WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater shared postural

  1. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  2. Models of Postural Control: Shared Variance in Joint and COM Motions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the organization of the postural control system in human upright stance. To this aim the shared variance between joint and 3D total body center of mass (COM motions was analyzed using multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA. The CCA was performed as a function of established models of postural control that varied in their joint degrees of freedom (DOF, namely, an inverted pendulum ankle model (2DOF, ankle-hip model (4DOF, ankle-knee-hip model (5DOF, and ankle-knee-hip-neck model (7DOF. Healthy young adults performed various postural tasks (two-leg and one-leg quiet stances, voluntary AP and ML sway on a foam and rigid surface of support. Based on CCA model selection procedures, the amount of shared variance between joint and 3D COM motions and the cross-loading patterns we provide direct evidence of the contribution of multi-DOF postural control mechanisms to human balance. The direct model fitting of CCA showed that incrementing the DOFs in the model through to 7DOF was associated with progressively enhanced shared variance with COM motion. In the 7DOF model, the first canonical function revealed more active involvement of all joints during more challenging one leg stances and dynamic posture tasks. Furthermore, the shared variance was enhanced during the dynamic posture conditions, consistent with a reduction of dimension. This set of outcomes shows directly the degeneracy of multivariate joint regulation in postural control that is influenced by stance and surface of support conditions.

  3. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Immediate effects of the suboccipital muscle inhibition technique in craniocervical posture and greater occipital nerve mechanosensitivity in subjects with a history of orthodontia use: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rizo, Alberto M; Pascual-Vaca, Ángel Oliva; Cabello, Manuel Albornoz; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez; Pozo, Fernando Piña; Carrasco, Antonio Luque

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the immediate differences in craniocervical posture and pressure pain threshold of the greater occipital (GO) nerve in asymptomatic subjects with a history of having used orthodontics, after intervention by a suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) technique. This was a randomized, single-blind, clinical study with a sample of 24 subjects (21±1.78 years) that were divided into an experimental group (n=12) who underwent the SMI technique and a sham group (n=12) who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The sitting and standing craniovertebral angle and the pressure pain threshold of the GO nerve in both hemispheres were measured. The between-group comparison of the sample indicated that individuals subjected to the SMI technique showed a statistically significant increase in the craniovertebral angle in both the sitting (P<.001, F1,22=102.09, R2=0.82) and the standing (P<.001, F1,22=21.42, R2=0.56) positions and in the GO nerve pressure pain threshold in the nondominant hemisphere (P=.014, F1,22=7.06, R2=0.24). There were no statistically significant differences observed for the GO nerve mechanosensitivity in the dominant side (P=.202). Suboccipital muscle inhibition technique immediately improved the position of the head with the subject seated and standing, the clinical effect size being large in the former case. It also immediately decreased the mechanosensitivity of the GO nerve in the nondominant hemisphere, although the effect size was small. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  6. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  7. Face-to-face sharing with strangers and altruistic punishment of acquaintances for strangers: Young adolescents exhibit greater altruism than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred twenty-two young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment is related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms respectively.

  8. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  9. Postural ortostatisk takykardisyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  10. The Shared Goals and Distinct Strengths of the Medical Humanities: Can the Sum of the Parts Be Greater Than the Whole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Jones, David S

    2017-12-01

    Since the 1960s, faculty from diverse fields have banded together under the banner of the medical humanities, a term which unites art, literature, history, anthropology, religious studies, philosophy, and other disciplines. Arguments for the relevance of medical humanities often emphasize contributions that any of these disciplines can make to medical education, whether those involve empathy, professionalism, critical reasoning, or tolerating ambiguity. The authors argue that the constituent disciplines of the medical humanities are not interchangeable parts, but represent different perspectives and methodologies that offer their own distinct contributions to medical training. Efforts to define a role for medical humanities in medical education should pursue two strategies in parallel. On the one hand, advocates of the medical humanities should continue to make the case for the shared contributions that all of the disciplines can make to medical education. But advocates for the medical humanities should also emphasize the valuable contributions of each specific discipline, in terms that medical educators can understand. The authors illustrate this point by delineating contributions of their own discipline, medical history. Historical analysis contributes essential insights to the understanding of disease, therapeutics, and institutions-things that all physicians must know in order to be effective as clinicians, just as they must learn anatomy or pathophysiology. Analogous but different arguments can be made for literature, philosophy, and the other disciplines that constitute the medical humanities. The field of medical humanities will be most successful if it builds on both the shared and the distinct contributions of its disciplines.

  11. Postural ortostatisk takykardi-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  12. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  13. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  14. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is how you hold your body. There are two types: Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static ...

  15. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  16. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  17. Postural effects when cycling in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen E; Cooper, Karen A; Boyce, E Stewart; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed if upright cycling is preferable to semi-recumbent cycling during pregnancy. Healthy women with low risk singleton pregnancies were tested at 34-38 weeks gestation. They cycled for 12 min, either semi-recumbent (45 degrees, n = 27) or upright (n = 23), at 135-145 beats min(-1). When semi-recumbent, minute ventilation was greater (pposture-independent. All increased with exercise (p0.05). Small post-exercise fetal heart rate increases (by 8 beats min(-1), ppostures (n = 11 in each sub-group), with no adverse changes. Fetal heart rate accelerations and uterine activity (n = 11 in each sub-group) were not influenced by posture or exercise. (1) Neither posture had a distinct advantage. (2) Both postures were safe for short duration cycling. (3) The same target maternal heart rates are suitable for both postures because they resulted in similar oxygen consumptions and fetal heart rates.

  18. Clinical working postures of bachelor of oral health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, S J; Johnstone, C L; Hutchinson, C M W; Taylor, P A; Wade, K J

    2011-09-01

    To observe and describe the clinical working postures of final-year Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) students. Pilot observational study. The University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry and School of Physiotherapy. Eight final-year BOH students voluntarily participated in this study, where postural data were collected using a digital video camera during a standard clinical treatment session. The postural data were analysed using 3D Match biomechanical software. Final-year BOH students who work in the seated position are exposed to neck flexion of greater than 35 degrees, together with trunk flexion greater than 20 degrees and bilateral elbow flexion greater than 90 degrees. The findings of this study agree with the findings of previous postural studies of dental professionals. Dental hygiene students, together with their clinical supervisors, need to be aware of the importance of good working posture early in their careers, and pay particular attention to the degree of neck flexion occurring for prolonged periods.

  19. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  20. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  1. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  2. Neural basis of postural focus effect on concurrent postural and motor tasks: phase-locked electroencephalogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Zhao, Chen-Guang; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-11-01

    Dual-task performance is strongly affected by the direction of attentional focus. This study investigated neural control of a postural-suprapostural procedure when postural focus strategy varied. Twelve adults concurrently conducted force-matching and maintained stabilometer stance with visual feedback on ankle movement (visual internal focus, VIF) and on stabilometer movement (visual external focus, VEF). Force-matching error, dynamics of ankle and stabilometer movements, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered. Postural control with VEF caused superior force-matching performance, more complex ankle movement, and stronger kinematic coupling between the ankle and stabilometer movements than postural control with VIF. The postural focus strategy also altered ERP temporal-spatial patterns. Postural control with VEF resulted in later N1 with less negativity around the bilateral fronto-central and contralateral sensorimotor areas, earlier P2 deflection with more positivity around the bilateral fronto-central and ipsilateral temporal areas, and late movement-related potential commencing in the left frontal-central area, as compared with postural control with VIF. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP principal component revealed phase-locked neural oscillations in the delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), and beta (13-35Hz) rhythms. The delta and theta rhythms were more pronounced prior to the timing of P2 positive deflection, and beta rebound was greater after the completion of force-matching in VEF condition than VIF condition. This study is the first to reveal the neural correlation of postural focusing effect on a postural-suprapostural task. Postural control with VEF takes advantage of efficient task-switching to facilitate autonomous postural response, in agreement with the "constrained-action" hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  4. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  5. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  6. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  7. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  8. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

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    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  9. Assessment of postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Błaszczyk, J W; Orawiec, R; Duda-Kłodowska, D; Opala, G

    2007-10-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we focused on postural instability as the main factor predisposing parkinsonians to falls. For this purpose, changes in sway characteristics during quiet stance due to visual feedback exclusion were studied. We searched for postural sway measures that could be potential discriminators for an increased fall risk. A group of 110 subjects: 55 parkinsonians (Hoehn and Yahr: 1-3), and 55 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing quiet with eyes open and eyes closed were analyzed. We found that an increased mediolateral sway and sway area while standing with eyes closed are characteristic of parkinsonian postural instability and may serve to quantify well a tendency to fall. These sway indices significantly correlated with disease severity rated both by the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as by the Motor Section of the UPDRS. A forward shift of a mean COP position in parkinsonians which reflects their flexed posture was also significantly greater to compare with the elderly subjects and exhibited a high sensitivity to visual conditions. Both groups of postural sway abnormalities identified here may be used as accessible and reliable measures which allow for quantitative assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  11. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

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    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  12. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

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    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  13. Increased alertness, better than posture prioritization, explains dual-task performance in prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

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    Howard, Charla L; Perry, Bonnie; Chow, John W; Wallace, Chris; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor impairments after limb amputation impose a threat to stability. Commonly described strategies for maintaining stability are the posture first strategy (prioritization of balance) and posture second strategy (prioritization of concurrent tasks). The existence of these strategies was examined in 13 below-knee prosthesis users and 15 controls during dual-task standing under increasing postural and cognitive challenge by evaluating path length, 95% sway area, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitudes of the center of pressure. The subjects stood on two force platforms under usual (hard surface/eyes open) and difficult (soft surface/eyes closed) conditions, first alone and while performing a cognitive task without and then with instruction on cognitive prioritization. During standing alone, sway was not significantly different between groups. After adding the cognitive task without prioritization instruction, prosthesis users increased sway more under the dual-task than single-task standing (p ≤ 0.028) during both usual and difficult conditions, favoring the posture second strategy. Controls, however, reduced dual-task sway under a greater postural challenge (p ≤ 0.017), suggesting the posture first strategy. With prioritization of the cognitive task, sway was unchanged or reduced in prosthesis users, suggesting departure from the posture second strategy, whereas controls maintained the posture first strategy. Individual analysis of dual tasking revealed that greater postural demand in controls and greater cognitive challenge in prosthesis users led to both reduced sway and improved cognitive performance, suggesting cognitive-motor facilitation. Thus, activation of additional resources through increased alertness, rather than posture prioritization, may explain dual-task performance in both prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

  14. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

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    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Validity and reliability of a dental operator posture assessment instrument (PAI).

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    Branson, Bonnie G; Williams, Karen B; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Mcllnay, Sandy L; Dickey, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Basic operating posture is considered an important occupational health issue for oral health care clinicians. It is generally agreed that the physical posture of the operator, while providing care, should be such that all muscles are in a relaxed, well-balanced, and neutral position. Postures outside of this neutral position are likely to cause musculoskeletal discomfort. To date, the range of the neutral operator position has not been well-defined; nor have any specific instruments been identified that can quantitatively or semi-quantitatively assess dental operator posture. This paper reports on the development of an instrument that can be used to semi-quantitatively evaluate postural components. During the first phase of the study, an expert panel defined the basic parameters for acceptable, compromised, and harmful operator postures and established face validity of a posture assessment instrument (PAI). During the second phase, the PAI was tested for reliability using generalizability theory. Four raters tested the instrument for reliability. Overall, total PAI scores were similar amongst three of the raters, with the fourth rater's scores being slightly greater than the other three. The main effect of the rater on individual postural components was moderate, indicating that rater variance contributed to 11.9% of total variance. The PAI measures posture as it occurs and will have numerous applications when evaluating operator performance in the dental and dental hygiene education setting. Also, the PAI will prove useful when examining the effects of operator posture and musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  17. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

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    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  18. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

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    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

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    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

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    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  1. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  2. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

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    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  3. Mild hallux valgus angle affects single-limb postural stability in asymptomatic subjects.

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    Çınar-Medeni, Özge; Atalay Guzel, Nevin; Basar, Selda

    2016-01-01

    Single-limb postural stability is a key component of lower extremity functional status. Factors affecting postural stability should be well defined to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the hallux valgus angle on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 19 subjects were included in the study. The hallux valgus angle and postural stability were assessed. Participants were assigned to two groups according to whether the hallux valgus angle was pathological or not. A hallux valgus angle greater than 15 degrees was accepted as pathological. The relationship between the hallux valgus angle and postural stability, and the differences in postural stability scores between the two groups were analyzed. Postural stability was assessed with a stabilometer. The test was performed with the eyes open. We found a significant correlation between the hallux valgus angle and mediolateral and overall stability index (r= 0.484, p= 0.036; r = 0.463, p= 0.046 respectively). Subjects with a pathological mild hallux valgus angle had greater stability index scores than normal subjects (phallux valgus angle has negative effects on postural stability as a forefoot deformity. This deformity should be taken into account for injury prevention strategies in pain-free younger adults.

  4. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

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    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  5. Difference in postural control between patients with functional and mechanical ankle instability.

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    Chen, Henry; Li, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Jian; Hua, Ying-Hui; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries. Since the structural and pathological differences in mechanical ankle instability (MAI) and functional ankle instability (FAI) may not be the same, it may be better to treat these as separate groups. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in postural sway between MAI and FAI in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Twenty-six patients with CAI and 14 healthy control participants were included in the study. The CAI patients were subdivided into MAI (15 patients) and FAI (11 patients) groups. Patients who were diagnosed with lateral ankle ligaments rupture by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography were assigned to the MAI group. All participants performed single-limb postural sway tests 3 times on each leg with eyes closed and open. The average distances from the mean center of pressure position in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions were recorded and compared among the 3 groups. The unstable ankles in the MAI group showed significantly greater postural sway in the anterior, posterior, and medial directions compared with those in the control group with eyes closed. With eyes open, significantly greater postural sway was found in the anterior direction. In the FAI group, no difference was found in postural sway compared with those in the control group. The MAI group showed significantly greater postural sway in the anterior direction compared with the FAI group with eyes closed and open. No significant difference in postural sway was found between the unstable and stable ankles in the MAI or FAI groups, with or without vision. Patients with MAI have deficits in postural control, especially in anterior-posterior directions. However, no difference was found in postural sway in patients with FAI compared with healthy people. As MAI patients suffer from deficits in postural control, balance training should be applied in those patients. In addition, special training

  6. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

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    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  7. SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATOR STRENGTH IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SITTING POSTURES: A CONTROLLED LABORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Steven; Haydt, Richard; Gottstein, Thomas; Grasso, Anthony; Lombard, Nicholas; Stone, Brandon

    2018-02-01

    The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position. A cohort study, with subjects serving as their own controls. One hundred subjects ages 20-26 participated in the study. Each subject was placed in a neutral cervical sitting (NCS) posture which was maintained for five minutes after which the strength of the dominant shoulder external rotators was immediately tested with the glenohumeral joint in the neutral position using a Micro-FET3 Hand Held Muscle Testing Dynamometer (HHMTD). Each subject was returned to the NCS posture for subsequent external rotator strength testing after five minutes in a FHRS sitting posture, five additional minutes in the NCS posture and five minutes in a retracted cervical sitting (RCS) posture resulting in each subjects' external rotator strength being tested on four occasions. Subjects were randomized for order between the FHRS and RCS postures. Mean strength values for each condition were normalized to the mean strength value for the 1 st NCS condition for each subject. A statistically significant decline in shoulder external rotator strength following the FHRS sitting posture occurred compared to the appropriate postural conditions (pexternal rotator strength following five minutes in the FHRS sitting posture. The average percentage of strength decline in those with greater than a 10% reduction in external rotator strength was 19%. Sixty-four percent of the subjects experienced less than a 10% decline in shoulder external rotator strength in response to the FHRS sitting posture

  8. Impact of soft and hard insole density on postural stability in older adults.

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    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Peña, Domingo

    2012-01-01

    A significant predictor of falls in the elderly population is attributed to postural instability. Thus, it is important to identify and implement practical clinical interventions to enhance postural stability in older adults. Shoe insoles have been identified as a mechanism to enhance postural control, and our study aimed to evaluate the impact of 2 shoe insoles on static standing balance in healthy, older adults compared with standing posture while barefoot. We hypothesized that both hard and soft shoe insoles would decrease postural sway compared with the barefoot condition. Indeed, excursion distances and sway areas were reduced, and sway velocity was decreased when wearing insoles. The hard insole was also effective when visual feedback was removed, suggesting that the more rigid an insole, the greater potential reduction in fall risk. Thus, shoe insoles may be a cost-effective, clinical intervention that is easy to implement to reduce the risk of falling in the elderly population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  10. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  11. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  12. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  13. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  14. Do children perceive postural constraints when estimating reach or action planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto; Lee, Sunghan

    2009-03-01

    Estimation of whether an object is reachable from a specific body position constitutes an important aspect in effective motor planning. Researchers who estimate reachability by way of motor imagery with adults consistently report the tendency to overestimate, with some evidence of a postural effect (postural stability hypothesis). This idea suggests that perceived reaching limits depend on an individual's perceived postural constraints. Based on previous work with adults, the authors expected a significant postural effect with the Reach 2 condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Furthermore, the authors hypothesized that the postural effect would be greater in younger children. They then tested these propositions among children aged 7, 9, and 11 years by asking them to estimate reach while seated (Reach 1) and in the more demanding posture of standing on 1 foot and leaning forward (Reach 2). Results indicated no age or condition difference, therefore providing no support for a postural effect. When the authors compared these data to a published report of adults, a developmental difference emerged. That is, adults recognize the perceived postural constraint of the standing position resulting in under- rather than overestimation, as displayed in the seated condition. Although preliminary, these observations suggest that estimates of reach (action planning) continue to be refined between late childhood and young adulthood.

  15. Dual-Task Interference: The Effects of Verbal Cognitive Tasks on Upright Postural Stability in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dual-task interference has previously been demonstrated to have a significant effect on postural control among individuals with Parkinson's disease, the impact of speech complexity on postural control has not been demonstrated using quantitative biomechanical measures. The postural stability of twelve participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and twelve healthy age-matched controls was evaluated under three conditions: (1 without a secondary task, (2 performing a rote repetition task and (3 generating a monologue. Results suggested a significant effect of cognitive load on biomechanical parameters of postural stability. Although both groups increased their postural excursion, individuals with Parkinson's disease demonstrated significantly reduced excursion as compared with that of healthy age-matched controls. This suggests that participants with Parkinson's disease may be overconstraining their postural adjustments in order to focus attention on the cognitive tasks without losing their balance. Ironically, this overconstraint may place the participant at greater risk for a fall.

  16. Individual differences in brainstem and basal ganglia structure predict postural control and balance loss in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; Chalavi, Sima; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Leunissen, Inge; Levin, Oron; Nieuwboer, Alice; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-02-01

    It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss. Analyses of white and gray matter in the brainstem showed that the pedunculopontine nucleus area appeared to be critical for postural control in both young and older adults. In addition, the brainstem mediated the effect of age on postural control, underscoring the brainstem's fundamental role in aging. Conversely, lower basal ganglia volume predicted better postural performance, suggesting an association between greater neural resources in the basal ganglia and greater movement vigor, resulting in exaggerated postural adjustments. Finally, results showed that practice, shorter height and heavier weight (i.e., higher body mass index), higher total physical activity, and larger ankle active (but not passive) range of motion were predictive of more stable posture, irrespective of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  19. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurck, Maria F; Nowak, Matthew G; Costa, Leny C M; Mendes, Sérgio L; Ford, Susan M; Strier, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Increased body size in Brachyteles has been regarded as an important evolutionary adaptation that allowed a greater reliance on leaves compared to other more frugivorous Atelidae, but its association with muriqui positional behavior and substrate use is still unknown. Here, we present original data on the feeding and resting postures of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and evaluate predictions about the relationships between body size, postural behavior, and substrate use derived from previously published data for other atelids (e.g. Alouatta, Ateles, and Lagothrix). The study was undertaken from August 2002 to July 2003 on a large group of well-habituated muriquis inhabiting the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural - Felíciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Consistent with our predictions, we found that B. hypoxanthus was highly suspensory during postural feeding (60.9%) and commonly used tail-hind limb suspension/horizontal tripod (38.0%) or tail-forelimb/hind limb suspension (21.4%). However, although tail-suspensory postures permitted the muriquis to use the terminal canopy and small-sized substrates, these areas were also accessed via tail-assisted above-branch postural behaviors involving multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, tail-suspensory postures were found to be frequently associated with large substrates, tree trunks, and the understory. We suggest that Brachyteles' ability to access food resources from all areas of a feeding tree and from tree crowns at different canopy levels may account for their ability to efficiently exploit food resources in seasonal disturbed forest fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest today. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  1. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  2. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  3. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  4. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  5. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    performed a battery of standard clinical tests of dynamic posture, whereas the fourth subject performed the stereotyped postures (e.g. movements restricted...Processing & Control [2] Napoli A, Ward C, Glass S, Tucker C, Obeid I (2016) “Automated Assessment of Postural Stability System,” IEEE Engineering in

  6. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  7. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  8. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Background Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Results Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. Conclusion The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans. PMID:29390029

  9. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans.

  10. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  11. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  12. To share and be shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  13. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvani, A.; Calandra-Buonaura, G.; Johnson, B.D.; Helmond, N. van; Barletta, G.; Cecere, A.G.; Joyner, M.J.; Cortelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological

  14. Relationship Between Postural Control and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestin eRadonovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse

  15. Influence of the visual environment on the postural stability in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Wavell, K; Perrett, L K; Howarth, P A; Haslam, R A

    2002-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. It is recognized that visual environment factors (such as poor lighting and repeating patterns on escalators) may contribute to falls, but little is known about the effects of the visual environment on postural stability in the elderly. To determine whether the postural stability of older women (using body sway as a measure) differed under five different visual environment conditions. Subjects were 33 healthy women aged 65-76 years. Body sway was measured using an electronic force platform which identified the location of their centre of gravity every 0.05 s. Maximal lateral sway and anteroposterior sway were determined and the sway velocity calculated over 1-min trial periods. Body sway was measured under each of the following conditions: (1) normal laboratory lighting (186 lx); (2) moderate lighting (10 lx); (3) dim lighting (1 lx); (4) eyes closed, and (5) repeating pattern projected onto a wall. Each measure of the postural stability was significantly poorer in condition 4 (eyes closed) than in all other conditions. Anteroposterior sway was greater in condition 3 than in conditions 1 and 2, whilst the sway velocity was greater in condition 3 than in condition 2. Lateral sway did not differ significantly between different lighting levels (conditions 1-3). A projected repeating pattern (condition 5) did not significantly influence the postural stability relative to condition 1. The substantially greater body sway with eyes closed than with eyes open confirms the importance of vision in maintaining the postural stability. At the lowest light level, the body sway was significantly increased as compared with the other light levels, but was still substantially smaller than on closing the eyes. A projected repeating pattern did not influence the postural stability. Dim lighting levels and removing visual input appear to be associated with a poorer postural stability in older

  16. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  17. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukahara Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuka Tsukahara, Jun Iwamoto, Kosui Iwashita, Takuma Shinjo, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives: The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900 with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results: Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. Keywords: whole-body vibration exercise, upper

  18. MODIFIED PATH METHODOLOGY FOR OBTAINING INTERVAL-SCALED POSTURAL ASSESSMENTS OF FARMWORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Emma B; Dropkin, Jonathan; Russell, Rebecca; Jenkins, Paul

    2018-01-29

    Agricultural workers perform tasks that frequently require awkward and extreme postures that are associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools, Handling) system currently provides a sound methodology for quantifying workers' exposure to these awkward postures on an ordinal scale of measurement, which places restrictions on the choice of analytic methods. This study reports a modification of the PATH methodology that instead captures these postures as degrees of flexion, an interval-scaled measurement. Rather than making live observations in the field, as in PATH, the postural assessments were performed on photographs using ImageJ photo analysis software. Capturing the postures in photographs permitted more careful measurement of the degrees of flexion. The current PATH methodology requires that the observer in the field be trained in the use of PATH, whereas the single photographer used in this modification requires only sufficient training to maintain the proper camera angle. Ultimately, these interval-scale measurements could be combined with other quantitative measures, such as those produced by electromyograms (EMGs), to provide more sophisticated estimates of future risk for MSDs. Further, these data can provide a baseline from which the effects of interventions designed to reduce hazardous postures can be calculated with greater precision. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  19. Three-dimensional evaluation of postural stability in Parkinson's disease with mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozinga, Sarah J; Koop, Mandy Miller; Linder, Susan M; Machado, Andre G; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L

    2017-01-01

    Postural instability is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Objective metrics to characterize postural stability are necessary for the development of treatment algorithms to aid in the clinical setting. The aim of this project was to validate a mobile device platform and resultant three-dimensional balance metric that characterizes postural stability. A mobile Application was developed, in which biomechanical data from inertial sensors within a mobile device were processed to characterize movement of center of mass in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and trunk rotation directions. Twenty-seven individuals with Parkinson's disease and 27 age-matched controls completed various balance tasks. A postural stability metric quantifying the amplitude (peak-to-peak) of sway acceleration in each movement direction was compared between groups. The peak-to-peak value in each direction for each individual with Parkinson's disease across all trials was expressed as a normalized value of the control data to identify individuals with severe postural instability, termed Cleveland Clinic-Postural Stability Index. In all conditions, the balance metric for peak-to-peak was significantly greater in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p mobile device sensors, provides a rapid and systematic metric for quantifying postural stability in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Investigation of postural edema in the lower extremities of traffic control workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Nunes Pereira Brito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of postural edema and investigate whether working posture - sitting down or standing up - affect its frequency. METHODS: Sixteen traffic control agents were assessed by water displacement volumetry and the results were analyzed in two groups, depending on working posture. Those who worked standing up for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SU group and those who worked sitting down for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SD group. Each worker was assessed before and after their working shift for three consecutive days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the test of equality of two proportions. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. The assessment showed that members of both groups had postural edema of the lower extremities (p ≤ 0.001. RESULTS: When the frequency of postural edema was compared across groups, a trend was observed for greater edema formation in the SU group than in the SD group, although without statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that traffic control agents suffer postural edema after 4 hours working in either of the postures investigated although with a predominance of edema formation among those who work standing up.

  1. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with 99m Tc or 113m In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  3. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  4. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  5. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  6. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  8. Risk factors associated with structural postural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Adami Sedrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between behavioral risk factors, specifically postural habits, with the presence of structural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents. METHODS: 59 students were evaluated through the self-reporting Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument and spinal panoramic radiographic examination. Spine curvatures were classified based on Cobb angles, as normal or altered in the saggital plane and as normal or scoliotic in the frontal plane. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, based on descriptive statistics and chi-square association test (a=0,05. RESULTS: The prevalence of postural changes was 79.7% (n=47, of which 47.5% (n=28 showed frontal plane changes and 61% (n=36 sagital plane changes. Significant association was found between the presence of thoracic kyphosis and female gender, practice of physical exercises only once or twice a week, sleep time greater than 10 hours, inadequate postures when sitting on a seat and sitting down to write, and how school supplies are carried. Lumbar lordosis was associated with the inadequate way of carrying the school backpack (asymmetric; and scoliosis was associated wuth the practice of competitive sports and sleep time greater than 10 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle may be associated with postural changes. It is important to develop health policies in order to reduce the prevalence of postural changes, by decreasing the associated risk factors.

  9. Is Weight-Bearing Asymmetry Associated with Postural Instability after Stroke? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip F. Kamphuis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Improvement of postural stability is an important goal during poststroke rehabilitation. Since weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA towards the nonparetic leg is common, training of weight-bearing symmetry has been a major focus in post-stroke balance rehabilitation. It is assumed that restoration of a more symmetrical weight distribution is associated with improved postural stability. Objective. To determine to what extent WBA is associated with postural instability in people after stroke. Methods. Electronic databases were searched (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL until March 2012. Main Eligibility Criteria. (1 Participants were people after stroke. (2 The association between WBA and postural stability was reported. Quality of reporting was assessed with the STROBE checklist and a related tool for reporting of confounding. Results. Nine observational studies met all criteria. Greater spontaneous WBA was associated with higher center of pressure (COP velocity and with poorer synchronization of COP trajectories between the legs (two and one studies, resp.. Evidence for associations between WBA and performance on clinical balance tests or falls was weak. Conclusion. Greater WBA after stroke was associated with increased postural sway, but the current literature does not provide evidence for a causal relationship. Further studies should investigate whether reducing WBA would improve postural stability.

  10. Cerebral palsy: Influence of TheraTogs ® on gait, posture and in functional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ehlert

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: For children with cerebral palsy, orthoses take an important role in improving posture, gait, functional performance and preventing secondary musculoskeletal disorders. Objective: To evaluate the influence of TheraTogs® on the posture, distribution of plantar pressure during gait and functional performance of a child with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Methods: A quantitative evaluation was carried out on a case study in which an 11-year-old child diagnosed with diplegic cerebral palsy underwent postural assessment through the Postural Assessment Software (PAS, plantar pressure distribution assessment during barefoot gait through the Emed-X system, before and after the intervention period of 8 weeks and functional assessment (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI, with and without TheraTogs®. Results: In posture, TheraTogs® had greater influence on hip extension and this change was greater during its use. In the plantar pressure distribution assessment, an increase in posteriorization of plantar pressure occurred in the initial contact, the performance of the push-off phase and initial swing phase improved. In functionality, the child showed improvements in mobility, however, their self-care ability with TheraTogs® was reduced. Conclusion: Although improvements in posture, gait and functionality were verified with the use of TheraTogs®, the excessive heat, difficulties in toileting and self-care were disadvantages in wearing TheraTogs®.

  11. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  12. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  13. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  14. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI. Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG, and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG. Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group, age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years, and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2. We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization.

  16. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  17. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  18. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  19. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  20. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  1. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  2. Cardiovascular and Postural Control Interactions during Hypergravity: Effects on Cerebral Autoregulation in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Blaber, Andrew; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Avan, Paul; Bruner, Michelle; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a problem upon return to Earth from the microgravity environment of spaceflight. A variety of conditions including hypovolemia, cerebral vasoconstriction, cerebral or peripheral vascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias may result in syncope if the person remains upright. Current research indicates that there is a greater dependence on visual and somatosensory information at the beginning of space flight with a decreased otolith gain during prolonged space flight (Herault et al., 2002). The goal of the research is to further our understanding of the fundamental adaptive homeostatic mechanisms involved in gravity related changes in cardiovascular and postural function. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and postural sensory motor control systems in male and female participants before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of hyper-G were investigated. Hypotheses: 1) Activation of skeletal muscle pump will be directly related to the degree of orthostatic stress. 2) Simultaneous measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and postural sway will predict cardio-postural stability. Blood pressure and heart rate (means and variability), postural sway, center of pressure (COP), baroreflex function, calf blood flow, middle cerebral artery blood flow, non-invasive intracranial pressure measurements, and two-breath CO2 were measured. Results from the study will be used to provide an integrated insight into mechanisms of cardio-postural control and cerebral autoregulation, which are important aspects of human health in flights to Moon, Mars and distant planets.

  3. Aging causes a reorganization of cortical and spinal control of posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma ePapegaaij

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies in animal preparations suggest a strong role for spinal control of posture. In young adults it is now established that the cerebral cortex contributes to postural control of unperturbed and perturbed standing. The age-related degeneration and accompanying functional changes in the brain, reported so far mainly in conjunction with simple manual motor tasks, may also affect the mechanisms that control complex motor tasks involving posture. This review outlines the age-related structural and functional changes at spinal and cortical levels and provides a mechanistic analysis of how such changes may be linked to the behaviorally manifest postural deficits in old adults. The emerging picture is that the age-related reorganization in motor control during voluntary tasks, characterized by differential modulation of spinal reflexes, greater cortical activation and cortical disinhibition, is also present during postural tasks. We discuss the possibility that this reorganization underlies the increased coactivation and dual task interference reported in elderly. Finally, we propose a model for future studies to unravel the structure-function-behavior relations in postural control and aging.

  4. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  5. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  6. Body posture and pulmonary function in mouth and nose breathing children: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Mouth breathing can lead to changes in body posture and pulmonary function. However, the consequences are still inconclusive and a number of studies are controversial. Objective: Evaluate and correlate spirometric parameters and postural measures in mouth breathing children, and compare them to nose breathers. Methods: two groups of 6 to 12 year-old children were evaluated: mouth breathers (MB, n = 55 and nose breathers (NB, n = 45. Spirometry and body posture analysis using photogrammetry (SAPo 0.68® v were carried out. The following spirometric measures were evaluated: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio (% and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75%. Biophotogrammetric measures analyzed were: horizontal alignment of acromions (HAA and anterior superior iliac spine (HAASIS, Charpy angle, horizontal alignment of the head (HAH, cervical lordosis (CL, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, cervical distance (CD and lumbar distance (LD. Results: There were no intergroup differences in spirometric and postural variables. Positive and moderate correlations were found between CL and CD measures with PEF, FEV1, FVC and FEF 25-75%, while weak correlations were observed between lumbar lordosis and PEF, FEV1 and FVC. Conclusion: The breathing mode had no influence on postural and respiratory measures. However, greater forward head posture, with smaller cervical lordosis, was related to higher lung volumes and flows in both groups.

  7. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  8. Correlation between Mechanical Properties of the Ankle Muscles and Postural Sway during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, JongEun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul

    2018-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the mechanical properties of tissue and balance activity using a non-invasive digital palpation device to determine if they undergo any changes over the menstrual cycle in young women. Sixteen young women with regular menstrual cycles completed the study. Tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the ankle muscles (lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, and tibialis anterior) were measured using a non-invasive digital palpation device. Postural sway was recorded while the participants performed balance tasks during ovulation and menstruation. Significantly greater posture sway characteristics and ankle muscle elasticity were found during ovulation than during menstruation; lower tone and stiffness of the ankle muscles were observed at ovulation (p connective tissues. We therefore postulate that estrogen increases joint and muscle laxity and affects posture stability according to the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  10. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  11. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  12. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  13. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  14. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  15. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  16. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  17. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey; Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Case-control study. Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (ppostural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when compared to CON suggesting impaired balance control. A group X direction interaction was also found for postural stability indices during the lateral landing

  18. Reversibility of pulmonary function after inhaling salbutamol in different doses and body postures in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, R; Kelderman, S; de Jongh, F H C; van der Palen, J; Thio, B J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary medication is often delivered in the form of medical aerosols designed for inhalation. Recently, breath actuated inhalers (BAI's) gained popularity as they can be used without spacers. A major drawback of BAI's is the impaction in the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by a forward leaning body posture with the neck extended ("sniffing position") during inhalation may reduce upper airway impaction and improve pulmonary deposition. Aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of lung function with different doses salbutamol inhaled with a BAI in the forward leaning posture compared to the standard posture in asthmatic children. 22 clinically stable asthmatic children, 5-14 years old, performed four reversibility measurements. Children inhaled 200 μg or 400 μg salbutamol with a BAI in the standard or in the forward leaning posture with the neck extended in a randomized single-blinded cross-over design. Reversibility of lung function after inhaling salbutamol in the forward leaning posture was not significantly different compared to inhalation in the standard posture. Mean FEV1 reversibility was significantly greater after inhaling 400 μg salbutamol compared to 200 μg salbutamol in the standard posture (9.4% ± 9.5% versus 4.5% ± 7.5%, difference 4.9% (95CI 0.9; 9.0%); p = 0.021). In clinically stable asthmatic children, inhalation of salbutamol with a BAI in a forward leaning posture does not increase reversibility of lung function. Inhalation of 400 μg compared to 200 μg salbutamol with a BAI does improve reversibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  20. The Role of Neuromuscular Changes in Aging and Knee Osteoarthritis on Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G.; Garland, S. Jayne; Hunt, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular changes associated with aging may be responsible for some of these alterations in dynamic postural control. Even greater neuromuscular deficits, which may impact dynamic postural control and the ability to defend against a fall, are seen in people with knee OA. There is little evidence to date on how knee OA affects the ability to respond to and defend against falls and the neuromuscular changes that contribute to balance deficits. As a result, this review will: summarize the key characteristics of postural responses to an external perturbation, highlight the changes in dynamic postural control seen with normal aging, review the neuromuscular changes associated with aging that have known and possible effects on dynamic postural control, and summarize the neuromuscular changes and balance problems in knee OA. Future research to better understand the role of neuromuscular changes in knee OA and their effect on dynamic postural control will be suggested. Such an understanding is critical to the successful creation and implementation of fall prevention and treatment programs, in order to reduce the excessive risk of falling in knee OA. PMID:23696951

  1. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.

  2. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  3. Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly. PMID:22163330

  4. Dual task and postural control in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires de Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are required to use cognitive resources while maintaining postural control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a frontal cognitive task on postural control in patients with Alzheimer, Parkinson and controls. Thirty-eight participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform in two experimental conditions: single and dual task. Participants with Parkinson's disease presented an increase in the coefficient of variation greater than 100% in the dual task as compared to the single task for center of pressure (COP area and COP path. In addition, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease had a higher number of errors during the execution of the cognitive task when compared to the group of elderly without neurodegenerative diseases. The motor cortex, which is engaged in postural control, does not seem to compete with frontal brain regions in the performance of the cognitive task. However, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease presented worsened performance in cognitive task.

  5. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  6. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  7. Body surface posture evaluation: construction, validation and protocol of the SPGAP system (Posture evaluation rotating platform system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Debora Soccal; Oliveira, Raul; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Gioda, Fabiane Rosa; Kelber, Christian Roberto; Swarowsky, Alessandra

    2016-05-04

    Several posture evaluation devices have been used to detect deviations of the vertebral column. However it has been observed that the instruments present measurement errors related to the equipment, environment or measurement protocol. This study aimed to build, validate, analyze the reliability and describe a measurement protocol for the use of the Posture Evaluation Rotating Platform System (SPGAP, Brazilian abbreviation). The posture evaluation system comprises a Posture Evaluation Rotating Platform, video camera, calibration support and measurement software. Two pilot studies were carried out with 102 elderly individuals (average age 69 years old, SD = ±7.3) to establish a protocol for SPGAP, controlling the measurement errors related to the environment, equipment and the person under evaluation. Content validation was completed with input from judges with expertise in posture measurement. The variation coefficient method was used to validate the measurement by the instrument of an object with known dimensions. Finally, reliability was established using repeated measurements of the known object. Expert content judges gave the system excellent ratings for content validity (mean 9.4 out of 10; SD 1.13). The measurement of an object with known dimensions indicated excellent validity (all measurement errors reality. To verify the images of objects with known dimensions the values for the width and height were, respectively, CV 0.88 (width) and 2.33 (height), SD 0.22 (width) and 0.35 (height), minimum and maximum values 24.83-25.2 (width) and 14.56 - 15.75 (height). In the analysis of different images (similar) of an individual, greater discrepancies were observed in the values found. The cervical index, for example, presented minimum and maximum values of 15.38 and 37.5, a coefficient of variation of 0.29 and a standard deviation of 6.78. The SPGAP was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for the quantitative analysis of body posture with applicability and

  8. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  9. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Johnson, Blair D.; van Helmond, Noud; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Anna G.; Joyner, Michael J.; Cortelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBR...

  10. Postural control is altered in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Martin E; O'Shea, Finbar D; Inman, Robert D; Gage, William H

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to increased axial and peripheral joint stiffness, impairing joint mobility. Impaired axial mobility due to vertebral ankylosis may result in changes in standing postural control. Little research has addressed changes in standing postural control in the ankylosing spondylitis population, nor how these issues might affect clinical understanding and treatment. Sixteen ankylosing spondylitis patients, and 17 healthy controls participated. Each individual completed two 120-second quiet standing trials with eyes open and eyes closed, while standing upon two force platforms. Net center of pressure displacement and mean power frequency in the frontal and sagittal planes were calculated. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed between net center of pressure measures and several clinical measures of disease activity. Frontal plane net center of pressure displacement and frequency content, and sagittal plane net center of pressure displacement were significantly greater within the ankylosing spondylitis patient group. Ankylosing spondylitis patients demonstrated a significant increase in frontal plane net center of pressure displacement in the eyes-closed condition. Net center of pressure displacement and frequency were significantly correlated to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and individual components of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index. Quiet standing postural control was altered particularly so in the frontal plane in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, which may be associated with increased fall risk. Posturographic measures of postural control may serve as valuable clinical tools for the monitoring of disease progression and disease status in ankylosing spondylitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An fMRI study of the neural basis hand postures specific to tool use. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgami, Yuko; Uchida, Nobuko; Matsuo, Kayako; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Patients with apraxia are often unable to mimic the use of a tool, even when it is presented visually. Such mimicking involves various cognitive and motor processes, including the visual perception of a tool and the manipulation of imagined tools. Although previous studies reported the involvement of several brain areas, including the left inferior parietal lobule, in such tool-use action, the details of each process have not been well understood. To clarify the neural basis of the process involved in forming hand postures for using tools, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal volunteers to investigate brain activation while they formed hand postures for tool manipulation. Three conditions were evaluated in separate block-designed fMRI series, formation of hand posture (A) using a tool, (B) imitating such a hand posture, and (C) to imitate the shape of a tool. Subjects formed their right hand in a manner specified according to the task conditions. Hand posturing for condition (A) induced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45), left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), and the premotor area compared with the imitative posturing of condition (B). Activation in these areas might be related to processes shared by tool-use pantomime. On the other hand, comparison between conditions (A) and (C) demonstrated activation in the right superior parietal lobule (BA 7). This activation may reflect spatial regulation, in which the subject was prepared to hold and manipulate the tool. Formation of static hand postures to prepare for tool use may employ a neural network shared by various tool-use actions, such as pantomime. In addition, forming hand postures may require close coordination between the tool and hand. (author)

  12. Overview of the management of postural tachycardia syndrome in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzieh, Mohammed; Grubb, Blair P

    2018-02-16

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Pregnancy can cause different physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters, that could have greater impact on POTS patients. In this review, we discuss the management of POTS in the pregnant and obstetric settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postures of the subjects were analysed by means of photographic images using the pro forma of Barlow (1956, 1990). The majority of the executives had malposture with 2.3%, 23.3%, 58.1% and 16.3% and 6.3% of the subjects being categorised with slight postural defects, severe postural defects, very severe postural ...

  14. Combination of BTrackS and Geri-Fit as a targeted approach for assessing and reducing the postural sway of older adults with high fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goble DJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Goble, Mason C Hearn, Harsimran S Baweja School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Atypically high postural sway measured by a force plate is a known risk factor for falls in older adults. Further, it has been shown that small, but significant, reductions in postural sway are possible with various balance exercise interventions. In the present study, a new low-cost force-plate technology called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS was utilized to assess postural sway of older adults before and after 90 days of a well-established exercise program called Geri-Fit. Results showed an overall reduction in postural sway across all participants from pre- to post-intervention. However, the magnitude of effects was significantly influenced by the amount of postural sway demonstrated by individuals prior to Geri-Fit training. Specifically, more participants with atypically high postural sway pre-intervention experienced an overall postural sway reduction. These reductions experienced were typically greater than the minimum detectable change statistic for the BTrackS Balance Test. Taken together, these findings suggest that BTrackS is an effective means of identifying older adults with elevated postural sway, who are likely to benefit from Geri-Fit training to mitigate fall risk. Keywords: aging, balance, BTrackS, Geri-Fit, postural sway, fall risk

  15. The effect of moderate running on foot posture index and plantar pressure distribution in male recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns. A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec). Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the foot posture index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel. Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport.

  16. The effects of breath alcohol concentration on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dary D

    2018-05-19

    Two of the 3 standardized field sobriety tests that U.S. law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to 0.05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL. Most of these studies, however, had a relatively small number of subjects, usually between 10 and 30. The current study collected data from a much larger sample. The objective of this study was to provide additional evidence that posture control is negatively affected at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL or breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.06 g/210 L. This was a between-subjects study, with BrAC group as the independent variable (5 levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/210 L); 4 measures of postural control as the dependent variables; and age, height, and weight as the covariates. Posture control was measured with a force-sensing platform connected to a computer. The feet's center of pressure (CoP) on the platform was recorded and the corresponding movement of the body in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes was derived. Participants (N = 96) were randomly assigned to one of the BrAC groups. Positive BrAC groups were compared to the zero BrAC group. Data were examined with hierarchical multiple regression. Adjusted for age, height, and weight, the main effect of lateral CoP with eyes open was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant main effect of alcohol on anterior-posterior CoP excursion with eyes open and with eyes closed and lateral CoP excursion with eyes closed. For all 3 of those variables, only BrACs of 0

  17. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  18. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  19. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  20. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-10-04

    Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the neuroanatomical organization of the emotion system and

  1. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  2. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  3. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post...

  4. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in

  5. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  6. The association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Susan Armijo; Bravo, Jaime; Magee, David J; Thie, Norman M R; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    To carry out a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in all languages with the help of a health sciences librarian. Key words used in the search were posture, head posture, cervical spine or neck, vertebrae, cervical lordosis, craniomandibular disorders or temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, and orofacial pain or facial pain. Abstracts which appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles and their references were hand-searched for possible missing articles. Twelve studies met all inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail for their methodology and information quality. Nine articles that analyzed the association between head posture and TMD included patients with mixed TMD diagnosis; 1 article differentiated among muscular, articular, and mixed symptomatology; and 3 articles analyzed information from patients with only articular problems. Finally, 2 studies evaluated the association between head posture and TMD in patients with muscular TMD. Several methodological defects were noted in the 12 studies. Since most of the studies included in this systematic review were of poor methodological quality, the findings of the studies should be interpreted with caution. The association between intra-articular and muscular TMD and head and cervical posture is still unclear, and better controlled studies with comprehensive TMD diagnoses, greater sample sizes, and objective posture evaluation are necessary.

  7. Postural changes versus balance control and falls in community-living older adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Lemos Silva Fernandes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Since falls are considered to be a public health problem, it is important to identify whether postural changes over time contribute to the risk of falls in older adults. Objective: To investigate whether postural changes increase fall risk and/or postural imbalance in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In April 2016, two reviewers independently searched the PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases for studies in English published in the previous 10 years, using the following combined keywords: “posture” or (“kyphosis”,“lumbar lordosis”,“flexed posture”,“spinal curvature”,“spinal sagittal contour” AND “elderly” AND “fall”. Study quality was assessed according to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for observational studies. Results: The search retrieved 1,734 articles. Only observational studies that assessed posture, balance, and/or falls in older adults were considered eligible for review. The final sample included 17 articles: reliability and reproducibility of the instruments were not reported in five studies, while two studies offered a questionable description of the instruments used. Fourteen articles analyzed postural changes at the trunk level and three articles assessed them at the ankles and feet. Most studies found a positive association between postural changes and an increased risk for loss of balance and falls. Conclusion: Thoracic hyperkyphosis, loss of lumbar lordosis, and decreased plantar arch seem to contribute to greater postural instability, and thus to a higher risk of falls in community-living older adults.

  8. Age-related effects on postural control under multi-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wehrle, Anja; Kressig, Reto W

    2011-01-01

    Changes in postural sway and gait patterns due to simultaneously performed cognitive (CI) and/or motor interference (MI) tasks have previously been reported and are associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a CI and/or MI task on static and dynamic postural control in young and elderly subjects, and to find out whether there is an association between measures of static and dynamic postural control while concurrently performing the CI and/or MI task. A total of 36 healthy young (n = 18; age: 22.3 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and elderly adults (n = 18; age: 73.5 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 24.2 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) participated in this study. Static postural control was measured during bipedal stance, and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Irrespective of the task condition, i.e. single-task or multiple tasks, elderly participants showed larger center-of-pressure displacements and greater stride-to-stride variability than younger participants. Associations between measures of static and dynamic postural control were found only under the single-task condition in the elderly. Age-related deficits in the postural control system seem to be primarily responsible for the observed results. The weak correlations detected between static and dynamic measures could indicate that fall-risk assessment should incorporate dynamic measures under multi-task conditions, and that skills like erect standing and walking are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementarily. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Postural control among elderly women with and without osteoporosis: is there a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Nogueira Burke

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Little is known about postural control among elderly individuals with osteoporosis and its relationship with falls. It has been suggested that elderly women with kyphosis and osteoporosis are at greater risk of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate posture and postural control among elderly women with and without osteoporosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the Physical Therapy and Electromyography Laboratory, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: Sixty-six elderly women were selected from the bone metabolism disorders clinic, Division of Rheumatology, USP, and were divided into two groups: osteoporosis and controls, according to their bone mineral density (BMD. Postural control was assessed using the Limits of Stability (LOS test and the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIBm and posture, using photometry. RESULTS: The elderly women with osteoporosis swayed at higher velocity on a stable surface with opened eyes (0.30 versus 0.20 degrees/second; P = 0.038. In both groups, the center of pressure (COP was at 30% in the LOS, but with different placements: 156° in the osteoporosis group and 178° in the controls (P = 0.045. Osteoporosis patients fell more than controls did (1.0 versus 0.0; P = 0.036. CONCLUSIONS: The postural control in elderly women with osteoporosis differed from that of the controls, with higher sway velocity and maximum displacement of COP. Despite postural abnormalities such as hyperkyphosis and forward head, the COP position was posteriorized.

  10. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  11. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  12. Computer use in school: its effect on posture and discomfort in schoolchildren.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Grace

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the posture and musculoskeletal discomfort of secondary school students while working at computers in school. Students (n = 40) were observed while working at a computer during their designated computer class. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment Tool (RULA) was used to assess posture. A Body Discomfort Chart (BDC) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to record the area(s) and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort, if any, experienced by the students at the beginning and end of the computer class. None of the students\\' posture was in the acceptable range (Action Level 1) according to RULA. The majority (65%) were in Action Level 2, 30% were in Action Level 3, and 5% were in Action Level 4. There was a statistically significant increase in reported discomfort from the beginning to the end of the computer class. Longer class length (80 minutes) did not result in greater reporting of discomfort than shorter class length (40 minutes).

  13. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  14. Motor deficits in schizophrenia quantified by nonlinear analysis of postural sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerillyn S Kent

    Full Text Available Motor dysfunction is a consistently reported but understudied aspect of schizophrenia. Postural sway area was examined in individuals with schizophrenia under four conditions with different amounts of visual and proprioceptive feedback: eyes open or closed and feet together or shoulder width apart. The nonlinear complexity of postural sway was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The schizophrenia group (n = 27 exhibited greater sway area compared to controls (n = 37. Participants with schizophrenia showed increased sway area following the removal of visual input, while this pattern was absent in controls. Examination of DFA revealed decreased complexity of postural sway and abnormal changes in complexity upon removal of visual input in individuals with schizophrenia. Additionally, less complex postural sway was associated with increased symptom severity in participants with schizophrenia. Given the critical involvement of the cerebellum and related circuits in postural stability and sensorimotor integration, these results are consistent with growing evidence of motor, cerebellar, and sensory integration dysfunction in the disorder, and with theoretical models that implicate cerebellar deficits and more general disconnection of function in schizophrenia.

  15. Hippotherapy on postural balance in the sitting position of children with cerebral palsy - Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Andréa Gomes; Copetti, Fernando; Ângelo, Vera Regina; Chiavoloni, Luana; de David, Ana Cristina

    2018-06-11

    To verify the effects of 12, 24, 36 hippotherapy sessions over time on postural balance while sitting in children with cerebral palsy as well the effects of treatment after one interruption period of 45 days. Hippotherapy program with a twice-weekly treatment with a total of 13 children aged 5-10 years old. Measurements of postural balance during sitting were performed using the AMTI AccuSway Plus platform. There was a statistically significant reduction in mediolateral and anteroposterior sway after the first 12 hippotherapy sessions, and further significant sway reduction occurred as the treatment progressed. Changes in the center of pressure displacement velocity variable began to occur after 24 sessions. Seated postural balance improved in children with cerebral palsy, as evidenced by lower COP displacement, particularly after a greater number of sessions. After the last evaluations, when completing 36 sessions of hippotherapy, it was verified that the improvements to the postural balance continued to occur. Therefore, further studies with a longer treatment period may help to clarify if, at some point, there is stabilization in the improvement of postural balance. Furthermore, it is important to analyze the impact of hippotherapy on functional activities over time.

  16. Visual Information and Support Surface for Postural Control in Visual Search Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Chun; Yang, Chih-Mei

    2016-10-01

    When standing on a reduced support surface, people increase their reliance on visual information to control posture. This assertion was tested in the current study. The effects of imposed motion and support surface on postural control during visual search were investigated. Twelve participants (aged 21 ± 1.8 years; six men and six women) stood on a reduced support surface (45% base of support). In a room that moved back and forth along the anteroposterior axis, participants performed visual search for a given letter in an article. Postural sway variability and head-room coupling were measured. The results of head-room coupling, but not postural sway, supported the assertion that people increase reliance on visual information when standing on a reduced support surface. Whether standing on a whole or reduced surface, people stabilized their posture to perform the visual search tasks. Compared to a fixed target, searching on a hand-held target showed greater head-room coupling when standing on a reduced surface. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  18. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  19. Effect of Pregnancy on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7±2.6; nulliparous, 2.1±2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6±12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3±10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1±22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9±14.9 beats/min; P=.07). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children. PMID:20516426

  20. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    differences between underwater and real microgravity environment were analyzed in greater detail: external forces (buoyancy and grav-ity), required fixation, postural changes by breathing and subject orientation to gravitational vector. Goal of this analysis was to understand the respective effects of each environmental influence on subjects posture observed. Each of the different influences was then quantified and the postural change induced by it calculated. These were then combined using a specially programmed multi-body-simulation tool, making it possible to recompute 3D posture data dy-namically to the environmental influences. The simulation is based on the volumetric 3D model of each subject, specific anthropometric data, such as body-fat or muscle ratio, combined with external forces such as gravity and buoyancy. The recomputed data can then be compared independent from the environmental influences. The recomputed 3D posture data can then be re-evaluated focussing again on possible inter-personal neutral posture archetypes in the subject group. Some examples of recomputed data and inter-personal findings will be given.

  1. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  3. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  4. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  5. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  6. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  7. Postural instability in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozza, Stefano; Aceto, Maria Gabriella; Pisciotta, Chiara; Bruzzese, Dario; Iodice, Rosa; Santoro, Lucio; Manganelli, Fiore

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of somatosensory impairment, distal muscle weakness and foot deformities on the balance in 21 CMT1A patients using a baropodometric platform. Stabilometric analysis by measuring sway area and velocity of a centre of pressure (CoP) both at open and closed eyes were used to assess postural imbalance. Static analysis, by measuring the load and the plantar surface of forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot was used to define the footprint shape and to assess as a whole foot deformities. Stabilometric and static results were compared with those of a control group. In CMT1A patients, stabilometric findings were correlated with static parameters, Achilles' tendon retraction, distal muscle strength and CMT examination score (CMTES). CMT1A patients compared to controls had lower plantar surface and load on midfoot, and higher load on a forefoot. CMT1A patients had a greater postural instability, since they had a higher CoP velocity, both at open and closed eyes. Moreover, the CoP velocity correlated inversely with the strength of ankle dorsi-flexion muscles and directly with CMTES as whole and with the item "motor symptoms legs". Postural imbalance was not correlated with sensory impairment and foot deformities as expressed by static analysis and Achilles' tendon retraction. In this study we demonstrated an altered balance in CMT1A patients during upright standing. The imbalance in our CMT patients seems to be related to the weakness of ankle dorsi-flexor muscles rather than sensory impairment or foot deformities. These results could be due to a mildly affected CMT1A population, evaluated in an early stage of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  9. Combination of BTrackS and Geri-Fit as a targeted approach for assessing and reducing the postural sway of older adults with high fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Hearn, Mason C; Baweja, Harsimran S

    2017-01-01

    Atypically high postural sway measured by a force plate is a known risk factor for falls in older adults. Further, it has been shown that small, but significant, reductions in postural sway are possible with various balance exercise interventions. In the present study, a new low-cost force-plate technology called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS) was utilized to assess postural sway of older adults before and after 90 days of a well-established exercise program called Geri-Fit. Results showed an overall reduction in postural sway across all participants from pre- to post-intervention. However, the magnitude of effects was significantly influenced by the amount of postural sway demonstrated by individuals prior to Geri-Fit training. Specifically, more participants with atypically high postural sway pre-intervention experienced an overall postural sway reduction. These reductions experienced were typically greater than the minimum detectable change statistic for the BTrackS Balance Test. Taken together, these findings suggest that BTrackS is an effective means of identifying older adults with elevated postural sway, who are likely to benefit from Geri-Fit training to mitigate fall risk.

  10. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  11. Equilíbrio postural de atletas remadores Equilibrio postural de atletas remadores Postural balance in rowing athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian de Mello Martins Vieira

    2006-06-01

    movimientos laterales y antero-posterior, y el área elíptica del movimiento del centro de presión en el plano de la plataforma. El grupo de atletas no presentó diferencias significativas en los parámetros durante toda la prueba. El grupo de control presentó valores significativamente mas elevados en el área elíptica y la velocidad media a partir de la mitad del test. Los atletas presentaron valores significativamente menores para la escala de Borg, representando mayor resistencia a la incomodidad generada por la actividad. Con base en los resultados, se sugiere que las alteraciones estabilométricas presentadas por el grupo de no atletas sean provenientes de procesos fisiológicos periféricos y que el condicionamiento físico parece ser un factor importante en la manutención del equilibrio estático durante períodos prolongados.The influence of fitness on long-term postural balance is not clear yet. This study aims to compare stabilometric parameters in long-term balance tests performed by rowing athletes and by a control group of non-athletes healthy subjects, who stood upright on a force plate for 31 minutes. At every five minutes of test, a modified Borg scale was shown to the subjects to score the discomfort. The parameters studied were: standard deviation, average velocity and average frequency of the lateral and anterior-posterior centre of pressure displacements, and the elliptical area of the displacement on the level of the force plate. The athletes did not show significant differences in parameters during the entire test. The control group presented significant higher values in the elliptical area and in average velocity from the middle to the end of test. The athletes presented significant lower values in Borg's scale, showing a greater resistance to discomfort. It is suggested that stabilometric alterations showed by the non-athletes occurred in response to peripheral physiological processes, and that physical fitness seems to be an important factor for

  12. Effects of vision and cognitive load on static postural control in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalzadeh, Afsaneh; Talebian, Saeed; Naghdi, Soofia; Salavati, Mahyar; Nazary-Moghadam, Salman; Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Bahareh

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effects of vision and cognitive load on static postural control in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Twenty-eight PFPS patients and 28 controls participated in the study. Postural control was assessed in isolation as well as with visual manipulation and cognitive loading on symptomatic limb. The outcome measures of postural control were quantified in terms of area, anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), and mean velocity (MV) of the displacements of center of pressure (COP). In addition, cognitive performance (auditory Stroop task) was measured in the forms of average reaction time and error ratio in baseline (sitting) and different postural conditions. PFPS subjects showed greater increases in area (p = 0.01), AP (p = 0.01), and ML (p = 0.05) displacements of COP in the blindfolded tasks as compared to control group. However, cognitive load did not differently affect postural control in the two groups. Although PFPS and control group had similar reaction times in the sitting position (p = 0.29), PFPS subjects had longer reaction times than healthy subjects in dual task conditions (p = 0.04). Visual inputs seem to be essential for discriminating postural control between PFPS and healthy individuals. PFPS patients biased toward decreasing cognitive performance more than healthy subjects when they perform the single leg stance and cognitive task concurrently.

  13. Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, F; Paillard, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the postural performance of two groups of male skiers competing at different levels and the consequences on postural control of the suppression of visual afferences by eye closure.

  14. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, F J; Gómez-Conesa, A

    2001-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study with 3 x 4 design was performed. To improve the level of knowledge and motor skills and thereby avert the development of painful symptoms. Despite the fact that low back pain affects a high percentage of the population, little research has been carried out to prevent low back pain through health education. The participants in this study were 106 third-grade (9-year-old) students. The program included 11 sessions. The teacher attended the placebo group sessions. No intervention was used with the control group. The level of knowledge and motor skills in the experimental group showed a significant increase immediately after the intervention finished, and at 6- and 12-month intervals after completion of the postural hygiene program (P = 0.00). Some positive changes were generalized to natural situations (P = 0.00). In an independent health check carried out by the local school health services 4 years after application of the postural hygiene program, the results tended slightly to favor the experimental condition over the control conditions (placebo + no intervention). A greater number of the control subjects required medical treatment for low back pain, although this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.07). The findings from this study support the hypothesis that programs involving practice and motivating strategies impart health knowledge and habits more efficiently than those restricted to the mere transmission of information.

  15. Femoral strength and posture in terrestrial birds and non-avian theropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Alicea, Justy

    2009-09-01

    Osteological and experimental evidence suggest a change in femoral posture between non-avian dinosaurs (in which the femur presumably was carried in a subvertical position) and birds (in which the femur is held nearly horizontal during most phases of terrestrial locomotion). In this study, we used a broad comparative sample to test the hypothesis that cross-sectional properties of the femur records evidence of this presumed change in posture. I(max) and I(min) (second moment of area, related to resistance to bending) and cross-sectional area (indicating resistance to compression) were measured from computed tomography scans of the femora of 30 species of flightless or primarily terrestrial birds, one probable non-dinosaur dinosauromorph, and at least four species of non-avian theropods. It was predicted that birds should have more eccentrically shaped femoral midshafts as measured by I(max)/II(min) (reflecting greater bending) and comparatively smaller cross-sectional areas than non-avians. Results show that no significant differences occur between non-avian dinosaurs and birds for any parameter, and the samples overlapped broadly in many cases. Thus, cross-sectional properties cannot be used to infer differences in femoral posture between the two groups. This surprising finding might be explained by the fact that femoral postures were not drastically different or that a gradation of postures occurred in each sample. It is also possible that bone loading during life was not closely correlated with cross-sectional morphology. We conclude that cross-sectional properties should be used with caution in determining the posture and behaviors of extinct animals, and only in conjunction with other morphological information. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  17. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  18. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  19. Reliability of photogrammetry in the evaluation of the postural aspects of individuals with structural scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra Siqueira; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of photogrammetry in the measurement of the postural deviations in individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty participants with scoliosis (17 women and three men), with a mean age of 23.1 ± 9 yrs, were photographed from the posterior and lateral views. The postural aspects were measured with CorelDRAW software. High inter-rater and test-retest reliability indices were found. It was observed that with more severity of scoliosis, greater were the variations between the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis measures obtained by the same examiner from the left lateral view photographs. A greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with greater variability of the trunk rotation measures obtained by two independent examiners from the right, lateral view (r = 0.656; p = 0.002). The severity of scoliosis was also associated with greater inter-rater variability measures of trunk rotation obtained from the left, lateral view (r = 0.483; p = 0.036). Photogrammetry demonstrated to be a reliable method for the measurement of postural deviations from the posterior and lateral views of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and could be complementarily employed for the assessment procedures, which could reduce the number of X-rays used for the follow-up assessments of these individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adiposity and postural balance control: correlations between bioelectrical impedance and stabilometric signals in elderly Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Raquel Meira Mainenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between body adiposity and postural control in elderly women. INTRODUCTION: Aging and obesity account for a significant portion of healthcare spending. Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro has the largest proportion of elderly residents of all Brazilian states. METHODS: A total of 45 women underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, waist circumference measurements, weight and height measurements, and stabilometric tests in eight different stance conditions (opened and closed bases with both eyes opened and closed and right and left tandem and unilateral stances with eyes opened. During unilateral stances, the number of hand or foot contacts was counted. RESULTS: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat percentage, and fat mass showed statistically significant (p,0.05 and positive correlations with the number of contacts made during unilateral stances. The subjects with greater fat mass showed significantly higher anterior-posterior standard deviation and range when their eyes were closed. The sway area was also greater for this group in opened base when their eyes were closed. DISCUSSION: The results relating body adiposity and postural control can be explained by the difficulty of maintaining a greater quantity of body fat mass within the limits of the individual support base, especially while assuming a unilateral stance. CONCLUSION: The subjects with a greater fat mass exhibited poor balance control, indicating that body adiposity level was associated with postural control in the elderly women examined in the present study.

  1. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  2. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  3. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  4. Relation between risk of falling and postural sway complexity in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S; Colberg, S R; Parson, H K; Vinik, A I

    2012-04-01

    For older individuals with diabetes, any decline in balance control can be especially problematic since it is often a precursor to an increased risk of falling. This study was designed to evaluate differences in postural motion dynamics and falls risk for older individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) classified as fallers/non-fallers and, to assess what impact exercise has on balance and falls risk. The results demonstrated that the risk of falling is greater for those older individuals with multiple risk factors including diabetes and a previous falls history. The postural motion features of the high-risk individuals (T2DM-fallers) were also different, being characterized by increased variability and complexity, increased AP-ML coupling, less overall COP motion and increased velocity. One suggestion is that these individuals evoked a stiffening strategy during the more challenging postural tasks. Following training, a decline in falls risk was observed for all groups, with this effect being most pronounced for the T2DM-fallers. Interestingly, the COP motion of this group became more similar to controls, exhibiting decreased complexity and variability, and decreased velocity. The reciprocal changes in COP complexity support the broader view that age/disease-related changes in physiological complexity are bi-directional. Overall, these results show that, even for older T2DM individuals at greater risk of falling, targeted interventions can positively enhance their postural dynamics. Further, the finding that the pattern of postural motion variability and complexity was altered highlights that a decline in physiological complexity may not always be negatively associated with aging and/or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Yoga Training Has Positive Effects on Postural Balance and Its Influence on Activities of Daily Living in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gerson; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Cunha Gomes Fernandes; de Faria Oliveira, Jane Domingues; Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri

    2016-01-01

    There is a little evidence about the influence of yoga as a complementary therapy for postural balance and its influence on activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To evaluate the influence of a six-month yoga program on postural balance and subjective impact of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living in people with MS. Randomized controlled pilot study. Protocol developed at the Adaptive Physical Activity Study Department, College of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Brazil. A total of 12 (11 women) yoga naive people with MS randomly divided into two groups as follows: Control (C-waiting list, n = 6) and Yoga (Y-Yoga training, n = 6). Yoga group practiced postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and relaxation on weekly 60-min classes for a six-month period. The following evaluations were performed at study entry (baseline), and after six months (six months): Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and self-reported postural balance quality and influence of postural balance on activities of daily living. There was a significant improvement in BBS score from baseline to six months only in the Yoga group, especially in subjects with higher EDSS score, with increased quality of self-reported postural balance, and decreased influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. In conclusion, a six-month yoga training is beneficial for people with MS, since it improves postural balance and decreases the influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. A greater sample size is necessary to increase generalization, but it seems that yoga could be included as a feasible complementary therapy for people with MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of postural stability of people with Parkinson's disease with Biodex Balance System device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-10-01

    Summary Parkinson's disease is an incurable disease of the CNS of progressive and chronic course. Postural Stability of people with Parkinson's is hindered what predisposes to falls. In a person standing seemingly motionless body performs small oscillatory movements caused by differences in antigravity muscle tension. This mechanism is called postural rocking and mobility associated with it is referred to as postural sway. The parameters of rocking are very sensitive indicator of balance control, and can be used to evaluate and detect pathological changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the stability of posture of people with Parkinson's disease on the basis of posturographic examination.The age range of the patients was from 52 to 85 years (mean 71.8 years. In terms of age the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 9 people to 75 years old, while the other of 8 people over 75 years old. The postural stability was assessed with Biodex Balance System. The study was performed at the Laboratory of Posturology at the Institute of Physiotherapy at UJK in Kielce. Although Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant differences in postural stability between the sexes, its lower values are reported for men. A standing position of the subjects was characterized by greater deviation in the sagittal plane than in the frontal plane (A/P>M/L with a tendency to tilt backwards. There were better postural stability results in the younger group (group 1, up to 75 years old. The subjects in this group obtained significantly lower values of postural stability (t°=2.2744, pM/L z tendencją do odchylania się do tyłu. Zaobserwowano lepsze wyniki stabilności posturalnej w grupie osób młodszych (grupa 1 do 75 roku życia. Badani tej grupy uzyskali istotnie niższe wartości stabilności posturalnej (t°= 2,2744, p<0,05.   Słowa kluczowe: stabilność posturalna, choroba Parkinsona, platforma Biodex Balance System

  7. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  8. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  9. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  10. Smart rehabilitation garment for posture monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, W.; Timmermans, A.A.A.; Karachristos, C.; Martens, J.B.O.S.; Markopoulos, P.

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and

  11. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  12. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  13. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  14. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Fernandes Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. METHOD The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. RESULTS The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (p< 0.00, except for the angle of the Thales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03, knee flexion (p< 0.00 and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00. CONCLUSION All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position.

  15. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Posture changes and subfoveal choroidal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Geiser, Martial H; Riva, Charles E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change on subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in normal volunteers. The pulsatile, nonpulsatile, and mean ChBF were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 32 +/- 13 (SD) years. The posture of the subjects was changed from standing (90 degrees ), to supine (-8 degrees ), and back to standing, with a mechanically driven table. During the whole experimental procedure, ChBF and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. After 30 seconds in standing position, the subjects were tilted to supine during approximately 30 seconds. They remained in this position for approximately 2 minutes, after which they were tilted back to the standing position (recovery), where they remained for another approximately 2 minutes. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure (BP) was measured in the baseline, supine, and recovery positions. This procedure was repeated to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) at the different postures. Mean BP did not change significantly throughout the experimental procedure. As the body was tilted from standing to supine, HR decreased by 16% (P blood velocity. Based on previously reported experimental data that indicate that the ocular perfusion pressure increases less than predicted by purely hydrostatic considerations when the body is tilted from the standing to the supine position, the observed increase in ChBF suggests a passive response of the choroidal circulation to the posture change.

  17. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  18. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) "relaxed" posture; (2) "ballet" posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  19. Image Sharing in Radiology-A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam R; Stalcup, Seth; Sharma, Arjun; Sato, T Shawn; Gupta, Pushpender; Lee, Yueh Z; Malone, Christopher; McBee, Morgan; Hotaling, Elise L; Kansagra, Akash P

    2017-03-01

    By virtue of its information technology-oriented infrastructure, the specialty of radiology is uniquely positioned to be at the forefront of efforts to promote data sharing across the healthcare enterprise, including particularly image sharing. The potential benefits of image sharing for clinical, research, and educational applications in radiology are immense. In this work, our group-the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Image Sharing-reviews the benefits of implementing image sharing capability, introduces current image sharing platforms and details their unique requirements, and presents emerging platforms that may see greater adoption in the future. By understanding this complex ecosystem of image sharing solutions, radiologists can become important advocates for the successful implementation of these powerful image sharing resources. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  1. A new methodology based on functional principal component analysis to study postural stability post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M Luz; Belda-Lois, Juan-Manuel; Mena-Del Horno, Silvia; Viosca-Herrero, Enrique; Igual-Camacho, Celedonia; Gisbert-Morant, Beatriz

    2018-05-05

    A major goal in stroke rehabilitation is the establishment of more effective physical therapy techniques to recover postural stability. Functional Principal Component Analysis provides greater insight into recovery trends. However, when missing values exist, obtaining functional data presents some difficulties. The purpose of this study was to reveal an alternative technique for obtaining the Functional Principal Components without requiring the conversion to functional data beforehand and to investigate this methodology to determine the effect of specific physical therapy techniques in balance recovery trends in elderly subjects with hemiplegia post-stroke. A randomized controlled pilot trial was developed. Thirty inpatients post-stroke were included. Control and target groups were treated with the same conventional physical therapy protocol based on functional criteria, but specific techniques were added to the target group depending on the subjects' functional level. Postural stability during standing was quantified by posturography. The assessments were performed once a month from the moment the participants were able to stand up to six months post-stroke. The target group showed a significant improvement in postural control recovery trend six months after stroke that was not present in the control group. Some of the assessed parameters revealed significant differences between treatment groups (P Functional Principal Component Analysis to be performed when data is scarce. Moreover, it allowed the dynamics of recovery of two different treatment groups to be determined, showing that the techniques added in the target group increased postural stability compared to the base protocol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying the effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to reconstruct the neutral neck posture of sauropod dinosaurs, or indeed any tetrapod, are doomed to failure when based only on the geometry of the bony cervical vertebrae. The thickness of the articular cartilage between the centra of adjacent vertebrae affects posture. It extends (raises the neck by an amount roughly proportional to the thickness of the cartilage. It is possible to quantify the angle of extension at an intervertebral joint: it is roughly equal, in radians, to the cartilage thickness divided by the height of the zygapophyseal facets over the centre of rotation. Applying this formula to published measurements of well-known sauropod specimens suggests that if the thickness of cartilage were equal to 4.5%, 10% or 18% of centrum length, the neutral pose of the Apatosaurus louisae holotype CM 3018 would be extended by an average of 5.5, 11.8 or 21.2 degrees, respectively, at each intervertebral joint. For the Diplodocus carnegii holotype CM 84, the corresponding angles of additional extension are even greater: 8.4, 18.6 or 33.3 degrees. The cartilaginous neutral postures (CNPs calculated for 10% cartilage—the most reasonable estimate—appear outlandish. But it must be remembered that these would not have been the habitual life postures, because tetrapods habitually extend the base of their neck and flex the anterior part, yielding the distinctive S-curve most easily seen in birds.

  3. Quantifying the effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the neutral neck posture of sauropod dinosaurs, or indeed any tetrapod, are doomed to failure when based only on the geometry of the bony cervical vertebrae. The thickness of the articular cartilage between the centra of adjacent vertebrae affects posture. It extends (raises) the neck by an amount roughly proportional to the thickness of the cartilage. It is possible to quantify the angle of extension at an intervertebral joint: it is roughly equal, in radians, to the cartilage thickness divided by the height of the zygapophyseal facets over the centre of rotation. Applying this formula to published measurements of well-known sauropod specimens suggests that if the thickness of cartilage were equal to 4.5%, 10% or 18% of centrum length, the neutral pose of the Apatosaurus louisae holotype CM 3018 would be extended by an average of 5.5, 11.8 or 21.2 degrees, respectively, at each intervertebral joint. For the Diplodocus carnegii holotype CM 84, the corresponding angles of additional extension are even greater: 8.4, 18.6 or 33.3 degrees. The cartilaginous neutral postures (CNPs) calculated for 10% cartilage-the most reasonable estimate-appear outlandish. But it must be remembered that these would not have been the habitual life postures, because tetrapods habitually extend the base of their neck and flex the anterior part, yielding the distinctive S-curve most easily seen in birds.

  4. Embodied prosthetic arm stabilizes body posture, while unembodied one perturbs it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa; Koyama, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    Senses of ownership (this arm belongs to me) and agency (I am controlling this arm) originate from sensorimotor system. External objects can be integrated into the sensorimotor system following long-term use, and recognized as one's own body. We examined how an (un)embodied prosthetic arm modulates whole-body control, and assessed the components of prosthetic embodiment. Nine unilateral upper-limb amputees participated. Four frequently used their prosthetic arm, while the others rarely did. Their postural sway was measured during quiet standing with or without their prosthesis. The frequent users showed greater sway when they removed the prosthesis, while the rare users showed greater sway when they fitted the prosthesis. Frequent users reported greater everyday feelings of postural stabilization by prosthesis and a larger sense of agency over the prosthesis. We suggest that a prosthetic arm maintains or perturbs postural control, depending on the prosthetic embodiment, which involves sense of agency rather than ownership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  6. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  7. Neural substrates of interpreting actions and emotions from body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Travers, Brittany G

    2012-04-01

    Accurately reading the body language of others may be vital for navigating the social world, and this ability may be influenced by factors, such as our gender, personality characteristics and neurocognitive processes. This fMRI study examined the brain activation of 26 healthy individuals (14 women and 12 men) while they judged the action performed or the emotion felt by stick figure characters appearing in different postures. In both tasks, participants activated areas associated with visual representation of the body, motion processing and emotion recognition. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated greater ease in judging the physical actions of the characters compared to judging their emotional states, and participants showed more activation in areas associated with emotion processing in the emotion detection task, whereas they showed more activation in visual, spatial and action-related areas in the physical action task. Gender differences emerged in brain responses, such that men showed greater activation than women in the left dorsal premotor cortex in both tasks. Finally, participants higher in self-reported empathy demonstrated greater activation in areas associated with self-referential processing and emotion interpretation. These results suggest that empathy levels and sex of the participant may affect neural responses to emotional body language.

  8. Somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The study included 28 girls aged 7-18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The selection of the subjects was deliberate. Height measurements were conducted with an anthropometer and weight measurements were done with an electronic scale. Body posture tests were performed using Exhibeon 3D digital photogrammetry and digital radiographs. The significant Spearman correlations between postural variables for the sagittal plane and the somatic variables regarded: trunk inclination angle and BMI (R= 0,4553, p= p=0,015, Abs of the trunk inclination angle and BMI (R = 0.5522, p = 0.002, length of thoracic kyphosis and BMI (R=0,4147, p=0.028, lumbar lordosis and BMI (R=0,4509, p=0,016. The significant Spearman correlations between scoliotic posture variables and the somatic variables concerned: length of primary lordosis and body height (R =0,4923, p=0.008, the length of the primary lordosis and body mass (R = 0.3932, p = 0.038, the length of the primary lordosis and BMI (R=0,4923, p=0.008. Variation analysis regarding postural (Exhibeon and somatic variables showed significant correlations between the direction of the primary curvature and body mass (p=0,0432, body height and primary angle location (p=0,0290 and between the height of the body and the location of the secondary angle (p = 0,0278.

  9. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  10. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  12. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing.Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials.(1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity.Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  13. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  14. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  15. Postural control and functional balance in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Souza Fortaleza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN brings on reduced somatosensation, which can lead to changes in postural control. The objective of this study was to evaluate postural control in a standing position and in different conditions, as well as functional balance in individuals with DPN, make the correlation between the results obtained from the postural control assessment with the values from the functional balance test and compare the results obtained in the neuropathy group with those of the control group, checking for possible differences between the evaluation conditions of both groups. The study included 13 women with DPN (NG and 17 non-diabetic women (CG. Postural control assessment was performed by kinemetry in the following conditions: eyes opened (EO, eyes closed (EC, and semi-tandem (ST. The data was processed in MATLAB and the following variables were generated: mean amplitude of oscillation (MAO in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML direction; and average speed of oscillation (ASO in AP and ML direction. Functional balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test. There was significant difference between the groups (p≤0.005 in MAO-AP EO and EC, MAO-ML EC and ST, and ASO-ML ST. There were differences between the conditions EO and ST (p≤0.005 and EC and ST (p≤0.005 for the variables MAO-ML and ASO-ML with greater damage to the NG, which also had a lower functional balance (p=0.001. ML instability was positively correlated with functional imbalance. The results show a change in the postural control system in the DPN, which could lead these individuals to a higher risk for falls and functional impairment.

  16. Postural control and functional balance in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Souza Fortaleza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p305 Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN brings on reduced somatosensation, which can lead to changes in postural control. The objective of this study was to evaluate postural control in a standing position and in different conditions, as well as functional balance in individuals with DPN, make the correlation between the results obtained from the postural control assessment with the values from the functional balance test and compare the results obtained in the neuropathy group with those of the control group, checking for possible differences between the evaluation conditions of both groups. The study included 13 women with DPN (NG and 17 non-diabetic women (CG. Postural control assessment was performed by kinemetry in the following conditions: eyes opened (EO, eyes closed (EC, and semi-tandem (ST. The data was processed in MATLAB and the following variables were generated: mean amplitude of oscillation (MAO in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML direction; and average speed of oscillation (ASO in AP and ML direction. Functional balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test. There was significant difference between the groups (p≤0.005 in MAO-AP EO and EC, MAO-ML EC and ST, and ASO-ML ST. There were differences between the conditions EO and ST (p≤0.005 and EC and ST (p≤0.005 for the variables MAO-ML and ASO-ML with greater damage to the NG, which also had a lower functional balance (p=0.001. ML instability was positively correlated with functional imbalance. The results show a change in the postural control system in the DPN, which could lead these individuals to a higher risk for falls and functional impairment.

  17. Postural Stability of Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen With Tactical Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul M; Williams, Valerie J; Sell, Timothy C

    The US Naval Special Warfare's Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen (SWCC) operate on small, high-speed boats while wearing tactical gear (TG). The TG increases mission safety and success but may affect postural stability, potentially increasing risk for musculoskeletal injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of TG on postural stability during the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Eight SWCC performed the SOT on NeuroCom's Balance Manager with TG and with no tactical gear (NTG). The status of gear was performed in randomized order. The SOT consisted of six different conditions that challenge sensory systems responsible for postural stability. Each condition was performed for three trials, resulting in a total of 18 trials. Overall performance, each individual condition, and sensory system analysis (somatosensory, visual, vestibular, preference) were scored. Data were not normally distributed therefore Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare each variable (ρ = .05). No significant differences were found between NTG and TG tests. No statistically significant differences were detected under the two TG conditions. This may be due to low statistical power, or potentially insensitivity of the assessment. Also, the amount and distribution of weight worn during the TG conditions, and the SWCC's unstable occupational platform, may have contributed to the findings. The data from this sample will be used in future research to better understand how TG affects SWCC. The data show that the addition of TG used in our study did not affect postural stability of SWCC during the SOT. Although no statistically significant differences were observed, there are clinical reasons for continued study of the effect of increased load on postural stability, using more challenging conditions, greater surface perturbations, dynamic tasks, and heavier loads. 2016.

  18. External load application in gait and posture reeducation after diffuse axonal injury of the corpus callosum. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zawadka

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury caused car accidents is the one of the most common causes of diffuse axonal injury typically located at the grey-white matter junction, in the corpus callosum. A 58-year-old female patient Caucasian race was admitted to the Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Unit with head injury, broken right ulnar bone, numerous broken ribs and broken right iliac crest. Neurological examination resulted in right-sided hemiparesis. There were also coordination and balance disorders while sitting and standing. The patient was unable to walk. After physiotherapy treatment included external load application (ankle weights and rucksack with weights in gait and posture reeducation, patient has improved balance, locomotion and body posture. However, application of external loads during walk and posture reeducation needs to be further investigated with greater number of participants and control group.

  19. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  20. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  1. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper proposes a human posture identification scheme based on height and a Doppler radar cross section (RCS as estimated by a MIMO array. This scheme allows smart home applications to dispense with contact and wearable devices. Experiments demonstrate that this method can identify the supine position (i.e., after a fall with 100% accuracy, and the average identification rate is 95.0%.

  3. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  4. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (pcomposta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exceção do ângulo triângulo de Tales. Reavaliando os mesmos estudantes, houve diferença significativa nos ângulos da articulação acromioclavicular (p=0,03), da flexão de joelhos (p< 0,00) e no ângulo tibiotársico (p< 0,00). Todos os estudantes apresentaram alterações, comparadas aos valores de normalidade. Os segmentos com diferença significativa, comparando-se antes e após a prática, foram o ângulo acromioclavicular, flexo de joelho e ângulo tibiotársico, sendo os dois últimos na posição de rolamento.

  5. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Sasakawa; Naoki Honma; Takeshi Nakayama; Shoichi Iizuka

    2018-01-01

    The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper pr...

  6. Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: II. Postural Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2017-06-15

    Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right. Two stepping strategies for obstacle circumvention were identified: 1) side step: increase in step width by the foot ipsilateral to the side of circumvention; 2) cross step: decrease in step width by the foot contralateral to the side of circumvention. The side step strategy was favoured by post-stroke individuals in circumventing stationary and head-on approaching obstacles. In circumventing diagonally approaching obstacles, healthy controls generally veered opposite to obstacle approach (>60% trials), whereas the majority of post-stroke participants (7/12) veered to the same side of obstacle approach (V same ). Post-stroke participants who veered to the opposite side (V opp , 5/12) were more independent and faster ambulators who favoured the side step strategy in circumventing obstacles approaching from the paretic side and cross step strategy for obstacles approaching from the non-paretic side. V same participants generally favoured the side step strategy for both diagonal approaches. Segmental rotation amplitudes and latencies were largest in the V same group, and significantly greater in post-stroke participants than controls for all obstacle conditions. All participants initiated circumvention with the feet followed by the pelvis and thorax, demonstrating a caudal-rostral sequence of reorientation. Postural coordination strategies for obstacle circumvention

  7. Spatiotemporal postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeon Patrick O

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control deficits have been purported to be a potential contributing factor in chronic ankle instability (CAI. Summary forceplate measures such as center of pressure velocity and area have not consistently detected postural control deficits associated with CAI. A novel measurement technique derived from the dynamical systems theory of motor control known as Time-to-boundary (TTB has shown promise in detecting deficits in postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI. In a previous study, TTB deficits were detected in a sample of females with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine postural control in sample of males and females with and without CAI using TTB measures. Methods This case-control study was performed in a research laboratory. Thirty-two subjects (18 males, 14 females with self-reported CAI were recruited and matched to healthy controls. All subjects performed three, ten-second trials of single-limb stance on a forceplate with eyes open and eyes closed. Main outcome measures included the TTB absolute minimum (s, mean of TTB minima (s, and standard deviation of TTB minima (s in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. A series of group by gender analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the differences in postural control for all TTB variables separately with eyes open and eyes closed. Results There were no significant group by gender interactions or gender main effects for any of the measures. There, however, significant group main effects for 4 of the 6 measures with eyes closed as the CAI group demonstrated significant deficits in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the TTB measures with eyes open. Conclusion TTB deficits were present in the CAI group compared to the control group. These deficits were detected with concurrent removal of visual input. CAI may place significantly greater constraints on the

  8. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Impact of Somatosensory Orthoses on Postural Control (A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Dupuy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elhers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is the clinical manifestation of connective tissue disorders, and comprises several clinical forms with no specific symptoms and selective medical examinations which result in a delay in diagnosis of about 10 years. The EDS hypermobility type (hEDS is characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, variable skin hyperextensibility and impaired proprioception. Since somatosensory processing and multisensory integration are crucial for both perception and action, we put forth the hypothesis that somatosensory deficits in hEDS patients may lead, among other clinical symptoms, to misperception of verticality and postural instability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i to assess the impact of somatosensory deficit on subjective visual vertical (SVV and postural stability; and (ii to quantify the effect of wearing somatosensory orthoses (i.e., compressive garments and insoles on postural stability. Six hEDS patients and six age- and gender-matched controls underwent a SVV (sitting, standing, lying on the right side evaluation and a postural control evaluation on a force platform (Synapsys, with or without visual information (eyes open (EO/eyes closed (EC. These two latter conditions performed either without orthoses, or with compression garments (CG, or insoles, or both. Results showed that patients did not exhibit a substantial perceived tilt of the visual vertical in the direction of the body tilt (Aubert effect as did the control subjects. Interestingly, such differential effects were only apparent when the rod was initially positioned to the left of the vertical axis (opposite the longitudinal body axis. In addition, patients showed greater postural instability (sway area than the controls. The removal of vision exacerbated this instability, especially in the mediolateral (ML direction. The wearing of orthoses improved postural stability, especially in the eyes-closed condition, with a particularly

  9. Altered postural control strategies in quiet standing more than 20 years after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    To explore long-term consequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on postural sway and control strategies during bilateral quiet standing, in subjects treated with or without reconstructive surgery compared to uninjured controls. 70 individuals who had unilateral ACL rupture 23±2.4 years ago (33 received ACL reconstructive surgery, ACLR, and 37 had physiotherapy only, ACLPT) and 33 uninjured matched controls (CTRL) (mean age 46±5.3) stood quietly with eyes closed for 3min on a firm and on a compliant surface, respectively. Center of pressure (CoP) was registered with a force plate and postural sway was calculated from center of mass (CoM) derived from 3D kinematics. Sway density (SD) analyses of CoP assessed distance and duration of stable phases. The torque controlling postural sway was estimated from CoP-CoM. Comparisons across conditions to CTRL revealed larger CoP-CoM-area in ACLR (p=0.017, CI: 10.95, 143.10), but not in ACLPT. Mean distance between SD-peaks was greater for ACLR (ppostural control efforts than CTRL but without significant differences in postural sway. Control efforts were thus not directly associated with sway and further research should be focused on variance in postural control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electromyographic activity of the trunk extensor muscles: effect of varying hip position and lumbar posture during Roman chair exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John M; Verna, Joe L; Manini, Todd M; Mooney, Vert; Graves, James E

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of hip position and lumbar posture on the surface electromyographic activity of the trunk extensors during Roman chair exercise. Descriptive, repeated measures. University-based musculoskeletal research laboratory. Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men, 5 women; age range, 18-35y) without a history of low back pain were recruited from a university setting. Not applicable. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring musculature during dynamic Roman chair exercise. For each muscle group, electromyographic activity (mV/rep) was compared among exercises with internal hip rotation and external hip rotation and among exercises by using a typical lumbar posture (nonbiphasic) and a posture that accentuated lumbar lordosis (biphasic). For the lumbar extensors, electromyographic activity during exercise was 18% greater with internal hip rotation than external hip rotation (Phamstrings, there was no difference in electromyographic activity between internal and external hip rotation or between biphasic and nonbiphasic postures (P >.05). The level of recruitment of the lumbar extensors can be modified during Roman chair exercise by altering hip position and lumbar posture. Clinicians can use these data to develop progressive exercise protocols for the lumbar extensors with a variety of resistance levels without the need for complex equipment. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  11. Impact of Computer Related Posture on the Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Secondary School Students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebiyi, D O; Olawale, O A; Adeniji, Y M

    2013-01-01

    Computers have become an essential part of life particularly in industrially advanced countries of the world. Children now have greater accessibility to computers both at school and at home. Recent studies suggest that with this increased exposure, there are associated musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in both school-aged children and adults. To assess the posture assumed by secondary school students during computer use and its impact on the occurrence and severity of reported musculoskeletal discomforts. Posture assumed during normal computer class, occurrence of discomforts, body parts involved and the intensity of discomforts were evaluated in 235 school aged children using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scale, Body Discomfort Chart (BDC) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and after normal computer class. Inferential statistics of t-test and chi-square were used to determine significance difference between variables, with level of significant set at p Computer use produced significant discomforts on the neck, shoulder and low back. There was a significant relationship between participants height and posture assumed. Two hundred and eleven (89.8%) participants reported discomforts/pain during the use of computer. Weight and height were contributory factors to the occurrence of musculoskeletal discomfort/pain (p computer use. Weight and height were implicated as factors that influenced the form of posture and the nature of the reported discomfort. Creating awareness about the knowledge of ergonomics and safety for promotion of good posture was therefore recommended.

  12. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  13. A postural `stressed` cerebral HMPAO case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M. [Wangaratta District Hospital, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia.

  14. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A postural 'stressed' cerebral HMPAO case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia

  16. Effect of Time after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears on Proprioception and Postural Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare proprioception and postural stability in patients with acute (time from injury ≤ 3 months and chronic (time from injury > 3 months ACL tears, and to evaluate the correlation between time interval after ACL injury and proprioception. Thigh muscle strength, postural stability, and joint position sense were compared in 48 patients with acute ACL tears and in 28 with chronic ACL tears. Maximal torque (60°/sec of the quadriceps and hamstring was evaluated using an isokinetic testing device. Postural stability was determined from the anterior-posterior (APSI, medial-lateral (MLSI, and overall (OSI stability indices using stabilometry. Joint position sense was also tested by reproduction of passive positioning (RPP. Muscle strengths and stability indices on both the involved and uninvolved sides were similar in the acute and chronic ACL tear groups. RPP on the involved side was significantly greater in the chronic than in the acute ACL tear group (7.8° vs. 5.6°, P = 0.041. Two of three stability indices (APSI, OSI and RPP were significantly greater on the involved than the uninvolved side in the chronic ACL tear group.

  17. Effectiveness of neuromuscular taping on pronated foot posture and walking plantar pressures in amateur runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, María Bravo; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Halstead, Jill; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect kinesiotaping (KT) versus sham kinesiotaping (sham KT) in the repositioning of pronated feet after a short running. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, using a repeated-measures design with no cross-over. 116 amateur runners were screened by assessing the post-run (45min duration) foot posture to identify pronated foot types (defined by Foot Posture Index [FPI] score of ≥6). Seventy-three runners met the inclusion criteria and were allocated into two treatment groups, KT (n=49) and sham KT (n=24). After applying either the KT or sham KT and completing 45min of running (mean speed of 12km/h), outcome measures were collected (FPI and walking Pedobarography). FPI was reduced in both groups, more so in the KT group (mean FPI between group difference=0.9, CI 0.1-1.9), with a score closer to neutral. There were statistically significant differences between KT and sham KT (p<.05 and p<.01) in pressure time integral, suggesting that sham KT had a greater effect. KT may be of some assistant to clinicians in correction of pronated foot posture in a short-term. There was no effect of KT, however on pressure variables at heel strike or toe-off following a short duration of running, the sham KT technique had a greater effect. Therapy, level 1b. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. The effects of brief swaying on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Sara; Maheu, Maxime; Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-12-06

    Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise. These data suggest that a basic exercise can rapidly improve postural control and reduce the risk of falls.

  20. Postural steadiness and ankle force variability in peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897

  1. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  2. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P F; Woollacott, M H

    1998-11-01

    Slips account for a high percentage of falls and subsequent injuries in community-dwelling older adults but not in young adults. This phenomenon suggests that although active and healthy older adults preserve a mobility level comparable to that of young adults, these older adults may have difficulty generating efficient reactive postural responses when they slip. This study tested the hypothesis that active and healthy older adults use a less effective reactive balance strategy than young adults when experiencing an unexpected forward slip occurring at heel strike during walking. This less effective balance strategy would be manifested by slower and smaller postural responses, altered temporal and spatial organization of the postural responses, and greater upper trunk instability after the slip. Thirty-three young adults (age range=19-34 yrs, mean=25+/-4 yrs) and 32 community-dwelling older adults (age range=70-87 yrs, mean=74+/-14 yrs) participated. Subjects walked across a movable forceplate which simulated a forward slip at heel strike. Surface electromyography was recorded from bilateral leg, thigh, hip, and trunk muscles. Kinematic data were collected from the right (perturbed) side of the body. Although the predominant postural muscles and the activation sequence of these muscles were similar between the two age groups, the postural responses of older adults were of longer onset latencies, smaller magnitudes, and longer burst durations compared to young adults. Older adults also showed a longer coactivation duration for the ankle, knee, and trunk agonist/antagonist pairs on the perturbed side and for the knee agonist/antagonist pair on the nonperturbed side. Behaviorally, older adults became less stable after the slips. This was manifested by a higher incidence of being tripped (21 trials in older vs 5 trials in young adults) and a greater trunk hyperextension with respect to young adults. Large arm elevation was frequently used by older adults to assist in

  4. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  5. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  6. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  7. Change of Safe Needling Depth at Acupoint GB21 according to Posture and Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupoint GB21 (Jianjing is used for treating back and shoulder pain but is associated with a risk of pneumothorax. We aimed to determine the SND (safe needling depth at GB21 according to posture and breathing in real time. Ultrasonographic images of GB21 during normal breathing, inspiration, and expiration in a SP (sitting position were acquired for 52 healthy volunteers. Images were also acquired during normal respiration in the PP (prone position with arms raised and lowered. The average SND was greater for men than for women (p<0.05. Analysis of variance revealed that the SND was greater for the PP than for the SP (p=0.01 and p<0.05, resp.. Although the SND tended to change according to posture, the average depth tended to deviate widely in some subjects. During breathing, the differences between inspiration and expiration were less than 1 mm in most subjects, but some showed differences more than 4.5 mm. The SND at GB21 was greater in overweight subjects and significantly greater in the PP and during maximal expiration. However, intragroup differences were greater than the intergroup differences. Therefore, it is dangerous to simply apply needling depth on a gender or BMI basis. The practitioner would adjust the SND by examining the individual anatomical structures.

  8. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  9. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  10. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  11. Changes in postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease: a posturographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doná, F; Aquino, C C; Gazzola, J M; Borges, V; Silva, S M C A; Ganança, F F; Caovilla, H H; Ferraz, H B

    2016-09-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features in Parkinson's disease (PD), and often leads to falls that reduce mobility and functional capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyse the limit of stability (LOS) and influence of the manipulation of visual, somatosensorial and visual-vestibular information on postural control in patients with PD and healthy subjects. Cross-sectional. Movement Disorders Unit, university setting. Eighty-two subjects aged between 37 and 83 years: 41 with Parkinson's disease in the 'on' state and 41 healthy subjects with no neurological disorders. Both groups were matched in terms of sex and age. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-motor score, modified Hoehn and Yahr staging, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and posturography with integrated virtual reality. The parameters analysed by posturography were LOS area, area of body centre of pressure excursion and balance functional reserve in the standing position in 10 conditions (open and closed eyes, unstable surface with eyes closed, saccadic and optokinetic stimuli, and visual-vestibular interaction). The mean UPDRS motor score and DGI score were 27 [standard deviation (SD) 14] and 21 (SD 3), respectively. Thirteen participants scored between 0 and 19 points, indicating major risk of falls. Posturographic assessment showed that patients with PD had significantly lower LOS area and balance functional reserve values, and greater body sway area in all posturographic conditions compared with healthy subjects. Patients with PD have reduced LOS area and greater postural sway compared with healthy subjects. The deterioration in postural control was significantly associated with major risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  13. On the functional integration between postural and supra-postural tasks on the basis of contextual cues and task constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Andrea Cristina; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2010-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of uncertainty about direction of mechanical perturbation and supra-postural task constraint on postural control, young adults had their upright stance perturbed while holding a tray in a horizontal position. Stance was perturbed by moving forward or backward a supporting platform, contrasting situations of certainty versus uncertainty of direction of displacement. Increased constraint on postural stability was imposed by a supra-postural task of equilibrating a cylinder on the tray. Performance was assessed through EMG of anterior leg muscles, angular displacement of the main joints involved in the postural reactions and displacement of the tray. Results showed that both certainty on the direction of perturbation and increased supra-postural task constraint led to decreased angular displacement of the knee and the hip. Furthermore, combination of certainty and high supra-postural task constraint produced shorter latency of muscular activation. Such postural responses were paralleled by decreased displacement of the tray. These results suggest a functional integration between the tasks, with central set priming reactive postural responses from contextual cues and increased stability demand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  15. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Beijnen, J.H.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  16. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  17. Clinical evaluation of postural posture of patients with previous stroke subjected to early rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impairment disorders are often found in patients with stroke and impairment of motor and cognitive functions. This is a very serious complication because, by imposing a motor impairment, it aggravates the condition of disability and makes it difficult to conduct physical rehabilitation.The resulting neurological deficits due to stroke determine functional disorders. The possibility of locomotion is usually compromised, therefore the risk of falls increases significantly. The aim of the work is to present Postural Assesment Scale for Strock PASS with the postural stroke assessment scale, the impact of early rehabilitation of patients staying in the neurology ward.Material and methods: Postural examination was carried out among 17 people, of which 8 were women, and 9 were male. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage occurred immediately after the stroke and the second one before the patient was discharged from the ward. Research was carried out at the Biegański Specialist Hospital in Grudziądz in the Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroimmunology and Impact Department.Conclusions: The results of the postural studies carried out in people with previous stroke subjected to early physiotherapy have a beneficial effect of the conducted therapy. There are positive changes between the first and the final examination of the patients.

  18. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  19. Factors that influence soft tissue thickness over the greater trochanter: application to understanding hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Iris C; Minty, Lauren E; Laing, Andrew C

    2015-03-01

    Fall-related hip injuries are a concern for the growing population of older adults. Evidence suggests that soft tissue overlying the greater trochanter attenuates the forces transmitted to the proximal femur during an impact, reducing mechanical risk of hip fracture. However, there is limited information about the factors that influence trochanteric soft tissue thickness. The current study used ultrasonography and electromyography to determine whether trochanteric soft tissue thickness could be quantified reproducibly and whether it was influenced by: (1) gender; (2) hip postures associated with potential falling configurations in the sagittal plane (from 30° of extension to 60° of flexion, at 15° intervals), combined adduction-flexion, and combined adduction-extension; and (3) activation levels of the tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Our results demonstrated that soft tissue thickness can be measured reliably in nine hip postures and three muscle activation conditions (for all conditions, ICC >0.98). Mean (SD) thickness in quiet stance was 2.52 cm. Thickness was 27.0% lower for males than females during quiet stance. It was 16.4% greater at maximum flexion than quiet standing, 27.2% greater at maximum extension, and 12.5% greater during combined adduction-flexion. However, there was no significant difference between combined adduction-extension and quiet standing. Thickness was not affected by changes in muscle activity. Forces applied to the femoral neck during a lateral fall decrease as trochanteric soft tissue thickness increases; gender and postural configuration at impact could influence the loads applied to the proximal femur (and thus hip fracture risk) during falls on the hip. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interactive effect of body posture on exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Delp, M D; Hartle, D K

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that supine exercise elicits a greater atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response than upright exercise because of higher atrial filling pressure attained in the supine posture. Plasma ANP concentration ([ANP]) was measured during continuous graded supine and upright exercise in eight healthy men at rest after 4 min of cycling exercise at 31, 51, and 79% of posture-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), after 2 min of cycling at posture-specific VO2 peak, and 5 and 15 min postexercise. [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) above rest by 64, 140, and 228% during supine cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak, respectively. During upright cycling, [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) at 79% (60%) and VO2 peak (125%). After 15 min of postexercise rest, [ANP] remained elevated (P less than 0.05) only in the supine subjects. [ANP] was 63, 79, and 75% higher (P less than 0.05) in the supine than in the upright position during cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different between positions in all measurement periods. Heart rates were lower (P less than 0.05) in the supine position compared with the upright position. In conclusion, these results suggest that supine exercise elicits greater ANP release independent of blood pressure and heart rate but presumably caused by greater venous return, central blood volume, and concomitant atrial filling pressure and stretch.

  1. Safeguards technology: present posture and future impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    With widespread and growing concern over the issues of nuclear safeguards, international nuclear trade and nuclear weapons proliferation, the full development of the world's nuclear energy potential could well depend on how effectively the strategic nuclear materials that fuel nuclear power are controlled and safeguarded. The broad U.S. program in nuclear safeguards and security is directed toward a balanced safeguards system incorporating the two major components of physical security and materials control. The current posture of modern safeguards technology, its impact on plant operations, and the key role it must play in the implementation of stringent cost-effective safeguards systems in facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are outlined

  2. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  4. Falls efficacy, postural balance, and risk for falls in older adults with falls-related emergency department visits: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Clark, Ross Allan; Matcher, David B; Lim, Edwin Choon-Wyn

    2017-12-21

    Risk for falls in older adults has been associated with falls efficacy (self-perceived confidence in performing daily physical activities) and postural balance, but available evidence is limited and mixed. We examined the interaction between falls efficacy and postural balance and its association with future falls. We also investigated the association between falls efficacy and gait decline. Falls efficacy, measured by the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), and standing postural balance, measured using computerized posturography on a balance board, were obtained from 247 older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit. Six-month prospective fall rate and habitual gait speed at 6 months post baseline assessment were also measured. In multivariable proportional odds analyses adjusted for potential confounders, falls efficacy modified the association between postural balance and fall risk (interaction P = 0.014): increasing falls efficacy accentuated the increased fall risk related to poor postural balance. Low baseline falls efficacy was strongly predictive of worse gait speed (0.11 m/s [0.06 to 0.16] slower gait speed per IQR decrease in MFES; P falls efficacy but poor postural balance were at greater risk for falls than those with low falls efficacy; however, low baseline falls efficacy was strongly associated with worse gait function at follow-up. Further research into these subgroups of older adults is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01713543 .

  5. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  6. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents.DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  7. The influence of computer use on the sitting posture of high school students who develop neck and shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Brink

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (NSP is increas-ing in adolescents and is related to increased time spent on computers.The influence of sitting posture on the development of computer-relatedNSP among adolescents is unclear. This study investigated how the sittingposture of the upper quadrant changes over a ten minute period ofcomputer use in once asymptomatic adolescents who later developed NSP.M ethod: Sitting alignment was measured using the Photographic PostureA nalysis Method. The students performed a typing task while two con -secutive photographs were taken ten minutes apart. The students werefollowed for six months and the photographs of those who developed NSPw ere analy z ed.R esults: The results show that there is no significant change in sitting posture over time. Observationally the most common pattern was to move from a more flexed posture to a more upright posture and there were greater posturalchanges in the case group (students with extreme cervical angles compared to the control group (students with thepreferred cervical ROM (34.75º - 43.95º, although both findings were not statistically significant.Conclusion: There was no change, over a ten minute period, in the sitting posture of computing high school studentswho developed computer-related NSP after six months therefore students should be encouraged to avoid monotonoussitting in front of computers because this could be associated with NSP.

  8. Task-related and person-related variables influence the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Lyman, Courtney A; Hitt, Juvena R; Henry, Sharon M

    2017-08-01

    People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions. Mixed-model ANOVA were used to evaluate group and condition effects on APA onset latencies of trunk muscles, arm-raise velocity, and pre-movement cortical potentials. These measures were evaluated for correlation with pain ratings, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire scores, and Modified Oswestry Questionnaire scores. Delayed postural adjustments of subjects with low back pain were greater in the cued condition than in the self-initiated condition. The group with low back pain exhibited larger-amplitude cortical potentials than the group without pain, but also significantly slower arm-raise velocities. With arm-raise velocity as a covariate, the effect of low back pain remained significant for the latencies of postural adjustments but not for cortical potentials. Latencies of the postural adjustments significantly correlated with Oswestry and Fear Avoidance Beliefs scores. Delayed postural adjustments with low back pain appear to be influenced by cueing of movement, pain-related disability and fear of activity. These results highlight the importance of subject characteristics, task condition, and task performance when comparing across studies or when developing treatment of people with low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  10. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  11. Characterization of postural control impairment in women with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere-Rubio, Núria; López-Pascual, Juan; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta; Cortés-Amador, Sara; Espí-López, Gemma; Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to detect whether women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have altered postural control and to study the sensory contribution to postural control. We also explored the possibility that self-induced anxiety and lower limb strength may be related to postural control. For this purpose, 129 women within an age range of 40 to 70 years were enrolled. Eighty of the enrolled women had FMS. Postural control variables, such as Ellipse, Root mean square (RMS) and Sample entropy (SampEn), in both directions (i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior), were calculated under five different conditions. A force plate was used to register the center of pressure shifts. Furthermore, isometric lower limb strength was recorded with a portable dynamometer and normalized by lean body mass. The results showed that women with FMS have impaired postural control compared with healthy people, as they presented a significant increase in Ellipse and RMS values (pPostural control also worsens with the gradual alteration of sensory inputs in this population (p0.05). There were no significant correlations between postural control and lower limb strength (p>0.05). Therefore, women with FMS have impaired postural control that is worse when sensory inputs are altered but is not correlated with their lower limb strength. PMID:29723223

  12. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor posture, scapular dyskinesia, altered scapular muscle recruitment patterns and ... postural deviation and incorrect shoulder kinematics.[5]. Knowledge of the .... the contra-lateral hand was placed as far down the spinal column as possible, and the ... produced by muscle contraction for rotation around a joint.[12] During.

  13. The final common pathway in postural control - Developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernell, D

    A brief review is given concerning postural specialisations among mammalian muscle fibres and motor units. Most skeletal muscles contain a mixture of fibres with different characteristics, and their slow-twitch (S) units are well-known to possess properties suitable for postural tasks: they are

  14. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (ppostural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  15. Postural stability and occlusal status among Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Yu, Xuan; Rodis, Omar M M; Ogata, Sagiri; Can-Hu, Jin; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi

    2012-06-01

    There are still no data available on the relationship between postural stability and occlusal status among the elderly. To examine relationships between postural stability and occlusal status through a cohort study among elderly Japanese. Oral examination, occlusal status, postural stability and a questionnaire were conducted and given to 87 community-dwelling Japanese at enrolment. The average occlusal pressure of the female group was statistically higher than the male group while average occlusal pressure and postural stability length were lesser in the group with more remaining teeth. Postural stability area and number of remaining teeth showed statistically significant correlations. Postural stability length was lesser in the group with strong occlusal force. Furthermore, the number of decayed teeth was fewer in the good hygiene group. This study identified a close relationship between occlusal status and postural stability of Japanese older individuals. Occlusal hypofunction was observed more in those with occlusal problems, and a decrease in their occlusal functions resulted in postural instability. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Problems of display postures in the Charadrii (Aves: Charadriiformes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of displays in the Charadrii (= waders or shorebirds) show that the same posture in different species, even quite closely related, may have a different function in a given context. As a corollary to this, two species even in the same genus may have quite different display postures to convey the same message.

  17. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  18. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  19. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  20. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  1. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  2. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  3. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  4. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  5. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  6. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  7. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  8. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  9. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  10. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  11. A comparison of the posture between young female handball players and non-training peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the posture in young female handball players and a group of non-training peers. 125 handball players and 135 non-training individuals as a control group. All the subjects were aged 12-15. Measurements of basic somatic parameters (body height and mass, BMI, fat mass and total body water) were taken with an electronic balance 'Tanita'. The posture was evaluated using the moiré method. We analysed the shape of the spine in the sagittal plane and the position of the spine, pelvis and shoulder girdle in terms of symmetry. In 13-year-old handball players there was a smaller inclination of the thoracolumbar segment and a greater forward tilt of the torso. Among the training 15-year-olds, the inclination of the lower back, the sum of angles of anteroposterior curvatures and the angle of lumbar lordosis were smaller than in their non-training peers. Moreover, a correct pelvic alignment in the frontal plane, and pelvis and scapulas asymmetries in the transverse plane were more common in handball players. The formation of anteroposterior curvatures of the spine diversified some of the age groups of training and non-training young females. Handball training can affect the quality of posture.

  12. [Posture and gait disorders and the incidence of falling in patients with Parkinson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-de la Cuerda, R; Macías-Jiménez, A I; Cuadrado-Pérez, M L; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Morales-Cabezas, M

    Although falls are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease, studies about its incidence and predicting factors are scarce. Our study involved 25 patients with PD (15 males and 10 females; age: 75.8 +/- 6.5 years). A closed survey was used to determine a retrospective record of falls during the last year. An analysis was performed to examine whether there was a relationship with Hoehn and Yahr staging, the score on the Up and Go scale or the Barthel index and with possible risk factors for falls. All the patients had suffered falls at some time over the last year (mean number of falls: 6.5 +/- 3.8). 56% of the falls happened during the phases of the day when patient mobility was at its highest. A significant correlation was found between the number of falls and the Hoehn and Yahr and the Up and Go scores. The number of falls was significantly higher in patients with loss of postural reflexes, the need for help in order to walk, and blockage and festination phenomena. No association was found with fear of falling, visual alterations or postural lateralisation. Association with the Barthel index and dependence for activities of daily living reached almost significant levels. Postural instability and disorders affecting gait appear to be the factors that give patients with PD a greater propensity to fall. Patients who present such alterations should be submitted to rehabilitation therapy aimed at preventing them from falling.

  13. Saccadic Eye Movement Improves Plantar Sensation and Postural Balance in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngsook

    2016-06-01

    Vision, proprioception and plantar sensation contribute to the control of postural balance (PB). Reduced plantar sensation alters postural response and is at an increased risk of fall, and eye movements reduce the postural sway. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the improvement of plantar sensation and PB after saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in community-dwelling elderly women. Participants (104 females; 75.11 ± 6.25 years) were randomly allocated into the SEM group (n = 52) and PEM groups (n = 52). The SEM group performed eye fixation and SEM for 5 minutes, and the PEM group performed eye fixation and PEM for 5 minutes. The plantar sensation was measured according to the plantar surface area of the feet in contact with the floor surface before and after the intervention. Before and after SEM and PEM with the eyes open and closed, PB was measured as the area (mm(2)), length (cm), and velocity (cm/s) of the fluctuation of the center of pressure (COP). The plantar sensation of both feet improved in both groups (p eye open and close in both groups (p < 0.01). The length and velocity of the COP significantly decreased in the SEM group compared to the PEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SEM and PEM are effective interventions for improving plantar sensation and PB in elderly women, with greater PB improvement after SEM.

  14. Vibration-enhanced posture stabilization achieved by tactile supplementation: may blind individuals get extra benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio

    2011-08-01

    Diminished balance ability poses a serious health risk due to the increased likelihood of falling, and impaired postural stability is significantly associated with blindness and poor vision. Noise stimulation (by improving the detection of sub-threshold somatosensory information) and tactile supplementation (i.e., additional haptic information provided by an external contact surface) have been shown to improve the performance of the postural control system. Moreover, vibratory noise added to the source of tactile supplementation (e.g., applied to a surface that the fingertip touches) has been shown to enhance balance stability more effectively than tactile supplementation alone. In view of the above findings, in addition to the well established consensus that blind subjects show superior abilities in the use of tactile information, we hypothesized that blind subjects may take extra benefits from the vibratory noise added to the tactile supplementation and hence show greater improvements in postural stability than those observed for sighted subjects. If confirmed, this hypothesis may lay the foundation for the development of noise-based assistive devices (e.g., canes, walking sticks) for improving somatosensation and hence prevent falls in blind individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetic Foot and Exercise Therapy: Step by Step The Role of Rigid Posture and Biomechanics Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient’s lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity. PMID:24807636

  16. Visual tasks and postural sway in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Wade, Michael G; Stoffregen, Thomas A; Hsu, Chin-Yu; Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influences of two different suprapostural visual tasks, visual searching and visual inspection, on the postural sway of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixteen ASD children (age=8.75±1.34 years; height=130.34±11.03 cm) were recruited from a local support group. Individuals with an intellectual disability as a co-occurring condition and those with severe behavior problems that required formal intervention were excluded. Twenty-two sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children (age=8.93±1.39 years; height=133.47±8.21 cm) were recruited from a local public elementary school. Postural sway was recorded using a magnetic tracking system (Flock of Birds, Ascension Technologies, Inc., Burlington, VT). Results indicated that the ASD children exhibited greater sway than the TD children. Despite this difference, both TD and ASD children showed reduced sway during the search task, relative to sway during the inspection task. These findings replicate those of Stoffregen et al. (2000), Stoffregen, Giveans, et al. (2009), Stoffregen, Villard, et al. (2009) and Prado et al. (2007) and extend them to TD children as well as ASD children. Both TD and ASD children were able to functionally modulate postural sway to facilitate the performance of a task that required higher perceptual effort. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  19. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  20. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  1. Dynamic postural stability during advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, J L; Chambers, A J; Daftary, A; Redfern, M S

    2010-08-26

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of experiencing a fall. Numerous anatomical, physiological, and hormonal alterations occur during pregnancy, but the influence of these factors on dynamic postural stability has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural stability in pregnant women during their second and third trimesters as well as in a group of non-pregnant control women. Eighty-one women (41 pregnant, 40 controls) participated stood on a force plate that translated anteroposteriorly at small, medium, and large magnitudes. Reaction time and center of pressure (COP) movement during the translations were analyzed. Trimester, perturbation direction, and perturbation magnitude were the independent variables in a mixed-model analysis of variance on each of the following dependent variables: reaction time, initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity. Reaction time to the perturbation was not significantly different between the groups. Initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity were significantly less during the third trimester than during the second trimester and when compared to the non-pregnant controls (Ppostural stability. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Maternal posture and its influence on birthweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Monica Yuri; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal posture/physical activity and inadequate birthweight. Prospective cohort study involving 152 pregnant women from a public low-risk antenatal care facility. Three interviews evaluating the frequency of physical activity were administered to each pregnant woman during gestation. Birthweight (inadequate when or =3,000 g) was the dependent variable and the frequency of physical activity the independent variable. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic univariate analysis and multiple regression controlling for schooling, smoking, living with spouse, and baseline nutritional status. The practice of walking for at least 50 minutes during the first period of pregnancy was identified as a protective factor against inadequate birthweight (adjusted OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.98). Standing for 2.5 hours or longer during the second semester of pregnancy was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.30-7.99). Dose-response relationships were identified for washing clothing by hand and cooking (p-value for linear trend clothing during the second trimester of gestation remained statistically significant. Our results show the importance of medical orientation regarding posture and physical activity during antenatal care, aiming at the reduction of inadequate birthweight.

  3. Screening initial entry training trainees for postural faults and low back or hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John R

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of postural faults and postural awareness in military trainees has not been assessed. Five hundred Soldiers entering Advanced Individual Training were screened for standing posture and completed an anonymous questionnaire during inprocessing. Postural faults were identified in 202 subjects. Chi square analysis demonstrated a relationship between posture observed and posture reported: 87% of subjects with postural faults were unaware of postural faults; 12% with proper posture reported having poor posture. Subjects reported comparable frequencies of back pain and hip pain with postural faults (33.2%, 21.2%) and without faults (28.5%, 14.7%). Anonymous reporting was higher than formal reporting and requests for care during the same period (37% vs 3.4%).

  4. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  5. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  6. Accessing hospital packaged foods and beverages: the importance of a seated posture when eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A; Tapsell, L; Walton, K; Yoxall, A

    2017-06-01

    Hospitalised and community dwelling older people (aged 65 years and over) have difficulties opening certain food and beverage items (e.g. cheese portions and tetra packs) served in public hospitals. Previously, the role of hand strength on successful pack opening has been explored in a seated position. However, because many people in hospital eat in bed, the present laboratory study examined the differences between participants opening a selection of products in a hospital bed and a chair. The present study used a qualitative method (satisfaction) and quantitative methods (grip and pinch strength, dexterity, time and attempts) in two conditions (bed; chair) in a sample of well older community dwelling adults (n = 34). Packs tested included foil sealed thickened pudding, foil sealed thickened water, tetra pack, dessert, custard, jam, cereal, honey sachet and cheese portions. Honey sachets, cheese portions, foil sealed thickened pudding and tetra packs were the most difficult packs to open, with 15% of cheese portions unable to be opened in either the bed or chair posture. Although grip strength was consistent for each posture, pinch grips and dexterity were adversely affected by the bed posture. Lying in a hospital bed required greater pinch strength and dexterity to open packs. Eating in a seated position when in hospital has been shown to improve intake. The present study demonstrates that eating in a seated posture is also advantageous for opening the food and beverage packs used in the NSW hospital food service and supports the notion that patients should sit to eat in hospital. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Vestibular and Somatosensory Covergence in Postural Equilibrium Control: Insights from Spaceflight and Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. We are currently conducting studies on both International Space Station (ISS) astronauts experiencing up to 6 months of microgravity and subjects experiencing 70 days of 6??head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading somatosensory component on functional performance. Both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using a protocol that evaluated functional performance along with tests of postural and locomotor control before and after space flight and bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Astronauts were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6, and 12 days after re-ambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability showed less reduction in performance. Results indicate that body unloading

  8. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Johnson, Blair D; van Helmond, Noud; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Anna G; Joyner, Michael J; Cortelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBRS with the sequence technique in healthy male subjects during passive head-up tilt test (HUTT, n = 58), during supine wakefulness, supine slow-wave sleep (SWS), and in the seated and active standing positions ( n = 8), and during progressive loss of 1 L blood ( n = 8) to decrease central venous pressure in the supine position. HUTT, SWS, the seated, and the standing positions, but not blood loss, entailed significant increases in the positive correlation between HP and the previous SAP values, which is the expected result of arterial baroreflex control, compared with baseline recordings in the supine position during wakefulness. These increases were mirrored by increases in the low-frequency variability of SAP in each condition but SWS. cBRS decreased significantly during HUTT, in the seated and standing positions, and after blood loss compared with baseline during wakefulness. These decreases were mirrored by decreases in the RMSSD index, which reflects cardiac vagal modulation. These results support the view that the cBRS decrease associated with the upright posture is a byproduct of decreased cardiac vagal modulation, triggered by the arterial baroreflex in response to central hypovolemia. Conversely, the greater baroreflex contribution to cardiac control associated with upright posture may be explained, at least in part, by enhanced fluctuations of SAP, which elicit a more effective entrainment of HP fluctuations by the arterial baroreflex. These SAP fluctuations may result

  9. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  10. Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

  11. Correlation between occlusion and cervical posture in patients with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Guilherme Manna; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Ap

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate head and neck posture in the rest position of patients with bruxism and patients without temporomandibular disorder signs or symptoms to further relate them with Angle's class of malocclusion. Fifty-six volunteers participated in this study, ages 18 to 27 years with an average age of 22.5 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Group B--28 subjects with parafunctions (teeth grinding or clenching); and Group C--28 subjects without parafunctional habits (control group). All participants were photographed, and their pictures were analyzed and compared with the software Alcimagem (Instrumental Concept and Movement Analysis Laboratory, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The results demonstrated that variation of angular values did not present statistical difference for the studied groups. Regarding Angle's class of malocclusion, class I was predominant in Group C, and classes II and III were predominant in Group B. The mental-sternal angle calculated did not present statistical significance between the groups; however, there was a greater variation between the smaller angle and the higher angle in Group B, contrary to Group C.

  12. POSTURAL TACHYCARDIA IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS – WHAT IS ABNORMAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Opfer-Gehrking, Tonette L.; Brands, Chad K.; Fischer, Philip R.; Low, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the use of adult heart rate (HR) criteria is appropriate for diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic intolerance (OI) in children and adolescents and to establish normative data and diagnostic criteria for pediatric POTS and OI. Study design 106 normal controls between the ages 8 and 19 years (14.5±3.3 years) underwent standardized autonomic testing, including 5 minutes of 70 degree head-up tilt. The orthostatic HR increment and absolute orthostatic HR were assessed and retrospectively compared with 654 pediatric patients of similar age (15.5±2.3 years), who were referred to our Clinical Autonomic Laboratory with symptoms of OI. Results The HR increment was mildly higher in patients referred for POTS/OI but there was considerable overlap between patient and control group. 42% of normal controls had a HR increment of 30bpm or more. The 95th percentile for the orthostatic HR increment in normal controls was 42.9bpm. Absolute orthostatic HR showed a greater and more consistent difference between groups, although there was still considerable overlap. Conclusions The diagnostic criteria for OI/POTS in adults are inadequate for children and adolescents. Based on our normative data, new criteria are proposed for the diagnosis of OI and POTS in children and adolescents. PMID:21996154

  13. The effect of carotid sinus massage is independent of posture in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Hansen, K N; Oxhøj, H

    1989-01-01

    unilateral right- and left-sided CSM performed in the supine and in the sitting position, while heart rate and systolic blood pressure were monitored. No statistically significant differences in the CSM-induced response in systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found between the two postures....... In the supine position the drop in heart rate was significantly greater after right-sided than after left-sided CSM (P less than 0.05). In only one patient (1%) was a significant carotid sinus reflex evoked. The response was cardioinhibitory with asystole for 3700 ms during right-sided, supine CSM...

  14. Working Posture Analysis Methods and the Effects of Working Posture on Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Esen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs which cause great health problems and social resource consumption are common problems which commonly influence working population. MSDs which is at the top of the list in the sense of health problems, expenses made for these disorders and which has negative influences in the sense of employee labor efficiency, quality of life, physical and social functions results from poor working postures. Observation, analysis of working postures with scientific methods, and making necessary recoveries and arrangements bring important contributions for control of working performance and decrease of MSDs. In this study, risk factors which cause the emergence of MSDs, types and symptoms of disorders are summarized, basic principles to be used in preventing these disorders are presented and scientific methods used in determination of risk factors are classified and presented.

  15. Postural stability in a population of dancers, healthy non-dancers, and vestibular neuritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Ortega Crespo, Isabel; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Sanz, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have indicated better balance control in dancers than in control participants, but some controversy remains. The aim of our study is to evaluate the postural stability in a cohort of dancers, non-dancers, compensated, and non-compensated unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN). This is a prospective study of control subjects, dancers, and VN patients between June 2009 and December 2015. Dancers from the Dance Conservatory of Madrid and VN patients were referred to our department for analysis. After the clinical history, neuro-otological examination, audiogram, and caloric tests, the diagnosis was done. Results from clinical examination were used for the categorization of compensation situation. A computerized dynamic posturography was performed to every subject. Forty dancers and 38 women formed both 'dancer' and 'normal' cohorts. Forty-two compensated and 39 uncompensated patients formed both 'compensated' and 'uncompensated' cohorts. Dancers had significantly greater antero-posterior (AP) body sway than controls during condition 5 and 6 in the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) (p body sway in every SOT studied condition (p body say in SOT 5 and 6, showed greater values in compensated patients than the control group, the mean analysis did not show any statistical difference between the compensated and dancer groups, in such SOT conditions. Dancers demonstrated greater sways than non-dancers when they relied their postural control on vestibular input alone. Compensated patients had a similar posturographic pattern that the dancers cohort, suggesting a similar shift from visual to somatosensory information.

  16. Vision holds a greater share in visuo-haptic object recognition than touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    approach of multisensory integration would predict that haptics as the less efficient sense for object recognition gains more from integrating additional visual information than vice versa. To test for asymmetries between vision and touch in visuo-haptic interactions, we measured regional changes in brain...... processed the target object, being more pronounced for haptic than visual targets. This preferential response of visuo-haptic regions indicates a modality-specific asymmetry in crossmodal matching of visual and haptic object features, suggesting a functional primacy of vision over touch in visuo...

  17. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  18. PENINGKATAN STABILITAS POSTURAL PADA LANSIA MELALUI BALANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto .

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilitas postural adalah masalah yang umum pada lansia. Balance exercise dapat dijadikan alternative latihan bagi lansia. Latihan ini meliputi 5 gerakan (plantar flexion, hip flexion, hip flexion, knee flexion dan side leg raise. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa efek dari balance exercise terhadap peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Penelitian ini menggunakan design pre eksperimen. Populasi yang digunakan adalah lansia di Panti Wreda Bangkalan. Total sampel adalah 11 responden, yang diambil berdasarkan kriteria inklusi. Variabel dependen adalah balance exercise dan variabel independen adalah stabilitas postural. Stabilitas postural diukur menggunakan 2 tes, yaitu tes Tinetti dan TUGT (Time Up and Go Test. Data dianalisa menggunakan paired t test dengan level signifikan 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balance exercise secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan stabilitas postural. Pada tes Tinetti (p=0,000 dan di TUGT (p=0,001. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat hasil yang signifikan antara balance exercise dengan peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Hal ini disebabkan Karena balance exercise dapat membuat otot lansia menjadi hipertrofi. Hipertrofi dapat meningkatkan kekuatan otot sehingga stabilitas postural lansia dapat meningkat. Penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan melibatkan lebih banyak responden dengan waktu penelitian yang lebih lama dan pengukuran yang lebih baik untuk memastikan hasil yang lebih akurat.

  19. Spatial and temporal analysis of postural control in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Gerard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine postural control of dyslexic children using both spatial and temporal analysis. Thirty dyslexic (mean age 9.7±0.3years) and thirty non-dyslexic age-matched children participated in the study. Postural stability was evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral®. Posture was recorded in the following conditions: eyes open fixating a target (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on stable (-S-) and unstable (-U-) platforms. The findings of this study showed poor postural stability in dyslexic children with respect to the non-dyslexic children group, as demonstrated by both spatial and temporal analysis. In both groups of children postural control depends on the condition, and improves when the eyes are open on a stable platform. Dyslexic children have spectral power indices that are higher than in non-dyslexic children and they showed a shorter cancelling time. Poor postural control in dyslexic children could be due to a deficit in using sensory information most likely caused by impairment in cerebellar activity. The reliability of brain activation patterns, namely in using sensory input and cerebellar activity may explain the deficit in postural control in dyslexic children. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postural activity monitoring for increasing safety in bomb disposal missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusey, James; Rednic, Ramona; Gaura, Elena I; Kemp, John; Poole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    In enclosed suits, such as those worn by explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) experts, evaporative cooling through perspiration is less effective and, particularly in hot environments, uncompensable heat stress (UHS) may occur. Although some suits have cooling systems, their effectiveness during missions is dependent on the operative's posture. In order to properly assess thermal state, temperature-based assessment systems need to take posture into account. This paper builds on previous work for instrumenting EOD suits with regard to temperature monitoring and proposes to also monitor operative posture with MEMS accelerometers. Posture is a key factor in predicting how body temperature will change and is therefore important in providing local or remote warning of the onset of UHS. In this work, the C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to produce an on-line classifier that can differentiate between nine key postures from current acceleration readings. Additional features that summarize how acceleration is changing over time are used to improve average classification accuracy to around 97.2%. Without such temporal feature extraction, dynamic postures are difficult to classify accurately. Experimental results show that training over a variety of subjects, and in particular, mixing gender, improves results on unseen subjects. The main advantages of the on-line posture classification system described here are that it is accurate, does not require integration of acceleration over time, and is computationally lightweight, allowing it to be easily supported on wearable microprocessors

  1. USE OF SOFTWARES FOR POSTURE ASSESSMENT: INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyla Maria Porto de Freitas Camelo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To carry out an integrative literature review on the postural analysis softwares available today. It is an integrative-narrative review of qualitative and methodological nature performed during April-July 2014. As inclusion criteria, the articles should be bibliographical or original research and available with full access. At first, we proceeded to the identification of the keywords for the softwares related to postural assessment commonly used in the health field, in such case "posture", "software", and "postural assessment". The search was narrowed by publication date from 2002 to 2014. Through the information acquired from the articles and from the software developers, information on 12 programs that assist the postural evaluation were obtained - Alcimage, All Body Scan 3D, Aplob, APPID, Biotonix, Corporis Pro, Fisimetrix, Fisiometer Posturograma, Physical Fisio, Physio Easy, Posture Print and SAPO. However, only one tool has more information and studies, namely SAPO. There are many postural analysis softwares available on the internet today, however, these are quite disparate in relation to possible answers and are still poorly widespread as research tools.

  2. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  3. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  6. A review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    A 21-year-old female reports an 18-month history of light-headedness on standing. This is often associated with palpitations and a feeling of intense anxiety. She has had two black-outs in the past 12 months. She is not taking any regular medications. Her supine blood pressure was 126\\/84 mmHg with a heart rate of 76 bpm, and her upright blood pressure was 122\\/80 mmHg with a heart rate of 114 bpm. A full system examination was otherwise normal. She had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed which was unremarkable. She was referred for head-up tilt testing. She was symptomatic during the test and lost consciousness at 16 min. Figure 1 summarizes her blood pressure and heart rate response to tilting. A diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with overlapping vasovagal syncope was made.

  7. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  8. Resting State Default Mode Network Connectivity, Dual Task Performance, Gait Speed, and Postural Sway in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of falling. In particular, older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are more vulnerable to falling compared with their healthy counterparts. Major contributors to this increased falls risk include a decline in dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. Recent evidence highlights the potential influence of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) on dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. The DMN is active during rest and deactivates during task-oriented processes, to maintain attention and stay on task. The FPN and SMA are involved in top-down attentional control, motor planning, and motor execution. The DMN shows less deactivation during task in older adults with MCI. This lack of deactivation is theorized to increase competition for resources between the DMN and task-related brain regions (e.g., the FPN and SMA), increasing distraction from the task and reducing task performance. However, no study has yet investigated the relationship between the between-network connectivity of the DMN with these regions and dual task walking, gait speed or postural sway. We hypothesized that greater functional connectivity both within the DMN and between DMN-FPN and DMN-SMA, will be associated with poorer performance during dual task walking, slower gait speed, and greater postural sway in older adults with MCI. Forty older adults with MCI were measured on a dual task-walking paradigm, gait speed over a 4-m walk, and postural sway using a sway-meter. Greater within-DMN connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer dual task performance. Furthermore, greater inter-network connectivity between the DMN and SMA was significantly correlated with slower gait speed and greater postural sway on the eyes open floor sway task. Thus, greater resting state DMN functional connectivity may be an underlying neural mechanism for reduced dual task

  9. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  10. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  11. Stereotypes and prejudice affect the recognition of emotional body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

    2018-03-26

    Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  13. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  14. BBSRC Data Sharing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball

    2011-01-01

    BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be ...

  15. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  16. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  17. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  18. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  19. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  20. Share your sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...... as sharing in which group members were allowed to co-feed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than...

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  2. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  3. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ya Lee

    Full Text Available The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP, radial deviation (RD, and ulnar deviation (UD. The root mean square (RMS of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC, normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint.

  4. Posture, speed, and habitat structure: three-dimensional hindlimb kinematics of two species of padless geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick O; Higham, Timothy E; Clark, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    Differences in habitat use are often correlated with differences in morphology and behavior, while animals in similar habitats often exhibit similarities in form and function. However, this has not been tested extensively among lizards, especially geckos. Most studies of gecko locomotion have focused on the ability to adhere to surfaces. However, there are several species of geckos that have either secondarily lost adhesive capabilities or simply lack the capability. We quantified the three-dimensional locomotor kinematics for two desert-dwelling padless geckos, Teratoscincus scincus and Eublepharis macularius, on a level trackway over a range of speeds. Our results indicate that T. scincus landed with a high relative hip height of 48.7 ± 2.4% of total limb length at footfall, while E. macularius exhibited hip heights averaging only 36.0 ± 1.8% of total limb length for footfall. The three-dimensional knee angle of T. scincus averaged 120.6 ± 3.9° at footfall, while E. macularius averaged only 101.6 ± 1.8° at footfall. In addition, the femur of E. macularius was elevated to a much greater extent (i.e., was closer to being perpendicular to the long axis of the body) than that of T. scincus and every other lizard that has been studied, suggesting they move with a "hyper-sprawled" posture. Both of these gecko species live in deserts, but T. scincus is psammophilic while E. macularius inhabits a rocky, more densely vegetated environment. Benefits of the more upright posture of T. scincus on open sandy habitat may include a greater field of view and more efficient locomotion. The more sprawled posture of E. macularius may lower its center of gravity and aid in balance while climbing on rocks or shrubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  6. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  7. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  8. Analysis of Postural Control Adaptation During Galvanic and Vibratory Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fransson, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate whether the postural control adaptation during galvanic stimulation of the vestibular nerve were similar to that found during vibration stimulation to the calf muscles...

  9. Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.

  10. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 .... with a high power 90 mm circular coil, capable of generating. 2 T maximum field ..... advanced glycation end products, oxidative damage and microvascular ...

  11. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-04

    saharan ... Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, glycemic control, postural hypotension. Date of ... or older) provided informed consent before enrolment in the study. .... asymptomatic despite significant falls in blood pressure.[26].

  12. The US Strategic Posture Review: Issues for the New Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2001-01-01

    .... The forthcoming Strategic Posture Review (SPR) needs to fundamentally reassess the purposes of nuclear weapons, missile defenses, and the requirements of deterrence and stability in the new security environment...

  13. Pokhran II and Beyond (Emerging Indian Nuclear Posture)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Jeetendra

    2002-01-01

    .... The nuclear forces, however, are sought only to be minimum possible to credibly deter nuclear weapons use or coercion against India, Considering the imperatives of the Indian deterrence posture...

  14. 2007 Posture Statement, Army Reserve: An Operational Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stultz, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Army Reserve Posture Statement describes how the Army Reserve continues to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational force, meeting today's challenges as it better prepares for future uncertainties...

  15. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  16. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    pathological injuries, such as rotator cuff tendinitis, shoulder instability and shoulder ... and specific postural characteristics, which will be useful in future studies. ... concentric and eccentric IR and ER shoulder muscle strength in 15 club-level ...

  17. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of

  18. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  19. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  20. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  1. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  2. The relationship between sitting posture and seated-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain in computing South African adolescents: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Jordaan, Esmè

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that consistent sitting for prolonged periods is associated with upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP). It is unclear whether postural alignment is a significant risk factor. The aim of the prospective study (2010-2011) was to ascertain if three-dimensional sitting postural angles, measured in a real-life school computer classroom setting, predict seated-related UQMP. Asymptomatic Grade 10 high-school students, aged 15-17 years, undertaking Computer Application Technology, were eligible to participate. Using the 3D Posture Analysis Tool, sitting posture was measured while students used desk-top computers. Posture was reported as five upper quadrant angles (Head flexion, Neck flexion; Craniocervical angle, Trunk flexion and Head lateral bending). The Computer Usage Questionnaire measured seated-related UQMP and hours of computer use. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children assessed psychosocial factors. Sitting posture, computer use and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline. UQMP was measured at six months and one-year follow-up. 211, 190 and 153 students participated at baseline, six months and one-year follow-up respectively. 34.2% students complained of seated-related UQMP during the follow-up period. Increased head flexion (HF) predicted seated-related UQMP developing over time for a small group of students with pain scores greater than the 90th pain percentile, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, computer use and psychosocial factors (p = 0.003). The pain score increased 0.22 points per 1° increase in HF. Classroom ergonomics and postural hygiene should therefore focus on reducing large HF angles among computing adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new hoe share design for weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Znova, Liubava; Melander, Bo; Lisowski, Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    This research introduces a new share design (L-share) that reduces the undesired random soil movement, providing a more controlled disturbance of the upper soil layer. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate draught forces and soil movements when operating the new share. Materials and Meth......This research introduces a new share design (L-share) that reduces the undesired random soil movement, providing a more controlled disturbance of the upper soil layer. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate draught forces and soil movements when operating the new share. Materials...... generally increased draught forces and soil movement. Changing the cultivation depth from 30 to 50 mm resulted in a 63% greater longitudinal force (Fx), and 71% greater Fx when increasing the cultivation depth from 50 to 70 mm. Conclusion: The study showed that the new L-share mounted on a modified spring...

  4. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  5. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  6. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  7. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves adaptive postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Peter; Hsieh, Billie; Cresswell, Andrew; Au, Jacky; Meinzer, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study. Standing blindfolded on a force platform, four trials were completed: 60 s quiet standing followed by 20 min active (anodal-tDCS, 1 mA, 20 min, N = 14) or sham-ctDCS (40 s, N = 14) tDCS; three quiet standing trials with 15 s of Achilles tendon vibration and 25 s of postural recovery. Postural steadiness was quantified as displacement, standard deviation and path derived from the center of pressure (COP). Baseline demographics and quiet standing postural steadiness, and backwards displacement during vibration were comparable between groups. However, active-tDCS significantly improved postural steadiness during vibration and reduced forward displacement and variability in COP derivatives during recovery. We demonstrate that ctDCS results in short-term improvement of postural adaptation in healthy individuals. Future studies need to investigate if multisession ctDCS combined with training or rehabilitation interventions can induce prolonged improvement of postural balance. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Practice of Contemporary Dance Promotes Stochastic Postural Control in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrufino, Lena; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    As society ages and the frequency of falls increases, counteracting gait and posture decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have shown that exercise and hazard management help to improve balance and/or decrease the risks for falling in normal aging. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning, particularly dance, can also benefit balance and decreases falls with age. Recent studies have suggested that older dancers have better balance, posture, ...

  9. Development of anticipatory postural adjustments during locomotion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, H; Forssberg, H

    1992-08-01

    1. Anticipatory postural adjustments were studied in children (6-14 yr of age) walking on a treadmill while pulling a handle. Electromyographs (EMGs) and movements were recorded from the left arm and leg. 2. Postural activity in the leg muscles preceded voluntary arm muscle activity in all age groups, including the youngest children (6 yr of age). The latency to both leg and arm muscle activity, from a triggering audio signal, decreased with age. 3. In older children the latency to both voluntary and postural activity was influenced by the phase of the step cycle. The shortest latency to the first activated postural muscle occurred during single support phase in combination with a long latency to arm muscle activity. 4. In the youngest children, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the latency to the activation of the postural muscles. The voluntary activity was delayed during the beginning of the support phase resulting in a long delay between leg and arm muscle activity. 5. The postural muscle activation pattern was modified in a phase-dependent manner in all children. Lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and hamstring muscles (HAM) were activated during the early support phase, whereas tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles were activated during the late support phase and during the swing phase. However, in the 6-yr-old children, LG was also activated in the swing phase. LG was activated before the HAM activity in the youngest children but after HAM in 14-yr-old children and adults. 6. The occurrence of LG activity in postural responses before heel strike suggests an immature (nonplantigrade) gating of postural activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    6 Abstract Title: Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to find out if the postural stability is differed in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury and in the control group after the "4 steps - one leg stance" test had been performed. Methods: This study compared a group with anterior cruciate ligament injury and a control group on the basis of the "4 steps - one leg stance" test. Methods of comparison and analys...

  12. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  13. Postural Balance in Women with Osteoporosis and Effective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Ünlüsoy; Ece Aydoğ; İhsan Ünlüsoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of mortality and morbidity among osteoporotic individuals is bone fracture which in many cases is a direct result of falls. Individual factors contributing to the risk of fall are poor postural balance and lack of muscle strength. Our aims were to assess postural dynamic balance in osteoporotic women and to describe the effective factors on the balance performance. Methods: Twenty osteoporotic women with kyphosis, 50 osteoporotic women without kyph...

  14. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. The effect of exercise on the cardio-postural relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Syncope is common in individuals who experience orthostatic hypotension which is often associated with cardiovascular conditions, brain injuries, and ageing. A bi-directional link between the cardiovascular and postural control systems was recently identified, and may provide insight into syncope and orthostatic hypotension. This thesis examined the inter-dependent relationship between cardiovascular and postural controls before and after light exercise to induce mild orthostatic stress. It w...

  16. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  17. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    OpenAIRE

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis t...

  18. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint and its influence on postural control and lower limb kinematics in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait. Changes in postural control parameters anteroposterior sway speed and total center of pressure distance differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. In addition, changes in gait kinematic parameters knee and ankle angles of initial contact differed significantly between stroke (paretic and non-paretic and control groups. Muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee and ankle impaired postural control and debilitates kinematic movement of ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs, and may place the fatigued stroke patients at greater risk for falls.

  19. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejeva Julija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  20. Fatigue and faulty posture connection among children, diagnosed with dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Andrejeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  1. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  2. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  3. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  4. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  5. Posture and low back pain during pregnancy - 3D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Tomasik, Paweł; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Głuszak, Michał; Krawczak, Karolina; Michoński, Jakub; Czyżewska, Anna; Żukowska, Agnieszka; Sitnik, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. The posture, curvatures of the spine and the center of gravity changes are considered as the mechanisms leading to pain. The study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and search for relationships with the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Patients referred from University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics were examined outpatient at the Posture Study Unit of Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Sixty-five women at 4-39 weeks of pregnancy were assessed and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography. The study confirmed that difficulties in sitting and standing are significant in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed. Major changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line were not observed in the study group. The issue regarding how the pregnancy causes changes in spinal curvature and posture remains open for further studies. Presented method of 3D surface topography can reveal postural changes, but that requires several exams of each subject and strict follow-up of the series of cases.

  6. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  7. Effects of Levodopa on Postural Strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Rocchi, Laura; Horak, Fay

    2016-05-01

    Altered postural control and balance are major disabling issues of Parkinson's disease (PD). Static and dynamic posturography have provided insight into PD's postural deficits; however, little is known about impairments in postural coordination. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show more ankle strategy during quiet stance than healthy control subjects, who would include some hip strategy, and this stiffer postural strategy would increase with disease progression. We quantified postural strategy and sway dispersion with inertial sensors (one placed on the shank and one on the posterior trunk at L5 level) while subjects were standing still with their eyes open. A total of 70 subjects with PD, including a mild group (H&Y≤2, N=33) and a more severe group (H&Y≥3, N=37), were assessed while OFF and while ON levodopa medication. We also included a healthy control group (N=21). Results showed an overall preference of ankle strategy in all groups while maintaining balance. Postural strategy was significantly lower ON compared to OFF medication (indicating more hip strategy), but no effect of disease stage was found. Instead, sway dispersion was significantly larger in ON compared to OFF medication, and significantly larger in the more severe PD group compared to the mild. In addition, increased hip strategy during stance was associated with poorer self-perception of balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  9. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  10. Dynamic stability control in forward falls: postural corrections after muscle fatigue in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2008-06-01

    Many studies report that muscle strength loss may alter the human system's capacity to generate rapid force for balance corrections after perturbations, leading to deficient recovery behaviours. Yet little is known regarding the effect of modifications in the neuromuscular system induced by fatigue on dynamic stability control during postural perturbations. This study investigates the effect of muscle strength decline induced by fatiguing contractions on the dynamic stability control of young and older adults during forward falls. Eleven young and eleven older male adults had to regain balance after sudden falls before and after submaximal fatiguing knee extension-flexion contractions. Young subjects had a higher margin of stability than older ones before and after the fatiguing task. This reflects their enhanced ability in using mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability (i.e. a greater base of support). The margin of stability, the boundary of the base of support and the position of the extrapolated centre of mass, remained unaffected by the reduction in muscle strength induced by the fatiguing contractions, indicating an appropriate adjustment of the motor commands to compensate the deficit in muscle strength. Both young and older adults were able to counteract the decreased horizontal ground reaction forces after the fatiguing task by flexing their knee to a greater extent, leading to similar decreases in the horizontal velocity of centre of mass as in the pre fatigue condition. The results demonstrate the ability of the central nervous system to rapidly modify the execution of postural corrections including mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability.

  11. Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2.6 million square kilometers and a ...

  12. Mechanisms of postural control in alcoholic men and women: biomechanical analysis of musculoskeletal coordination during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Edith V; Rose, Jessica; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-03-01

    Excessive sway during quiet standing is a common sequela of chronic alcoholism even with prolonged sobriety. Whether alcoholic men and women who have remained abstinent from alcohol for weeks to months differ from each other in the degree of residual postural instability and biomechanical control mechanisms has not been directly tested. We used a force platform to characterize center-of-pressure biomechanical features of postural sway, with and without stabilizing conditions from touch, vision, and stance, in 34 alcoholic men, 15 alcoholic women, 22 control men, and 29 control women. Groups were matched in age (49.4 years), general intelligence, socioeconomic status, and handedness. Each alcoholic group was sober for an average of 75 days. Analysis of postural sway when using all 3 stabilizing conditions versus none revealed diagnosis and sex differences in ability to balance. Alcoholics had significantly longer sway paths, especially in the anterior-posterior direction, than controls when maintaining erect posture without balance aids. With stabilizing conditions the sway paths of all groups shortened significantly, especially those of alcoholic men, who demonstrated a 3.1-fold improvement in sway path difference between the easiest and most challenging conditions; the remaining 3 groups, each showed a approximately 2.4-fold improvement. Application of a mechanical model to partition sway paths into open-loop and closed-loop postural control systems revealed that the sway paths of the alcoholic men but not alcoholic women were characterized by greater short-term (open-loop) diffusion coefficients without aids, often associated with muscle stiffening response. With stabilizing factors, all 4 groups showed similar long-term (closed loop) postural control. Correlations between cognitive abilities and closed-loop sway indices were more robust in alcoholic men than alcoholic women. Reduction in sway and closed-loop activity during quiet standing with stabilizing

  13. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  14. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  15. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  16. Activation timing of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance during bilateral arm flexion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Chie; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe

    2017-12-22

    Activation timings of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance were investigated in young and older adults during bilateral arm flexion in a self-timing task and an oddball task with different probabilities of target presentation. Arm flexion was started from a standing posture with hands suspended 10 cm below the horizontal level in front of the body, in which postural control focused on the ankles is important. Fourteen young and 14 older adults raised the arms in response to the target sound signal. Three task conditions were used: 15 and 45% probabilities of the target in the oddball task and self-timing. Analysis items were activation timing of postural muscles (erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid (AD), and latency and amplitude of the P300 component of event-related brain potential. For young adults, all postural muscles were activated significantly earlier than AD under each condition, and time of preceding gastrocnemius activation was significantly longer in the order of the self-timing, 45 and 15% conditions. P300 latency was significantly shorter, and P300 amplitude was significantly smaller under the 45% condition than under the 15% condition. For older adults, although all postural muscles, including gastrocnemius, were activated significantly earlier than AD in the self-timing condition, only activation timing of gastrocnemius was not significantly earlier than that of AD in oddball tasks, regardless of target probability. No significant differences were found between 15 and 45% conditions in onset times of all postural muscles, and latency and amplitude of P300. These results suggest that during arm movement, young adults can achieve sufficient postural preparation in proportion to the probability of target presentation in the oddball task. Older adults can achieve postural control using ankle joints in the self-timing task. However, in the oddball task, older adults

  17. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  18. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Postural control and head stability during natural gaze behaviour in 6- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärli, A M; van de Langenberg, R; Murer, K; Müller, R M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated how the influence of natural exploratory gaze behaviour on postural control develops from childhood into adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, we compared four age groups: 6-, 9-, 12-year-olds and young adults. Two experimental trials were performed: quiet stance with a fixed gaze (fixed) and quiet stance with natural exploratory gaze behaviour (exploratory). The latter was elicited by having participants watch an animated short film on a large screen in front of them. 3D head rotations in space and centre of pressure (COP) excursions on the ground plane were measured. Across conditions, both head rotation and COP displacement decreased with increasing age. Head movement was greater in the exploratory condition in all age groups. In all children-but not in adults-COP displacement was markedly greater in the exploratory condition. Bivariate correlations across groups showed highly significant positive correlations between COP displacement in ML direction and head rotation in yaw, roll, and pitch in both conditions. The regularity of COP displacements did not show a clear developmental trend, which indicates that COP dynamics were qualitatively similar across age groups. Together, the results suggest that the contribution of head movement to eye-head saccades decreases with age and that head instability-in part resulting from such gaze-related head movements-is an important limiting factor in children's postural control. The lack of head stabilisation might particularly affect children in everyday activities in which both postural control and visual exploration are required.

  20. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning...... to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together...

  1. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  2. Report endorses data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential benefits of sharing data so outweigh its costs that investigators should be required to include plans for sharing data as part of their grant proposals, according to recommendations issued recently by the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Research Council (NRC).In their report Sharing Research Data, CNSTAT also recommended that “Journals should give more emphasis to reports of secondary analyses and to replications,” provided that the original collections of data receive full credit. In addition, “Journal editors should require authors to provide access to data during the peer review process.”

  3. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, pmaintain balance compared to the controls.

  4. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Changes in intraocular pressure depending on posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ramona; Pop, Monica; Tătaru, C; Gheorghe, A; Bădescu, Silvia; Stanciu, Maria; Burcea, M

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an important eye disease that, left untreated, causes irreversible blindness by affecting optic nerve threads. Decreasing intraocular pressure and maintaining it at a low level throughout the day is one of the objectives of antiglaucoma therapy. This is a prospective study conducted on a sample of 80 patients who presented at "Emergency Eye Hospital" Bucharest between 1st of December 2013 30th of July 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: 40 patients with glaucoma and 40 patients without glaucoma (control group). THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine changes in intraocular pressure that may occur depending on body posture and the correlations between changes in intraocular pressure and glaucoma, obesity, hypertension. These IOP changes may be important in the progression of glaucoma regarding that one third of our time is spent on supine position during night. RESULTS AND CONCLUZIONS: IOP varies from sitting down to supine position. IOP increases in supine in most patients (with or without glaucoma) with an average of 1.25 mmHg. The increase among patients with glaucoma is higher (1.67 mmHg) compared to those without glaucoma (0.82 mmHg). In patients with hypertension and glaucoma, IOP increased with 2.62 mmHg. In patients with hypertension and obesity IOP increased with 2.5 mmHg.

  6. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  7. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.

  8. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  9. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  10. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  11. A Sharing Proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  12. Data Sharing and Cardiology: Platforms and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranammya; Ross, Joseph S; Ritchie, Jessica D; Desai, Nihar R; Bhavnani, Sanjeev P; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-12-19

    Sharing deidentified patient-level research data presents immense opportunities to all stakeholders involved in cardiology research and practice. Sharing data encourages the use of existing data for knowledge generation to improve practice, while also allowing for validation of disseminated research. In this review, we discuss key initiatives and platforms that have helped to accelerate progress toward greater sharing of data. These efforts are being prompted by government, universities, philanthropic sponsors of research, major industry players, and collaborations among some of these entities. As data sharing becomes a more common expectation, policy changes will be required to encourage and assist data generators with the process of sharing the data they create. Patients also will need access to their own data and to be empowered to share those data with researchers. Although medicine still lags behind other fields in achieving data sharing's full potential, cardiology research has the potential to lead the way. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pricing Shared Appreciation Mortgages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yina

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a model for the valuation of shared appreciation mortgage (SAM) and examines the effect of reduction in interest rate on the mortgage duration and share of property appreciation lender charges. The recent rise in SAM availability, as a result of some secondary market financial support and prerequisite standardization, motivates a more careful consideration of the underlying SAM value. The primary difference between the SAM model and the model for general traditional mor...

  14. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  15. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  16. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  17. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (ppostural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part from optimization of this multi-system interaction. Copyright © 2015

  18. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

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    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  19. [The impact of different sports on posture regulation].

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    Schwesig, R; Kluttig, A; Leuchte, S; Becker, S; Schmidt, H; Esperer, H D

    2009-09-01

    Previous work has suggested that both the level of activity and the type of sport may have a major impact on postural control. However, no systematic investigation has been performed regarding the various types of professional sports. Particularly, the impact of competitional sports on the postural subsystems has not been elucidated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the major professional sport types, such as handball, gymnastics, swimming, and shooting, on the subsystems of postural control. We also tested the hypothesis that specific types of sport have specific effects on postural regulation. 155 competitive male and female athletes (handball: n = 30; gymnastics: n = 44; swimming: n = 50; shooting: n = 31), and 34 age- and gender-matched controls were investigated using the Interactive Balance System (IBS; Tetrax Inc., Ramat Gan, Israel). The following spectral and time-domain indices were determined: power in the following frequency bands: P(F1) (0.03 - 0.1 Hz), P(F)(2 - 4) (0.1 - 0.5 Hz), P(F)(5 - 6) (0.5 - 1.0 Hz), P(F)(7 - 8) (> 1.0 Hz), stability index (STABI), and synchronisation index (SYN). Shooting athletes exhibited significantly smaller values of P(F1) (p = 0.003), P(F)(2 - 4) (p sports exert different effects on the various subsystems of posture control, where especially shooting competitors demonstrate a significantly better posture regulation. Those effects can be parameterised and quantified with the IBS which thus enables an efficient and purposeful training. Furthermore, the IBS is highly suitable for aptitude screening in sports with high posture regulatory demands (shooting competitions, gymnastics, diving etc.). Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York .

  20. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

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    Morgan Lanzarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6 and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5, which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG and control group (CG. Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP during the sensory organization test (SOT and the motor control test (MCT. Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027 and speed (p =0.033 of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004. There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects.

  1. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

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    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  2. The Comparison of the Role of Vision on Static Postural Stability in Athletes and Nonathletes

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    Zohre Meshkati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of the present study was to compare the role of vision on static postural stability between athletes and nonathletes. Methods: Participants included two groups of 25 persons, men Karatekas who were selected in Isfahan (age 20.6±2.8 years, 66.24±10.34 kg of weight, height 1.76±0.07 m and healthy young men in Isfahan (age 21.6±2.33 years, 66.8±11.34 kg of weight, height 1.74±0.08 m. The sampling was conducted on the basis of nonprobability sampling method. All participants performed the static balance test on the force plate. Postural stability was measured and assessed during 35 seconds in a state of constant standing with paired feet in the center of the force plate in the two positions of eyes open and closed (3 trials in each positions with random sequences. The rest between trials was 25 seconds. Parameters of mean velosity, standard deviation of velosity and standard deviation of amplitude in both anterior-posterior and medio-lateral plans from the center of foot pressure were recorded by the device. Two-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results: The test results showed that the interaction between vision and group did not exist. Closing the eyes led to a significant increase in postural sway in all parameters. Two parameters of mean velocity and standard deviation of velosity in medio-lateral plan were significantly greater in athletes than nonathletes. Discussion: The findings can be considered for the design of exercises in karate and rehabilitation after sports injuries.

  3. Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women.

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    Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Farina, Felicia; Palma, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported a greater frequency of falls among older women than men in conditions which stress balance. Previously, we found an improvement in static balance in older women with an increased support surface area and equal load redistribution on both feet, in response to a dynamic balance training protocol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the same training program and body composition would have effects on the postural control of older overweight women. Ten healthy women (68.67 ± 5.50 yrs; 28.17 ± 3.35 BMI) participated in a five-week physical activity program. This included dynamic balance exercises, such as heel-to-toe walking in different directions, putting their hands on their hips, eyes open (EO) or closed (EC), with a tablet on their heads, going up and down one step, and walking on a mat. Postural stability was assessed before and after training with an optoelectronic platform and a uni-pedal balance performance test. Body composition of the trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs was measured by bio-impedance analysis. The mean speed (MS), medial-lateral MS (MS-x), anterior-posterior MS (MS-y), sway path (SP) and ellipse surface area (ESA) of the pressure center was reduced after training in older women. However, only MS, MS-x, MS-y and SP significantly decreased in bipodalic conditions with EO and MS-y also with EC (punipedal static balance. Our dynamic balance training protocol appears to be feasible, safe and repeatable for older overweight women and to have positive effects in improving their lateral and anterior-posterior postural control, mainly acting on the visual and skeletal muscle components of the balance control system.

  4. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

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    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  5. THE PRESENCE OF POSTURAL DEFORMITIES OF THE YOUTH DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PARENTS KNOWLADGE ABOUT DEFICIENT BODY POSTURE

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    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is deterimining the presence of postural deformities in sagittal view (defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture of the youth depanding on the level of parents knowladge about defi cient body posture. The complete content of the program was conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools, comprising 299 students of the 5th grade and their parents. The object of this study was to determine the number of students with defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture, to determine the presence of dis arrangements depanding on the gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity depanding on the parents level of information about defi ciant body posture among children. Kyphotic deformity of the examiners of male population is mostly present in the group of parents who are poorly informed about body posture defi ciency. Regarding examiners of female population , the presence of deformation is equally divided on the group of parents who expressed themselves as being very well, those who are undecided and those who are poorly informed. The more signifi cant presence of kyphotic deformity is at examiners of male population than at the examiners of female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at the examiners of female population. Regarding female population we can observe the highest presence of deformation in the group of parents who are undecided while the other groups are very equabal by the presence of deformation. Stated measures impose a statement that it is necessary to continuosly work on both - children education and parents education aiming to recognize posture defi ciency and physical deformation of school and preschool population and all of this with the object of reducing the deformation and on time detecting certain disarrangements and taking adaquate measures for its senctuary

  6. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

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    Marek Lasota Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS with sampling. The results indicated that posture code 2111 (back code: 2 – bent forward; arms code: 1 – both below the shoulder joint; legs code: 1 – sitting position; load code: – 1 less than 10 kg was the most common working posture rating 38.1%; 63.9% of positions displayed non-neutral back postures and 52% received harmful action categories. The performed assembly tasks have an influence on harmless and harmful action categories. This study is crucial on assembly, and in the future work allows develop a framework for assessment the physical risk of WRMSDs in assembly.

  7. Postural control and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

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    Schlenstedt, Christian; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Witt, Karsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Fasano, Alfonso; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of FOG on postural control. 31 PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG), 27 PD patients without FOG (PD-FOG) and 22 healthy control (HC) were assessed in the ON state. Postural control was measured with the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and with center of pressure (COP) analysis during quiet stance and maximal voluntary forward/backward leaning. The groups were balanced concerning age, disease duration and disease severity. PD+FOG performed significantly worse in the FAB scale (21.8 ± 5.8) compared to PD-FOG (25.6 ± 5.0) and HC (34.9 ± 2.4) (mean ± SD, p postural control asymmetry. PD+FOG have reduced postural control compared to PD-FOG and HC. Our results show a relationship between the anterior-posterior COP position during quiet stance and FOG. The COP shift towards posterior in PD+FOG leads to a restricted precondition to generate forward progression during gait initiation. This may contribute to the occurrence of FOG or might be a compensatory strategy to avoid forward falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

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    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  9. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

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    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  10. Analisis ergonomi postur kerja operator pada proses pembuatan batako

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    Regina Anggraini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Proses pembuatan batako merupakan salah satu pekerjaan yang membutuhkan penanganan material secara manual,sehingga tenaga fisik pekerja diperlukan meskipun mesin bantu cetak sudah tersedia. Berdasarkan pengamatan dilapangandiketahui bahwa seluruh aktivitas pembuatan batako banyak membutuhkan tenaga fisik. Pekerjaan membuat batako dapatdibagi menjadi beberapa elemen kerja dan setiap elemen kerja memberikan postur kerja yang bervariasi. Hasil analisis posturkerja dengan menggunakan REBA menunjukkan pekerja pada proses pemindahan batako basah memiliki nilai 11 dengan levelrisiko sangat tinggi. Perbaikan dilakukan dengan menambahkan kursi pekerja dan berhasil menurunkan skor REBA menjadi 5.Kata Kunci: Postur kerja, REBA Abstract: Brick-making process is one of those jobs that require manual materials handling, so that the physical exertion of workersneeded though a production machine is already available. Based on observations in the field note that the entire activity ofbrick-making requires a lot of physical exertion. Brick-making can be divided into several working elements and each element ofthe work provides a varied work posture. The results of the analysis work posture using REBA showed workers in the processof moving the wet concrete blocks have a value of 11 with a very high risk level. Improvement of working conditions by adding aseat for workers reduce the REBA score to 5 .Keywords: Work Posture , REBA

  11. [Occlusion and posture: is there evidence of correlation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, A; Manzo, P; Farella, M; Martina, R

    1999-11-01

    The observation that the masticatory system and the postural body regulating system are anatomically and functionally related, has led to postulate several hypotheses of correlation between occlusal and postural disturbances. In the last decade, these arguments have gained a great social impact, also because they have been broadly spread by the mass-media. As a consequence, there has been a growing number of patients seeking concomitant occlusal and postural treatments. The aim of this study was to review critically the current evidence of correlation between the two systems; this in order to address clinical issues for the management of patients. Methodology of the studies reviewed has been evaluated according to the criteria suggested by Storey and Rugh 20 rif. Although there are some evidences of correlation between occlusion and posture, this appears limited to the cranio-cervical tract of the column and tends to disappear when descending in cranio-caudal direction. On the basis of this review of the literature, it's not advisable to treat postural imbalance by means of occlusal treatment or vice versa, particularly if the therapeutic modalities are irreversible.

  12. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

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    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  13. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

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    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phobic postural vertigo treated with autogenic training: a case report.

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    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Kunihiro, Takanobu; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2008-09-30

    Patients suffering from dizziness due to vertigo are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. In many cases, the diagnosis is psychological dizziness. Phobic postural vertigo, which was first reported by Brandt T et al in 1994, is supposed to be a type of psychological dizziness. The diagnosis is based on 6 characteristics proposed by Brandt et al. Patients are usually treated with conventional medical therapy, but some cases may be refractory to such a therapy. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases; however, psychotherapy including autogenic training, which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from phobic postural vertigo. We present a case of a patient who suffered from phobic postural vertigo. A 37-year-old female complained of dizziness. She had started experiencing dizziness almost 3 years She was intractable to many sort of conventional therapy. In the end, her symptom disappeared after introduction of autogenic training. Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for phobic postural vertigo patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control symptom of phobic postural vertigo.

  15. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-03-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness.

  16. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

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    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  17. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  18. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture is affected. Furthermore, instruments measuring postural control were evaluated and examined for sensitivity and easy clinical use. Until February 2011, electronic databases were systematically searched for cross-sectional studies. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Downs & Black scale. Of the 518 found studies, 18 studies were included. Postural control was generally affected for patients with vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture. Patients with osteoporosis had impaired postural control when assessed with computerized instruments. Easy performance-based tests did not show any impairments. There is evidence for an impaired postural control in all patient groups included. Impaired postural control is an important risk factor for falls. Functional performance tests are not sensitive and specific enough to detect affected postural control in patients with osteoporosis. To detect impaired postural control among osteoporotic patients and to obtain more insight into the underlying mechanisms of postural control, computerized instruments are recommended, such as easy-to-use ambulant motion-sensing (accelerometry) technology. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Labia Majora Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjing Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients.

  20. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlappi Mark

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This review details the anatomy and interactions of the postural and somatosensory reflexes. We attempt to identify the important role the nervous system plays in maintaining reflex control of the spine and posture. We also review, illustrate, and discuss how the human vertebral column develops, functions, and adapts to Earth's gravity in an upright position. We identify functional characteristics of the postural reflexes by reporting previous observations of subjects during periods of microgravity or weightlessness. Background Historically, chiropractic has centered around the concept that the nervous system controls and regulates all other bodily systems; and that disruption to normal nervous system function can contribute to a wide variety of common ailments. Surprisingly, the chiropractic literature has paid relatively little attention to the importance of neurological regulation of static upright human posture. With so much information available on how posture may affect health and function, we felt it important to review the neuroanatomical structures and pathways responsible for maintaining the spine and posture. Maintenance of static upright posture is regulated by the nervous system through the various postural reflexes. Hence, from a chiropractic standpoint, it is clinically beneficial to understand how the individual postural reflexes work, as it may explain some of the clinical presentations seen in chiropractic practice. Method We performed a manual search for available relevant textbooks, and a computer search of the MEDLINE, MANTIS, and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases from 1970 to present, using the following key words and phrases: "posture," "ocular," "vestibular," "cervical facet joint," "afferent," "vestibulocollic," "cervicocollic," "postural reflexes," "spaceflight," "microgravity," "weightlessness," "gravity," "posture," and "postural." Studies were selected if they specifically tested any or

  1. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  2. Lower Extremity Muscle Activation and Kinematics of Catchers When Throwing Using Various Squatting and Throwing Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Peng, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Lin-Hwa Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the differences in joint motions and muscle activities of the lower extremities involved in various squatting postures. The motion capture system with thirty-one reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the quadriceps, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles of the pivot and stride leg. The joint extension and flexion in wide squatting are greater than in general squatting (p = 0.005. Knee joint extension and flexion in general squatting are significantly greater than in wide squatting (p = 0.001. The adduction and abduction of the hip joint in stride passing are significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000. Furthermore, the adduction and abduction of the knee joint in stride passing are also significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000. When stride passing is performed, the muscle activation of the hamstring of the pivot foot in general squatting is significantly greater than in wide squatting (p < 0.05, and this difference continues to the stride period. Most catchers use a general or wide squatting width, exclusive of a narrow one. Therefore, the training design for strengthening the lower extremity muscles should consider the appropriateness of the common squat width to enhance squat-up performance. For lower limb muscle activation, wide squatting requires more active gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Baseball players should extend the knee angle of the pivot foot before catching the ball.

  3. Collaborate, compete and share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  4. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE......In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...

  5. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  6. Holding a handle for balance during continuous postural perturbations – immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Camernik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When balance is exposed to perturbations, hand contacts are often used to assist postural control. We investigated the immediate and the transitionary effects of supportive hand contacts during continuous anteroposterior perturbations of stance by automated waist-pulls. Ten young adults were perturbed for five minutes and required to maintain balance by holding to a stationary, shoulder-high handle and following its removal. Centre of pressure (COP displacement, hip, knee, and ankle angles, leg and trunk muscle activity and handle contact forces were acquired. The analysis of results show that COP excursions are significantly smaller when the subjects utilize supportive hand contact and that the displacement of COP is strongly correlated to the perturbation force and significantly larger in the anterior than posterior direction. Regression analysis of hand forces revealed that subjects utilized the hand support significantly more during the posterior than anterior perturbations. Moreover, kinematical analysis showed that utilization of supportive hand contacts alters posture of the whole body and that postural readjustments after the release of the handle occur at different time scales in the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Overall, our findings show that supportive hand contacts are efficiently used for balance control during continuous postural perturbations and that utilization of a handle has significant immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture.

  7. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  8. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S

    2014-01-01

    to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. RESULTS: At follow......-up, there was a significant between-group difference in the Romberg test with closed eyes only (95% confidence ellipse area; CG: 761 +/- 311 mm2; TG: 650 +/- 405 mm2). Prior to randomization, there were no significant differences in postural control and steadiness between 30 pilots who experienced neck pain within...... the previous 3 mo and 25 pilots without such pain. DISCUSSION: Impaired postural control and steadiness may only be quantifiable in individuals experiencing acute neck pain of certain intensity, and there may be a ceiling effect in the ability to improve these parameters. For individuals with highly developed...

  9. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  10. Cortical involvement in anticipatory postural reactions in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rosenberg, Kasper; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2009-01-01

    All movements are accompanied by postural reactions which ensure that the balance of the body is maintained. It has not been resolved that to what extent the primary motor cortex and corticospinal tract are involved in the control of these reactions. Here, we investigated the contribution...... of the corticospinal tract to the activation of the soleus (SOL) muscle in standing human subjects (n = 10) in relation to voluntary heel raise, anticipatory postural activation of the soleus muscle when the subject pulled a handle and to reflex activation of the soleus muscle when the subject was suddenly pulled...... was observed prior to EMG onset for the external perturbation. These data suggest that the primary motor cortex is involved in activating the SOL muscle as part of an anticipatory postural reaction....

  11. Hand Posture Prediction Using Neural Networks within a Biomechanical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Mora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the framework of a biomechanical hand model for grasping. ANNs enhance the model capabilities as they substitute estimated data for the experimental inputs required by the grasping algorithm used. These inputs are the tentative grasping posture and the most open posture during grasping. As a consequence, more realistic grasping postures are predicted by the grasping algorithm, along with the contact information required by the dynamic biomechanical model (contact points and normals. Several neural network architectures are tested and compared in terms of prediction errors, leading to encouraging results. The performance of the overall proposal is also shown through simulation, where a grasping experiment is replicated and compared to the real grasping data collected by a data glove device.

  12. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  13. Study on Posture Estimation Using Delayed Measurements for Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    When associating data from various sensors to estimate the posture of mobile robots, a crucial problem to be solved is that there may be some delayed measurements. Furthermore, the general multi-sensor data fusion algorithm is a Kalman filter. In order to handle the problem concerning delayed measurements, this paper investigates a Kalman filter modified to account for the delays. Based on the interpolating measurement, a fusion system is applied to estimate the posture of a mobile robot which fuses the data from the encoder and laser global position system using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. Finally, the posture estimation experiment of the mobile robot is given whose result verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the algorithm.

  14. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  15. Comparisons of muscular activity in males and females while walking in restricted postures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hodgskiss, J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in muscular activation between males and females while walking in restricted postures. Restricted postures are evident in various industries, including mining, construction and agriculture...

  16. Time-of-Day Influences on Static and Dynamic Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gribble, Phillip A; Tucker, W. Steven; White, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Assessment of postural control is used extensively in clinical and research applications. Time of day affects aspects of physical performance, but whether it also affects postural control is unknown.

  17. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  18. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Nicolai, Simone; Zijlstra, Agnes; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Becker, Clemens; Chiari, Lorenzo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with

  19. The Interaction between Visual and Proprioception Information for Dynamic Postural Control in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yasin hoseini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: the posture is controled mostly by the motion in the knee joint rather than the hip or ankle joints. It is recommended to enhance the knee extensors to prevent falling in people with high risk of postural instability.

  20. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  1. Effects of physical training on age-related balance and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Ahmaidi, S

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review the effects of physical activity on balance performance in the elderly. The increase in the incidence of falls with age reflects the disorders of balance-related to aging. We are particularly interested in age-related changes in the balance control system as reflected in different static and dynamic balance tests. We report the results of studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of physical activity on postural balance. By comparing groups of practitioners of different physical activities, it appears that these effects on postural control depend on the type of activity and the time of practice. Thus, we have focused in the present review on "proprioceptive" and "strength" activities. Training programs offering a combination of several activities have demonstrated beneficial effects on the incidence of falls, and we present and compare the effects of these two types of training activities. It emerges that there are differential effects of programs of activities: while all activities improve participants' confidence in their ability, the "proprioceptive" activities rather improve performance in static tasks, while "strength" activities tend to improve performance in dynamic tasks. These effects depend on the targeted population and will have a greater impact on the frailest subjects. The use of new technologies in the form of "exergames" may also be proposed in home-based exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Balance and postural skills in normal-weight and overweight prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforche, Benedicte I; Hills, Andrew P; Worringham, Charles J; Davies, Peter S W; Murphy, Alexia J; Bouckaert, Jacques J; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated differences in balance and postural skills in normal-weight versus overweight prepubertal boys. Fifty-seven 8-10-year-old boys were categorized overweight (N = 25) or normal-weight (N = 32) according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-off points for overweight in children. The Balance Master, a computerized pressure plate system, was used to objectively measure six balance skills: sit-to-stand, walk, step up/over, tandem walk (walking on a line), unilateral stance and limits of stability. In addition, three standardized field tests were employed: standing on one leg on a balance beam, walking heel-to-toe along the beam and the multiple sit-to-stand test. Overweight boys showed poorer performances on several items assessed on the Balance Master. Overweight boys had slower weight transfer (p test, greater step width while walking (p walking on a line (p test, the unilateral stance and the limits of stability were comparable between both groups. On the balance beam, overweight boys could not hold their balance on one leg as long (p test (p < 0.001) than normal-weight boys. Finally, overweight boys were slower in standing up and sitting down five times in the multiple sit-to-stand task (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that when categorised by body mass index (BMI) level, overweight prepubertal boys displayed lower capacity on several static and dynamic balance and postural skills.

  3. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  4. Gabapentin can improve postural stability and quality of life in primary orthostatic tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Julian P; Edwards, Dylan J; Walters, Susan E; Byrnes, Michelle L; Thickbroom, Gary; Stell, Rick; Mastaglia, Frank L

    2005-07-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by leg tremor and instability on standing. High frequency (13-18 Hz) tremor bursting is present in leg muscles during stance, and posturography has shown greater than normal sway. We report on an open-label add-on study of gabapentin in 6 patients with OT. Six patients were studied with surface electromyography, force platform posturography, and a modified Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) quality of life (QOL) scale before and during treatment with gabapentin 300 mg t.d.s. If on other medications for OT, these were continued unchanged. Of the 6 patients, 4 reported a subjective benefit of 50 to 75% with gabapentin, 3 of whom showed reduced tremor amplitude and postural sway of up to 70%. Dynamic balance improved in all 3 patients who completed the protocol. QOL data from 5 patients showed improvement in all cases. No adverse effects were noted. Gabapentin may improve tremor, stability, and QOL in patients with OT, and symptomatic response correlated with a reduction in tremor amplitude and postural sway. The findings confirm previous reports of symptomatic benefit with gabapentin and provide justification for larger controlled clinical trials. Further work is required to establish the optimal dosage and to validate the methods used to quantify the response to treatment. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Biomechanical Measures During Landing and Postural Stability Predict Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task

  6. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  7. Usefulness of posture training for patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E F; Domenech, M A; Fischer, J R

    2000-02-01

    Many practitioners have found that posture training has a positive impact on temporomandibular, or TMD, symptoms. The authors conducted a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Sixty patients with TMD and a primary muscle disorder were randomized into two groups: one group received posture training and TMD self-management instructions while the control group received TMD self-management instructions only. Four weeks after the study began, the authors reexamined the subjects for changes in symptoms, pain-free opening and pressure algometer pain thresholds. In addition, pretreatment and posttreatment posture measurements were recorded for subjects in the treatment group. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated by the modified symptom severity index, maximum pain-free opening and pressure algometer threshold measurements, as well as by the subjects' perceived TMD and neck symptoms. Subjects in the treatment group reported having experienced a mean reduction in TMD and neck symptoms of 41.9 and 38.2 percent, respectively, while subjects in the control group reported a mean reduction in these symptoms of 8.1 and 9.3 percent. Within the treatment group, the authors found significant correlations between improvements in TMD symptoms and improvements in neck symptoms (P head and shoulder posture measurements at the outset of treatment (P Posture training and TMD self-management instructions are significantly more effective than TMD self-management instructions alone for patients with TMD who have a primary muscle disorder. Patients with TMD who hold their heads farther forward relative to the shoulders have a high probability of experiencing symptom improvement as a result of posture training and being provided with selfmanagement instructions.

  8. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  9. Static and Dynamic Postural Changes after a Mountain Ultra-Marathon of 80 km and 5500 D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marcolin

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue on static and dynamic postural stability after completing a mountain ultra-marathon. Twelve male athletes participated in the study. Postural stability was assessed before and immediately after the race. Static postural stability was evaluated on a dynamometric platform with eyes opened (OE and closed (CE. Dynamic postural stability was assessed with OE on an instrumented plate which allowed medio-lateral oscillations. Stabilometric data were affected by fatigue in the OE condition, concerning sway path velocity (p = 0.0006, sway area velocity (p = 0.0006, area of the confidence ellipse (p = 0.0016, maximal anterior-posterior (AP (p = 0.0017 and medio-lateral (ML (p = 0.0039 oscillations. In the CE condition the sway path velocity (p = 0.0334, the maximal ML oscillations (p = 0.0161 and the area of the confident ellipse (p = 0.0180 were also negatively influenced. Stabilogram diffusion analysis showed in the OE condition an increase of short-term diffusion coefficients considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfys; p = 0.0023 and the combination of the two (Dfr2s; p = 0.0032. Equally, long term diffusion coefficients increased considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0093 and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0086. In CE condition greater values were detected for medio-lateral direction (Dfxl; p = 0.033, anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0459 and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0048. The dynamic postural stability test showed an increase of the time spent with the edges of the plate on the floor (p = 0.0152. Our results showed that mountain ultra-marathon altered static stability more than dynamic stability. An involvement of cognitive resources to monitor postural stability after fatiguing could be the explanation of the worsening in the automatic task (quiet standing and of the positive compensation in the less automatic task (dynamic standing on

  10. Effect of intervention on development of hip posture in very preterm babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, J A; Edwards, A D; McCormick, D C; Roth, S C; Stewart, A L

    1991-01-01

    Preterm babies are physiologically hypotonic, which causes their posture to be flattened when lying in the prone position. This flattened posture may persist beyond term. In a prospective, randomised, controlled, double blind trial of postural support carried out on 45 babies born at less than 33 weeks of gestation, we showed that infants positioned with specific hip support during the period of intensive care had significantly fewer features of flattened posture at the age equivalent to term.

  11. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  12. Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve postural reactions to perturbation and jump performance.This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults (n=40) from occupations with a high....... The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height.Compared to the control group, the training group significant decreased stopping time following perturbation (-109ms, 95% CI [-196:-21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5cm...

  13. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-08-05

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert

  14. Perioperative care of an adolescent with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernan Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS is a disorder characterized by postural tachycardia in combination with orthostatic symptoms without associated hypotension. Symptoms include light-headedness, palpitations, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety, which are brought on by assuming the upright position and usually relieved by sitting or lying down. Given the associated autonomic dysfunction that occurs with POTS, various perioperative concerns must be considered when providing anesthetic care for such patients. We present an adolescent with POTS who required anesthetic care during posterior spinal fusion for the treatment of scoliosis. The potential perioperative implications of this syndrome are discussed.

  15. Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii , dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les cercopithèques sont des espèces de singe très actifs. A l\\'instar des autres espèces, ils adoptent la majeure partie du temps des postures diverses. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le comportement de posture du cercopithèque nictitans. La méthode instantanée de collecte des données a été utilisée de février 2002 ...

  16. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  17. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  18. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...

  19. Sharing (and) familiarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel; Davies, Hayley

    but not exclusive to lifestories/biographies, travels, times, spaces and material items, bodies and intimate knowledge of one another, surnames - in the subjective lives of family members? Sociology has traditionally been preoccupied with notions and logics of sharing in homely contexts (e.g. Simmel’s work...

  20. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamari, Juho; Sjöklint, Mimmi; Ukkonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the rise of so-called “Collaborative Consumption” (CC): the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services. CC has been expected to a...

  1. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  2. Photogrammetry on the identification of postural asymmetries in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian air force academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rodrigo V; Amaral, Artur C; Shimano, Antônio C

    2012-01-01

    To identify whether flight training activities cause postural changes in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA). Eighty subjects were assessed through photographic images in anterior and right side views. Four groups of cadets (n=20 per group) divided according to the year since enlistment and a fifth group of fifteen pilots from the Air Demonstration Squadron (ADS) were included. Pictures were analyzed using the Postural Analysis Program (SAPO) and angles related to head vertical alignment (HVA), head horizontal alignment (HHA), acromion horizontal alignment (AHA) and anterior-superior iliac spine horizontal alignment (HAS) were plotted. We did not find statistical significant differences in the angles: HVA, HHA and AHA. However, a significant difference was found for the HAS angle with pilots having lower values than cadets, suggesting greater postural stability for this variable in pilots. The horizontal alignment of the anterior-superior iliac spine was the only measure that showed significant difference in the comparison between pilots and cadets. The remaining alignments were not different, possibility because of the strict criteria used for admission of cadets at the AFA and the efficiency of the physical training that is performed periodically.

  3. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  4. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  5. Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture in healthy adults voluntarily controlling or merely observing visual feedback. The visual feedback (moving square) had either low or high gain and was either horizontally flipped or not. Participants in the voluntary-control group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while voluntarily controlling visual feedback, whereas those in the observation group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while merely observing visual feedback. As a result, magnified and flipped visual feedback increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway. PMID:29682421

  6. Assessment of Postural Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Silvia Leticia; dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to review studies that assessed postural control (PC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and describe the methods used to investigate postural control in this population. It also intended to describe the performance of children with CP in postural control. An extensive database search was performed using the keywords: postural…

  7. The Control of Posture in Newly Standing Infants is Task Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Melzer, Dawn K.; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway in a manner that facilitates…

  8. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Lamoth, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic

  9. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic

  10. Development of postural control in typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy : Possibilities for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Bakker, Hanneke; Bos, Arie F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The basic level of postural control is functionally active from early infancy onwards: young infants possess a repertoire of direction-specific postural adjustments. Whether or not direction-specific adjustments are used depends on the child's age and the nature of the postural task. The second

  11. Postural stability and ankle sprain history in athletes compared to uninjured controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished postural stability is a risk factor for ankle sprain occurrence and ankle sprains result in impaired postural stability. To date, ankle sprain history has not been taken into account as a determinant of postural stability, while it could possibly specify subgroups of interest.

  12. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.

  13. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnett Angus F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx, Upper lumbar (ULx and total lumbar (TLx spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638, but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load.

  14. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Ninomiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED are common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD; however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale item 28 score: no postural deformity (0, mild postural deformities (1, or severe postural deformities (2–4. Executive function was assessed using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS and an age-controlled standardized BADS score <70 was defined as ED. Age-controlled standardized BADS scores were compared across the three groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relationship between ED and the severity of postural deformities was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Age-controlled standardized BADS score significantly differed among the three groups P=0.005. ED was significantly related to the severity of postural deformities P=0.0005. The severity of postural deformities was associated with a lower age-controlled standardized BADS score and ED, and these findings suggest that postural deformities were associated with frontal dysfunction in patients with PD.

  15. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

  16. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without...... decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P posture...

  17. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; de Haart, Mirjam; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking clinical scores of

  18. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Haart, M. de; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  19. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.; de Haart, M.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. Objective: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  20. Meta-Analysis: Association Between Wrist Posture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doohee You

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: We found evidence that prolonged exposure to non-neutral wrist postures is associated with a twofold increased risk for CTS compared with low hours of exposure to non-neutral wrist postures. Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.