counseling only (34.6% versus 23.1%; OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.42;P group with Varenicline(31.3% versus 18.2% ;OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.46-2.86;P < 0.001). Varenicline also showed better outcomes at 1 and 3 month follow-up. Varenicline prescription in the smoking cessation clinic appeared to be effective that doubled the rates of quitting among Chinese smokers in the practice at a community-based SCC.

  19. One year effectiveness of an individualised smoking cessation intervention at the workplace: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Lafuente Urdinguio, P; Guallar-Castillón, P; Garteizaurrekoa Dublang, P; Sáinz Martínez, O; Díez Azcárate, J I; Foj Alemán, M; Banegas, J R

    2003-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers' tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5-8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2-3 minutes) over a three month period. Open randomised trial with two groups: the intervention group, and the control group which was subjected to standard clinical practice, consisting of short (30 seconds to one minute) sporadic sessions of unstructured medical antismoking advice. The trial was carried out among 217 smokers of both sexes, aged 20-63 years, motivated to quit smoking and without contraindications for nicotine patches, who were employees at a public transport company and at two worksites of an electric company. The main outcome measure was self reported tobacco abstinence confirmed by carbon monoxide in expired air workplace is effective to achieve long term smoking cessation. In a setting similar to ours, nine subjects would have to be treated for three months for one to achieve continuous abstinence for 12 months.

  20. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Cessation of Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Nieves; Walker, Adam J; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal

    2018-02-01

    Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, it is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent 1 year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, with a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated. A search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the PubMed, Ovid, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (August 2 to September 1, 2017) was undertaken for articles on smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, applying no language restrictions. More than 40 pharmacotherapies were reviewed including conventional pharmacotherapies-NRT, bupropion, and varenicline (all approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as first-line treatment of smoking cessation)-and novel therapies: cytisine, N-acetylcysteine, cycloserine, memantine, baclofen, topiramate, galantamine, and bromocriptine. Studies of combination NRT and varenicline showed the greatest smoking cessation rates. Clonidine and nortriptyline are second-line treatments used when first-line treatments fail or are contraindicated, or by patient preference. Some novel therapies, especially acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, cytisine, and N-acetylcysteine, display promising results. Because the results of randomized clinical trials were reported using varied end points and outcome measures, direct comparisons between different pharmacotherapies cannot easily be evaluated. Additional high-quality randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with long-term follow-up, using validated sustained abstinence measures, are needed to find more

  1. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  2. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  3. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  4. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  5. ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Karoly, Hollis C; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2017-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kelly; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J.; Svikis, Dace S.; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in...

  7. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  8. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  9. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  11. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  12. Successful smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes in smokers with a documented history of recurring relapses: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caponnetto Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Smoking cessation programs are useful in helping smokers to quit, but smoking is a very difficult addiction to break and the need for novel and effective approaches to smoking cessation interventions is unquestionable. The E-cigarette is a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device that may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt. We report for the first time objective measures of smoking cessation in smokers who experimented with the E-cigarette. Case presentation Three Caucasian smokers (two men aged 47 and 65 years and one woman aged 38 years with a documented history of recurring relapses were able to quit and to remain abstinent for at least six months after taking up an E-cigarette. Conclusions This is the first time that objective measures of smoking cessation are reported for smokers who quit successfully after using an E-cigarette. This was accomplished in smokers who repeatedly failed in previous attempts with professional smoking cessation assistance using the usual nicotine dependence treatments and smoking cessation counselling.

  13. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting "extremely difficult to quit" compared with "easy to quit." Nicotine......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being "neuroprotective," we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. METHODS: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients...... substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion...

  14. Characterizing Durations of Heroin Abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: Results From a 33-Year Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Anglin, M. Douglas; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Lima, Viviane Dias; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the chronic disease model of opioid dependence, cessation is often observed as a longitudinal process rather than a discrete endpoint. We aimed to characterize and identify predictors of periods of heroin abstinence in the natural history of recovery from opioid dependence. Data were collected on participants from California who were enrolled in the Civil Addict Program from 1962 onward by use of a natural history interview. Multivariate regression using proportional hazards frailty models was applied to identify independent predictors and correlates of repeated abstinence episode durations. Among 471 heroin-dependent males, 387 (82.2%) reported 932 abstinence episodes, 60.3% of which lasted at least 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed several important findings. First, demographic factors such as age and ethnicity did not explain variation in durations of abstinence episodes. However, employment and lower drug use severity predicted longer episodes. Second, abstinence durations were longer following sustained treatment versus incarceration. Third, individuals with multiple abstinence episodes remained abstinent for longer durations in successive episodes. Finally, abstinence episodes initiated >10 and ≤20 years after first use lasted longer than others. Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence. PMID:23445901

  15. Smoked cocaine in socially-depressed areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Olga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objectives of this study are to describe the smoked cocaine user's profile in socially-depressed areas and their needs from a harm-reduction perspective, to investigate their use of smoking crack and compare the acute effects between injecting and smoking consumption. Methods The study took place in SAPS, Barcelona, Spain. Two focus group sessions were undertaken with a total of 8 drug users. Secondly, the 8 participants answered a structured questionnaire and in the course of the sessions, as a snowball activity, were trained to survey 6 other crack smokers. Results We obtained 56 questionnaires. The majority of participants were from non-European Community countries (62.69%, 70.2% of participants referred to sharing the smoking equipment. The most frequent symptoms reported during smoked cocaine were mydriasis (83.33%, perspiration (72.92% and compulsive object search (70.83% During the group sessions, participants said that smoked cocaine is much more addictive than injected cocaine and causes more anxiety. Participants also reported the difficulty of changing from injected use to smoked use, due to the larger amount of cocaine needed to reach the same effects as when having injected. Conclusions We can conclude that the research, focused on achieving greater knowledge of the smoked cocaine user's profile, their usage of smoking crack, consumption patterns and acute effects, should be incorporated into substance misuse interventions.

  16. Effectiveness of Brief Abstinence for Modifying Problematic Internet Gaming Cognitions and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Kaptsis, Dean; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a voluntary 84-hour abstinence protocol for modifying problematic Internet gaming cognitions and behaviors METHOD: Twenty-four adults from online gaming communities, including 9 individuals who screened positively for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), abstained from Internet games for 84 hours. Surveys were collected at baseline, at daily intervals during abstinence, and at 7-day and 28-day follow-up RESULTS: Brief voluntary abstinence was successful in reducing hours of gaming, maladaptive gaming cognitions, and IGD symptoms. Abstinence was highly acceptable to participants with total compliance and no study attrition. Clinically significant improvement in IGD symptoms occurred in 75% of the IGD group at 28-day follow-up. Reliable improvement in maladaptive gaming cognitions occurred in 63% of the IGD group, whose cognition score reduced by 50% and was comparable to the non-IGD group at 28-day follow-up CONCLUSIONS: Despite limitations of sample size, this study provides promising support for brief abstinence as a simple, practical, and cost-effective treatment technique for modifying unhelpful gaming cognitions and reducing Internet gaming problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychosocial findings in alcohol-dependent patients before and after three months of total alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ferrulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs may be associated with several psychological and affective disorders. It is controversial, however, if these symptoms are a cause or rather a consequence of alcohol dependence. There are few data testing simultaneously psychosocial and affective disorders before and after a period of alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to perform multiple psychometric evaluations in alcohol-dependent patients before and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Twenty-five alcohol-dependent patients were included in the study. The following psychometric tests were administered at baseline (T0 and after 12 weeks (T1: Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Social Behaviour Scale (SBS, Sheehan Disability Scale (DISS, Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. At T1, 16 (64% patients were abstinent, 5 (20% patients dropped out and 4 (16% patients relapsed. Compared to T0, patients totally abstinent at T1 showed a significant reduction of the scores related to BPRS, BPRS-E and its subscales (except BPRS 5, ASI 1, ASI 2, ASI 3, ASI 6, ASI 7, BSM, AQ, DISS 1, DISS 2, DISS 3 (p<0.05. No significant changes in ASI 4, ASI 5, DISS 4 and DISS 5, BPRS 5 scores were found at T1 compared to T0. The present study indicates that total alcohol abstinence improves psychometric features, such as alcohol addiction severity, psychiatric rating, social behaviour, aggressiveness, and disability. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  19. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  20. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  1. A Pilot Trial Examining African American and White Responses to Algorithm-Guided Smoking Cessation Medication Selection in Persons Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; McClernon, F Joseph; Burkholder, Greer; Mugavero, Michael J; Willig, James; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cropsey, Karen L

    2017-07-01

    Algorithm-based treatments (AT) may be an effective clinical tool to aid HIV clinicians in prescribing pharmacotherapy to increase smoking cessation among people living with HIV (PLWH). Initial results from AT indicated significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy and medication utilization and declines in cigarettes smoked per day across time. Given historical racial disparities, it is unclear if both African Americans and White smokers would benefit equally from this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine racial differences in response to AT guided smoking cessation for African American and White smokers living with HIV. One hundred PLWH smokers (n = 100) were randomized to receive either AT guided smoking cessation or Treatment as Usual (TAU) which consisted of instructing participants to talk to a provider about smoking cessation assistance when ready to make a quit attempt. Participants were African American (75%) and White (25%) and majority men (71%) who had never been married (56%). African Americans smoked fewer cigarettes and were more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared to White smokers at baseline. African Americans increased their use of other tobacco products (cigars/cigarillos) over time relative to White smokers. A significant interaction between race and quit goal was observed, with White smokers who reported complete abstinence as their goal having higher quit rates, while African Americans who reported a goal other than complete abstinence demonstrating higher quit rates. The increased use of cigars/cigarillos during quit attempts as well as having a goal other than complete abstinence should be considered when applying algorithm based interventions for PLWH African American smokers.

  2. Smoking cessation among African American and white smokers in the Veterans Affairs health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Clothier, Barbara; Taylor, Brent C; Sherman, Scott; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2014-09-01

    We examined whether a proactive care smoking cessation intervention designed to overcome barriers to treatment would be especially effective at increasing cessation among African Americans receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial, the Veterans Victory over Tobacco study, involving a population-based electronic registry of current smokers (702 African Americans, 1569 whites) and assessed 6-month prolonged smoking abstinence at 1 year via a follow-up survey of all current smokers. We also examined candidate risk adjustors for the race effect on smoking abstinence. The interaction between patient race and intervention condition (proactive care vs. usual care) was not significant. Overall, African Americans had higher quit rates than Whites (13% vs. 9%; P Whites. These findings may be a result of the large number of veterans receiving smoking cessation services and the lack of racial differences in receipt of these services as well as racial differences in smoking history, self-efficacy, and motivation to quit that favor African Americans.

  3. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  4. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  5. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial using best-selling smoking-cessation book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, James P; Oh, Anita; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph; Keane, William; Cognetti, David

    2017-07-01

    Our prospective, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the self-help book, The Easy Way to Stop Smoking, by Allen Carr, in promoting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. We assessed active smokers for their willingness to read a smoking cessation book. Participants were randomized to either receive the book from our department or recommended to purchase the book. All patients received smoking cessation counseling at recruitment. Phone surveys were conducted at short- and long-term intervals to determine if the patients had purchased and/or read the book and whether they were still smoking. One hundred twelve patients were recruited, 52 of whom completed follow-up surveys. Those who received the book for free were more likely to read the book (p = 0.05). Reading the book did not correlate with successful smoking cessation (p = 0.81). Some 26% of the 27 patients who received the book quit smoking compared with 32% of the 25 patients who were recommended the book (p = 0.76). Patients who indicated motivation to quit smoking were more likely to succeed. In our study, smoking cessation did not appear to be influenced by reading The Easy Way to Stop Smoking. Despite 80.8% of the cohort indicating at least a readiness to quit smoking at recruitment, only 28.8% of patients managed to achieve successful smoking cessation at long-term follow-up. Patient motivation remains an important factor in achieving long-term smoking abstinence. Quitting smoking remains a daunting challenge for patients, with multiple interventions likely needed to achieve cessation.

  6. Smoking cessation treatment and outcomes patterns simulation: a new framework for evaluating the potential health and economic impact of smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsios, Denis; Marton, Jenő P; Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Willke, Richard J; Rublee, Dale; Ishak, K Jack; Xenakis, James G

    2013-09-01

    Most existing models of smoking cessation treatments have considered a single quit attempt when modelling long-term outcomes. To develop a model to simulate smokers over their lifetimes accounting for multiple quit attempts and relapses which will allow for prediction of the long-term health and economic impact of smoking cessation strategies. A discrete event simulation (DES) that models individuals' life course of smoking behaviours, attempts to quit, and the cumulative impact on health and economic outcomes was developed. Each individual is assigned one of the available strategies used to support each quit attempt; the outcome of each attempt, time to relapses if abstinence is achieved, and time between quit attempts is tracked. Based on each individual's smoking or abstinence patterns, the risk of developing diseases associated with smoking (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke) is determined and the corresponding costs, changes to mortality, and quality of life assigned. Direct costs are assessed from the perspective of a comprehensive US healthcare payer ($US, 2012 values). Quit attempt strategies that can be evaluated in the current simulation include unassisted quit attempts, brief counselling, behavioural modification therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline, with the selection of strategies and time between quit attempts based on equations derived from survey data. Equations predicting the success of quit attempts as well as the short-term probability of relapse were derived from five varenicline clinical trials. Concordance between the five trials and predictions from the simulation on abstinence at 12 months was high, indicating that the equations predicting success and relapse in the first year following a quit attempt were reliable. Predictions allowing for only a single quit attempt versus unrestricted attempts demonstrate important differences, with the single quit attempt

  7. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  8. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings—an intense desire or longing for a cigarette—are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers’ manage their cravings are needed. Objective To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. Methods We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Results Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App

  9. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  10. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2014-01-23

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1

  11. A translational investigation targeting stress-reactivity and prefrontal cognitive control with guanfacine for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Potenza, Marc N; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F T; Picciotto, Marina R; Weinberger, Andrea H; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist guanfacine (3 mg/day) versus placebo (0 mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared with placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive-control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging, and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Exercise and Counseling for Smoking Cessation in Smokers With Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Paquito; Ninot, Gregory; Cyprien, Fabienne; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sebastien; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Taylor, Adrian; Quantin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Despite various strategies to help smokers with depressive disorders to quit, the smoking relapse rate remains high. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the effects of adding an exercise and counseling intervention to standard smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that the exercise and counseling intervention would lead to improved abstinence, reduced depressive symptoms, and increased physical activity. Seventy smokers with current depressive disorders were randomly assigned to standard smoking cessation treatment plus exercise and counseling (n = 35) or standard treatment plus a time-to-contact control intervention on health education (n = 35). Both programs involved 10 sessions over 8 weeks. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence since the quit date and was measured at week 8 (end of the intervention) and again at 12-, 24-, and 52-week follow-ups. Nearly 60% of participants were female (n = 41), 38 (52.3%) were single, 37 (52.9%) had education beyond high school, and 32 (45.7%) met criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants in the two treatment conditions differed at baseline only in marital status (χ(2) = 4.28, df = 1, p =.04); and smoking abstinence self-efficacy, t(66) = -2.04, p =.04). The dropout rate did not differ significantly between groups and participants attended 82% and 75% of the intervention and control sessions, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that, at 12 weeks after the beginning of the intervention, continuous abstinence did not vary significantly between the intervention and control groups: 48.5% versus 28.5%, respectively, ORadj = 0.40, 95% CI [0.12-1.29], p =.12. There were no group differences in depressive symptoms, but the intervention group did outperform the control group on the 6-minute walking test (Mint = 624.84, SD = 8.17, vs. Mcon = 594.13, SD = 8.96, p =.015) and perceived physical control (Mint = 2.84, SD = 0.16, vs. Mcon = 2

  13. Involvement of opioid and other systems in ethanol abstinence audiogenic seizures in the rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R

    1985-01-01

    The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.

  14. Implicit and Explicit Memory Bias in Opiate Dependent, Abstinent and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of current research was to assess implicit and explicit memory bias to drug related stimuli in opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals. Method: Three groups including opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals (n=25 were selected by available sampling method. After matching on the base of age, education level and type of substance use all participants assessed by recognition task (explicit memory bias and stem completion task (implicit memory bias. Results: The analysis of data showed that opiate dependent and abstinent groups in comparison with normal individual had implicit memory bias, whereas in explicit memory only opiate dependent individuals showed bias. Conclusion: The identification of explicit and implicit memory governing addiction may have practical implications in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  15. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in low-income smokers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the leading avoidable cause of death in high-income countries. The smoking-related disease burden is borne primarily by the least educated and least affluent groups. Thus, there is a need for effective smoking cessation interventions that reach to, and are effective in this group. Research suggests that modest financial incentives are not very effective in helping smokers quit. What is not known is whether large financial incentives can enhance longer-term (1 year smoking cessation rates, outside clinical and workplace settings. Trial design A randomized, parallel groups, controlled trial. Methods Participants: Eight hundred low-income smokers in Switzerland (the less affluent third of the population, based on fiscal taxation. Intervention: A smoking cessation program including: (a financial incentives given during 6 months; and (b Internet-based counseling. Financial rewards will be offered for biochemically verified smoking abstinence after 1, 2, and 3 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months, for a maximum of 1,500 CHF (1,250 EUR, 1,500 USD for those abstinent at all time-points. All participants, including controls, will receive Internet-based, individually-tailored, smoking cessation counseling and self-help booklets, but there will be no in-person or telephone counseling, and participants will not receive medications. The control group will not receive financial incentives. Objective: To increase smoking cessation rates. Outcome: Smoking abstinence after 6 and 18 months, not contradicted by biochemical tests. We will assess relapse after the end of the intervention, to test whether 6-month effects translate into sustained abstinence 12 months after the incentives are withdrawn. Randomization: Will be done using sealed envelopes drawn by participants. Blinding: Is not possible in this context. Discussion Smoking prevention policies and interventions have been least effective in the least educated, low

  16. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  17. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  18. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  19. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  1. Autobiographical Memory Deficits in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with Short- and Long-Term Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; El Haj, Mohamad; Torre, Julie; Naye, Delphine; Douchet, Helyette; Danel, Thierry; Cottençin, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) enables the storage and retrieval of life experiences that allow individuals to build their sense of identity. Several AM impairments have been described in patients with alcohol abuse disorders without assessing whether such deficits can be recovered. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify whether the semantic (SAM) and episodic (EAM) dimensions of AM are affected in individuals with alcohol dependence after short-term abstinence (STA) or long-term abstinence (LTA). A second aim of this study was to examine the factors that could disrupt the efficiency of semantic and episodic AM (the impact of depression severity, cognitive functions, recent or early traumatic events, and drinking history variables). After clinical and cognitive evaluations (alcohol consumption, depression, anxiety, IQ, memory performance), AM was assessed with the Autobiographical Memory Interview in patients with recent (between 4 and 6 weeks) and longer (at least 6 months) abstinence. Participants were asked to retrieve the number and nature of traumatic or painful life experiences in recent or early life periods (using the Childhood Traumatic Events Scale). The 2 abstinent groups had lower global EAM and SAM scores than the control group. These scores were comparable for both abstinent groups. For childhood events, no significant differences were observed in SAM for both groups compared with control participants. For early adulthood and recent events, both STA and LTA groups had lower scores on both SAM and EAM. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the length of substance consumption and SAM scores. This study highlighted a specific AM disorder in both episodic and semantic dimensions. These deficits remained after 6 months of abstinence. This AM impairment may be explained by compromised encoding and consolidation of memories during bouts of drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Want, need and habit as drivers of smoking behaviour: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Luis; Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; West, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Models of tobacco smoking behaviour propose that anticipated pleasure or satisfaction, the need to alleviate a nicotine-induced drive state and a stimulus-driven impulse potentially play an important role. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of how far urges to smoke are reported by smokers and whether the strength of such urges prior to a quit attempt predicts short-term success at quitting. In a prospective study, 566 smokers attending a treatment programme to help smokers quit completed a written questionnaire covering frequency of different types of urge to smoke (automatic impulse - 'automatic urges', anticipated pleasure - 'pleasure urges', and fulfilling a need - 'need urges'). They were asked to rate this for whichever of these urges was dominant for them. The questionnaire also assessed daily cigarette consumption, time to first cigarette of the day, age and gender. Carbon monoxide verified smoking status was recorded at 1 and 4weeks after the target quit date. A total of 47.9% (271) of smokers reported that automatic urges were dominant, 21.7% (123) reported pleasure urges to be dominant, and 30.4% (172) reported need urges to be dominant. The strength of automatic urges predicted abstinence at both 1week (OR=0.74, p=0.005, 95%CI=0.60-0.92) and 4weeks (OR=0.73, p=0.008, 95%CI=0.59-0.92). Associations between other urge types and abstinence were not statistically significant. A substantial proportion of smokers attending a clinic for help with quitting report that their dominant urges to smoke occur without any anticipation of pleasure or relief and the strength of the automatic urges predicts failure to sustain abstinence following a quit attempt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  4. Combining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Smokers: A Preliminary Comparison of Two Different CBT Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Duhig, Amy M.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Babuscio, Theresa; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the optimal format of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to combine with contingency management (CM) in a four-week, high school-based smoking cessation program. Thirty-four adolescent smokers received a standard weekly version of CBT or a frequent brief behavioral intervention. Results indicate a trend toward a higher seven-day point prevalence end-of-treatment abstinence rate and percent days abstinent during treatment in the CBT condition. In addition, significantly more participants in the CBT group completed treatment. These preliminary results suggest that when combined with CM, the standard weekly format of CBT is more acceptable to adolescent smokers. PMID:18058412

  5. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A mixed-method study of the efficacy of physical activity consultation as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment among male smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuin Yi; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony; Hanlon, Clare; Wee, Lei-Hum; Teo, Eng Wah; Adnan, Yuhanis

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using Physical Activity Consultation (PAC) as an addition to the standard smoking cessation treatment in Malaysia. We explored participants' experiences in terms of physical activity and smoking abstinence with the combined PAC and smoking cessation intervention. Walk-in smokers from a local smoking cessation clinic volunteered for the 8-week intervention program, while undergoing standard smoking cessation treatment. In Week 1, a facilitator conducted a face-to-face intervention to explore participants' involvement in physical activity and helped to set physical activity strategies and goals for participants to increase physical activity levels. Participants were provided with follow-up phone calls at Weeks 3 and 6. Participants answered questionnaires that measured smoking withdrawal (Shiffman-Jarvik Withdrawal Scale), cessation self-efficacy (Cessation Self-efficacy Questionnaire), physical activity involvement (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and mood (Brunel Mood Scale) upon recruitment, at post-intervention and at follow-up 3 months after the intervention ended. Participants also responded to interviews about their experiences with the PAC and smoking cessation treatment at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Seven participants completed the program until follow-up. All were successfully abstinent. Only two participants increased physical activity levels, whereas others maintained their physical activity levels or showed slight decreases. Several themes were identified in this study, including participants' experiences with withdrawal symptoms, smoking cessation self-efficacy, triggers to smoking cessation, thoughts on standard smoking cessation treatment in Malaysia, physical activity involvement, mood, and thoughts and beliefs on combining smoking cessation and physical activity. This study suggests PAC was helpful in maintaining or increasing the overall physical activity levels of

  7. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  8. Maternal Smoking Among Women With and Without Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bernson, Dana; Copeland, Glenn; Boulet, Sheree L.; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J.; England, Lucinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate smoking prevalence during the year before pregnancy and during pregnancy and adverse outcomes among women who delivered infants with and without assisted reproductive technology (ART) using linked birth certificates (BC) and National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data. Methods Data were analyzed for 384,390 women and 392,248 infants born in Massachusetts and Michigan during 2008–2009. Maternal smoking prevalence was estimated using smoking indicated from BC by ART status. For ART users, to evaluate underreporting, prepregnancy smoking was estimated from BC, NASS, or both sources. Effect of prenatal smoking on preterm and mean birthweight (term only) for singleton infants were examined by ART status. Results Maternal smoking prevalence estimates were significantly lower for ART users than nonusers (pre-pregnancy = 3.2% vs. 16.7%; prenatal = 1.0% vs. 11.1%, p smoking information from BC and NASS, prepregnancy smoking prevalence estimates for ART users could be as high as 4.4% to 6.1%. Adverse effects of smoking on infant outcomes in ART pregnancies were consistent with the effects seen in non-ART pregnancies, specifically decline in infant birthweight and increase in preterm delivery, although association between smoking and preterm was not significant. Conclusion A low, but substantial proportion of ART users smoked before and during pregnancy. As ART users are highly motivated to get pregnant, it should be clearly communicated that smoking can decrease fertility and adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Continued efforts are needed to encourage smoking cessation and maintain tobacco abstinence among all women of reproductive age. PMID:27243366

  9. Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greslé-Favier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

  10. Financial strain and cognitive-based smoking processes: The explanatory role of depressive symptoms among adult daily smokers.

    S