WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater public acceptance

  1. Effective communications bring greater public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process

  2. Public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    An urgent need to rebuild public confidence after an incident attracting widespread adverse publicity led to the development by British Nuclear Fuels plc of a completely new approach to public relations. The Company's experience suggests that impressions count more than sheer information, provided the impressions have a firm base in reality. (author)

  3. Public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A great deal of determination and professionalism are required when communicating to the public on nuclear energy. Challenging the advantages and adopting an educational tone are, of course, essential. But we have to do much more if we truly want to set people thinking and give nuclear energy its rightful position among the possible energy solutions. This is particularly important in Europe where dissension between countries is on the increase, whereas the US and China, shortly to be joined by India, have clearly decided to invest in nuclear energy. (author)

  4. Public acceptance and public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1977-01-01

    A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. There were several ages in which the consideration on health took preference to the energy requirement in the past. For example, the use of coal in London was prohibited by the King's proclamation in 1,306. Secondly, the selection for the acceptance of atomic power development and utilization is based on the subjective susceptibility psychologically, and cannot be concluded only by the logical reasoning. Thirdly, the strict definition of ''national consensus'' is necessary. That is, whether does it mean pleviscite or mere mood. Fourthly, whether the atomic energy is free from the danger or death biologically or not. Fifthly, is there any method for discriminating the persons who accept atomic power from the persons who do not socially. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policy and science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Public acceptance: A Japanese view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    A number of factors enter into a consideration of the public acceptance of nuclear power ? the public, nuclear power as an entity, and the interaction between the two. Interaction here implies the manner in which nuclear power is presented to the public ? what is the public need for nuclear power, and what public risk is entailed in having it? The problem of public acceptance, in this sense, is time-dependent. For the public is changeable, just as nuclear power is subject to technical progress and ' social' improvement. Japan is geographically a very small country with a very high density of population. Any industrial activity and any large-scale employment of modern technology is apt to have a much greater impact on the physical, social and biological environment of individual Japanese people than similar activities would have on those of other countries. Industrial pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, oxides of nitrogen from automobile engine exhausts, organic mercury from chemical industries and so on affect society to a high degree, considered in terms of their concentration either per capita or per square kilometre. In the case of nuclear power, therefore, people are more concerned with radiological effects than with thermal pollution.no matter how one looks at it, the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has made the average member of the Japanese public, very sensitive to the problem of radiation safety. This is no longer a subject in which science or logic can persuade

  6. Public acceptance: A Japanese view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    A number of factors enter into a consideration of the public acceptance of nuclear power ? the public, nuclear power as an entity, and the interaction between the two. Interaction here implies the manner in which nuclear power is presented to the public ? what is the public need for nuclear power, and what public risk is entailed in having it? The problem of public acceptance, in this sense, is time-dependent. For the public is changeable, just as nuclear power is subject to technical progress and ' social' improvement. Japan is geographically a very small country with a very high density of population. Any industrial activity and any large-scale employment of modern technology is apt to have a much greater impact on the physical, social and biological environment of individual Japanese people than similar activities would have on those of other countries. Industrial pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, oxides of nitrogen from automobile engine exhausts, organic mercury from chemical industries and so on affect society to a high degree, considered in terms of their concentration either per capita or per square kilometre. In the case of nuclear power, therefore, people are more concerned with radiological effects than with thermal pollution.no matter how one looks at it, the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has made the average member of the Japanese public, very sensitive to the problem of radiation safety. This is no longer a subject in which science or logic can persuade.

  7. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  8. Environment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet; Bresson; Braillard; Ertaud; Ladonchamps, de; Toureau

    1976-01-01

    The problems involved in the siting of nuclear power stations at a local level are of a political economic, social or ecological order. The acceptance of a nuclear station mostly depends on its interest for the local population. In order to avoid negative reactions, the men who are responsible must make the harmonious integration of the station within the existing economic and social context their first priority [fr

  9. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  10. Public acceptance and USCEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Public opinion plays a critical role in ensuring the future of nuclear energy. After the events at Three Mile Island in 1979, and more recently the Chernobyl accident, worldwide antinuclear movements surged upward. As a result, the global nuclear industry was compelled to institute education programs aimed at allaying public apprehension surrounding nuclear power. The US Council for Energy Awareness strives to disseminate information on nuclear issues in an effort to educate the public and thus create a foundation of support for this important energy option. The US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) is the national communications and information organization for the US commercial nuclear power industry. The organization provides a national voice for an industry whose issues are not always well understood by the public or by policy makers. It performs many functions for member companies, and offers information to the public. Included in the primary functions USCEA conducts on behalf of the nuclear industry are advertising, public and media relations, technical programs, and conferences. Worldwide, its membership is approximately 400, and includes utilities, vendors, consultants, universities, and other organizations with an interest in nuclear power

  11. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  12. Siting and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lise, Pasquale.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of nuclear power plant siting according to presently applicable legislation in Italy, taking into account urban and environmental aspects. Act No 393 of 2 August 1975 on the siting of nuclear plants introduced a significant change in that prior to its adoption, the competence to license nuclear installations was divided amongst so many bodies that approval was inevitably delayed. Act No. 393 lays down the siting procedure which involves authorities at regional and State level and provides a step by step consultation of the Communes concerned and gives them a time limit for replying to the proposed project, while enabling the necessary scientific, environmental and urban investigations to be made. Thus although ultimate decisions rest with the State, the regional bodies representing the public have a voice in them. In such planning the authorities must take into account the public interest, from the environmental and social angles as well as political and economic interests. (NEA) [fr

  13. Standards regulations and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    Spanish nuclear legislation and the associated procedure for the authorization of installations is summarized. Public acceptance is discussed in the context of the needs for and hazards of nuclear energy. (U.K.)

  14. Safety culture and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  15. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, K.

    2002-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  16. Waste-acceptance criteria for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a waste disposal site and facility has been developed. The methodology starts from the basic objective of protecting public health and safety by providing assurance that disposal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose to any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. The method is based on an explicit, straight-forward, and quantitative relationship among individual risk, confinement capabilities, and waste characteristics. A key aspect of the methodology is introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular facility and can be used for quantitative assessments of the performance of different disposal sites and facilities, as well as for establishing site-specific waste acceptance criteria. Confinement factors are derived by means of site-specific pathway analyses. They make possible a direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on radionuclides in the waste streams and expressed in quantitative form as a function of parameters that characterize the site, facility design, waste containers, and waste form. Waste acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. 13 references, 7 figures

  17. Waste-acceptance criteria for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a waste-disposal site and facility has been developed. The methodology starts from the basic objective of protecting public health and safety by providing assurance that dispsoal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose to any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. The method is based on an explicit, straightforward, and quantitative relationship among individual risk, confinement capabilities, and waste characteristics. A key aspect of the methodology is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular facility and can be used for quantitative assessments of the performance of different disposal sites and facilities, as well as for establishing site-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors are derived by means of site-specific pathway analyses. They make possible a direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on radionuclides in the waste streams and expressed in quantitative form as a function of parameters that characterize the site, facility design, waste containers, and waste form. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. 13 refs

  18. Waste transmutation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of transmuting radioactive wastes with reactors or accelerators is appealing. It has the potential of simplifying or eliminating problems of disposing of nuclear waste. The transmutation concept has been renewed vigorously at a time when national projects to dispose of high-level and transuranic waste are seriously delayed. In this period of tightening federal funds and program curtailments, skilled technical staffs are available at US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and contractors to work on waste transmutation. If the claims of transmutation can be shown to be realistic, economically feasible, and capable of being implemented within the US institutional infrastructure, public acceptance of nuclear waste disposal may be enhanced. If the claims for transmutation are not substantiated, however, there will result a serious loss of credibility and an unjust exacerbation of public concerns about nuclear waste. The paper discusses the following topics: how public acceptance is achieved; the technical community and waste disposal; transmutation and technical communication; transmutation issues; technical fixes and public perception

  19. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillin, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  1. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana V.

    2003-01-01

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is' or 'there is not' (there is or there is not

  2. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana V. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny / National Academy of Science, A.K.Krasin Str., 99, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2003-07-01

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is

  3. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  4. Public acceptance of radioactive waste transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    As the thoughts of the country concentrate on the problems of transportation of waste through high traffic urban areas, the problem of how to deal directly and honestly with the public takes on greater significance in the nuclear industry. Non-technical aspects of the methods of transportation, especially by railroad and highway, enter into the total scheme of moving radioactive waste from both weapon and nuclear power plant sources to final processing and disposal. Factors such as shape, color, size, familiarity, and industrial designing are necessary ingredients that take on equal or more significance that the designing of containers to survive the hypothetical accident conditions of the present, or even of the future. Protective Packaging, Inc. has been a leader in the presentation of containers to the private and public sector of the nuclear industry. The products have undergone very open testing, in public, with both invited and uninvited witnesses. In those experiences, dating back to 1969, the problems of public acceptance will be related between the technical problems and the associated social and political problems that relate to container acceptance by the public in today's world. Proven experience data, relative to the safety of the present day systems will be discussed, as well as methods of improving the image in the future. Review will also be given to the effort by industry to discuss the proven record with parties outside the nuclear industry, i.e., individuals and pressure groups that are diametrically opposed to review the facts relative to safety as opposed to other, but more traditional industries

  5. Nuclear energy and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The soundness of use of nuclear energy in electric energy generation has received public concern due to the public highly exaggerated fear of nuclear power. It is the purpose of this paper to clear up some issues of public misunderstanding of nuclear power. Those of most importance are the unjustified fears about safety of nuclear power plants and the misunderstanding of nuclear risks and fears of nuclear power plants environmental impact. The paper is addressed to the public and aims at clarifying these issues in simple, correct, and convincing terms in such a way that links the gap between the scientists of nuclear energy and the general public; this gap which the media has failed to cover and failed to convey honestly and correctly the scientific facts about nuclear energy from the scientists standards to the public

  6. Public acceptance and social responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, F.

    The background to public controversy over nuclear developments, including nuclear waste management, is examined, particularly from the points of view of risks from radiation and objections on sociological grounds such as public conscience or feared loss of civil liberties. (U.K.)

  7. Public acceptance in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Heerden, A. van

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)

  8. Public acceptance in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J [The Star, Johannesburg (South Africa); Heerden, A van [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive waste just happens to be the major issue in the public eye now--it could be replaced by another issue later. A survey is quoted to prove that wastes are not really one of the burning national issues of the day. The people opposing the nuclear program cannot be said to represent the public. The taste of the press for the melodramatic is pointed out. The issue needs to be presented with the proper perspective, in the context of the benefits and risks of nuclear power

  10. Development of technology and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shun-ichi

    1984-01-01

    The author, as a professor, has many years' experience in the design, construction and operation of a research reactor and a critical assembly. The author has also ample experience in the conversation and discussion on the safety of nuclear facilities with concerned public. The effective ways of gaining public acceptance are discussed based on many examples. These examples show that understanding and confidence are the keys to gaining public acceptance. Showing the facilities and experimental works to the public or the fact that the residence of the personnel and their family are located very near the reactor are much more effective than any argument for improving public understanding and confidence. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Public acceptance in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunescu, A.; Stiopol, M.; Manole, F.; Petran, C.; Chiper, L.

    1998-01-01

    All over the world the most part of population considers nuclear power as the energy of the future. To reinforce this opinion some fundamental requirements should be met, namely: - nuclear facilities and power plants should be safe and competitive in point of costs; - nuclear activity should record no severe accidents; - to make actual progress in the field of radwaste management and disposal; - to actually witness and increase of electric power demands. In Romania the activities related to the nuclear research and power sum-up about 40 years of experience and these can be structured as per the following directions: - nuclear power and related activities (industrial, mining, processing, storage); - research reactors; - nuclear sciences and techniques and their applications. Public opinion information is aimed at assisting such activities and make the public familiar with the concepts typical for the nuclear field. Generally, there is a feeling of fear on the part of the officials in supporting the nuclear. The basic cause would be application of on incomplete and obsolete model when educating the public opinion. That model leads to the conclusion that the open expression of one's support in favour of nuclear is a political risk. A new, more, comprehensive model leading to different conclusions was conceived and finalized lately. The two models are different from each other by 3 characteristic elements: - influence of perception; - approach of the opinion; - definition of the support. The paper describes the actions undertaken in Romania in order to fulfill these requirements

  12. Women's role for public acceptance - WEN activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kiyoe

    1999-01-01

    WEN (Women's Energy Network) is a national network of women working professionally in the field of public relations or technologies in various energy-related companies and organizations or interested in energy public acceptance (PA) activities including nuclear PA. This paper describes goals, organization, activities of WEN, and survey on public consciousness. 10 figs

  13. Public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Man, being unacquainted with the advantages of Nuclear Energy associates it with the manufacture of weaponry. However, the benefits of Nuclear Energy is received daily. In Brazil the public has not taken an anti-nuclear position; it is recognized that the Nuclear Plan exists exclusively for peaceful purposes and the authorities keep the community well informed. The Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear along with the Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Instituto de Ingenieria Nuclear and the Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Nucleares has developed in 27 years of existence, a gradual, accute and effective long term programme for the formation of potentially receptive opinion of Nuclear Energy. (Author)

  14. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F.

    2009-01-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  15. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Assuntos Internacionais], e-mail: tmuguet@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  16. Public acceptance activities by the Rokkasho project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, incorporated by mainly ten Japanese utilities, engages in constructing and operating nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing, uranium enrichment and low level radioactive waste disposal at Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture, 600 kilometers north of Tokyo, where is the most northern part of Honshu island. This presentation deals with the situation concerning the Rokkasho project and our public acceptance activities. The expansion of anti nuclear movement was spread not only Aomori prefecture but also all over Japan, affected strongly by the Chernobyl accident. In 1988,16 anti-nuclear groups including labor-union organized a committee for the purpose of a campaign to collect signatures for opposing nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Those groups brought in a lawsuit against the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, for stopping the construction of enrichment plant. Facing furious anti nuclear fuel cycle movements in Aomori prefecture, the Federation of Electric Power Companies decided to re strengthen the public acceptance activities and established the Nuclear Fuel Joint head office together with Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co.and Japan Nuclear Fuel Industry Co. To this new organization many excellent members were dispatched from all electric power companies. The target area for public acceptance activities expanded from the surrounding area to all area of Aomori prefecture. The first policy of public acceptance activities is 'Appealing by face to face' which means the direct personal contact with people being anxious about nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The second main policy is 'Seeing the plant itself is better than persuading orally.' Survey conducted by a newspaper company in respect with the public acceptance of Rokkasho project in July 1989 July 1992 showed a favorable change of the public acceptance. However, one also has to recognize that most of people still have anxiety about the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and we shall

  17. Rally as a Political Public Relations Strategy for Public Acceptance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the assessment of the use of rally as a political public relations strategy for public acceptance of a political party during the 2015 presidential elections in Lagos State. Public relations uses tactical methods of communication to build relations between an organisation and its internal and external publics.

  18. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  20. How is Acceptable Public Risk Determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of risk is a value-based decision, that is, the acceptance of risk by a person or group of persons depends on the values of the person or the shared values of the group. In the case of nuclear waste management, the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the general public approach risk from entirely different perspectives, dictated by the separate value systems held by each. The utilities producing radioactive waste view risk assessment as a part of a business decision that involves costs and benefits. The values that drive public acceptance of a national nuclear waste management policy are very different. As stated by Peter Montague of the Environmental Research Foundation: 'The only people I know who are enthusiastic about quantitative risk assessment are people who want to gain permission to expose other humans to dangerous chemicals so someone can make money. Risk assessment has proven to be an effective way to gain the necessary permissions'. Between the industry and the public are the regulators. Most national governments require regulatory agencies to establish rules that provide adequate public safety while allowing industries, whether nuclear or other producers of public commodities, to profitably do business. The general population has always had a fragile relationship with nuclear proponents. There is an atmosphere of mistrust based on the understanding that the values that matter to the general public differ tremendously from those purported by the industry and regulators. The general public is more interested in worst case scenarios; that is, what is the most severe negative consequence to their safety and the safety of their children that could result from nuclear projects. There is no cost or benefit more important to the general public than the health and safety of their families. The rift in values creates a great disparity in proposed solutions to the nuclear waste question. Regulators regard public acceptance of a risk-informed policy

  1. How is Acceptable Public Risk Determined?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Acceptance of risk is a value-based decision, that is, the acceptance of risk by a person or group of persons depends on the values of the person or the shared values of the group. In the case of nuclear waste management, the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the general public approach risk from entirely different perspectives, dictated by the separate value systems held by each. The utilities producing radioactive waste view risk assessment as a part of a business decision that involves costs and benefits. The values that drive public acceptance of a national nuclear waste management policy are very different. As stated by Peter Montague of the Environmental Research Foundation: 'The only people I know who are enthusiastic about quantitative risk assessment are people who want to gain permission to expose other humans to dangerous chemicals so someone can make money. Risk assessment has proven to be an effective way to gain the necessary permissions'. Between the industry and the public are the regulators. Most national governments require regulatory agencies to establish rules that provide adequate public safety while allowing industries, whether nuclear or other producers of public commodities, to profitably do business. The general population has always had a fragile relationship with nuclear proponents. There is an atmosphere of mistrust based on the understanding that the values that matter to the general public differ tremendously from those purported by the industry and regulators. The general public is more interested in worst case scenarios; that is, what is the most severe negative consequence to their safety and the safety of their children that could result from nuclear projects. There is no cost or benefit more important to the general public than the health and safety of their families. The rift in values creates a great disparity in proposed solutions to the nuclear waste question. Regulators regard public acceptance of a risk

  2. Working Toward Public Acceptance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Haug; Sabine Knapp

    1992-01-01

    West German utilities show a typical three level structure: local distributors, regional producers/distributors and some ten nationwide producers/distributors. Only the latter have the necessary financial and organizational means for running nuclear power stations. Public acceptance, on the other hand, does not care for state borders. Today, the leading German electronic media and the relevant print media are being distributed and received nationwide, transporting opinion as well as acceptance or non-acceptance. This paper describes the main projects of 'Nuclear Information Group' and the strategy considerations behind. Information centers at NPP sites can cover local information needs, regional utilities will cope with regional needs. It became obvious at the very beginning of the nuclear controversy, however, that it is also necessary to establish an additional, strictly federal, i. e. central, organisation that takes care of all nationwide information needs

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, T.T.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is necessary to reach the public acceptance for nuclear power development program. During the process of the application for the approval from the government to implement the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant program in Taiwan, we initialized a series of communication program in the last two years and are expecting to convince the public that to develops nuclear power is essential to the country from a viewpoint of energy diversified. The basic strategies of the communication program not only emphasized the new nuclear power project, but also for the long term public acceptance on nuclear power. The strategies include: (1) Preview and implement the promotion program for the performance of the existing nuclear power plants. (2) Designate and communicate with the major communication target groups: elected delegates, journalists, local residents, scholars and experts. (3) Edit and incorporate the basic nuclear knowledge into the preliminary school educational materials. (4) Subsidize the adjacent communities of nuclear power plants for the public well-being construction. In order to implement the mentioned strategies, Taipower has reorganized the public service department and the existing nuclear power plants, setup the nuclear exhibition center, conducted fullscale emergency drill biannually for each of nuclear power plant, and prepared the seminars for the teacher

  4. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Jose R.; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, H. Javier

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  5. Nuclear power development and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Sunao; Yamada, Akihiko

    1976-01-01

    The public acceptance aimed at realizing the development of nuclear energy of 49,000,000 kW in 1985 in accordance with the basic policy of the combined energy measures in Japan determined by the cabinet meeting in December 1975 is discussed, and the three principles, namely democracy, independence and disclosures under Article 2 of the Atomic Energy Act, are reviewed. Stronger friction may occur owing to the following characteristics of nuclear power development: it is comprehensive but apt to be sectional, too large scale, very long term, military secrecy, and international relations. In addition, there are the sensibility to radioactivity and illogical refusal in Japan. As to the democracy, the participation of the people to the development of nuclear power has not so far been considered. For example, the holding of public hearings has not been legal obligation, but only a by-law of Atomic Energy Commission. As to the independence, serious troubles have been experienced because of the complete dependence of U.S. techniques. As to the disclosure, the opening to the public of the commercial secrecy attached to the application for the approval of reactor installations is apt to be much disputed. In conclusion, it is believed that there is no other way than the exertion of straight effort under the three principles, so that the formation of public acceptance will be accomplished. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Palacios, Javier; Gomez, Armando

    2008-01-01

    One of the main constraints to adopt a nuclear program is the public acceptance. In Mexico, at least, it lacks of an adequate promotion of its benefits and challenges. A big stigma for nuclear electricity production is the association with nuclear weapons, along with myths and misconceptions and bad information about nuclear energy. Mexico has adopted an energy policy to diversify the electricity sources and nuclear energy is among the alternatives to achieve this goal because current studies show that is a safe and a competitive option from an economical point of view. Public opinion plays a very important role in the policy decision making to adopt the deployment of new reactor units; therefore it is necessary to define communication strategies to promote nuclear energy. The current study is an investigation to learn what is the perception and positioning about nuclear energy as a starting point to define the way to improve public acceptance. The national assessment carry on here is divided in two parts, the first one is a qualitative study to know knowledge level, associations and nuclear perception, identifying controversy items and expectations about advantages and disadvantages to define the adequate question to be used in the second part, which is a quantitative study that shows the acceptance of nuclear energy at national level and in particular in two sites that are suitable to deploy new nuclear reactors. From the results of this study some communication and persuasion strategies to improve public perception are defined and they could be used as part of a nuclear program. (author)

  7. Public acceptance in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Stela; Covreag, Ilinca

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste, unavoidable by-products of economically developed societies, arises from the production of energy by nuclear fission reactors as well as from medical, research and industrial applications of radioactive materials. The main objective of radioactive waste management is the safety as well the protection of public health and the environment. The first approach for the disposal of radioactive waste was based on the traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused almost exclusively on technical content. In spite of the significant technical progress that would ensure long-term safety, the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected, partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism and to an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. It is now broadly recognized that radioactive waste management involves both technical and societal dimensions which cannot be dissociated. Because of changes in society's decision-making environment and heightened public sensitivity to all matters connected with environmental protection, nuclear power, radioactivity, and especially radioactive waste, any decision regarding whether, when and how to implement waste management solutions will typically require thorough public examination and the involvement of many relevant stakeholders. The building of a long-term relationship with the local communities and the waste management facility is one of the most important contributors to sustainable radioactive waste management solutions. A new approach in now in place at international level, based on 'engage, interact and co-operate', for which both technical and societal issues are to be reconciled. That means that the involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is a condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such a project. A central role in the public acceptance of nuclear technologies play the management and

  8. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  9. A consideration on Public Nuclear Energy Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yosinobu

    1998-01-01

    PA (Public Acceptance for Nuclear Energy) has been discussed so long time. Much of people understood, it is so important, but they understood, it has not existed with good evaluation method. Only saying, it is necessary to distribute a correct knowledge to public, but how we can do? It is hard to do. Saying inside talking to others, teach speaking for the people, or showing on the same stage opposite people and understandable people. They do not fit the purpose. First key word is curiosity, 2nd one is the intelligence circle, instead of unusable knowledge and third one is the long time continuation. To do actual should consider on the sounding circumstance and the feeling of person to talk. To find the way is very complicated and difficult to do. The second cartoon has been published for high-level waste burying. (author)

  10. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF ROAD-USER CHARGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil THORPE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon public attitudes to and public acceptance of road-user charging as an effective means of managing travel demand, with the overall aim of identifying the characteristics of key interest groups, the kinds of attitudes they hold and their preferences for the distribution of the benefits of generated net revenues and released roadspace. It is argued that this knowledge can play a pivotal role in the design of road-user charging systems that satisfy two important criteria – namely, that they are capable of achieving their stated objectives and are generally acceptable to the public. A case-study of three toll-rings used for revenue generation by the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim is selected, where a team of Norwegian interviewers administered a computer-based survey to a total of 756 respondents. Results of the analyses of the attitudinal data collected raise concerns about the approach of introducing initially low levels of road-use charge, designed to have negligible impacts on travel behaviour but to raise revenues to fund necessary improvements to public transport, both to familiarise private car-users with the principles of a pay-as-you-go system of charging and hopefully to reduce levels of public opposition prior to the introduction of the longer term objective of higher charges for traffic restraint. The timescale over which charges are increased may be crucial in terms of balancing a resistance to change in the longer term against the credibility of a system whose objectives are modified in the relatively short-term. The key conclusion from the first Stated Preference exercise is that there is a high degree of consensus among individuals on the importance of investing significant amounts of net revenues in new road infrastructure as well as improved public transport. The second Stated Preference exercise highlights respondents' concerns that the benefits in improved network performance achieved by a

  11. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  12. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Japan has a fragile energy supply structure, with 84% of its energy depending on import; for example, 99.6% of the oil comes from overseas, which makes Japan's economic base rather vulnerable. In order to ensure constant energy supply, it is indispensable to diversify the energy sources and to create indigenous energy. In view of this, nuclear energy is considered to be the main alternative to crude oil because it has several advantages over other energy sources, such as stable supply of uranium and the fact that it is compatible with efforts to find solutions to global environmental problems. However, since the general public is not familiar with nuclear technology, it is difficult to get the understanding and co-operation of people. In view of this, public relations activities providing information on the need and safety of nuclear power generation have been performed. As a result, in recent years, about 70% of the people came to recognize the need for nuclear power generation. Although people's recognition of this need has increased substantially, it is still difficult for them to accept the construction of nuclear facilities, because of their anxiety regarding the safety of such plants and the lack of information by the government and electric utilities. This makes the acquisition of new sites for nuclear power plants difficult, so that the time required for developing such plants becomes longer. In order to eliminate people's anxieties, both the government and electric utilities should provide accurate information, at the proper time and using a method that makes it easy for the people to understand the problems involved. It is also important for the government and the electric utilities to listen carefully to the opinions and questions of people and to increase friendly communications with them. The government, electric utilities and constructors of nuclear facilities have to co-operate in order to improve the measures taken to gain public acceptance of

  13. Reprocessing of spent fuel and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1977-01-01

    The public acceptance has to be considered regarding whole atomic power rather than the reprocessing of nuclear fuel separately, and the problems concerned are as follows; the release of radioactive materials in the normal and abnormal operations of reprocessing plants, the disposal of wastes with high level radioactivity, the transportation of high level radioactive material, the relation to the economic activity near nuclear plants, the environmental effect of 85 Kr. and 3 H, etc., and the physical protection for reprocessing facility itself, the special handling of the materials of very high radioactivity level such as fission products and plutonium, the radiation exposure of operators, and the demonstration of reprocessing techniques of commercial base, etc., as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the relation between atomic power and other technologies in energy supply, the evalution of atomic power as the symbol of huge scale science, and the energy problem within the confrontation of economic development and the preservation of environment and resources regarding whole nuclear energy. The situations of fuel reprocessing in USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan are explained from the viewpoint of the history. The general background for the needs of nuclear energy in Japan, the image of nuclear energy and fuel reprocessing entertained by the general public, and the special feature of reprocessing techniques are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  14. Public acceptance of drug use for non-disease conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Hansen, Rikke Rie

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article deals with the issue of ordinary healthy people using drugs to improve or enhance non-disease conditions. The objective is to illuminate the extent of public acceptance of this practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The results are based on two studies: a classically...... of drugs for non-disease conditions. Men in particular look favourably on the use of drugs by healthy individuals. People with less education find this type of drug use unacceptable to a greater extent than those with more education, who are more positive. If we look at political affiliation, a pattern...

  15. An international comparative analysis of public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Minki

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, public acceptance of nuclear power is a crucial factor for governmental establishment of a nuclear energy program. Therefore, it is important to understand the determinants of public acceptance of nuclear power. This study examines the effects of knowledge, trust, risk, and benefit related factors on public acceptance of nuclear power across 19 countries. We consider three levels of public acceptance – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – and classify countries into four groups according to the ratio of those three levels of public acceptance. Our results indicate that knowledge of nuclear inspection is more effective than trust in inspection authorities in creating stronger public acceptance among people in the countries with a high level of reluctant acceptance and a low level of strong acceptance, while trust in inspection authorities is more important than knowledge of nuclear inspection for the selection between opposition and reluctant acceptance in countries with a low level of reluctant acceptance and a high level of strong acceptance. Without grouping the countries, we found that trust in inspection authorities is crucial for the decision between opposition and reluctant acceptance. Additionally, the generation of electricity has the most positive effect on public acceptance of nuclear power. - Highlights: • We examine public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power across 19 countries. • Three levels of PA – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – are considered. • Knowledge is most effective in creating stronger PA. • Trust is effective in shifting PA from opposition to reluctant acceptance. • Low risk and benefit of electricity generation enhance PA the most

  16. Quest for public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear industry cannot progress any faster than public opinion will allow, the author contends. This is true of any new technology. The degree of disadvantage that any society will accept in new developments clearly depends on the needs of the society and the urgency of the situation. Nobody wants a lower standard of living. An assessment is made of the people who are apprehensive about nuclear power and those who are not. Of those working in the industry, the majority are completely satisfied about what they are doing; they are working in the industry by choice. These people trust and respect the engineers and scientists directing the installation. Opponents of nuclear power are the people objecting to having a nuclear plant or any other large factory near their home. Many people technically less informed are also among the dissenters; information distributed by the media does not include all the correct facts or do not make a fair presentation of the facts. The author cites hurdles that other industries have had to conquer to succeed. In spite of the criticism leveled at nuclear power, he sees it as the salvation of our prosperous and, on the whole, enjoyable industrial society. He sees steady progress with the efficiency of processes increasing year by year. He foresees further setbacks and disappointments but feels that, finally, the industry will be judged on the facts and on its achievements

  17. Nuclear Power and Radiation in Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastchenko, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    The special knowledge deficiency does not give the possibility to the majority of people to pattern their behaviour in a correct way on radiation problems and to estimate faithfully the possible damage rate to the health of a human being from the different radiation sources effects. Studying of the public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. The anonymous questionnaire of the inhabitants living in various Belarus regions has been carried out aiming at definition of a general radiation erudition, as well as revealing the knowledge of the population about the effect of power stations (nuclear and thermal) on the environment and the human being health. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO 2 discharge and oxygen preservation in the air. The questionnaire analysis shows that people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. People in Belarus have learnt well that the reason of the majority of the diseases is radiation, so it can be frequently heard not only from mass media, but also at scientific conferences and seminars. Most of medical workers are sure that all diseases are caused by radiation. The deficiency of special knowledge on nuclear technologies in the people majority and availability of a great amount of contradictory and untrue information supplied by mass media result in overestimation of danger from energy objects and underestimation of the increased radiation dose from other sources consequences, for example, under roentgen medical examination and treatment. The investigations carried out will help to arrange

  18. Determination Public Acceptance Segmentation for Nuclear Power Program Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Aini Wahidah Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focus to discuss segmentation aspect among inter-disciplinary group of public. This discussion is the pre-stage to ensure the right initiative strategies are implemented to gain public interest and acceptance towards on developing nuclear power plant. The applied strategies are implemented based on different interest among the different groups of public. These strategies may increase public acceptance level towards developing nuclear power plant. (author)

  19. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Preliminary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  20. Approaches to gaining public acceptance of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.; Wonder, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    An eight-country survey reveals a diversity of strategies that have been followed for siting radioactive waste repositories, as well as a range of levels of public acceptance of siting efforts. Although the strategies are not necessarily interchangeable from country to country, certain inferences may be drawn from worldwide siting experience regarding ways to maximize public acceptance. Furthermore, waste management organizations in these countries have placed varying amounts of stock in technical review by outside experts and in a range of communications strategies as means of improving public acceptance. Our survey of worldwide experience also allows some general observations to be made regarding the effectiveness of these efforts. Combining a strategy that elevates public acceptance to part of the overall mission of siting a waste management facility with strategies for appropriate communications and external technical review may be necessary and sufficient for gaining improvements in public acceptance of proposed repository sites

  1. Informing the educators: one of the keys to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, G.C.; Reynolds, A.B.; Brenizer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most difficult barriers to overcome in the task of gaining greater public acceptance of nuclear power is the widespread lack of correct information about the true risks and benefits of nuclear energy. The news media are the most prevalent sources of information for the public but they are highly constrained by the limits of space, time, and reader/viewer interest span in being able to cover this complex subject with any degree of completeness, much less with any degree of accuracy. Another source of information for the general public is the educational system, and while it also has its limitations, they are somewhat different from those faced by the media, and the educational system is generally considered to be a more credible information source than the media. This paper report on three programs undertaken in 1985 and 1986 by the Virginia Section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in conjunction with the University of Virginia (UVA), the Virginia State Department of Education, and various nuclear industry participants. Each program had its unique features, successes, an failures. All-in-all, these programs have been reported as being quite successful in helping to reach the public through informing the educators

  2. Nuclear Energy: An Agenda for Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahpherson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear debate has indeed been a situation of 'two solitudes', with both sides so entrenched in their uncompromising, unyielding and unforgiving postures and prejudices that a rational and productive airing of the issues is improbable, it not impossible. Caught in the middle is an ill-informed, skeptical, confused and sometimes indifferent public. It is the opinion of this public that will determine the ultimate fate of nuclear power. If the credibility gap between the industry and the public widens any further nuclear power has only a slim chance of survival, far less development. The nuclear debate is neither new nor unique. Much of it is part of a larger social agenda and a residue of historical resistance to change. From the industry side we have dealt with it in various ways, and I would suggest that we have dealt with it better than we give ourselves credit for. But that is not to say that we cannot do a lot better. In the first phase the information traffic was one-way, and the practice has not totally disappeared. In the second phase we learned to listen as well as talk. Or did we? In the third and most recent phase we are confronted with a public which demands that every organization meets the public's expectations in the public's terms. Dramatic shifts in public attitudes and political developments not only ask for, but insist upon a corporate or institutional response

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper starts from the premise that there is no future for nuclear energy without public support. It traces the history of Canadian public attitudes toward this technology from the early years of opinion polling in the 1940s to the present day. It briefly discusses why nuclear energy is mistrusted by many and the nature of the challenge to the industry in this regard. It describes in some detail current public attitudes in Canada, concentrating on opinion polls, surveys, reports and focus group studies on attitudes towards the nuclear industry, the environment, waste disposal and nuclear safety. In conclusion, it suggests some new directions the industry might consider to stop the decline in public opinion and turn it around. (author)

  4. Does the choice of reactor affect public acceptance of wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prime goal of this conference is to suggest future reactor types that would produce greater public acceptability. Presumably the wastes generated by these cycles would, because of lesser amounts or activities, engender fewer disputes over policy than in the past. However, the world-wide arguments over low-level wastes (LLW) suggest this intent is not likely to be achieved. While the activity of these wastes is a tiny fraction of high-level wastes (HLW), the controversies over the former, in Korea, the US and elsewhere, have been as great as for the latter. There is no linear relationship between activity and political desirability. What is needed is a new approach to disposing of and siting all nuclear wastes: LLW, mixed and HLW

  5. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  6. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear disaster on global public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Minki; Kim, Wonjoon

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. It is important to understand how this change has occurred in different countries before the global community revises existing nuclear policies. This study examines the effect of the Fukushima disaster on public acceptance of nuclear energy in 42 countries. We find that the operational experience of nuclear power generation which has significantly affected positive public opinion about nuclear energy became considerably negative after the disaster, suggesting fundamental changes in public acceptance regardless of the level of acceptance before the disaster. In addition, contrary to our expectation, the proportion of nuclear power generation is positively and significantly related to public acceptance of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident and government pressure on media content led to a greater decrease in the level of public acceptance after the accident. Nuclear energy policymakers should consider the varied factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy in each country depending on its historical, environmental, and geographical circumstances before they revise nuclear policy in response to the Fukushima accident. - Highlights: • Fukushima accident has negatively changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. • Effect of operational experience became considerably negative after the accident. • Effect of proportion of nuclear power generation is positive after the accident. • Effect of government pressure on media content became negative after the accident. • Country specific policy responses on nuclear public acceptance are required

  7. Public acceptance of nuclear power declining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The view is presented that current policy toward nuclear energy reflects an ideology more than actual behavior. Public attitudes toward nuclear power make its future less certain than at any time since the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, but a public opinion study also produced evidence that polarization is less than was thought. Social, political, and human value issues are causing the nuclear stalemate, not economic or technical feasibility. It is suggested that the Reagan administration's support of nuclear energy at the expense of conservation should consider that a Gallup pole found nuclear power to be the least popular energy alternative. A policy which includes both nuclear energy and conservation is more likely to be productive

  8. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  9. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszuszky, F.

    1977-01-01

    The public concern over the expansion of nuclear power generation has grown steadily at a rather alarming rate in most countries with nuclear programs. The energy crisis has even accelerated and sharpened a developing confrontation between the environmental movements on the one hand and the utilities on the other. Whilst the first Austrian nuclear power Station has not been opposed heavily by the public, the nuclear opponents are at present fast changing their ways and forming themselves into national groups with coordinated legal and technical advices from inside and also abroad. New technical issues, new ways of bringing these issues forward, new forums in which to express their concerns have originated over the past years. Not only the arguments have changed but also the problems are subject to alteration. Points of concern are moving from a real technical base to those with more psychological-ethic background such as final waste disposal and questions of its responsibility towards future generations. Intervenors do represent also in this country a public interest, even though it is not in the interest of the entire population which in general could not care less and can be regarded as a silent majority. It occurs and has been recognised that utilities should therefore make a bigger effort to improve the quality of their information service. They must provide more information which must be as full and as free and as open and as understandable as possible. For the public at large there is a need to know that such information is available and that questions of concern can be answered by those responsible for nuclear programmes. It is somehow necessary in the nuclear controversy to find a way of discussing the entire nuclear system, what is produced by nuclear power and why it should be nuclear power at all. With all this in mind the Austrian government has arranged a ''public round table discussion'' during which the pros and cons of nuclear power can be

  10. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  11. Nuclear public acceptance and 'imaginary and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshinobu

    2000-01-01

    Recently, anti-nuclear movement is going down, and couple reactor construction has been seemed to be accepted. Even Uranium production will be coming down, Plutonium, fast reactor and nuclear fusion reactor will coming in future. An unfortunate reactivity accident in a nuclear fuel factory in Tokai village has occurred by lack of the very essential nuclear technology which is not believable. This comes the reality has been included in an imaginary region in the brain. So picking up the reality from the imaginary region in brain is due to knowing the separation of the reality from the imaginary region by knowledge on the very essential nuclear technology. A man knowing the very essential nuclear technology can avoid this kind of accident. For the most people does not like to meet with the problems of atomic bomb and hi-radiation level waste. There two problems will be understood by knowing the reality point the imaginary area. It is easily understandable, if it is the essential nuclear technology. (author)

  12. Gaining public acceptance for Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Miroslav

    1995-01-01

    The construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant, which initially was planned to consist of 4 units with the Russian WWER-1000 reactors, later reduced to 2 began in 1986. There were no public opinion problems, because then, in the communist Czechoslovakia, public opinion was no issue of major importance. The first problems emerged after 1989 when Czechoslovakia began to seek it place among democratic countries. Then it turned out that the nuclear power plant had its opponents, that it aroused fright among the uninformed people and could become a tool for political manipulation. Generally, public opinion was in favour of nuclear power but the voice of the opponents had to be taken seriously. It was not later than 1989, during the political changes, that the first germs of Public Relations departments began to form at Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. The technicians and economists, however, were to say the crucial words. For the CEZ utility, with its Temelin under construction, to become a credible partner for the public in Czechoslovakia and abroad, efforts had to be made for the plant to be completed so that it should meet safety requirements which are conventional in Western Europe and in the United States. There came IAEA missions and international audits, which confirmed that the power plant would be able to meet international safety standards provided that some upgrading and changes in the Russian design are implemented, in particular, the instrumentation and control. We foster and expand personal contacts with media and make efforts to keep them informed. We arrange events through which they can get familiar with nuclear power problems abroad. The Temelin newspaper is a monthly through which we inform the population within 20 km from the power plant about all important events. We have expanded the Information Center which, following the model of the French EDF, employs external female guide staff. Over 13 thousand people visit the Center every year. So

  13. Nuclear risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the methodology and the results of a study of public attitudes towards five energy sources: nuclear power, hydro power, solar energy, oil and geothermal energy. The analysis is based on a survey carried out in the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. The samples consist of Barangay Leaders (192 respondents), Science teachers (170 respondents), and university students (174 respondents). The survey utilized a questionnaire which is based on a psychometric model and allows for internal cross-checking of independent attitude measures. The analysis shows that for all subgroups nuclear power is the least preferred option. Those opposing nuclear power also have negative attitudes towards oil and are less favourable towards the other energy systems also. It was found that the subjects strongly related nuclear power to environmental risks (which they did not for solar, hydro, geothermal) and were not convinced about its economic benefits. They rated the technological benefits of all the five energy systems equally high and believed in sociopolitical implications of all energy systems except solar energy. Women are strongly less favourable towards nuclear power and oil than men. They are also more afraid of its risks and less convinced about its benefits. The influence of other variables like age, education and information source is rather low. The report also compares public attitudes towards nuclear power and geothermal energy in the vicinity of a geothermal site in Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental

  14. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE TOWARDS PARTICIPATION OF DISABLED PEOPLE IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Roha, Abdul Rasid Aida; Fatt, Ong Tah

    2017-01-01

     AbstractDesire to be accepted by other people is one of the basic human needs. Social isolation or rejection is very stressful to person with disabilities. Social acceptance by normal people towards physical activity participation for the disabled plays a vital role in motivating them to be more physically active. A review of literature indicated that there are several factors that influence public acceptance towards participation of people with disabilities in physical activity. The pr...

  15. Various national approaches in handling the public acceptance problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado de Faria, N.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes various national approaches to public acceptance of nuclear power plants and stresses the difference between countries with military nuclear programmes and those using the atom for purely peaceful purposes. (NEA) [fr

  16. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  17. Enhancement of the Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. C.; Jeong, S. M.; Noh, T. W.

    2010-02-01

    To enhance the public acceptance of nuclear energy in Korea we translate the 'The Power to Save the World - The Truth about Nuclear Energy' written by the American novelist Gwyneth Cravens into Korean. 'Power to Save the World' is an eloquent, convincing argument for nuclear power as a safe energy source and an essential deterrent to global warming. To promote national power by keeping nuclear industry healthy, we need to supply the variety of material which enhances the public acceptance of nuclear energy

  18. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: the societal participation; information and opinion research surveys; historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  19. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  20. International nuclear public acceptance - campaigns and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    As we approach the 21st Century, society's values and expectations are changing throughout the world. This change is particularly rapid in the Pacific Basin where industrialisation and economic growth is acting as the catalyst for change in every area of society. Rapid global communications, single issue pressure groups and an expectation by the general public and other stakeholders to be consulted and involved in every stage of corporate decision-making, place increased pressures upon the world's corporate structures. This paper will analyse the changes currently taking place and look forward into the next century. The author will then examine the possible impact of these societal changes upon the global nuclear industry and propose ways in which the industry can respond to these changes before they negatively impact the business. He will examine the role of nuclear power in a changing world, its relationship with its various stakeholders, and suggest ways in which the industry can gain the initiative in its communications programmes of the future. In doing this he will draw upon examples of communication campaigns from both the nuclear and other industries. (author)

  1. Regulatory process and effects on public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangger, C.

    1977-01-01

    In Switzerland four Federal laws are involved in controlling nuclear energy. Two of them are applied on the Federal level and entail a single Federal licensing procedure (peaceful uses of atomic energy; protection of nature and landscape). The other two laws are applied on the cantonal level and entail two different cantonal licensing procedures (protection of waters; industry, crafts and trade). Even though these four laws together cover all aspects of the protection of man, the environment and the countryside, nevertheless: - the legal situation and the overall licensing system are complex; they are unintelligible to the man in the street and offer a lawyer numerous possibilities for bringing in appeals; - decisions affecting the three licensing procedures are taken at different levels; and - the nuclear law contains a clause obliging the Federal authorities to treat information on the nuclear aspects of projects confidentially. Although this state of affairs has not appreciably influenced acceptance by the population living near the two operating power plants and the two that are under construction, it has led, in the case of two of the five new projects, to consistently mounting opposition on the part of the local population, opposition which in some cases has reached a very high pitch. In 1975, there was one case where the site was occupied for several months, a violation of the law. Similarly, the opposition which was latent in the rest of Switzerland until two years ago has reached the stage of initiatives: petitions on nuclear energy have been filed in some cantons, and a ''Federal popular initiative to safeguard the people's rights and safety during the construction and operation of atomic facilities'' has been launched. Since the four laws covering nuclear power plants were adopted on the Federal level, it would seem that the cantonal initiatives lack a legal basis. On the other hand the Federal initiative, which demands in particular that powers of

  2. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.; Thorne, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Within the United States environmental awareness has spread and matured since the early 1960's. Evidence of this is found in cautious attitudes toward the installation of nuclear power reactors and other components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Hazards associated with nuclear energy technologies appear to attract a greater share of public attention than the hazards of nonnuclear counterparts. The association of nuclear power with nuclear weapons may be at the root of this concern. The explicit identification of increased incidences of cancer and genetic effects in humans as potential consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and knowledge that radiation exposures and health consequences arising from nuclear power operations might occur many generations after operations cease also underlie this concern. Based in large part on these concerns, a number of actions have been taken in the United States to prevent and to delay installation and development of nuclear technology. These actions are reviewed and analyzed with emphasis on the 1976 California nuclear moratorium referendum and other more recent actions at state and national levels. They are compared with the status and outcome of similar actions in other nations as is possible. Additionally, ERDA's current approaches to public involvement in the decision making process is discussed, including the value of comprehensive analyses of health, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of alternative energy sources in responding to public needs. U.S. plans for providing such analyses for all installed and developing energy technologies are presented with special reference to areas which require international cooperation for implementation. The value of international analysis and internationally accepted environmental control strategies for all energy technologies is also addressed

  4. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Public acceptance of HTGR technology - HTR2008-58218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, R.; Kuhr, R.; Morris, T.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy projects continue to evoke strong emotional responses from the general public throughout the world. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology offers improved safety and performance characteristics that should enhance public acceptance but is burdened with demonstrating a different set of safety principles. This paper summarizes key issues impacting public acceptance and discusses the importance of openly engaging the public in the early stages of new HTGR projects. The public gets information about new technologies through schools and universities, news and entertainment media, the internet, and other forms of information exchange. Development of open public forums, access to information in understandable formats, participation of universities in preparing and distributing educational materials, and other measures will be needed to support widespread public confidence in the improved safety and performance characteristics of HTGR technology. This confidence will become more important as real projects evolve and participants from outside the nuclear industry begin to evaluate the real and perceived risks, including potential impacts on public relations, branding, and shareholder value when projects are announced. Public acceptance and support will rely on an informed understanding of the issues and benefits associated with HTGR technology. Major issues of public concern include nuclear safety, avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, depletion of natural gas resources, energy security, nuclear waste management, local employment and economic development, energy prices, and nuclear proliferation. Universities, the media, private industry, government entities, and other organizations will all have roles that impact public acceptance, which will likely play a critical role in the future markets, siting, and permitting of HTGR projects. (authors)

  6. Public acceptance of nuclear energy : challenge of our era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir D, J.; Covarrubias O, A.; Urbina P, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The main factors which fall upon the acceptance or rejection of Nuclear Energy are analyzed. A wide view of the nuclear development reached so far in the world and, especially of the evolution observed in Chile is given. The problem of public acceptance of Nuclear Energy is stated within the Energetic Forum. A synthesis of the activities of Diffusion comprised in the National Plan for Diffusion of C.CH.E.N. is given. (Author)

  7. Public Acceptance for Sustainable Power Development: Sharing Nepalese Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur; Singh, Anju; Shrestha, Sugam

    2007-07-01

    Nepal with 83000 MW of hydropower potential has harnessed only 1% of it. With a target of 8% GDP growth rate needs 15000 MW of hydropower to be exported, by 2012. Which will bring the majority(32%) of its population above the poverty line. For this Nepal ought to develop its hydropower potential maintaining social equity and environmental justice leading towards the sustainable development. One of the key attributes/ingredient to this is Public Participation/Acceptance. Hence, an in depth study was conducted for examining the level of peoples' participation/acceptance. Field visit of 6 projects and questionnaire survey conducted involving 13 groups of stakeholders revealed that public participation were sufficiently done and acceptance was also sought specially after the promulgation of Environmental Legislations. Nepal has no choice other than to develop its hydropower potential for its internal demand and to supply to the neighbouring countries, in the endeavour to reduce/eliminate the poverty, prevailing as a cancer. Henceforth, all the hydropower projects to be developed in the future should be socio-culturally acceptable, economically viable and environmentally benign. For this to happen one of the key ingredients/attributes is the public participation and gaining public acceptance in an effective and efficient manner. (auth)

  8. Nuclear Malaysia Strategic Approach Towards Public Acceptance on Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Redzuan Mohamad; Abdul Halim Jumat; Sabariah Kader Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the strategic approach taken by Malaysian Nuclear Agency in carrying out public information and public acceptance on nuclear technology activities. The main objective of this study is to ensure that public and stake holders are continuously getting correct information from credible sources. Through the feedback received, comprehensive and holistic approach provides the desired impact. Obtaining the correct information from credible sources culture should always be inculcate to ensure that the benefits of nuclear technologies can be practiced and accepted by civil society without prejudice. Through strategic approach and activities implemented, monitoring and review, and measurement of the effectiveness of ongoing programs are expected to increase public awareness of the importance and contribution of nuclear technology in Malaysia. (author)

  9. Legal measures for improving public acceptance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti de Veses y Puig, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author of this paper considers that public acceptance of nuclear projects would be greatly enhanced by appropriate information on topics concerning safety of nuclear installations supplied through specialised institutions set up by the governments. In this context the author refers to the 1980 Spanish Act setting up the Nuclear Safety Council, one of whose tasks is to inform the public, and finally, the 1981 Act establishing a specific tax on electrical generation, including nuclear electricity. (NEA) [fr

  10. Factors impacting time to acceptance and publication for peer-reviewed publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroser, Dikran; Carlson, Janice; Robinson, Micah; Gegner, Julie; Girard, Victoria; Smette, Lori; Nilsen, Jon; O'Kelly, James

    2017-07-01

    Timely publication of data is important for the medical community and provides a valuable contribution to data disclosure. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate times to acceptance and publication for peer-reviewed manuscripts, reviews, and letters to the editor. Key publication metrics for published manuscripts, reviews, and letters to the editor were identified by eight Amgen publications professionals. Data for publications submitted between 1 January 2013 and 1 November 2015 were extracted from a proprietary internal publication-tracking database. Variables included department initiating the study, publication type, number of submissions per publication, and the total number of weeks from first submission to acceptance, online publication, and final publication. A total of 337 publications were identified, of which 300 (89%) were manuscripts. Time from submission to acceptance and publication was generally similar between clinical and real-world evidence (e.g. observational and health economics studies) publications. Median (range) time from first submission to acceptance was 23.4 (0.2-226.2) weeks. Median (range) time from first submission to online (early-release) publication was 29.7 (2.4-162.6) weeks. Median (range) time from first submission to final (print) publication was 36.2 (2.8-230.8) weeks. Time from first submission to acceptance, online publication, and final publication increased accordingly with number of submissions required for acceptance, with similar times noted between each subsequent submission. Analysis of a single-company publication database showed that the median time for manuscripts to be fully published after initial submission was 36.2 weeks, and time to publication increased accordingly with the number of submissions. Causes for multiple submissions and time from clinical trial completion to first submission were not assessed; these were limitations of the study. Nonetheless, publication planners should consider

  11. Factors impacting public acceptance of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Satsuki; Kanda, Reiko

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a survey to determine the public acceptance of medical radiation exposure throughout Japan, and 1,357 responses (67.9% response rate) were obtained using a two-stage systematic stratified random sampling method. The acceptance of exposure of children was generally similar to that of adults. For each of the attributes, 45-60% of the participants were accepting of exposure for cancer treatment and diagnosis, but only 30% were accepting of exposure for X-ray diagnoses of bone fractures and dental caries. In general, the presence of a child did not markedly affect women's acceptance of exposure. Factor analyses identified 3 factors influencing the acceptance of child exposure: symptomatic diseases to determine treatment, the possibility of high-risk diseases (or major organ diseases), and the association with cancer. Cluster analysis showed 4 clusters: a positive group regarding children's exposure for the diagnosis of bone fractures and dental caries (12.9% of all participants), a positive group for major organ disease and cancer (15.5%), a negative group excluding cancer (55.2%), and a positive group for all cases (16.4%). The cluster distributions revealed that mothers with 10- to 18-year-old firstborn children showed a tendency to accept the medical radiation exposure of their children in all cases. (author)

  12. Nuclear power and public acceptance in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; UK nuclear experience (experience of the Central Electricity Generating Board; impartial assessment); Sizewell inquiry (into proposal to construct a PWR based plant as Sizewell B; inquiry process; ground covered; economics and safety; project management); public acceptance (sociological studies); long-term programme. (U.K.)

  13. Approach of the public acceptation problem of nuclear enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    1993-01-01

    Among many electric energy sources, the nuclear energy presents proper characteristics that distinguish it on the treatment of public acceptation. The licensing process, based on security considerations of operation and to diminish risks for the population and the environment, aim at attend the preoccupations and apprehensions of public. The information is fundamental for the establishment of public confidence. In Brazil, the licensing of nuclear power plants involve federal, state and municipal agencies, assuring the population participation in discussion of environmental problems. This paper shows the importance of discussion with the population about nuclear enterprises. (C.M.)

  14. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seugkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed.

  15. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seugkook

    2015-01-01

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed

  16. Considerations in the public acceptance of sewage sludge irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations associated with public acceptance of municipal sewage sludge irradiation systems are discussed including the benefit to society, public information and safeguards. Public acceptance of products is based upon the benefit to society as measured by reduced consumer costs, minimization of public risk and enhancement of the quality of life and the environment. When viewed in this positive light, the sludge irradiator has high potential benefits to the community. If large-scale engineering experiments show that sludge irradiation is more cost-effective than other methods, reduced consumer costs would result. Today many sewage plants do not consistently remove pathogens from sludge; sludge irradiation could be an effective method of pathogen removal and result in avoidance of a major public risk. The sludge irradiator may be able to clean up recreational areas, reduce noxious odours from sewage treatment facilities, and reduce the energy requirements for producing fertilizer and soil conditioners and conserve their mineral content. Plant safeguards must be explained to dispel public concern that the contents of the source can be released to the sludge accidentally. This will be the main issue within the technical sector of the public, and the design, procedural and administrative safeguards of the plant must be fully explained. The primary risk associated with sludge irradiators will be the remote possibility of source leakage into the sludge. The various safeguards in sludge irradiation plants are discussed in detail including the form of the radionuclide, encapsulation, the irradiation chamber, safeguards instrumentation, shielding and thermal safeguards. (Author)

  17. Public acceptance of nuclear power among Malaysian students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Pauzi, Anas; Saad, Juniza Md; Arif Abu Bakar, Asyraf; Hannan Damahuri, Abdul; Syukri, Nur Syamim Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Malaysian government’s aim to include nuclear energy for electricity generation has triggered various reactions from all especially the public. The objective of this study is to have a better understanding on the knowledge, sources of information of nuclear power and sources of energy chosen by Malaysian in 20 years’ time. Besides that, we want to examine the level of acceptance and perception of Malaysian towards nuclear energy and we want to identify the correlation between public perceptions with the acceptance towards nuclear power in Malaysia, and also to study the differences between perception and acceptance of nuclear power with gender and educational level. For this research methodology, the research questions are given orally or through paper-pencil and also social networking site such as Facebook or through electronic media application such as WhatsApp and Google docs. The data were analysed using a SPSS version 22.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Results showed that more than 50% of the respondents have the knowledge of nuclear energy. A part of from that, only 39 % are confident government can afford to build NPP in Malaysia and 41 % disagree nuclear energy is the best option for future energy. From analysis using SPSS 22 we estimate negative perception will give a negative acceptance in term of support towards the use of nuclear energy in power generation in Malaysia. There are also slight correlation that the higher the level of education of Malaysian, the more negative the perception of Malaysian in accepting nuclear energy as source of power in Malaysia. Therefore in shaping a positive acceptance of NPP in Malaysia, the authorities need to educate the people with the knowledge of nuclear in order to overcome the negative perception towards nuclear power.

  18. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  19. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H., E-mail: erlloyd@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  20. Impact of nuclear power and public acceptance. Licensing of nuclear reactors and public acceptance in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plochl, Gerhardt.

    1977-01-01

    This paper first reviews the main stages in the development of nuclear activities in Austria and recalls the principal legal and regulatory texts adopted in this field. In this context, the author describes the circumstances which, following announcement of the project for a second nuclear power plant in 1974, gave rise to hostile reactions and led to the organisation by the federal authorities of a wide public information campaign in 1976 and 1977. This resulted in increasing the number of opponents to nuclear energy and raised the question of the long term storage of radioactive waste, for which at present Austrian regulations provide no satisfactory solution. (NEA) [fr

  1. Public information - the crucial element in nuclear power acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.; Middlemiss, N.

    1996-01-01

    The British nuclear industry approach to the public information is described as the crucial element in nuclear power acceptance. The industry need to be a reliable, trustworthy source of information. There is evidence that when issues are examined in court or in quasi-judicial contexts, the public gains a better appreciation of the issues. The media report both sides of debate more evenly. Therefore the best way to deal with the most hostile opposition may be to take into a legal framework, rather than engage in hand-to-hand battle

  2. Public information - the crucial element in nuclear power acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R; Middlemiss, N [British Nuclear Industry Forum, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    The British nuclear industry approach to the public information is described as the crucial element in nuclear power acceptance. The industry need to be a reliable, trustworthy source of information. There is evidence that when issues are examined in court or in quasi-judicial contexts, the public gains a better appreciation of the issues. The media report both sides of debate more evenly. Therefore the best way to deal with the most hostile opposition may be to take into a legal framework, rather than engage in hand-to-hand battle.

  3. Risks perception and the public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Walter Mendes; Gavazza, Sergio; Estrada, Julio J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work establishes a methodology to evaluate the public acceptance of nuclear technology taking into consideration several risk concepts. Basic concepts of the nuclear science were transmitted, in form of lectures and courses, to the 13,439 Goiania residents, after the closing of the decontamination works, caused by the violation of the source of 137 Cs, of a teletherapy machine, in 1987. The results of the indicators shown that public's individuals perceive radiation risks and develop behaviors according to a constructive outline. The public does not know technical terms, being quite influenced by media, from where gets information of interest. The public orders the risks, relating them to accidents according to subjective criteria and models them as unknown, new and not observed at short period, establishing destruction, environmental catastrophe and diseases images. (author)

  4. Public acceptance and public relations. Communication approach to related pre-public relation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-07-01

    A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policyand science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power.

  5. Public acceptance of residential solar photovoltaic technology in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Gaining independence from fossil fuels and combating climate change are the main factors to increase the generation of electricity from renewable fuels. Amongst the renewable technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV is believed to have the largest potential. However, the number of people adopting solar PV technologies is still relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the household consumers’ acceptance of solar PV technology being installed on their premises. Design/methodology/approach – To examine the solar PV technology acceptance, this study uses technology acceptance model (TAM as a reference framework. A survey was conducted to gather data and to validate the research model. Out of 780 questionnaires distributed across Malaysia, 663 were returned and validated. Findings – The analysis revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude to use significantly influenced behavioural intention to use solar PV technology. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes by extending the understanding of public inclination towards the adoption of solar PV technology. Also, this study contributes in identifying the areas which need to be examined further. However, collecting data from urban peninsular Malaysian respondents only limits the generalization of the results. Practical implications – On the policy front, this study reveals that governmental support is needed to trigger PV acceptance. Originality/value – This paper uses TAM to analyse the uptake of solar PV technology in Malaysian context.

  6. Reevaluating NIMBY: Evolving Public Fear and Acceptance in Siting a Nuclear Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Nowlin, Matthew C.; deLozier, Grant (Dept. of Political Science, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    2010-09-15

    The not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome has long been the focus of academic and policy research. We test several competing hypothesis concerning the sources of NIMBY sentiments, including demographics, proximity, political ideology and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. To test these hypotheses we use survey data collected in New Mexico dealing with risk perceptions and acceptance related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP), a permanent storage site for radioactive waste located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP became operational and received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning the 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those in the most proximate counties to WIPP. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself

  7. Reevaluating NIMBY: Evolving Public Fear and Acceptance in Siting a Nuclear Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Nowlin, Matthew C.; de Lozier, Grant

    2010-09-01

    The not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome has long been the focus of academic and policy research. We test several competing hypothesis concerning the sources of NIMBY sentiments, including demographics, proximity, political ideology and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. To test these hypotheses we use survey data collected in New Mexico dealing with risk perceptions and acceptance related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP), a permanent storage site for radioactive waste located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP became operational and received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning the 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those in the most proximate counties to WIPP. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself

  8. Bioremediation, regulatory agencies and public acceptance of this technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlake, D. W. S.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of bioremediation, i.e. the utilization of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants, the dangers and consequences inherent in the large-scale use of microbial organisms in such processes, and the role of regulatory agencies in the utilization and exploitation of bioremediation technologies, were discussed. Factors influencing public acceptance of bioremediation as a satisfactory tool for cleaning up the environment vis-a-vis other existing and potential rehabilitation techniques were also reviewed. The ambiguity of regulatory agencies in the matter of bioremediation was noted. For example, there are many regulatory hurdles relative to the testing, use and approval of transgenic microorganisms for use in bioremediation. On the other hand, the use and release of engineered plants is considered merely another form of hybrid and their endorsement is proceeding rapidly. With regard to public acceptance, the author considered bioremediation technology as too recent, with not enough successful applications to attract public attention. Although the evidence suggests that bioremediation is environmentally safe, the efficacy, reliability and predictability of the various technologies have yet to be demonstrated. 25 refs

  9. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  10. Good acceptance: Public opinion about nuclear energy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, Andrej; Istenic, Radko

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is performing extensive public information activities. All the elementary and high schools in Slovenia are invited to visit our permanent exhibition and attend the lecture about the nuclear energy or radioactive waste disposal. In the year 1998 7427 visitors visited us. Most of them are from the 7th and 8th grade of elementary school, age 14 to 15. Every year in the spring we ask several hundred of visitors the same set of questions about their knowledge and opinion about nuclear energy. They are polled before they listen to the lecture or visit the exhibition. In that way we are trying to obtain their opinion based on the knowledge they obtain in everyday life. This paper shows the Result of the 1999 Poll. Comparison of the results with previous years shows stable and steadily improving public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia. The following conclusions can be obtained: Cleanliness of nuclear power is not well understood and should be stressed in information activities; Radioactive waste is still considered as a major problem of our industry and is even gaining on importance; Percentage of people believing that NPP Krsko should operate until the end of its lifetime is high and steady. For the first time we have determined, that almost of people would accept a new nuclear power plant in the country. No correlation between social environment and understanding of nuclear energy could be found. But, relatively favourable public acceptance can change over night. Therefore a permanent information activity is essential

  11. Citizen Dialogues on Public Acceptance of Innovative Cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienin, S.F.; Kasemir, B. [PSI and sustainserv GmbH (Switzerland); Gassmann, F.; Wokaun, A.

    2004-03-01

    Studying acceptance of citizens concerning innovative technology is a central element in developing effective strategies to attain a more sustainable future. To this aim, a method based on discussions in small focus groups has been developed. In the framework of the programme '2000-Watt-Society: Pilot Region Basel' and the novatlantis project 'Mobility Module', this method was used to assess public attitudes to-wards natural gas, biogas , and hydrogen as alternative fuels for cars. The setup of respective citizen dialogues and some results are presented. (author)

  12. The different timescales versus the regulatory framework and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigfusson, J.O.; Gay, D.

    2002-01-01

    Both introductory presentations and the ensuing discussions suggested that one key issue ultimately underlies any consideration about timescales and regulation: the issue of how to balance information relative to short- and distant-time risks and hence how to address the question of compliance judgement in different time frames. 'Can we judge in the same way an impact occurring now and in 50 000 or 1 million years?' was thus a central question for discussion in this group. This issue was tackled from three different points of view: ethics, science and public acceptance. (authors)

  13. Role of market information in gaining public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry challenge to gain acceptance for its next generation of nuclear power plants is immense. If not the majority, then a vocal minority, has doubts about the technology, its need, or those who implement it. Perceptions about the nuclear industry are complex. These are due to the difficulty in understanding the technology itself, the trade-offs of benefits against repercussions, and well-publicized plant problems. The industry requires a continual flow of actionable and comprehensive market information as input for decision making. The cost of implementing misdirected strategies is high. If not sensitive to public needs, the cost is opposition to nuclear development based on faulty or unsubstantiated reasoning. This paper addresses the required market information flow. It is suggested that a market information system is necessary for timely and usable information to ensure understanding of industry developmental efforts

  14. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA) [fr

  15. Importance of reportable events with regard to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Although risk assessments have shown that the transport of radioactive material (RAM) only contributes a very small part of the overall risk of nuclear energy, the public is still concerned about the safety of these transport operations. This is due to the fact that during such an operation RAM may come in the vicinity of everybody and that most people are familiar with the effects of ordinary transport accidents. It is therefore important to achieve public acceptance, that means, to convince the public that transport of RAM is really safe. Four points are of special importance in this connection: (1) information of the public about the safety philosophy and the radiation protection principles developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the transport of RAM. The planned edition of explanatory material to the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 - the so-called why document - is very important for this point; (2) information about the average and maximal individual annual doses for members of the public from normal transport of RAM; (3) information of the public about accident experiences in transport of RAM and the excellent safety standard reached in this field; and (4) information of the public about the extent and the results of governmental controls in this field. In the Federal Republic of Germany the states are requested to report to the Federal Ministry of the Interior all special events occurring during handling and carriage of RAM. The main purpose of these reports is to inform the competent authorities and to draw - if necessary - the conclusion for the improvement of protective measures

  16. Gaining public acceptance for nuclear power: the Philippine approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, L.D.; Remedios, A.; Savelano, M.P.A.

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the strategy adopted by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commisssion (PAEC) to gain acceptance for the country's nuclear power program. It explores the various dimensions of Philippine society that affects the attainment of this objective, including cultural obstacles typical of a developing nation. Points of controversy regarding the introduction of nuclear power are identified as are likely change agents in the process of transformation of public reactions of hostility and indifference to general acceptance. The PAEC outreach information program for the nuclear power project has been directed at - the policy makers to persuade them to give maximum support to the project through its integration into the country's development strategy; - the facilitating administrative agencies to provide adequate resources for the project; - the implementing agencies including those in supportive technology, research and training to recognize the top priority ranking of nuclear power for their work plans and programs; and; - the end-users and beneficiaries of an adequate power supply. The time frame for the PAEC information campaign spans three stages of the project: Phase I. Planning (including site selection); Phase II. Construction; and Phase III. Operation. The strategy reaches out to all sectors and involves linkages with educational institutions, scientific societies, technological and civic organizations, and such publics as the studentry, professionals and the community as a whole. It utilizes thought leaders and the mass media, both print and broadcast, in addition to PAEC resources, in the generation of favorable public opinion under a planned and systematic effort at mass appeal. Finally, the article describes in detail the PAEC public information delivery system, its organizational structure, components, linkages and activities within the framework of another PAEC mandated function to regulate nuclear facilities

  17. Public Acceptance of Marine Renewable Energy in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Xin-Le; Lam, Wei-Haur

    2014-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) on marine renewable energy (MRE) in Malaysia is still in its initial stage. It is crucial to know the level of acceptance of MRE among Malaysians in order to push the technology forward. A survey was conducted to investigate public acceptance of MRE in SS2, Petaling Jaya. In addition, a face-to-face interview was conducted to understand the concerns of an investor about investing in renewable energy (RE) projects. The results of analysis showed that 82.8% of the respondents support MRE implementation in Malaysia. However, 56.8% of the respondents are reluctant to pay for green electricity. The reason is directly linked to the NIMBYist (NIMBY= Not in My Backyard) attitudes of Malaysian citizens. They are unwilling to support green energy by involving themselves, participating or paying money. Furthermore, the interviewee, on behalf of investors, expressed some opinions on concerns about investment in RE projects. Several ministries and departments are suggested as being important in MRE development. - Highlights: • 82.8% of the respondents were supportive towards marine renewable energy (MRE) implementation. • 56.8% of the respondents were reluctant to pay for green electricity. • Public generally have a NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) approach, support green without involvement and money. • Important governmental agencies for MRE development are suggested

  18. Achieving public acceptance. Lessons from national repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all countries pursuing nuclear waste repository programs have had long and dynamic histories. There have had changes in policies, programs, and national laws, many successes and more failures. Most continue to pursue the siting and development of geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of the spent nuclear fuel (or reprocessed wastes) arising from the operation of nuclear power plants. And while many have had very strong repository science and technology programs, they have continued to find significant challenges associated with the societal acceptance issues required for such programs to be successful. Over recent years repository programs have developed and implemented rather different approaches to managing the non-technical (e.g. societal, political, and institutional) aspects of repository program development. This is not unexpected as programs have had different histories, operate under different laws, reside in countries with different cultures and values, and are managed under different formulations. For example, the U.S. program is implemented by a branch of the Department of Energy while in several other countries the program is managed by a separate corporation on behalf of the nuclear waste owners or dedicated quasi-governmental organizations. These similar, but different programs, and their rich histories and current work, provide an excellent opportunity to investigate features that have and have not proven successful in helping to achieve public acceptance. This paper will review some of the compelling aspects and provide some guidelines for applications in other national circumstances. Recent experiences will be evaluated to discern emerging trends for achieving public acceptance in nuclear repository development and in the broader dimensions associated with the potential renaissance of nuclear power. (author)

  19. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Utilization of a university reactor for public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Reactor Research and Education Center

    2015-06-15

    AGN-201K is a university reactor in Kyung Hee University (KHU) mainly used for student education as training short course as well as academic course for senior-level. After the Fukushima accident, public concern on radiation hazard has been increased beyond rational level at a neighboring country. It was found that AGN-201K be the perfect tool for interaction with general public. It is very safe to operate with general participants because it is adapted to the very low power. However, radiation level is reasonably high to detect and shield for practice. KHU has a Regional Radiation Monitoring Post where environmental radiation level at Suwon city is continuously measured. In this facility, radiation level at soil, rain, and local agricultural products were measured and reported to the national monitoring headquarter. A new mission of reactor research and education center of KHU has been tried from last summer. Facilities were opened for high school students and teachers for their science camps during summer and winter. A special public acceptance program named as experience camp for understanding the nuclear power and radiation was held 6 times for the last one-year period. Even though number of attendee was limited and small, feedback from participants was hot and positive enough to make professors be ready to sacrifice their personal time.

  1. Utilization of a university reactor for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    AGN-201K is a university reactor in Kyung Hee University (KHU) mainly used for student education as training short course as well as academic course for senior-level. After the Fukushima accident, public concern on radiation hazard has been increased beyond rational level at a neighboring country. It was found that AGN-201K be the perfect tool for interaction with general public. It is very safe to operate with general participants because it is adapted to the very low power. However, radiation level is reasonably high to detect and shield for practice. KHU has a Regional Radiation Monitoring Post where environmental radiation level at Suwon city is continuously measured. In this facility, radiation level at soil, rain, and local agricultural products were measured and reported to the national monitoring headquarter. A new mission of reactor research and education center of KHU has been tried from last summer. Facilities were opened for high school students and teachers for their science camps during summer and winter. A special public acceptance program named as experience camp for understanding the nuclear power and radiation was held 6 times for the last one-year period. Even though number of attendee was limited and small, feedback from participants was hot and positive enough to make professors be ready to sacrifice their personal time.

  2. Risk analysis for new nuclear waste sites: Will it generate public acceptance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses public acceptance of radioactive waste facilities and what seems to be increasingly militant stances against such facilities. The role of risk assessment in possibly enhancing public acceptance is investigated

  3. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  4. Application of memetic engineering to the struggle for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the events that created this meme, and the reasons for its robust and contagious nature. A method is proposed for increasing nuclear power's public acceptance, not by attacking the 'nuclear-phobia' meme directly, but by employing its own ability to survive and replicate in an indirect campaign against itself. An analogy is made to genetic engineering ('memetic engineering'), from which strategies may be borrowed. One example is 'meme-splicing' - the insertion of a foreign, but compatible, pro-nuclear meme amongst existing memes known to possess favourable replication characteristics. In this context Global Climate Change is discussed, and in particular the international effort to raise awareness of nuclear power's potential contribution to this cause. (authors)

  5. Acceptability of a microfinance-based empowerment intervention for transgender and cisgender women sex workers in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Priya; Shaw, Stacey A.; Saifi, Rumana; Sherman, Susan G.; Azmi, Nuruljannah Nor; Pillai, Veena; El-Bassel, Nabila; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cisgender and transgender woman sex workers (CWSWs and TWSWs, respectively) are key populations in Malaysia with higher HIV-prevalence than that of the general population. Given the impact economic instability can have on HIV transmission in these populations, novel HIV prevention interventions that reduce poverty may reduce HIV incidence and improve linkage and retention to care for those already living with HIV. We examine the feasibility of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention among CWSW and TWSWs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: We conducted 35 in-depth interviews to examine the acceptability of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention, focusing on: (1) participants’ readiness to engage in other occupations and the types of jobs in which they were interested in; (2) their level of interest in the components of the potential intervention, including training on financial literacy and vocational education; and (3) possible barriers and facilitators to the successful completion of the intervention. Using grounded theory as a framework of analysis, transcripts were analysed through Nvivo 11. Results: Participants were on average 41 years old, slightly less than half (48%) were married, and more than half (52%) identified as Muslim. Participants express high motivation to seek employment in other professions as they perceived sex work as not a “proper job” with opportunities for career growth but rather as a short-term option offering an unstable form of income. Participants wanted to develop their own small enterprise. Most participants expressed a high level of interest in microfinance intervention and training to enable them to enter a new profession. Possible barriers to intervention participation included time, stigma, and a lack of resources. Conclusion: Findings indicate that a microfinance intervention is acceptable and desirable for CWSWs and TWSWs in urban Malaysian contexts as participants

  6. Acceptability of a microfinance-based empowerment intervention for transgender and cisgender women sex workers in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Priya; Shaw, Stacey A; Saifi, Rumana; Sherman, Susan; Azmi, Nuruljannah Nor; Pillai, Veena; El-Bassel, Nabila; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A

    2017-08-02

    Cisgender and transgender woman sex workers (CWSWs and TWSWs, respectively) are key populations in Malaysia with higher HIV-prevalence than that of the general population. Given the impact economic instability can have on HIV transmission in these populations, novel HIV prevention interventions that reduce poverty may reduce HIV incidence and improve linkage and retention to care for those already living with HIV. We examine the feasibility of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention among CWSW and TWSWs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We conducted 35 in-depth interviews to examine the acceptability of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention, focusing on: (1) participants' readiness to engage in other occupations and the types of jobs in which they were interested in; (2) their level of interest in the components of the potential intervention, including training on financial literacy and vocational education; and (3) possible barriers and facilitators to the successful completion of the intervention. Using grounded theory as a framework of analysis, transcripts were analysed through Nvivo 11. Participants were on average 41 years old, slightly less than half (48%) were married, and more than half (52%) identified as Muslim. Participants express high motivation to seek employment in other professions as they perceived sex work as not a "proper job" with opportunities for career growth but rather as a short-term option offering an unstable form of income. Participants wanted to develop their own small enterprise. Most participants expressed a high level of interest in microfinance intervention and training to enable them to enter a new profession. Possible barriers to intervention participation included time, stigma, and a lack of resources. Findings indicate that a microfinance intervention is acceptable and desirable for CWSWs and TWSWs in urban Malaysian contexts as participants reported that they were ready to engage in alternative forms of

  7. Neck of public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Soichiro.

    1978-01-01

    Discussion is lacking concerning the public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan. In case of the atomic powered ship Mutsu, an opponent says that the ship carries an atomic bomb, but a member of a support group says that the ship emits soft radiation like a hot spring. This is an example of discussion, and most of discussions are made under the political interest, instead of on the scientific base. In Japan, preparatory negotiations are required in advance to the decision making meeting in most cases. Therefore, most of substantial discussions are not public. Engineers in the nuclear industry can hardly express their opinion concerning the development of atomic energy. Most of the data for discussions are not original, but foreign data. Reasons for the development of atomic energy change case by case. It is necessary to consider that people will decide their opinion according to whether the responsible person is reliable or not. Some people oppose to atomic energy to find a new sense of value. Now, all people are requested to think and discuss the problem of atomic energy calmly. (Kato, T.)

  8. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  9. Public acceptance of nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohori, H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Japanese set out to achieve the peaceful uses of atomic energy in 1956, the question of public acceptance took on serious proportions only as the development of nuclear power moved toward commercial application. A string of reactor troubles over the past few years complicated the question apparently to the point where it could scarcely be worse. It is not possible to deal with opposition movements in Japan without taking into account the background of the special national sentiment born of the people's experience of the atomic bombings, but it is also true that the people's deep-going fears of atomic energy have been increased by sensational newspaper reports, as well as internetional attacks by the opponents of nuclear development. Added to this, the ''Mutsu'' incident and other troubles have given the people distrust of the whole nuclear administration and those responsible for nuclear regulation. but, at the same time, the oil crisis of 1973 brought about an awakening of the people to the need for the development of nuclear power to solve Japan's energy problems, for Japan is seriously lacking in natural resources. An influential newspaper took samplings of public opinion in 1975 which revealed that, while 48 percent of the people expressed fears of atomic energy, 70 percent, including those who had some misgivings but still took the need for granted, said that Japan has no choice but to depend on nuclear power. The Government and industry have made long-range projections on nuclear power generation, forecasting that it will expand to 25 percent of all power generating plants by 1985, and to 35 percent by 1990. The gravest problem to be solved if this projected scale of nuclear development is to be achieved is the shortage of adequate plant sites. This can not be solved unless every effort is made to dispel the general feeling of mistrust mentioned, and to make sure that the development of nuclear power is socially accepted. It is hoped that the

  10. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  11. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance[Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quillin, Robert M [Radiation Control Division, Colorado Department of Health, Denver, CO (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  13. Public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Japan's nuclear development is carried out in the spirit of the Atomic Energy Basic Law that it adopted in 1955. The only nation in the world devastated by nuclear weapons, Japan strongly hopes for the abolishment of nuclear weapons and promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Since Japan is in poor in natural resources nuclear power has now become a major foundation of our society and economy. As far as the Japanese people's awareness of nuclear power generation is concerned, 60% recognize it as necessary although 70% are concerned about its safety. The public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy is facing a critical juncture at thus point due to such imminent issues as the use of plutonium and the disposal of high-level wastes. The entire Japanese government is currently striving to promote PA measures targeting various population groups. This paper reports on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and Japan's stance on this issue; people's awareness; and the current state of nuclear energy PA measures. 1 fig

  14. Location and public acceptance of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of problems concerning the sites of nuclear power plants and policy of the government to develop nuclear power plants are presented. At present, national consensus about atomic energy is not yet sufficient in Japan. Accordingly, it is hard to get proper location for nuclear power plants, and more effort is required. Reasons of the hindrance of atomic energy development are not same, but they are based on lack of understanding, social and local situations, and interests accompanying atomic energy development. Also, there is effects from the activities of opposition groups. The most important factor is lack of communication between those concerned with the development and residents around prospective sites. The government has investigated how to promote the atomic energy development, taking into account the present status of public acceptance. The system to promote the development of sites for nuclear power plants has been established. Political efforts for improving the welfare of residents have been made, and three laws for the purpose were approved. According to these laws, subsidiary money is paid to cities, towns and villages where power plants are located. Speeding up and smoothing of legal procedures concerning the location for power plants are also studied. (Kato, T.)

  15. Behavioral Economics and the Public Acceptance of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Different applications of synthetic biology are alike in that their possible negative consequences are highly uncertain, potentially catastrophic, and perhaps irreversible; therefore, they are also alike in that public attitudes about them are fertile ground for behavioral economic phenomena. Findings from behavioral economics suggest that people may not respond to such applications according to the normal rules of economic evaluation, by which the value of an outcome is multiplied by the mathematical probability that the outcome will occur. Possibly, then, synthetic biology applications challenge the normative postulates of the standard approach, too. I want to first consider how some of the phenomena described by behavioral economists-and behavioral scientists more broadly-might affect people's perceptions of the uncertainties associated with synthetic biology. My analysis will be far from complete, however, because behavioral economics is essentially the study of human behavior, and thus its reach is potentially vast and its development longstanding and ongoing. Nonetheless, I hope to give an indicative perspective on how some aspects of behavioral economics might affect the assessment and perceived acceptability of synthetic biology. I will then consider the issue of agency. Should policy-makers respect people's reactions to synthetic biology when those reactions are known to be driven by behavioral economic phenomena rather than following the normative postulates of rational choice theory? Or should policy-makers dismiss these reactions as inherently biased? I will argue that the normative force of these human reactions (probably) depends on phenomenon and context. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  16. Sociocultural factors in public acceptance: comparative risk studies involving France, the USA and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M.; Mays, C.

    1995-12-31

    Examples are given of two types of comparative study that explore the sociocultural factors that shape public attitudes. In the first, public perceptions of nuclear power were assessed by answers to a questionnaire on a broad range of factors by 1500 people in France and the USA. A degree of homogeniety was observed in the responses from France and the USA. Strikingly, both populations agreed in their evaluation of the health risk represented by nuclear power plant. Thus the apparently greater acceptance of nuclear power in France does not seem to be associated with a lesser perception of risk. However, presented with the statement ``We can trust the experts and engineers who build, operate and regulate nuclear power`` 66% of the French agreed compared to only 43% of the Americans. These results reflect two different types of relationship between society and authority. In the second study the approach to gaining public trust and acceptance in the siting of nuclear waste research facilities was compared between the UK and France. Striking differences were found. In this case, too, an explanation can be put forward in terms of the sociocultural variables which influence institutional decision making, particularly in the role and form given to authority. (UK).

  17. Public Acceptance of Low-Level Waste Disposal Critical to the Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonny Goldston, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of various Low-Level Waste (LLW) forms projected to result from the operation of a pilot or large scale Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Programs' (formally known as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)) reprocessing and vitrification plants requires the DOE LLW program and regulatory structure to be utilized in its present form due to the limited availability of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed commercial LLW disposal facilities to handle wastes with radionuclide concentrations that are greater than Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class A limits. This paper will describe the LLW forms and the regulatory structures and facilities available to dispose of this waste. Then the paper discusses the necessity of an excellent public involvement program to ensure the success of an effective technical solution. All of the decisions associated with the management of these wastes are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without including the public up-front in the program formulation. Serious problems can result if program decisions are made without public involvement, and if the public is informed after key decisions are made. This paper will describe the regulatory and public involvement program and their effects on the decisions concerning the disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive public communications effort resulted in endorsement of changes in disposal practices by the SRS Citizens Advisory Board that was critical to the success of the program. A recommendation will be made to install a public involvement program that is similar to the SRS Citizens Advisory Board in order to ensure the success of the AFCI programs in view of the limited availability to handle the wastes from the program and the public acceptance of change that will be required. (authors)

  18. Public acceptance (PA) activities of nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masafumi; Iguchi, Tatsuro

    1993-10-01

    At the first part of presentation present status of nuclear power development in Japan is described. Then results of poll on nuclear energy acceptance by population are analyzed. Further, current activities and future efforts directed to broad understanding by people benefits of nuclear energy are described. 6 figs

  19. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.; Prestwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics' trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles

  20. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  1. Nuclear knowledge, trust and public acceptance of nuclear developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, A.L.; Bell, B.S.; Bourassa, C.M.; Fried, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    While nuclear sector activities remain contentious public issues, studies suggest that knowledge levels and trust in nuclear actors can influence public attitudes. Drawing on original data from a 2013 representative telephone survey of Saskatchewan residents, this paper considers the extent to which knowledge and trust influence support for nuclear developments. Saskatchewan provides an interesting case study: while the province has a robust uranium mining industry, there are no nuclear power facilities, and the potential development of nuclear energy and nuclear fuel waste storage has been a source of spirited public debate. The study's results have implications for public education and policy initiatives regarding nuclear power developments. (author)

  2. Nuclear knowledge, trust and public acceptance of nuclear developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, A.L.; Bell, B.S.; Bourassa, C.M.; Fried, D.J., E-mail: Loleen.Berdahl@usask.ca, E-mail: Bourassa@edwards.usask.ca, E-mail: Scott.Bell@usask.ca, E-mail: Jana.Fried@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    While nuclear sector activities remain contentious public issues, studies suggest that knowledge levels and trust in nuclear actors can influence public attitudes. Drawing on original data from a 2013 representative telephone survey of Saskatchewan residents, this paper considers the extent to which knowledge and trust influence support for nuclear developments. Saskatchewan provides an interesting case study: while the province has a robust uranium mining industry, there are no nuclear power facilities, and the potential development of nuclear energy and nuclear fuel waste storage has been a source of spirited public debate. The study's results have implications for public education and policy initiatives regarding nuclear power developments. (author)

  3. National and international cooperation for public acceptance of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, I.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Current status of public acceptance of nuclear power and efforts for enhancing the acceptance are briefly reviewed. Discussion is made of the needs for, and ways of, cooperation among related national institutions and agencies. Need of inter-disciplinary approach is also stressed. Desirable participants in activities for gaining public acceptance of nuclear power are identified, where - in the participation of women in PA efforts receives particular importance. In dealing with the needs for and ways of international cooperation, roles of, and coordination among, international organizations/associations concerning public acceptance of nuclear power are discussed

  4. The lessons of Three Mile Island - public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation is given of the effects which the accident at Three Mile Island has had on public acceptance of nuclear power in the United States. Furthermore the impact of the changes in public acceptance on the financing of nuclear power projects is assessed. (author)

  5. Acceptance and Adoption of Open Access Publication (OAP) in University Libraries in South East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Manasseh Tyungu; Raphael, Gabriel Okplogidi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the kinds of open access scholarly publication or information resources accepted and adopted by federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. The purpose was to determine the factors that affect open access scholarly publication or information resources acceptance and adoption in university libraries. The study adopted…

  6. Public perception process of nuclear power risk and some enlightenment to public education for nuclear power acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based on the international research literatures on perception of risks, designs a conceptual model of public perception of nuclear power risk. In this model, it is considered that the public perception of nuclear power risk is a dynamic, complicate and closed system and is a process from subjective perception to objective risk. Based on the features of the public perception of nuclear power risk and multi-faceted dimension influences as discussed, suggestions for the public education for nuclear power acceptance are given in five aspects with indication that the public education for nuclear power acceptance plays an important role in maintaining the public perception of nuclear power risk system. (author)

  7. A Swedish nuclear fuel facility and public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bengt A [ABB Atom (Sweden)

    1989-07-01

    For more than ten years the ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Facility has gained a lot of public attention in Sweden. When the nuclear power debate was coming up in the middle of the seventies, the Nuclear Fuel Facility very soon became a spectacular object. It provided a possibility to bring factual information about nuclear power to the public. Today that public interest still exists. For ABB Atom the Facility works as a tool of information activities in several ways, as a solid base for ABB Atom company presentations. but also as a very practical demonstration of the nuclear power technology to the public. This is valid especially to satisfy the local school demand for a real life object complementary to the theoretical nuclear technology education. Beyond the fact that the Nuclear Fuel Facility is a very effective fuel production plant, it is not too wrong to see it as an important resource for education as well as a tool for improved public relations.

  8. A Swedish nuclear fuel facility and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bengt A.

    1989-01-01

    For more than ten years the ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Facility has gained a lot of public attention in Sweden. When the nuclear power debate was coming up in the middle of the seventies, the Nuclear Fuel Facility very soon became a spectacular object. It provided a possibility to bring factual information about nuclear power to the public. Today that public interest still exists. For ABB Atom the Facility works as a tool of information activities in several ways, as a solid base for ABB Atom company presentations. but also as a very practical demonstration of the nuclear power technology to the public. This is valid especially to satisfy the local school demand for a real life object complementary to the theoretical nuclear technology education. Beyond the fact that the Nuclear Fuel Facility is a very effective fuel production plant, it is not too wrong to see it as an important resource for education as well as a tool for improved public relations

  9. Public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy in China from questionnaire and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Zhang Zuoyi; Ma Yanxiu; Shi Zhengang; Liu Changxin

    2010-01-01

    China's nuclear industry is recently experiencing rapid development, creating a need for research into public perceptions and acceptance of nuclear power. In this paper, we propose a strategy for investigating public perception and acceptance in China, in a continuous and accurate way, and testing the effectiveness of public education in order to find a proper way to improve the perception and acceptance of nuclear energy in China. Questionnaires are conducted separately both before and after public education activities on nuclear energy held in Beijing. Some conclusions and future continuation of this study are also discussed. (author)

  10. Institutional innovation to generate the public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Contrasting experiences of public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal are compared for the United Kingdom, France, Sweden and Canada. The disparity between scientifically assessed and publicly perceived levels of risk is noted. The author argues that the form of decision-making process is more important to public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal than the technology of disposal. Public risk perception can be altered by procedures employed in planning, negotiation and consultation. Precisely what constitutes acceptable risk does vary from country to country, and differences in institutional responses and innovation are particularly highlighted. (UK)

  11. Gaining Public Acceptance: A Critical Strategic Priority of the World Commission on Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dore

    2010-06-01

    To earn legitimacy and more likely acceptance of important public decisions we suggest a comprehensive set of 'gold standard' state-society attributes for improving governance. Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs can help deliberation to become routine, enabling complex water issues to be more rigorously examined. The combination of increased public trust, earned by the state, and high-quality MSPs to assist more informed negotiations, we see as being key to the gaining of public acceptance.

  12. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lucht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  13. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values. PMID:26264020

  14. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M

    2015-07-30

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths-also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops-of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer's attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion-including calls for labeling of GM food-in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers' concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers' attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  15. Public and media acceptance of nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, E.

    1999-01-01

    Transport is absolutely essential to the continued existence of a nuclear industry that includes large-scale power generation, sophisticated research, and medicine. Indeed, transport of nuclear materials is hardly a new business. What is new is the public's awareness and distrust of this transport - a distrust fuelled by the well-funded and skilled manipulation of the nuclear industry's detractors. The nuclear industry itself has only recently begun to acknowledge the importance and the implications of transport. This paper looks at the public and media response to the European-Japanese and the US Department of Energy's transport campaigns and quotes from several telling newspaper articles. It emphasizes the need for the nuclear industry to continue to be vigilant in its efforts to reach the public, media and governments with good science, openness and well-communicated facts. (author)

  16. Radiological risks and public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, Vitaly

    2001-01-01

    This presentation deals with: Nuclear Power Progress and Anti-nuclear Movement; Real Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident; radiation protection Linear-Non-Threshold Concept as a main feature of ICRP-60 recommendations; irradiation effects in cells; future of nuclear energy -in restoration public trust in its safety and effectiveness

  17. Public acceptability of risk of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millerd, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A ''public interest'' viewpoint is presented on the disposal of radioactive wastes. Criteria for the development of disposal methods are needed. The current program to develop disposal sites and methods has become an experiment. The advantages and disadvantages of radwaste disposal as an ongoing experiment are discussed briefly

  18. Crucial factors influencing public acceptance of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    An important component of the wildland fire problem in the United States is the growing number of people living in high fire hazard areas. How people in these areas contribute to fire risk--or potentially decrease it--will be shaped by their attitudes and beliefs toward different fuel treatment approaches. Understanding the issues and concerns that influence public...

  19. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 151 soil samples and 135 canine faecal samples were collected from 7 public sandpits and 12 public parks, over a 4 month-period. Soil samples were tested by a modified centrifugation and sedimentation/flotation technique and faecal samples were tested by an adaptation of the Cornell-Wisconsin method. Molecular analysis and sequencing were performed to discriminate Toxocara species in the soil. Overall, 85.7% of the sandpits (6/7) and 50.0% of the parks (6/12) were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The molecular analysis of soil samples showed that, 85.5% of the sandpits and 34.4% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara cati eggs. Faecal analysis showed that 12.5% of the sandpits and 3.9% of the parks contained Toxocara canis eggs. In total, 53.0% of soil and 5.9% of faecal samples were positive for Toxocara spp. Additionally, 56.0% of the eggs recovered from the samples were embryonated after 60 days of incubation, therefore considered viable and infective. The average density was 4.2 eggs per hundred grams of soil. Public parks and playground sandpits in the Lisbon area were found to be heavily contaminated with T. cati eggs, representing a serious menace to public health as the studied areas represent common places where people of all ages, particularly children, recreate. This study sounds an alarm bell regarding the necessity to undertake effective measures such as reduction of stray animals, active faecal

  20. Public acceptance of carbon capture and storage in Germany; Gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz von CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung und -Speicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, M.; Pietzner, K. [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt und Energie (Germany); Kuckshinrichs, W.; Schumann, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Inst. fuer Energieforschung - Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEF-STE) (Germany); Radgen, P.; Cremer, C.; Gruber, E.; Schnepf, N. [Fraunhofer Inst. System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Roser, A.; Idrissova, F. [BSR Sustainability GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Analyses of public attitudes towards and the acceptance and risk perception of energy policy and energy technology options are becoming increasingly important. In a technical society such as ours public acceptance of technical innovations cannot always be taken for granted, and high priority must therefore be given to determining the conditions under which the implementation of new technologies might meet with public acceptance. Experience has shown that complex technologies involving large-scale installations meet with greater acceptance problems than other areas of technology. This is especially the case with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The commercial use of CCS not only raises questions about its technical, economic and legal feasibility but will also meet head-on with a discussion as to its public acceptance.

  1. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Gaspar, D. de; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

  2. Nuclear energy and its public acceptance in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, A.

    1981-01-01

    Heavily dependent on imported oil, Japan with a nuclear park of 22 working power plants meets with public opposition for its nuclear program extension. Consequently, the foreseen 53.000 MWe installed nuclear capacity will be reduced to some 30.000 MWe for the beginning of the nineties. The paper analyses the different varieties of factors clogging the development of nuclear energy such as social, psychological and economic aspects and describes the information campaigns of concerned milieus in order to deal with this situation and comments the final results of these actions. Two concrete examples of confrontation of the public with the authorities on the approval of new nuclear power plant projects are presented. (AF)

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arungu-Olende, S; Francis, J M; Gaspar, D de; Nashed, W; Nwosu, B C.E.; Rose, D J; Shinn, R L [World Council of Churches, Working Committee on Church and Society, Energy Advisory Group, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1977-12-15

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives.

  4. Public acceptance of nuclear energy: a remote possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia Maria Orlando; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy made its first and most dramatic appearance to the public through the explosions of nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, after 50 years, that bad impression still remains. In Brazil, the radiological accident involving the violation of a source of Cs-137, abandoned in a clinic in Goiania, in 1987, contributed even more to the negative image associated with the nuclear field. Since then, this accident has been systematically explored by the national midia. There are strong indications that the public's irrational and absolute conviction that ionizing radiation causes only harm constitutes the biggest obstacle to be overcome by the defenders of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. The present article, using data obtained from different researches conducted in developed countries, aims to identify factors which may contribute to the comprehension of the world-wide rejection of nuclear energy, propose mechanisms to change this negative image by means of assuring the safety of nuclear and radioactive installations as well as implementing continuous and broad programmes to educate and enlighten the Brazilian public. (author)

  5. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrecht, P.; Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.; de Gaspar, D.

    1977-01-01

    Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

  6. The Temelin NPP start-up and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufkova, Marie

    2001-01-01

    This presentation shows a brief description of Temelin construction history; Power demand trends in Czech Republic; Political situation, governmental decisions; Public opinion polls and question of referendum; Long term informational and educational programme; Temelin Information Centre, plant tours, regional Temelin Newspapers; Lectures and seminars for schools; Regional lobbying: co-operation with Association of neighbour towns; Communication with media and so-called ,'equilibrium' of news (95 % of Czech print media is owned by German companies); Influence of international events (Barsebaeck, German 'Ausstieg' etc.); Antinuke organisations in the CR and their strategy; Anti-nuclear Mothers and pro-nuclear Fathers; Opposition crosses borders (how close is Temelin to the Austrian borders? Who does not like to have cheap electricity?); International expert missions, EU safety standards and environmental impact studies: communication of results by experts versus communication of the same results by politicians

  7. Public acceptance of prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Tushin, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The issue of constructing a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus is far from being new. The Republic was oriented to development of nuclear power industry by the Energy Programme adopted in the former USSR. In 1983 the construction of the Minsk Nuclear Heat and Power Plant (NHPP) with a projected output of 2 million kW was initiated, the construction of a NPP with an output of 6 million KW was planned. The Chernobyl accident however shut down all on-going projects in nuclear power engineering. After the collapse of the interconnected power system that united the republics of the former USSR, Belarus found itself in the energy crisis. The nuclear industry is thus considered to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy problems, which are nowadays intensively discussed through mass media. One of the major arguments spoke out by nuclear power opponents is the Chernobyl syndrome, which is incident to a significant portion of the population. The sociological monitoring of the public opinion is carried out for revealing the attitude of the population to the suggested ways of overcoming the energy crisis and the prospects of developing the nuclear power industry. During the period of 1995-1998 three sociological studies were accomplished. The first sociological study showed that 40.9% of population supported the NPP construction, 39 % were against and 19.2% could not answer. In the second study the poll covered general public and 'experts', representatives of scientific community, educationalists, managers of various levels etc. The result confirmed a growing support of construction NPP by the population. The third sociological study was conducted autumn 1998 which polled both mass media professionals and general public. Among the respondents 67.5% revealed their stiff and rather bellicose attitude to possible construction of NPP. While among the population only every third respondent can be related to the convinced opponents of the NPP construction and among the

  8. Vehicle-to-Vehicle crash avoidance technology : public acceptance final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Crash Avoidance Public Acceptance report summarizes data from a survey of the current level of awareness and acceptance of V2V technology. The survey was guided by findings from prior studies and 12 focus groups. A total ...

  9. Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage archive services: a study of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines the antecedents of user acceptance of an audio-visual heritage archive for a wider audience (i.e., the general public) by extending the technology acceptance model with the concepts of perceived enjoyment, nostalgia proneness and personal innovativeness. Method. A

  10. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  12. Public perceptions and acceptance of induced earthquakes related to energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, Katherine A.; Lu, Hang; Keranen, Katie M.; Furtney, Maria A.; Song, Hwansuck

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the potential for some energy-related activities to induce earthquakes has created a need to understand how the public evaluates the risks of induced earthquakes versus the benefits of energy development. To address this need, this study presents a web survey that used a between-subjects factorial experimental design to explore the views of 325 U.S. adults, who were asked about their experiences with earthquakes; risk perceptions related to different causes of earthquakes (e.g., natural versus induced); and acceptability of earthquakes depending on the benefits, beneficiaries, and decision making process. The results found that participants had more negative feelings toward induced versus naturally occurring earthquakes. Although they judged no earthquake as “acceptable,” participants rated induced earthquakes significantly less acceptable than naturally occurring ones. Attributing the benefits to the provision of renewable energy or climate change mitigation did not increase induced earthquake acceptability, and no particular beneficiary made earthquakes more acceptable, although private companies as beneficiaries made earthquakes less acceptable. Finally, induced earthquake acceptability was significantly higher when people believed that people like them had a voice in the decision to implement the technology that caused the earthquake, underscoring the importance of public engagement in the development of energy technologies. - Highlights: • Human induced earthquakes were perceived as more negative than natural earthquakes. • Attributing benefits to renewable energy did not increase earthquake acceptability. • Acceptability was highest after a procedurally fair decision making process. • Acceptability was lowest following an expert-driven decision.

  13. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.; Gaspar, D. de; Abrecht, P.

    1977-01-01

    The World Council of Churches is aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible governmental bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. The W.C.C. appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. These questions must be tackled before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made. At present, the public debate is confused. Advocates of nuclear energy plead the achievements of unproven technology, minimizing the unsolved problems, while critics ignore the societal costs of other major energy options, and demand an unrealistic absolute perfection in the design and construction of nuclear power systems. The churches seek to encourage an informed public examination of these issues. The W.C.C. stresses the necessity of resolving the problems of secure waste disposal and those posed by the drift into a dependency on the plutonium fuel economy. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. This is incompatible with the pseudo-secrecy and patronage practiced by developed nuclear countries. The W.C.C. is concerned how the ''access'' versus ''security'' issue is to be resolved. The development of nuclear energy for civilian purposes is linked with the development of nuclear weapons. The

  14. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  15. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index 2 (PCI 2 ). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates

  16. A web-based e-learning framework for public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Liu Jingquan; Ouyang, Jun; Lu Daogang

    2005-01-01

    Now, public acceptance plays a central role in the nuclear energy. Public concerns on safety and sustainability of nuclear energy, ground nuclear power in many countries and territories to a stop or even a downfall. In this study, an e-learning framework by using Internet, is proposed for public education in order to boost public perception on nuclear energy, which will certainly affect public acceptance toward it. This study aims at investigating public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy in a continuous and accurate manner. In addition, this e-learning framework can promote public perception on nuclear energy by using teaching material with a graphical hierarchy about knowledge of nuclear energy. This web-based e-learning framework mainly consists of two components: (1) an e-learning support module which continuously investigates public perception and acceptance toward nuclear energy and teaches public knowledge about nuclear energy; (2) an updating module which may improve the education materials by analyzing the effect of education or proving the materials submitted by the visitors through Wiki pages. Advantages and future work of this study are also generally described. (author)

  17. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  18. Examining Prospects of Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    According to a recent survey, 63.8% of Koreans responded that nuclear power is important but unsafe. Along with this trend, there is a growing anti-nuclear movement in the ROK as a post-Fukushima development enlarging the gap between the government policy and social acceptance. In this research, we examined the prospects of public acceptance of nuclear power in the ROK. For this purpose, the history of nuclear power development and public acceptance changes in the ROK is reviewed and salient factors that affected the historical development are identified. Results are compared with what was observed among other major nuclear power countries such as the U.S., Sweden, Germany and Japan. Some lessons can be learned from other states' experiences to help ROK develop positive nuclear public acceptance. Improving nuclear safety and solving nuclear waste management problem along with enhancing information sharing with the public were found important. Building the culture of trust between government and the public was also very important. As a future work, this study will attempt to perform quantitative analysis of the historical data to identify major factors that might significantly affect public acceptance trend.

  19. Biotechnological innovation impacts, social and ethical aspects and public acceptability; Sicurezza, implicazioni etico-sociali e percezione pubblica delle biotecnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, V [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-11-01

    Biotechnology is a highly distinctive area of scientific activity and its applications can strongly influence human life. Biotechnological innovations impact on sanitary, environmental, social, ethical and economic aspects and it is particularly important a greater public understanding of biotechnology issues in the view of increasing its acceptability. Knowledge and acceptance do not go always in the same direction, as the last is influenced by various complex factors, but without a knowledgeable public there can be no effective democratic agreement. So it appears important that scientific community and industry can promote and diffuse more knowledge among citizens and consumers, taking into account also of social and ethical issues raised by public and public interest groups. In this report bio safety of biotechnology applications and social and ethical issues are analyzed. They receive much attention in the discussion in the biotechnology arena (scientists, industry, institutions and the public). In particular health and environmental risks, gene therapy, transgenic animals, patent issues and genetic resources access, consumers rights are considered. Since the media are central to the dissemination of information and views about science, is has been evidenced their role, in addition to a short analysis of public perception and communication strategies.

  20. Progress and development trends of the research on public acceptance for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Fang Chao; Cao Jianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Scientists keep doing the research on public acceptance for nuclear power during tbe period of 30 years from TMI to Fukushima nuclear accidents. In this paper, the research methods on public acceptance for nuclear power are reviewed. The theoretical basis of the research methods (including social investigation and structural equation model), their essence of social psychology as well as the research methods for public nuclear power at different phases are respectively introduced. The current methods are divided into three stages according to the starting time and depth of the research, and their significance for the current research is discussed. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of the research methods on public acceptance for nuclear power. (authors)

  1. Towards a post-Fukushima Nuclear Energy Public Acceptance Strategy in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwon; Lee, Seah

    2012-01-01

    Promoting 'Nuclear Energy Culture' in a post-Fukushima has become more challenging and such phenomenon reiterated the importance to improve public understanding of peaceful use of nuclear energy by establishing the foundation for continuous implementation of nuclear energy policy through modified communication strategies, mainly due to increased negative public perception after Fukushima accident and its effect on public educational about nuclear energy. It is noticed that the public communication methods diversified by powerful social network services which requires new ways of improving public acceptance. This paper will first, analyze the changes in social environment after Fukushima accident and the promotion strategies that must be developed as a response to the event occurred in Japan and ultimately discuss what we have learned from the accident and what we have to prepare for the future to improve public acceptance of nuclear energy

  2. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.

  3. Energy Projects, Social Licence, Public Acceptance and Regulatory Systems in Canada: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Colton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly difficult in Canada to gain and sustain public acceptance of energy projects. Increased levels of protest, combined with traditional media and social media coverage of opposition, combine to suggest decreased public acceptance of energy projects. Decision-makers have responded accordingly, and a variety of energy projects have either been delayed or put on hold indefinitely. This is true for both conventional and renewable energy projects and in many different regions across the country. A number of proposed energy projects have recently faced opposition from various stakeholder groups. For instance, the decision of the Joint Review Panel for the Northern Gateway Pipeline is being challenged in Canada’s court system. First Nations groups have issued an ultimatum to the Federal Government that it must choose between Site C (a proposed hydro dam and liquefied natural gas development in B.C. Rapid expansion of wind energy projects in Ontario has engendered lengthy and costly appeals and the rise of an anti-wind social movement. In Nova Scotia, tidal energy development is being positioned as a new renewable energy option; gaining public acceptance is critical in light of recent opposition to wind energy development. As these experiences suggest, not only has the regulatory process become more contentious, but also an apparently new concept — social licence — has had popular appeal. This white paper reports on the results of a year-long interdisciplinary collaboration aimed at identifying and summarizing extant research regarding social licence and related concepts, with a particular emphasis on understanding its implications for public acceptance of energy projects in Canada, and their related regulatory processes. In particular, this research addressed the following questions: 1. What is the history and scope of the term ‘social licence’, both in the context of energy project development and more generally? What

  4. Analysis on the public acceptance of nuclear energy using structural equation model with latent variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal

    1996-02-01

    Comparison of the effect of education and public information on the public acceptance of nuclear energy is carried out. For the increase of public acceptance, the correct understanding on the nuclear energy via proper regular school education would be the first basis and the appropriate public information services by utility and unbiased mass media would be the second basis. Subjects that which is more effect in education or information and how much effective quantitatively to improve the public acceptance are derived. Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Latent Variables (LVs) in social science to public attitudes towards nuclear energy is developed. Questionnaire is conducted to respondents who took part in the program of visiting the nuclear power plant opened by OKAEA in 1995. As a result of the analysis, effect of education for correct awareness of nuclear energy is more sensitive to public acceptance than that of information. It is shown that the susceptibility in education factor in influence of radiation on human body and that in information factor persons consider nuclear power plant as an environmental polluter. It is concluded that radiation treatment should be a 'Hand on Experience' and general principle of nuclear power generation should be contained in the educational text book. Education and information should not been independently performed but been carried out simultaneously and mutually aided. It is shown that this modeling approach is useful to make the decision for the long-term nuclear energy policy transparent and successful

  5. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Indonesia. A traditional puppet show for NPP in Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyudi Soeliarno

    1995-01-01

    In Indonesia, activities on public relation have been carried out since the establishment of the agency responsible for research and development of atomic energy in 1958 (which later in the year 1964 became Batan, National Atomic Energy Agency), wile activities on public acceptance started 'at the end of 1985. After the Government indicated that it has to look seriously into the construction of the NPP, as from 1990, the public acceptance (PA) activities have been intensified in anticipation of the construction of the first NPP. An important part of the preparatory activities for the construction of the NPP is preparing the people, particularly those who live near the NPP site, to accept and to support the NPP program. The interdepartmental team has bee established in August 1990 consisting of representatives of several institutions, namely, Ministry of Information, Ministry of Domestic Affairs, Ministry of Defense, Land Utilization Agency, State Electricity Corporation, Office of the Minister for Population and Environment, and Batan. This team, called the 'Team on Public Acceptance of NPP', has the main task providing extensive information to the public concerning the government plan to construct nuclear power plants in Indonesia. From 1990 through the middle of 1994 the activity of the Team on Public Acceptance of NPP was focused on providing information on te NPP program to the local community leaders and the public, particularly in the districts of the NPP site in the Muria Peninsula region. Its main purpose was to precondition the people who live near the NPP site to accept the NPP in their neighbourhood without fear

  6. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, T; Thurn, G; Williams, R; Mills, S [eds.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, T.; Thurn, G.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Public acceptance of CO2 capture and storage technology : a survey of public opinion to explore influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A.; Akai, M.

    2005-01-01

    A potentially effective tool in managing carbon emissions is carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). However, its effectiveness depends on its acceptability by the public, and very little is known about how willing the general public will accept various options of CCS. This paper presented the results of a study that assessed general perceptions of various forms of CCS and identified various factors that influence public acceptance of CCS. Two versions of a survey were administered and conducted in Tokyo and Sapporo, Japan in December 2003. The paper discussed the design of the questionnaire as well as the administration of the survey. One version of the survey provided limited education about CCS, while another version, provided more extensive information about CCS. The data analysis methodology was also described with reference to factor analysis, comparisons of means and rank order distributions, and multiple regression. Last, the study findings and results were presented. The findings suggest that the general public was supportive of CCS as part of a larger national climate policy, although it was opposed to the implementation of specific CCS options involving deep-sea dilution option of ocean storage, lake type option of ocean storage, onshore option of geological storage, and offshore option of geological storage. In addition, it was found that education about CCS affected public acceptance. The more information respondents obtained about CCS, the more likely they were to be supportive of those storage options, except for onshore option of geological storage. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Big data analysis of public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seung Kook

    2017-01-01

    Public acceptance of nuclear power is important for the government, the major stakeholder of the industry, because consensus is required to drive actions. It is therefore no coincidence that the governments of nations operating nuclear reactors are endeavoring to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power, as better acceptance allows stable power generation and peaceful processing of nuclear wastes produced from nuclear reactors. Past research, however, has been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale. In this research, we propose big data analysis as an attractive alternative and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear power. Specifically, we used common big data analyses to analyze consumer opinions via SNS (Social Networking Services), using keyword analysis and opinion analysis. The keyword analysis identified the attitudes of the public toward nuclear power. The public felt positive toward nuclear power when Korea successfully exported nuclear reactors to the United Arab Emirates. With the Fukushima accident in 2011 and certain supplier scandals in 2012, however, the image of nuclear power was degraded and the negative image continues. It is recommended that the government focus on developing useful businesses and use cases of nuclear power in order to improve public acceptance

  10. Big data analysis of public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Public acceptance of nuclear power is important for the government, the major stakeholder of the industry, because consensus is required to drive actions. It is therefore no coincidence that the governments of nations operating nuclear reactors are endeavoring to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power, as better acceptance allows stable power generation and peaceful processing of nuclear wastes produced from nuclear reactors. Past research, however, has been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale. In this research, we propose big data analysis as an attractive alternative and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear power. Specifically, we used common big data analyses to analyze consumer opinions via SNS (Social Networking Services), using keyword analysis and opinion analysis. The keyword analysis identified the attitudes of the public toward nuclear power. The public felt positive toward nuclear power when Korea successfully exported nuclear reactors to the United Arab Emirates. With the Fukushima accident in 2011 and certain supplier scandals in 2012, however, the image of nuclear power was degraded and the negative image continues. It is recommended that the government focus on developing useful businesses and use cases of nuclear power in order to improve public acceptance.

  11. Big Data Analysis of Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of nuclear power is important for the government, the major stakeholder of the industry, because consensus is required to drive actions. It is therefore no coincidence that the governments of nations operating nuclear reactors are endeavoring to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power, as better acceptance allows stable power generation and peaceful processing of nuclear wastes produced from nuclear reactors. Past research, however, has been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale. In this research, we propose big data analysis as an attractive alternative and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear power. Specifically, we used common big data analyses to analyze consumer opinions via SNS (Social Networking Services, using keyword analysis and opinion analysis. The keyword analysis identified the attitudes of the public toward nuclear power. The public felt positive toward nuclear power when Korea successfully exported nuclear reactors to the United Arab Emirates. With the Fukushima accident in 2011 and certain supplier scandals in 2012, however, the image of nuclear power was degraded and the negative image continues. It is recommended that the government focus on developing useful businesses and use cases of nuclear power in order to improve public acceptance.

  12. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of open-quotes voluntariness of risk assumption,close quotes of open-quotes disaster potential,close quotes and of open-quotes benefitclose quotes are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling

  13. Public acceptance and preferences related to renewable energy and grid expansion policy: Empirical insights for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Valentin; Hall, Margeret; Weinhardt, Christof; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of renewable energy sources (RES) in many European countries brings about transmission grid expansion requirements. While the transition towards RES-based energy systems is largely perceived positively in general, locally both RES and grid expansion are often confronted with a lack of public acceptance. Using Germany as a case study, we analyse public acceptance of energy infrastructure and its main drivers on local vs. national levels. For this purpose, we conducted a nationally representative survey. Our results show that, on a national level, the acceptance of RES is very high and there is also a high acceptance of grid expansion if it helps to increase the share of RES in the system. In terms of local acceptance problems that may arise for most considered technologies, concerns about landscape modification turn out to be the main driving factor. Moreover, the distance between places of residence and places of energy infrastructure construction is crucial. While acceptance or rejection of technologies will never be entirely tangible or explicable, we find the explicability of rejections to be lowest for new technologies. Finally, age and education turn out to be the most relevant socio-demographic variables determining the participants' acceptance. - Highlights: • A survey to understand drivers of energy technology acceptance was conducted. • Participants were asked to rank energy policy objectives. • Strong differences between acceptance on a national vs. a local level were found. • Landscape modification is the most important factor driving the local acceptance. • Age and education turned out to be the most relevant socio-demographic factors.

  14. Public perception and acceptance of the siting of nuclear waste facilities in seven countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.; Paige, H.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1989-09-01

    This report was prepared by ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co. (ERCE) on behalf of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) between February and August 1989. It updates previous reports prepared by ERCE on public acceptance of waste management activities in foreign countries. The report is intended to serve as an aid in understanding experiences with public acceptance of waste activities in foreign countries, and thereby benefit US efforts with respect to public acceptance based on lessons learned abroad. Seven countries are addressed in the report: Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The information provided in this report was obtained both from direct interviews of the responsible waste management officials in the seven countries surveyed and from source documents provided by these individuals

  15. Public acceptance of renewable energies: Results from case studies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, Jan; Schweizer-Ries, Petra; Wemheuer, Christin

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the public acceptance of certain renewable energies (grid-connected larger PV ground-installed systems, biomass plants and wind turbines) from a socio-scientific perspective. Using an environmental-psychological approach to investigate the social factors relevant to the formation of public acceptance towards renewable energies in four different regions, recommendations for the further implementation of renewable energy systems were to be derived. The present study has been conducted in a multi-modal research design combining a standardised questionnaire and qualitative interviews and focused on the residents' views and perceptions. Especially within the quantitative analyses, the results indicate that economic consideration of the respective renewable energy system, understood as a positive cost-benefit calculation made by the individual, is the strongest predictor for a reported acceptance. Furthermore, the importance of landscape evaluation and a strong connection between procedural justice criteria, such as transparency, early and accurate information as well as possibilities to participate during the planning and installation process, and a reported public acceptance became evident. Qualitative data were analysed in reference to the grounded theory and showed the relevance of the operating company's commitment on the local level, participation of the general public and the choice of the location for the plant were among the relevant aspects for acceptance in the implementation process. This survey is part of a 3-year project funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

  16. Public acceptance of renewable energies. Results from case studies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Jan; Schweizer-Ries, Petra; Wemheuer, Christin [Department of Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    This article addresses the public acceptance of certain renewable energies (grid-connected larger PV ground-installed systems, biomass plants and wind turbines) from a socio-scientific perspective. Using an environmental-psychological approach to investigate the social factors relevant to the formation of public acceptance towards renewable energies in four different regions, recommendations for the further implementation of renewable energy systems were to be derived. The present study has been conducted in a multi-modal research design combining a standardised questionnaire and qualitative interviews and focused on the residents' views and perceptions. Especially within the quantitative analyses, the results indicate that economic consideration of the respective renewable energy system, understood as a positive cost-benefit calculation made by the individual, is the strongest predictor for a reported acceptance. Furthermore, the importance of landscape evaluation and a strong connection between procedural justice criteria, such as transparency, early and accurate information as well as possibilities to participate during the planning and installation process, and a reported public acceptance became evident. Qualitative data were analysed in reference to the grounded theory and showed the relevance of the operating company's commitment on the local level, participation of the general public and the choice of the location for the plant were among the relevant aspects for acceptance in the implementation process. This survey is part of a 3-year project funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). (author)

  17. Public acceptance of renewable energies: Results from case studies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Jan [Department of Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)], E-mail: jan.zoellner@ovgu.de; Schweizer-Ries, Petra; Wemheuer, Christin [Department of Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    This article addresses the public acceptance of certain renewable energies (grid-connected larger PV ground-installed systems, biomass plants and wind turbines) from a socio-scientific perspective. Using an environmental-psychological approach to investigate the social factors relevant to the formation of public acceptance towards renewable energies in four different regions, recommendations for the further implementation of renewable energy systems were to be derived. The present study has been conducted in a multi-modal research design combining a standardised questionnaire and qualitative interviews and focused on the residents' views and perceptions. Especially within the quantitative analyses, the results indicate that economic consideration of the respective renewable energy system, understood as a positive cost-benefit calculation made by the individual, is the strongest predictor for a reported acceptance. Furthermore, the importance of landscape evaluation and a strong connection between procedural justice criteria, such as transparency, early and accurate information as well as possibilities to participate during the planning and installation process, and a reported public acceptance became evident. Qualitative data were analysed in reference to the grounded theory and showed the relevance of the operating company's commitment on the local level, participation of the general public and the choice of the location for the plant were among the relevant aspects for acceptance in the implementation process. This survey is part of a 3-year project funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

  18. Development of public acceptance and market success with very small nuclear power reactors (VSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case for public acceptance of very small nuclear reactors (VSR) as a socially welcomed, locally produced source of energy. It is argued that the subconscious associations and emotional responses that the public makes with size and appearance will often outweigh technical or economic advantages as the determining factor in their ultimate acceptance or rejection of a new power plant. The unique technical features of VSR effectively refute the three most commonly cited reasons for opposing nuclear power: cost, safety, and waste management. VSR also address the demands of environmentalists for small-scale, clean distributed energy production. (author)

  19. Nuclear systems in space? Does/will the public accept them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Harold B.

    1993-01-01

    Public attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy on earth and in space are discussed. Survey data are presented which show that the public believes nuclear energy should play an important role in our energy supply. However, based on broad attitude research, there should be no expectation that the public will accept or support the use of nuclear energy unless it meets special needs and offers special and significant benefits. It is proposed that a public information program be adopted that results in getting recognition and support for the space program broadly and for the missions that benefit substantially from or require nuclear energy for their accomplishment.

  20. For the greater good? Patient and public attitudes to use of medical free text data in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ford

    2017-04-01

    This review demonstrates that transparency about data usage, and working “for the greater good” rather than financial gain, appear to be the most important public concerns to be addressed when using patients’ medical data. Governance frameworks for using EHRs must now be enhanced to provide for the use of medical text. This will involve informing both regulators and the public about the current capabilities of automated de-identification, and developing other assurances to safeguard patients’ privacy.

  1. Achieving greater public confidence in the application of transportation policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Stevens, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Transportation policies deserve a higher level of priority in the national repository siting program. Affected Indian Tribes and States hold that transportation policies and activities are critical to all stages of the program. They are concerned that the lessening of public confidence brings into question the ability of DOE to successfully carry out the Congressionally-directed effort to find two suitable sites for national repositories. DOE must strive to develop a technically-excellent program and treat, with equal importance, the critical need for a more open participatory process. There are a number of ways in which program improvements can be made to assist in regaining the level of public confidence needed. An improved program will result from the application of earlier and continuous opportunities for Tribes and States to participate. The rewards will lessen delay, deal with conflict in a participatory context, and build incremently improved public confidence in the transportation element of the repository program

  2. Public acceptance of euthanasia in Europe: a survey study in 47 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the European euthanasia debate has become more intense, and the practice was legalized in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. We aimed to determine the current degree of public acceptance of euthanasia across Europe and investigate what factors explain differences. Data were derived from the 2008 wave of the European Values Survey (EVS), conducted in 47 European countries (N = 67,786, response rate = 69 %). Acceptance of euthanasia was rated on a 1-10 scale. Relatively high acceptance was found in a small cluster of Western European countries, including the three countries that have legalized euthanasia and Denmark, France, Sweden and Spain. In a large part of Europe public acceptance was relatively low to moderate. Comparison with the results of the previous EVS wave (1999) suggests a tendency towards a polarization in Europe, with most of Western Europe becoming more permissive and most of Eastern Europe becoming less permissive. There is roughly a West-East division in euthanasia acceptance among the European public, making a pan-European policy approach to the issue difficult.

  3. Toward Greater Understanding of the Relationship between Public Perceptions of Speed, Speed Laws, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Speed continues to be a leading factor contributing to traffic fatalities in the U.S., implicated in over 9,500 deaths in 2015. Despite this, in recent years, some states have moved toward more lenient speed enforcement regimes. A public choice probl...

  4. Analysis of policy alternatives on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Sung; Lee, Byong-Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. A method reflecting public opinions in order to improve public acceptance is to find out the public preference values for its policy alternatives. In this study, the conjoint analysis was applied to find out the quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement the analysis, questionnaires of trade-off matrix form were mailed to the science teachers of middle or high school through-out the country who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. The quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives were estimated, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. It was revealed that the improvement of reactor safety 100 times and the establishment of civilian monitoring system for nuclear safety would be two best options to improve public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea. (author)

  5. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI. Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. Methods We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Results Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential ‘gaming’, and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI – including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for ‘gaming the system’. Secondly, a tension between participants’ own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants’ personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that

  6. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  7. Changes in the public acceptance of nuclear power among the populace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is often hampered due to the lack of public acceptability. The degree of its public acceptance gradually but distinctly decreases with the progress of industrialization and also with the increase in per-capita income as well as upgrading of social welfare program. The execution of nuclear power projects is possible when the majority of populace are in support of its development, while it becomes difficult so long as more than a half of the people is reluctant to make use of it. For the convenience sake, the patterns of nuclear acceptability are arbitrarily categorized in six stages from a tranquil state to a hopeless state. In order not to be driven into such helpless stage, some preventive measures are suggested as a recommendation herein

  8. Changes in the public acceptance of nuclear power among the populace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-kun Lee

    1987-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is often hampered due to the lack of public acceptability. The degree of its public acceptance gradually but distinctly decreases with the progress of industrialisation and also with the increase in per-capita income as well as upgrading of social welfare programme. The execution of nuclear power projects is possible when the majority of populace are in support of its development, while it becomes difficult so long as more than a half of the people is reluctant to make use of it. For the convenience sake, the patterns of nuclear acceptability are arbitrarily categorized in six stages from a tranquil state to a hopeless state. In order not to be driven into such helpless stage, some preventive measures are suggested as a recommendation herein. (author)

  9. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  10. Socioeconomic differences in public acceptability and car use adaptation towards urban road pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehlert, Tina; Kramer, Christiane; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2011-01-01

    Urban road pricing is regarded as an effective instrument to reduce traffic congestion and environmental-related problems in metropolitan areas. Whereas the overall impact of urban road pricing on car use adaptation and public acceptability is known, there are only inconsistent results concerning...

  11. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA.

  12. Can public confidence and acceptance be won by advertising? Is such an approach defensible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne-Marsolais, Rita

    1989-01-01

    In Canada, three objectives are identified that must be met in order to improve the climate of public opinion in favor of nuclear energy. They are: to establish credibility and trust in the industry; to establish acceptance and confidence in products and, increase the level of public support for the nuclear industry. A specific target group was also identified: men and women leaders of opinion in and 18 years old. A lot of research was conducted that led to establishing of four major strategies which could help achieving general objective over a time of 3 years: to open an on-going dialogue with the Canadian public; to introduce and familiarize the Canadian public with specific applications of nuclear energy; to present specific facts about nuclear energy; to monitor the results. Advertising is only one of the tools of this program. In all advertising efforts one should ensure that the public understands that this is the process of information not advocacy. This is considered as extremely important. It is believed that public confidence and acceptance can be won by advertising. Because of the actual Energy Dependency of Canada, ranking second in the world in electricity consumption per capita, and because Canada can no longer, rely on traditional great degree on damming large rivers to produce electricity, it is the duty of nuclear industry to provide information to the Canadian public in order for them to know all the facts when they are asked to choose between different forms of energy to produce electricity

  13. Can public confidence and acceptance be won by advertising? Is such an approach defensible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne-Marsolais, Rita [Department of Information, Canadian Nuclear Association (Canada)

    1989-07-01

    In Canada, three objectives are identified that must be met in order to improve the climate of public opinion in favor of nuclear energy. They are: to establish credibility and trust in the industry; to establish acceptance and confidence in products and, increase the level of public support for the nuclear industry. A specific target group was also identified: men and women leaders of opinion in and 18 years old. A lot of research was conducted that led to establishing of four major strategies which could help achieving general objective over a time of 3 years: to open an on-going dialogue with the Canadian public; to introduce and familiarize the Canadian public with specific applications of nuclear energy; to present specific facts about nuclear energy; to monitor the results. Advertising is only one of the tools of this program. In all advertising efforts one should ensure that the public understands that this is the process of information not advocacy. This is considered as extremely important. It is believed that public confidence and acceptance can be won by advertising. Because of the actual Energy Dependency of Canada, ranking second in the world in electricity consumption per capita, and because Canada can no longer, rely on traditional great degree on damming large rivers to produce electricity, it is the duty of nuclear industry to provide information to the Canadian public in order for them to know all the facts when they are asked to choose between different forms of energy to produce electricity.

  14. The Nuclear Energy Option for the U.S. - How Far Are We from Public Acceptance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedscheid, J.A.; Devarakonda, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recent rise of oil and gasoline prices accompanied by reluctant acknowledgement that traditional sources of energy are limited has renewed public interest in renewable energy sources. This perspective on energy is focusing attention on and facilitating acceptance of alternative energy concepts, such as solar, wind, and biomass. The nuclear energy alternative, while clean with potentially abundant fuel supplies and associated with low costs, is burdened with the frequently negative public opinion reserved for things nuclear. Coincident with the heightened examination of alternative energy concepts, 2004 marks the 25-year anniversary of the Three Mile Island accident. Since this pivotal accident in 1979, no new reactor licenses have been granted in the U.S. The resolution of the issues of nuclear waste management and disposition are central to and may advance public discussions of the future use of nuclear energy. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing the licensing application for Yucca Mountain, which was designated in 2003 as the site for a high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel repository in the U.S. The DOE also has been operating a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999. The operational status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a repository for TRU waste was successfully realized along with the lesson learned that stakeholder trust and acceptance are as critical to the success of a repository program as the resolution of technical issues and obtaining regulatory approvals. For the five years of its operation and for decades prior, the challenge of attaining public acceptance of the WIPP has persisted for reasons aligned with the opposition to nuclear energy. Due to this commonality, the nuclear waste approach to public acceptance, with its pros and cons, provides a baseline for the examination of an approach for the public acceptance of nuclear energy in the U.S. This paper

  15. Feeding in full-time public schools: Do students adhere and accept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila Araújo de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Identifying adherence to, and acceptance of school feeding, and analyzing the factors associated with non-adherence/non-acceptance in full-time public schools in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with students of both sexes aged 6-14 years. Issues regarding the consumption of meals, food distribution, food eaten outside the school and socioeconomic data, including nutritional assessment of students, were investigated. Adherence to meals was defined as the consumption of school meals four to five times/week, and acceptance was defined as meal approval, using the facial hedonic scale. Results A total of 359 students participated in this study and it was observed that adherence was high for lunch (95% and afternoon snacks (78%, and low for morning snacks (44%. Acceptance did not reach the required minimum percentage of 85% for any of the meals. Factors associated with non-adherence were the presence of >4 people in a household, having meals in a refectory, the meal location being considered uncomfortable and a negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals. Factors associated with non-acceptance were age >10 years, female sex, the negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals and inadequate food temperature. Conclusion Lunch and afternoon snacks showed the highest adherence, but the stipulated acceptance was not reached. Non-adherence and non-acceptance were mainly associated with aspects related to school feeding. This study allowed the evaluation of feeding in full-time public schools, in order to influence its improvement.

  16. Public acceptance of constructing coastal/inland nuclear power plants in post-Fukushima China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    Risk perception and public involvement have become more and more important in post-Fukushima accident era. A survey had been carried out about public acceptance of constructing coastal/inland Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in China. We examined impact factors of public acceptance of nuclear energy and also carried out a comparison between China and OECD. The study revealed that the public still took relatively optimistic attitude although there was a slight decrease just after Fukushima and the public's confidence recovered four years later. The ratio of inland NPPs opponents reached to quite a high level and “not-in-my-back-yard” still reflected an obvious syndrome. We also found public acceptance is mainly affected by benefit and, to a lesser extent, by knowledge, education and age. Moreover, the study suggested government is still a creditable information resource due to its authority but most of respondents felt little or no well-informed about nuclear safety, which means a significant communication gap exists between government and the public. As China is the most ambitious country to develop nuclear energy, it is proposed to introduce a transparent and open system of third-party evaluation, which mainly consists of scientists and non-profit research institutions, to ensure the healthy and sustainable development of nuclear energy. - Highlights: • The public are more optimistic about nuclear energy in China than in OECD. • The ratio of inland nuclear power plants opponents reaches to quite a high level. • Government is still a creditable information resource due to its authority. • Third-party evaluation is proposed to intervene in nuclear safety supervision.

  17. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  18. Public acceptance of nuclear power in the United States - the role of the national environmental policy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinek, S.D.; Brubaker, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    The passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, required all U.S. Federal agencies to build consideration of the environmental impacts of their proposed activities into their decisionmaking process. It also established the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) within the Executive Office of the President to oversee its implementation, and to serve as the principle environmental policy adviser to the President. Agency environmental analyses are documented in an environmental impact statement (EIS) which is prepared prior to deciding if a project or a proposal is to be approved. Today the EIS is the foremost document used by both the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to achieve public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. At the center of the NEPA process is the opportunity for public comment on proposed projects. Initial public concern was with thermal pollution and the traditional environmental impacts related to power plant construction and operation. Recent interests, however, have been with larger policy issues related to safeguards and management of radioactive wastes. The role of the EIS in resolving these current issues and its role in the debate over future nuclear development in the U.S. is discussed. The provisions of NEPA are representative of the increasing trend worldwide toward greater public involvement in decisions on technology which can affect the future. The development and integration of the EIS into the U.S. nuclear decisionmaking process can provide interesting and valuable insights to other nations concerning the achievement of better public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power through public involvement in the decision process

  19. Assessment of public acceptability in site selection process. The methodology and the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.; Pek Drapal, D.

    2005-01-01

    The site selection process for the low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia follows the mixed mode approach according to the model proposed by IAEA. After finishing the conceptual and planning stage in 1999, and after identification of the potentially suitable areas in the area survey stage in 2001, ARAO (Agency for radwaste management) invited all municipalities to volunteer in the procedure of placing the LILW repository in the physical environment. A positive response was received from eight municipalities, though three municipalities later resigned from it. A selection between twelve locations in these five municipalities had to be done because Slovenian procedure provides for only three locations to be further evaluated in the stage of identification of potentially suitable sites. A pre-feasibility study of the public acceptability, together with the technical aspects (safety, technical functionality, economic, environmental and spatial aspects) was performed. The aspect of public acceptability included objective and subjective evaluation criteria. The former included information obtained from studies of demography, data on local economy, infrastructure and eventual environmental problems, media analysis, and earlier public opinion polls. The latter included data obtained from topical workshops, free phone line, telephone interviews with the general public and personal interviews with representatives of decision makers and public opinion leaders, as well as a public opinion poll in all included communities. Evaluated municipalities were ranked regarding their social suitability for the radioactive waste site. (author)

  20. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers

  1. Present situation of Japan's public acceptance of nuclear energy - JAERO's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Kozo

    1993-01-01

    Electricity demand in Japan is expected to keep increasing without doubt, reflecting her constant economic growth and the rising living standard of the people. The target figure is 20.5% or a capacity of 52 million kW, and 11 nuclear power plants with a capacity of 12 million kW are under construction. Whether such a target is achievable depends on whether or not information activities will succeed in obtaining public consensus to the siting of the new nuclear power plants. According to the result of public opinion poll by the Science and Technology Agency in 1992, 73 % people recognize the necessity of nuclear energy, however, 10% feel uneasy as well. It seems that the scale of damage caused by severe accidents and the distrust against nuclear promoters are major factors to create uneasiness among the people. This presentation describes public information activities by JAERO, the Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization (JAERO), a non-profit organization established in 1969. There is no secret strategy or specific remedy to obtain public consensus on the nuclear issues, and an immediate effect is in no way expected, either. It is all the more imperative to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, pursue further the operational safety, and to gain the trust from the general public. We must investigate more effective means for public information activities to gain public consent, and implement them positively and continuously with beliefs. We are prepared to do so. Activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy may vary in line with the situation in each country. It is therefore very meaningful to have the experts' gatherings like this workshop to exchange, views on the public acceptance

  2. Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D A

    1985-09-01

    Acceptance is described in both market and sensory research terminology and recent developments in the fields of applied psychology and physiology are examined for their pertinence to public acceptance of sucrose and its substitutes. Information on the function of sucrose in foods other than beverages is presented with emphasis on salivation as an acceptance factor and attention is drawn to its possible dental significance. Distinctions are made between the sweetening and bulking properties of sucrose and sugar substitutes. Factors having a bearing on the acceptance of sweet foods and the determination of their optimal sugar content are described in detail. While major decreases in sucrose intake in the US resulted from high-fructose corn-sweetener usage in soft drinks, no evidence is yet available to suggest that the use of sugar substitutes of the intense artificial sweetener type has caused any decrease in ordinary sugar consumption. Neither is the consumption of polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) high enough in confectionery categories to cause any discernible decrease in sugar usage. The evidence suggests not so much that sugar substitutes may have stopped the growth in sucrose usage, but that new product categories such as diet foods and "sugarless' confections may have been created. These categories were never available to fermentable carbohydrate sweeteners and equivalence in acceptance to sucrose-sweetened products was not an important factor in their growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Public acceptance as a mainstay of energy policy planning; Gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz als Saeule der energiepolitischen Zielsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, Jochen; Heider, Conrad; Arms, Hanjo [A.T. Kearney, Berlin (Germany); Gerber, Jochen [GVS Netz GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Schilling, Martin [Decision Institute, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    How will it be possible in future to implement energy policy in Germany, that is to say carry out major infrastructural projects needed for its energy supply? Aside from new laws for accelerating planning and construction, viable solutions must always be built on trust developed through transparent decision processes and earnest, timely participation procedures. Although the path to public acceptance can be toilsome, current examples show that dedication to the pursuit of a workable energy policy is of crucial importance.

  4. Necessity of management for minor earthquake to improve public acceptance of nuclear energy in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Tae Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As public acceptance of nuclear energy in Korea worsens due to the Fukushima accident and the earthquakes that occurred in the Gyeongju area near the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP, estimating the effects of earthquakes has become more essential for the nuclear industry. Currently, most countermeasures against earthquakes are limited to large-scale disasters. Minor-scale earthquakes used to be ignored. Even though people do not feel the shaking due to minor earthquakes and minor earthquakes incur little damage to NPPs, they can change the environmental conditions, for instance, underground water level and the conductivity of the groundwater. This study conducted a questionnaire survey of residents living in the vicinity of an NPP to determine their perception and acceptance of plant safety against minor earthquakes. The results show that the residents feel earthquakes at levels that can be felt by people, but incur little damage to NPPs, as minor earthquakes (magnitude of 2.0–3.9 and set this level as a standard for countermeasures. Even if a minor earthquake has little impact on the safety of an NPP, there is still a possibility that public opinion will get worse. This study provides analysis results about problems of earthquake measures of Korean NPPs and specific things that can bring about an effect of deterioration of public acceptance. Based on these data, this article suggests that active management of minor earthquakes is necessary for the sustainability of nuclear energy. Keywords: Earthquake Measures, Management, Minor Earthquake, Nuclear Energy, Public Acceptance

  5. A study of public acceptance of construction of atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kazunori; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, Basic Energy Plan was approved in a Cabinet meeting. It says that Japan aims to construct more than 14 atomic power plants by 2030. Today, there are 12 plans of construction of atomic power plant, but it is hard to say that their plans easily come off. That's because public acceptance of atomic power plant is low in Japan, for example local residents wage opposition campaigns. This study conducts a survey in the form of a questionnaire and analyzes it by Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). Analytic Hierarchy Process is a structured technique for dealing with complex decisions. A questionnaire using AHP is very easy to answer and analyze. This survey was conducted in 2 areas. First area is Hohoku-cho, Yamaguchi Pref. that had a plan of construction of atomic power plant and the plan was demolished by opposition campaigns. Second area is Kaminoseki-cho, Yamaguchi Pref. that has a plan of construction of atomic power plant now and the plan is working order. Public acceptance can be calculated from survey data of 2 areas, and it helps to understand why first area disapproved a plan of atomic power plant and second area approves it. We consider a model to analyze public acceptance. (author)

  6. Nuclear waste and public acceptance. A study about the situation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, H.

    1999-01-01

    The author bases the paper and study on the concept of the risk society coined by the sociologist Ulrich Beck. Very briefly, risk society means that in modern societies the basic conflicts have shifted from the distribution of prosperity to distribution of risks. The author points out five important factors affecting the willingness to accept a risk, which all have negative indication for the case of nuclear energy. 1. Catastrophe effect: The willingness to accept a more probable risk with less serious consequences is greater than the willingness to accept an extremely unlikely risk with serious consequences. Nuclear energy is considered to be a risk with catastrophe effect. 2. Justice factor: This factor too plays a central role in the negative assessment of nuclear energy. It is considered to be unjust to impose risks on future generations. 3. Voluntariness: The acceptance of a risk increases with the voluntariness. But nuclear energy is not considered to be a voluntary risk. 4. Confidence: The extent of confidence is an important factor determing how information on a possible risk will be assessed. In the Netherlands 68 percent of the population does not trust that the government will provide immediate and honest information on nuclear accidents. 5. Avoidability: An inevitable risk is more likely to be accepted than an avoidable risk. If already produced waste is involved and if there is even a chance that the nuclear power station concerned will be shut-down, the population is more likely to accept the final repository than if it were a case of searching for a final repository for waste not yet produced. (orig.) [de

  7. Public Enlightenment Education on the Acceptance of Fingerprint Biometric Technology for Administration in Academic Institutions and Other Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Samuel Godwin; Chijioke, Edmond Ogochukwu

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the overview of the origin of fingerprint biometric technology, the opinion of the public on the acceptance of fingerprint biometric technology and the means of instilling confidence on the public for the total acceptance of the technology. Data was collected with the aid of a lecture and structured questionnaires…

  8. Assessment of Public Acceptability in LILW Repository Site Selection Process in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.

    2006-01-01

    Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO has after longer period of preparation activities started with the more direct work on the site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the First public conference on spatial planning issues carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning together with ARAO. Just after the conference the Program for the preparation of the Detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. ARAO invited in the beginning of December 2004 all local communities in Slovenia (except 3 of them which have already refused to cooperate) to participate and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. The invitation for the application of local communities provided clear instructions on how to participate in further determination of potentially suitable sites and under what conditions. By the beginning of April 2005 ARAO finished the bidding process with 8 applications of local communities which decided to participate in the further site selection for LILW repository. Due to the financial and other limitations (human resources, spatial planning procedure, etc.) only in maximum three local communities further characterization could be performed. Therefore prefeasibility study of all volunteer local communities was conducted in which besides technical, environmental and spatial availability also public acceptability should be assessed. For assessment of public acceptability the methodology has been prepared which includes objective parameters of local environment (such as demographic data, economy, infrastructure and social issues in relation to the repository) as well as subjective values (attitudes of individual groups - opinion makers, politicians and all residents - to the sitting and construction of LILW

  9. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal

  10. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  11. Beyond public acceptance of energy infrastructure: How citizens make sense and form reactions by enacting networks of entities in infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaen, Sara Bjørn; Kerndrup, Søren; Lyhne, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the growing insight into public acceptance by presenting a novel approach to how citizens make sense of new energy infrastructure. We claim that to understand public acceptance, we need to go beyond the current thinking of citizens framed as passive respondents to proposed projects, and instead view infrastructure projects as enacted by citizens in their local settings. We propose a combination of sensemaking theory and actor–network theory that allows insight into how citizens enact entities from experiences and surroundings in order to create meaning and form a reaction to new infrastructure projects. Empirically, we analyze how four citizens make sense of an electricity cable project through a conversation process with a representative from the infrastructure developer. Interestingly, the formal participation process and the materiality of the cable play minor roles in citizens' sensemaking process. We conclude that insight into the way citizens are making sense of energy infrastructure processes can improve and help to overcome shortcomings in the current thinking about public acceptance and public participation. - Highlights: •Attention to citizens' sensemaking enables greater insight into the decision-making process. •A combination of sensemaking and actor-network theory (ANT) is relevant for studies of public acceptance. •Sensemaking explains why citizens facing similar situations act differently. •Complexity of citizens' sensemaking challenges the predictability of processes.

  12. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    been proposed. The essay examines how the public considers the societal tradeoffs that are made to develop small-scale, in-view demonstration wind projects instead of larger facilities farther offshore. Results indicate that a strong majority of the public supports near-shore demonstration wind projects in both states. Primary reasons for support include benefits to wildlife, cost of electricity, and job creation, while the primary reasons for opposition include wildlife impacts, aesthetics, tourism, and user conflicts. These factors differ between coastal Delaware and greater Atlantic City and highlight the importance of local, community engagement in the early stages of development. The second essay examines the interaction of a new proposed use of the ocean---offshore wind---and a key existing ocean user group---commercial fishers. A key component of offshore wind planning includes consideration of existing uses of the marine environment in order to optimally site wind projects while minimizing conflicts. Commercial fisheries comprise an important stakeholder group, and may be one of the most impacted stakeholders from offshore renewable energy development. Concern of the fishing industry stems from possible interference with productive fishing grounds and access within wind developments resulting in costs from increased effort or reduction in catch. Success of offshore wind development may in part depend on the acceptance of commercial fishers, who are concerned about loss of access to fishing grounds. Using a quantitative, marine spatial planning approach in the siting of offshore wind projects with respect to commercial fishing in the mid-Atlantic, U.S., this essay develops a spatially explicit representation of potential conflicts and compatibilities between these two industries in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Areas that are highly valuable to the wind industry are determined through a spatial suitability model using variable cost per unit

  13. Measuring public acceptance on renewable energy (RE) development in Malaysia using ordered probit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ishak, W. W. M.

    2017-09-01

    In 2009, government of Malaysia has announced a National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan as part of their commitment to accelerate the growth in renewable energies (RE). However, an adoption of RE as a main source of energy is still at an early stage due to lack of public awareness and acceptance on RE. Up to date, there are insufficient studies done on the reasons behind this lack of awareness and acceptance. Therefore, this paper is interested to investigate the public acceptance towards development of RE by measuring their willingness to pay slightly more for energy generated from RE sources, denote as willingness level and whether the importance for the electricity to be supplied at absolute lowest possible cost regardless of source and environmental impact, denote as importance level and other socio-economic factors could improve their willingness level. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to achieve the research objectives. A total of 164 respondents from local universities in Malaysia participated in a survey to collect this relevant information. Using Ordered Probit model, the study shows that among the relevant socio-economic factors, age seems to be an important factor to influence the willingness level of the respondents. This paper concludes that younger generation are more willing to pay slightly more for energy generated from RE sources as compared to older generation. One of the possible reason may due to better information access by the younger generation on the RE issues and its positive implication to the world. Finding from this paper is useful to help policy maker in designing RE advocacy programs that would be able to secure public participation. These efforts are important to ensure future success of the RE policy.

  14. Acceptance, Benefits, and Challenges of Public Health-Oriented Pet Business Regulations in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Janelle; Thiede, Hanne; Helms, Leah; Hopkins, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    New regulations were implemented in King County, Washington, in 2010 requiring pet businesses to obtain a permit from Public Health-Seattle & King County (Public Health) and undergo annual inspections to provide education and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. The regulations were developed as a tool for zoonotic disease control and prevention education for businesses and their customers, as well as for environmental protection. To assess the acceptance, benefits, and challenges of the new regulations and identify ways for Public Health to improve educational efforts and assist businesses with compliance. Cross-sectional survey. King County, Washington. Pet businesses with Public Health permits in 2013. Self-administered survey responses. The response rate was 40.5%. The majority of respondents provided grooming, pet day care, and kennel/boarding services from small, independent businesses. Sixty-one percent reported Public Health inspections as beneficial, especially concerning disinfection procedures and using an infection control plan. Almost three-fourths of respondents used the Public Health template to develop the infection control plan. Forty-four percent reported using the educational materials provided by Public Health, and 62% used educational materials from other sources. Most respondents reported that they gained benefits from the pet business permit, although fewer agreed that they obtained a good value from the permit and fee. The most common benefits reported were protection of animal and human health and establishing the credibility of the pet business. Major challenges with the implementation of the pet business regulations were not generally reported by respondents. Most respondents reported a collaborative relationship between Public Health and the pet businesses. Improvements in infection control practices and positive responses to the inspections were reported by pet businesses. Survey results were used to improve infection control

  15. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  16. Twitter Analysis of Public Acceptance between Seoul and Gori of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Public acceptance is critical for sustaining nuclear power, and researchers have devised various methods to measure it (Stritar, 1996). Existing literatures suggest that rationality, emotion, knowledge of nuclear technology, trust, policy executor, and risk perception variables affect public acceptance. These attempts, however, have been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale (Sjoberg and Drottz-Sjoberg, 2009; Slovic, 2000; Tanaka, 2004). Because such methods are standardized, it is difficult to reflect on emotions latent in individuals within the public. Moreover, surveys can be conducted only on people in a specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. Because big data methods are based on unstructured data, which contain the live experiences/opinions, and are virtually real-time with almost no delay between the events of concern and the data collection, big data analysis allows real-time identification of relationships among different variables and their significance (Graham and Shelton, 2013). In this research, we propose big data analysis as a solution and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear energy using big data analysis. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis), and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze the public acceptance of nuclear technology. The trends and opinions of opinion leaders on SNSs should be monitored and responded to in real time. As demonstrated from the rejection of the extension of the Gori nuclear power plant, image and feeling are more important than the performance of the safety technology on the operation of a nuclear power plant. Because Korea has many aging reactors, evaluation of projects to extend the operation of old reactors

  17. Twitter Analysis of Public Acceptance between Seoul and Gori of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seungkook

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is critical for sustaining nuclear power, and researchers have devised various methods to measure it (Stritar, 1996). Existing literatures suggest that rationality, emotion, knowledge of nuclear technology, trust, policy executor, and risk perception variables affect public acceptance. These attempts, however, have been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale (Sjoberg and Drottz-Sjoberg, 2009; Slovic, 2000; Tanaka, 2004). Because such methods are standardized, it is difficult to reflect on emotions latent in individuals within the public. Moreover, surveys can be conducted only on people in a specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. Because big data methods are based on unstructured data, which contain the live experiences/opinions, and are virtually real-time with almost no delay between the events of concern and the data collection, big data analysis allows real-time identification of relationships among different variables and their significance (Graham and Shelton, 2013). In this research, we propose big data analysis as a solution and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear energy using big data analysis. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis), and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze the public acceptance of nuclear technology. The trends and opinions of opinion leaders on SNSs should be monitored and responded to in real time. As demonstrated from the rejection of the extension of the Gori nuclear power plant, image and feeling are more important than the performance of the safety technology on the operation of a nuclear power plant. Because Korea has many aging reactors, evaluation of projects to extend the operation of old reactors

  18. Analysis on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant and its policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    1994-02-01

    In the current situation of requiring the public acceptance of nuclear power plant, it may be necessary to understand what the public think about this plant and to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, multi-attribute utility (MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception pattern for five power production systems. And the conjoint measurement technique was applied to measure quantitative values of public preferences for imaginary policy alternatives. To study the feasibility of these methods, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant

  19. A method to forecast quantitative variables relating to nuclear public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for forecasting the future trend of quantitative variables profoundly related to the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy. The social environment influencing PA is first modeled by breaking it down into a finite number of fundamental elements and then the interactive formulae between the quantitative variables, which are attributed to and characterize each element, are determined by using the actual values of the variables in the past. Inputting the estimated values of exogenous variables into these formulae, the forecast values of endogenous variables can finally be obtained. Using this method, the problem of nuclear PA in Japan is treated as, for example, where the context is considered to comprise a public sector and the general social environment and socio-psychology. The public sector is broken down into three elements of the general public, the inhabitants living around nuclear facilities and the activists of anti-nuclear movements, whereas the social environment and socio-psychological factors are broken down into several elements, such as news media and psychological factors. Twenty-seven endogenous and seven exogenous variables are introduced to quantify these elements. After quantitatively formulating the interactive features between them and extrapolating the exogenous variables into the future estimates are made of the growth or attenuation of the endogenous variables, such as the pro- and anti-nuclear fractions in public opinion polls and the frequency of occurrence of anti-nuclear movements. (author)

  20. submitter Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Heiko; Chervyakov, Alexander; Stückrad, Stefan; Salmieri, Delia; Rubbia, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive research and development investments into superconducting science and technology, both at the fundamental and at the applied levels, many benefits of superconducting transmission lines (SCTL) remain unknown to the public and decision makers at large. This paper aims at informing about the progress in this important research field. Superconducting transmission lines have a tremendous size advantage and lower total electrical losses for high capacity transmission plus a number of technological advantages compared to solutions based on standard conductors. This leads to a minimized environmental impact and enables an overall more sustainable transmission of electric energy. One of the direct benefits may be an increased public acceptance due to the low visual impact with a subsequent reduction of approval time. The access of remote renewable energy (RE) sources with high-capacity transmission is rendered possible with superior efficiency. That not only translates into further reducing $CO_2...

  1. Wireless smart meters and public acceptance: the environment, limited choices, and precautionary politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David J; Coley, Jonathan S

    2014-08-01

    Wireless smart meters (WSMs) promise numerous environmental benefits, but they have been installed without full consideration of public acceptance issues. Although societal-implications research and regulatory policy have focused on privacy, security, and accuracy issues, our research indicates that health concerns have played an important role in the public policy debates that have emerged in California. Regulatory bodies do not recognize non-thermal health effects for non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, but both homeowners and counter-experts have contested the official assurances that WSMs pose no health risks. Similarities and differences with the existing social science literature on mobile phone masts are discussed, as are the broader political implications of framing an alternative policy based on an opt-out choice. The research suggests conditions under which health-oriented precautionary politics can be particularly effective, namely, if there is a mandatory technology, a network of counter-experts, and a broader context of democratic contestation.

  2. A consideration on public acceptance on nuclear engineering. Anti-nuclear leader is radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yosinobu

    1996-01-01

    Many-times an introduction of nuclear engineering to the public, makes some confusion on their usage and safety aspects. Even what in easy to be understood to pro-nuclear people, could not be so easily accepted by the anti-nuclear people. It might be a big problem for them. To fill the difference between them, it might not go well because they do not know well on the nuclear, and anti-nuclear leader might be more skillful and attractive to talk to the people. He has a better technique to talk to the public. His talk makes the people to feel better to join to his party. But non emotional people would not go in that way, because he knows the way to think and his pile up knowledge points would not be broken down so easily. We should know the difference and use it to talk with the anti-nuclear leader. (author)

  3. Basic information to improve public acceptance to nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia M.O.; Lima e Silva, Pedro Paulo de; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    In Brazil, the current production of nuclear energy is restricted to Angra I plant, a 657 MW pressurized water reactor, in operation since 1982. Among the eight units predicted in 1975 within the Brazil Germany nuclear agreement, only two have been effectively contracted, namely Angra 2 and 3. The nuclear alternative, likewise all other energy sources, is very much dependable on the assessment of their own benefits compared to the associated risks posed to the population and the environment. The main goal of this article is to provide information to enable the improvement of public acceptance of the use of nuclear energy in the country, by comparing risks associated with different sources as well as pointing out aspects related to risk perception by the public. (author)

  4. Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment and Public Acceptability of a Wind Power Project in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHO, K.; Shin, K. H.; Kim, T. Y.; Seo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Total renewable energy production in Korea is 13,062,000 Ton of Oil Equivalent (TOE) as of 2015. Renewable energy accounts for 4.54% of the total primary energy production, and wind energy makes up 2.17% of the renewable energy production in Korea. Meanwhile, it aims to expand the supply of the wind energy in renewable energy production up to 18.2% by 2035. In Korea, where 64% of its territory is mountain, onshore wind power has shown problems such as nature destruction, noise, tidal damage and landscape destruction. In this regard, offshore wind power has claimed an attention as the alternative of the onshore project. Although it effectively makes up such disadvantages of the onshore wind power, there is still an unsettled problem of the public conflict. For instance, the case of offshore wind power generation in Jeju Island in Korea is suffering serious conflict due to the opposition of nearby residents and fishermen. The lacks of communication, community benefit plans, and compensation for fishermen are the reasons for the opposition. Above all, little consideration on public acceptability in the process of the development project is the fundamental reason. In short, the conflicts triggered in Korea are not caused by the impacts on natural or living environment, but rather by the lack of communication. This study suggests participatory technology impact assessment and a plan for community benefits as a methodology to establish a system for agreement formation on the offshore wind power. Participatory technology impact assessment is a model emphasizing on citizen deliberation. Consensus conference and scenario workshop can represent the assessment. Whereas the compensation prepared for the specific resident group targets only a few stakeholders, the plan prepared by the committee of the residents enhances the public acceptance by returning a development profit to all residents in a broader scope. The results of participant's evaluation on the scenario workshop in

  5. Independent Planning System and Public Administration in Metropolitan Development: Agglomeration Strategies of Greater Chaoshan in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines independent planning system as a means of public administration in regional economic development. It proposes a new strategy based on the theories of public administrative resources, to agglomerate and unify the cities of Shantou, Jieyang, and Chaozhou into a new administrative entity as a metropolis with the status of independent planning and the preferred policies of a Special Economic Region to lead regional development. The optimal allocation of public administrative resources has played a key role in the fundamental economic development in China in recent years. The new administrative system of large cities (metropolises with independent planning has become an innovative format to utilize the renewable soft resources of administration, which in fact is a new attempt to reform the economic system by the Chinese government. The greater Chaoshan area needs to be agglomerated and unified to further develop the regional economy with the implementation of independent planning system. The current research conducted from a practical and political point of view is of significant value to the overall planning and strategic layout of the economic and social development of the whole eastern Guangdong region.

  6. To promote public acceptance of nuclear energy by WiN-JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kobayashi, Yoko; Ogawa, Junko

    2011-01-01

    Women in Nuclear Japan (WiN-J) has been striving to promote activities that increase public acceptance of nuclear energy especially by women. According to a public opinion poll in 2009 by the Cabient Office, Government of Japan, the ratio of men who have confidence in nuclear power plant safety was 52.1%, while the ratio of females was only 32.5%. And the ratio of negative feeling about nuclear power among males was 45.8%, while the ratio of females was 61.2%. This indicates the necessity of communication to females to encourage them to accept nuclear power. WiN-J developed two methods of communication with the public and young people about the benefits of nuclear energy and the applications of radiation in many aspects of the life. The first is town hall meetings, and the other is education for university students in the style of a Science Cafe. Surprisingly, present university student never studied about nuclear energy when they were elementary or junior high school students. However, those students will have to educate their own children to use energy wisely in consideration of the limited energy resources in the coming years. WiN-J, therefore, gives them some relevant lectures on nuclear energy and radiation. Also WiN-J can be the models for female university students who have issues such as marriage, pregnancy, promotions, and transfers which can be discussed. We have to increase the numbers of female nuclear engineers to promote public trust in the safety of nuclear power plants. For this purpose, WiN-J encourages female university students to enter the nuclear industry. We recognize that to gain people's understanding of and trust in nuclear energy may take a long time. WiN-J will continue to fulfill our challenging mission for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  7. The role of the US regulatory process in public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper focuses, on NRC's regulatory responsibilities in relation to public acceptance of nuclear power. Since public attitudes in the United States may influence reaction to nuclear power in other nations, it is fair to say that the credibility of our regulatory program has international significance. Stated simply, unless the public is convinced that the regulatory process is effective in assuring safety, safeguarding nuclear facilities and materials, and protecting the environment, the use of nuclear power could be curtailed or even brought to a halt. Not only must the regulatory process be effective, it must at the same time be recognized by the public as being effective. Opinion polls in the United States have shown consistently that a majority of Americans believe it is important to develop nuclear power to help meet our future energy needs. The direction of public concern has shifted from year to year. Most recently, public apprehension has been expressed about the potential hazards of long-term storage of the high-level wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and about the risks that nuclear materials and facilities may be subject to theft or diversion or sabotage. Uppermost in the public mind is the question whether the regulatory process can cope with these potential threats to public health and safety. The licensing process of the NRC is conducted in full public view. Issues of a generic nature are aired in rulemaking hearings, while each proposal to construct and operate a nuclear power plant or a facility such as fuel reprocessing plant is the subject of public hearings, which are held near the site of the proposed plant. During the last two years, we have noted that some persons who object to nuclear power plants have indicated that they believe that decisions to permit construction of such plants should be made at the State government level, rather than by a Federal agency. As a result, there now are movements to enact State laws and to set up State

  8. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  9. Enhancing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy through the Education program for Schoolteachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y. M.; Min, B. J.; Yoo, J. G.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, J. H.; Ha, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. Y.; Seo, D. S.; Park, S. T.; Lee, H. B.; Han, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    Since most students acquire their nuclear related information from classes and mass-media, teachers, as knowledge propagators, can play a key role in public acceptance of nuclear power. The main purpose of this project is to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power through a nuclear education program for teachers from whom the next generation would cultivate their own knowledge and understanding of nuclear and radiation sciences. Thus systematic education programs for incumbent teachers are essential, since the teacher's understandings of nuclear and radiation science influence students directly. We derived the contents of the introductory textbook on the nuclear power and radiation technologies, the education programs and courses, and the performance criteria of the experiment kit, on the bases of the survey results in the teacher's college curricula and the workshop programs related to the nuclear education for science teachers. We developed the introductory textbook with a tremendous number of picture and diagrams to provide readers rich visual information on the nuclear and radiation technologies. We fabricated 6 compact radiation detection kits with total 10 lab. modules included in lab. manual. We carried out a nuclear education program for science teachers consisting of lectures, lab tours and radiation detection experiments to experience nuclear and radiation technologies. Also we established a working group to build a research-industry-university cooperation system for nuclear and radiation education and knowledge propagation. The cooperation body anticipates that the radiation detection kits would give enough experiment courses to fresh workforce of nuclear and radiation fields

  10. The Communication of the value and public acceptance of nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apparecido Ribeiro Jr, J.; Carlos de Oliveira Barroso, A.; Imakuma, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Public acceptance of the nuclear based electricity generation depends on many variables that can be affected by circumstances and interests. A survey was carried out to understand the key factors in this issue. Using ideas from the marketing concept of value communication and the analysis of the survey results, a framework to design communication strategies is suggested for the nuclear community. First, people perceive risk by interpreting incoming information through the lens coined by their own values, experiences and those of their social groups. Secondly, when a benefit is perceived as very high or very valuable, then almost any risk are accepted, even voluntarily, because the net outcome is judged as compensatory, as in the radical sport practice, for instance. Thirdly, it is not sufficient that benefices clearly outweigh the risks in an offer if the deciding individual does not have this perception. Fourthly, the way nuclear facts are communicated can either instill good empathy of feed more doubts and fear to the audience. Fifthly, the segmentation of public according to their dominant mental models on their approach to appraise nuclear power is essential for a successful communication. (A.C.)

  11. The Communication of the value and public acceptance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparecido Ribeiro Jr, J.; Carlos de Oliveira Barroso, A.; Imakuma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Public acceptance of the nuclear based electricity generation depends on many variables that can be affected by circumstances and interests. A survey was carried out to understand the key factors in this issue. Using ideas from the marketing concept of value communication and the analysis of the survey results, a framework to design communication strategies is suggested for the nuclear community. First, people perceive risk by interpreting incoming information through the lens coined by their own values, experiences and those of their social groups. Secondly, when a benefit is perceived as very high or very valuable, then almost any risk are accepted, even voluntarily, because the net outcome is judged as compensatory, as in the radical sport practice, for instance. Thirdly, it is not sufficient that benefices clearly outweigh the risks in an offer if the deciding individual does not have this perception. Fourthly, the way nuclear facts are communicated can either instill good empathy of feed more doubts and fear to the audience. Fifthly, the segmentation of public according to their dominant mental models on their approach to appraise nuclear power is essential for a successful communication. (A.C.)

  12. Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Sifaki, Elli; Pagalou, Maria; Nikitaki, Georgia; Psarakis, Vasilios [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymnon (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this study is to analyse and to evaluate the citizens' public acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP), for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Crete. For this purpose a contingent valuation study was conducted, using a double bound dichotomous choice format to elicit people's WTP and factors affecting it. Residents of 1440 households all over Crete were interviewed face-to-face. Major conclusions can be used as a basis for sustainable energy planning, for policies and the formulation of awareness campaigns and for RES investment programs and projects in order to prepare implementation conditions and enhance public acceptance of renewable energy investments and programmes. Mean WTP per household was found to be 16.33EUR to be paid quarterly as an additional charge on the electricity bill. Larger willingness to pay was reported by those with high family income and residence size, those having a higher level of energy information and awareness concerning climatic change, those who have invested in some energy saving measures, and those who suffer from more electricity shortages than others. (author)

  13. 3D augmented reality for improving social acceptance and public participation in wind farms planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S.; Klein, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important source of renewable energy characterized by a significant growth in the last decades and giving a more and more relevant contribution to the energy supply. One of the main disadvantages of a faster integration of wind energy into the energy mix is related to the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. In addition, the siting of new massive infrastructures has the potential to threaten a community's well-being if new projects are perceived being unfair. The public perception of the impact of wind turbines on the landscape is also crucial for their acceptance. The implementation of wind energy projects is hampered often because of a lack of planning or communication tools enabling a more transparent and efficient interaction between all stakeholders involved in the projects (i.e. developers, local communities and administrations, NGOs, etc.). Concerning the visual assessment of wind farms, a critical gap lies in effective visualization tools to improve the public perception of alternative wind turbines layouts. In this paper, we describe the advantages of a 3D dynamical and interactive visualization platform for an augmented reality to support wind energy planners in order to enhance the social acceptance of new wind energy projects.

  14. Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.

    2001-01-01

    Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

  15. Development of the 'Beta-Boy' radiation counter for public acceptance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kitada, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., which was established on July 1st, 1992 largely financed by Japan's electric power companies is presently developing four projects in the village of Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, roughly 700 km north of Tokyo: a uranium enrichment plant, which began operation in March, 1992; a reprocessing plant to begin construction in March, 1993; a high level radioactive waste storage facility for waste returned from overseas reprocessing, construction of which began in May, 1992; and a low level radioactive waste disposal center for waste generated in nuclear power plants, which began operation in December, 1992. Approval for the location of these facilities was obtained from the authorities in Aomori Prefecture and Rokkasho Village in 1985. However, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the nuclear fuel cycle project in Rokkasho as well as other nuclear facilities throughout the country were faced with very active opposition from the antinuclear movement. Through our efforts to obtain public acceptance by arranging site tours, lectures, public debates and so on, we realized that many of the people of Aomori Prefecture had doubts about the nuclear fuel cycle, and that more than 80% of those people held concerns about radiation. We also found that through the demonstration of measuring atmospheric radiation levels using a large conventional portable GM survey meter of the type used in nuclear facilities, we were able to obtain considerable understanding of the nature of radiation at our lectures. Realizing therefore the need to increase this effect, we decided to develop a simple radiation counter, which all the participants at our lectures could operate themselves to measure radiation. I will now explain the characteristics of 'Beta-Boy', new radiation counter, and the method to explain radiation by using 'Beta-Boy' in our public acceptance activities

  16. Educational project for the nuclear power and nuclear waste public acceptance fostering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Until now, public acceptance of nuclear power in Romania can be assessed as good. The main motivations could be: the primacy effect of the information, the poverty, the absence of the interest, the relative low informing level. However we expect important changes in the near future: more active NGOs with anti-nuclear opinion, the public's awareness will be more important, serious opposition against the continuation of the nuclear development may appear followed by a reformulation of the Romanian ecologists ideas. The problem of radioactive nuclear wastes (RNW) is the most sensitive and, related to the public opinion, we expect it will become crucial in 10-15 years. The main assumption of our project is that children who are now in schools will be tomorrow's decision makers on 'nuclear energy and RNW. Thus, we intend to prepare the young generation for the future participation in the decision making process related to RNW. The paper shows the main ideas (initial conditions obtained by actual knowledge level measurements, constraints, methods, information contents, evaluation methods and produced outputs) of the educational proposed programme. The work is part of the Romanian contribution to COWAM FP6 project. (authors)

  17. [Acceptance by blood donors of the public blood bank in Recife, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Fábia Michelle Rodrigues; Feliciano, Katia Virginia de Oliveira; Mendes, Marina Ferreira de Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the acceptance of blood donors concerning the donation stages (attendance, medical and nursing selection and collection) at the Recife public blood bank with emphasis on the attendance. A sample of 527 donors was obtained: each 19th person sequentially was invited to answer a questionnaire. Chi-square (x2) was used in the analysis. Of those interviewed, 81.4% were men, 81% were repeat donors, 50.3% were dissatisfied regarding the time spent in donation and 36.4% had difficulties in reaching the service. The firm acceptance given to the attendance was due mainly to the communication and the quality of treatment. Of statistical significance were women donors of higher educational level who asked for more information and men who had a more positive perception towards the selection process. The best evaluation was attributed to the collection sector. However, mention was made of impersonal treatment, persistence of doubts and the cursory nature of the medical interview. Attention focused on the donor requires that ongoing education should concentrate on the humanitarian formation of the professionals involved.

  18. Public acceptability of California's wind energy developments: three studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosley, P.; Bosley, K.

    1988-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted during 1988 to determine perceptions and attitudes regarding wind energy development as held by government and regulatory officials involved with windfarm development in the three major wind resource regions in California; environmentalists and community activists in these regions; and members of the wind industry. Results indicate that realization of large windfarm projects is being affected by local opposition which exists partly because of lack of knowledge about the technical maturity and economics of today's windpower; opposed interests between the developers and the locality; and development-created problems such as ''Visual Intrusion''. Public acceptability, essential for industry success, may be hindered because wind energy benefits to a locality are not perceived to equal the risks incurred by that particular region. Therefore, the industry needs to continue improving its performance as well as its communications with all affected parties.

  19. Enhancing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy through the Education program for Schoolteachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Y. M.; Min, B. J.; Yoo, J. G.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, J. H.; Ha, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. Y.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. T.; Lee, H. B.; Han, S. H. [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Since most students acquire their nuclear related information from classes and mass-media, teachers, as knowledge propagators, can play a key role in public acceptance of nuclear power. The main purpose of this project is to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power through a nuclear education program for teachers from whom the next generation would cultivate their own knowledge and understanding of nuclear and radiation sciences. Thus systematic education programs for incumbent teachers are essential, since the teacher's understandings of nuclear and radiation science influence students directly. We derived the contents of the introductory textbook on the nuclear power and radiation technologies, the education programs and courses, and the performance criteria of the experiment kit, on the bases of the survey results in the teacher's college curricula and the workshop programs related to the nuclear education for science teachers. We developed the introductory textbook with a tremendous number of picture and diagrams to provide readers rich visual information on the nuclear and radiation technologies. We fabricated 6 compact radiation detection kits with total 10 lab. modules included in lab. manual. We carried out a nuclear education program for science teachers consisting of lectures, lab tours and radiation detection experiments to experience nuclear and radiation technologies. Also we established a working group to build a research-industry-university cooperation system for nuclear and radiation education and knowledge propagation. The cooperation body anticipates that the radiation detection kits would give enough experiment courses to fresh workforce of nuclear and radiation fields

  20. Why is the public acceptance so peculiar only for nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    be quite strong as compared to that of non-risky news, resulting in the gradual formation of negative feeling in the public's mind for these technologies. The quality and quantity of knowledge on the nuclear and radiation technologies as such are quite different from those of researchers so that their differences seems to be the root cause of the peculiarity of public acceptance for those technologies. A hypothesis is proposed that the knowledge with such quality and quantity has been cultivated by the nuclear information made by the media. (author)

  1. Interim nuclear spent fuel storage facility - From complete refusal to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacena, Michal

    1998-01-01

    Full text: As usual in P.R., there was a complicated, politically sensitive situation we had to face at the beginning and it wasn't easy to create the right P.R. programme with the right targets: CEZ needed a new storage facility for the nuclear spent fuel from its two NPPs - Dukovany and Temelin. Firstly, CEZ preferred to build an on-site facility for the Dukovany NPP to last until the year 2004; secondly, a facility for the Temelin NPP several years later. But the Czech Government decided to limit Dukovany's storage capacity during a public discussion in 1992. Therefore, at the end of 1993, CEZ started the site selection process for a central storage facility targeted at ten regions in the country. In P.R. we decided on two main goals: 1. To gain public acceptance of a central storage facility at least at one site, and hopefully at more. 2. To change public opinion (especially around the Dukovany NPP) in order to create the proper atmosphere for changing the government's decision to limit storage capacity. We wanted to prove that we could choose the fight technical and economical solution without political limits. This obviously presented a challenge as it would be problematic for CEZ to be very visible in the campaign: We wanted people to know that the government had made a bad decision, but we also had to make it clear that our objections were based not on questions of momentary corporate advantage but instead on solid technical grounds. Most would only see self interest. We wanted to show them the facts. Of course, some times it wasn't easy to hit both targets at the same time. There was a lot of hard work in the middle. We gained new experience and we learned a lot trying to get public confidence in nuclear safety, in our company's reliability and in some local profits for a storage site: Firstly none of those regions was excited by the idea o a storage facility in its backyard. Most of them were very strongly and actively against it and did not want to

  2. Biking our way to public acceptance: Doel NPP reorients communication policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souwer, Corinne

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In these days, the existence of a nuclear power station is no longer entirely evident. Especially in Belgium where operating licence is subject to ten-yearly re-evaluations by the authorities. Therefore, the management has to orient its policy not only towards safety and economic operation but also to public acceptance. The Doel NPP management therefore makes use of the equilateral triangle here above, as all three sides are equally important. Although economic operation demands great efforts in cost control, new activities are developed in order to enhance public acceptance - which consequently lead to new investments. Top priority in our external communication policy is the environment. This is quite logical, as the environment is also one of the top priorities in the overall management policy. Thus, Doel NPP is working hard in order to obtain the EMAS certificate(Eco Management and Audit Scheme acknowledged by the European Commission) next spring. External communication is therefore very much oriented towards environmental education projects, which we develop as much as possible in close cooperation with environmental groups. We offer these projects to schools and other public groups by means of a centralized dispatching centre. They include amongst others an eco bicycle tour in the surroundings of the power plant, with information on the typical plant and animal life of the area. We supply well-documented nature brochure and even free bikes to the public. We have also installed an ecological laboratory, specially developed in cooperation with teachers so as to correspond with the learning programmes of secondary schools. The laboratory is manned by a qualified biology teacher. The examined samples for soil and water research come from our own nature reserve (6ha) located on the site of the power plant. Another module consists of guided tours in the power plant. Each visitor ran take a guided bus tour on site. and take a look at the control room, the

  3. Enhancing local distinctiveness fosters public acceptance of tidal energy: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Tidal energy has the technical potential to form part of a low carbon electricity sector, however, its 'social potential' is less clear, as few empirical studies of public beliefs and responses have been conducted to date. This research addressed this gap by investigating a tidal energy convertor in Northern Ireland, said to be the first grid-connected device of its kind in the world. Data was collected from 313 residents of two nearby villages using mixed methods, guided by a conceptual framework that avoided 'NIMBY' assumptions and instead drew on place theory. Findings indicated strong support for the project, arising from beliefs that the project enhanced local distinctiveness by 'putting the area on the map worldwide'; appeared visually familiar and helped tackle climate change. These positive beliefs outweighed concerns about outcome and process aspects, which were preponderant in one of the two villages. The project was interpreted to have few positive local economic outcomes, to potentially threaten local livelihoods and local ecology. Moreover, residents expressed cynicism about consultation procedures, and reported low levels of behavioural engagement. Implications of the findings for the literature on public acceptance of renewable energy, and for the emerging marine energy sector specifically, are discussed.

  4. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  5. Public acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breast feeding: a survey of the British public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Sewel, Kate; Thomson, Gill; Bauld, Linda; Yi, Deokhee; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey public attitudes about incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and for breast feeding to inform trial design. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants British general public. Methods Seven promising incentive strategies had been identified from evidence syntheses and qualitative interview data from service users and providers. These were shopping vouchers for: (1) validated smoking cessation in pregnancy and (2) after birth; (3) for a smoke-free home; (4) for proven breast feeding; (5) a free breast pump; (6) payments to health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy targets and (7) breastfeeding targets. Ipsos MORI used area quota sampling and home-administered computer-assisted questionnaires, with randomised question order to assess agreement with different incentives (measured on a five-point scale). Demographic data and target behaviour experience were recorded. Analysis used multivariable ordered logit models. Results Agreement with incentives was mixed (ranging from 34% to 46%) among a representative sample of 1144 British adults. Mean agreement score was highest for a free breast pump, and lowest for incentives for smoking abstinence after birth. More women disagreed with shopping vouchers than men. Those with lower levels of education disagreed more with smoking cessation incentives and a breast pump. Those aged 44 or under agreed more with all incentive strategies compared with those aged 65 and over, particularly provider targets for smoking cessation. Non-white ethnic groups agreed particularly with breastfeeding incentives. Current smokers with previous stop attempts and respondents who had breast fed children agreed with providing vouchers for the respective behaviours. Up to £40/month vouchers for behaviour change were acceptable (>85%). Conclusions Women and the less educated were more likely to disagree, but men and women of childbearing age to agree, with incentives designed for their benefit

  6. An investigation into waste charges in Ireland, with emphasis on public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Louise; Convery, Frank J; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-12-01

    There are 34 local authorities in Ireland with legal responsibility to deal with waste arising in their jurisdictions. In 2003 the National government introduced legislation that allows local authorities to recover the costs of waste collection and disposal, and to do so by 'executive function', i.e., not requiring support or agreement by the relevant local political representatives. The year 2005 was set as the date by which implementation of a pay by weight or volume was to be introduced. The local authorities were given autonomy as to how they addressed this challenge, so we have - in theory - 34 potentially different experiences from which to learn. This paper examines the pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) waste system in Ireland as it develops in line with EU and National demands, with a view to assessing economic and environmental efficiency. All local authorities were surveyed and thirteen responded. While this only represents about 38% of the total number, it includes jurisdictions that contribute in total more than 50% of waste arising. Key figures in the policy and business community were also interviewed in order to identify how the charging schemes were implemented, and to what effect. These insights and parallel investigations are used to review the potential for problems regarding public acceptability of environmental taxes and examine the evidence for economic and environmental efficiency, as well as problem areas, using data from each of the responding local authority jurisdictions. Concentrating on the incentives and drivers across households, municipalities and private waste contractors, the variations in charging system, annual charges and landfill charges are compared where information was available. The various jurisdictions are also examined in terms of relative successes and problems encountered in the transition from fixed charge or free waste collection to PAYT systems. The Irish situation is placed in the context of the international literature on

  7. Public acceptance of renewable energy technologies from an abstract versus concrete perspective and the positive imagery of solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public acceptance and perception of renewable energy sources are key factors for successfully accomplishing an energy transition. In this light, developing effective policy and communication measures necessitates understanding how people perceive energy systems. Accordingly, the present study aimed to shed light on people's imagery of solar power, one of the renewable energy sources with the highest potential. Results revealed that almost unanimously people associate solar power with highly positive imagery and that visual characteristics are especially prevalent. The successful realization of renewable energy projects requires policymakers to draw on reliable data about public acceptance of renewables. In response to this need, the present study examined whether assessing public acceptance of renewables on a more concrete level (i.e., by addressing drawbacks) can result in a different, more reliable acceptance rating than assessment on an abstract level, as done at present in opinion polls. Results showed that people do not think about drawbacks related to renewables when they consider it from a general, more abstract, perspective. However, when downsides are specifically addressed, people integrate these into their evaluation, thus diminishing acceptance. Even the highly positive imagery of solar power is relativized and acceptance decreases. These findings have several important implications for policymakers. - Highlights: • Evaluating renewables on a concrete rather than abstract level decreases acceptance. • People are less likely to consider drawbacks when assessing renewables on an abstract level. • On a concrete level, people consider drawbacks, even if not personally affected. • Public acceptance assessed on a concrete level provides a more valid base for policy decisions. • People almost unanimously hold a strongly positive imagery of solar power.

  8. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Communicating to gain public acceptance of energy projects; Akzeptanzkommunikation fuer Energieprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pust, M. [TECSOL GmbH, Friedeburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Whoever plans to execute energy projects in today's world should be aware of the fact that the social framework conditions surrounding such projects have changed significantly. For the organization executing the project to merely adhere to the legally prescribed authorization procedure and leave it until the end of the planning procedure to inform those affected is often no longer sufficient for gaining public acceptance. Large parts of the population criticise the usual procedures because they have lost confidence in this kind of decision making, which offers them too little scope for co-determination. Thus for some years there has been a growing number of cases where citizens demand full public participation and early information on why the project in question is needed and what kinds of impact it will have. Lack of acceptance can lead to resistance, with negative effects on the project and the companies involved. TECSOL takes care of the communication management alongside energy projects, taking its bearings by the existing standards for voluntary early information of the public, as recommended by the VDI (Guideline 7001) and required by the legislature (PlVereinhG = Law for Improvement of Public Participation and Harmonisation of Plan Approval Procedures). The lecture outlines the societal challenges involved as well as the possibilities for dealing fairly with demands of the population in the context of energy projects. This is illustrated using the model case of the ''Etzel cultural landscape'' as a practical example, in which TECSOL played a prominent role on behalf of IVG Caverns GmbH. [German] Wer heute Energieprojekte umsetzen will, muss sich im Klaren darueber sein, dass sich die gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen stark veraendert haben. Es reicht fuer die Akzeptanz des Vorhabens haeufig nicht mehr aus, dass ein Vorhabentraeger den rechtlich vorgegebenen Weg des Genehmigungsprozesses beschreitet und die betroffenen Buerger erst

  10. Public acceptance for nuclear energy. Group unconsciousness and personnel self-consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yosinobu

    1995-01-01

    Since commercial usage of nuclear energy, 40 years already has spent. During that time, public acceptance has been told as very important. The procedure itself was changed gradually. Recently, at same time understandable man and non understandable man for nuclear energy are called at the stage, and talked to audience from the stage. They expect the audience will easily understand the nuclear energy. But the problem may come in the selection of good coordinator. Mr. Jung used the word of group unconsciousness. This is some time good for a battle, a religion and a political affairs for a while. Nazis, blend in all over the world, Ohm religion, present cooperated government etc. Japanese people are easily to have group consciousness. To opposite to them a self-consciousness are very important, Human being may have two different feeling, one is very much emotional and another is very much reasonable. Emotional man have tendency to have separate knowledge points and be get his conclusion very much quickly. Reasonable man have tendency to have the stacked knowledge points and take a little bit more time to get his conclusion. To get better nuclear energy PA, it's very important that self-consciousness excitedly attractive knowledge should be increased. Easy understandable knowledge and high technical knowledge should be mixed up and nuclear energy technique should be easily understood. (author)

  11. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-09-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  12. Public acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breast feeding: a survey of the British public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Sewel, Kate; Thomson, Gill; Bauld, Linda; Yi, Deokhee; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-07-18

    To survey public attitudes about incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and for breast feeding to inform trial design. Cross-sectional survey. British general public. Seven promising incentive strategies had been identified from evidence syntheses and qualitative interview data from service users and providers. These were shopping vouchers for: (1) validated smoking cessation in pregnancy and (2) after birth; (3) for a smoke-free home; (4) for proven breast feeding; (5) a free breast pump; (6) payments to health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy targets and (7) breastfeeding targets. Ipsos MORI used area quota sampling and home-administered computer-assisted questionnaires, with randomised question order to assess agreement with different incentives (measured on a five-point scale). Demographic data and target behaviour experience were recorded. Analysis used multivariable ordered logit models. Agreement with incentives was mixed (ranging from 34% to 46%) among a representative sample of 1144 British adults. Mean agreement score was highest for a free breast pump, and lowest for incentives for smoking abstinence after birth. More women disagreed with shopping vouchers than men. Those with lower levels of education disagreed more with smoking cessation incentives and a breast pump. Those aged 44 or under agreed more with all incentive strategies compared with those aged 65 and over, particularly provider targets for smoking cessation. Non-white ethnic groups agreed particularly with breastfeeding incentives. Current smokers with previous stop attempts and respondents who had breast fed children agreed with providing vouchers for the respective behaviours. Up to £40/month vouchers for behaviour change were acceptable (>85%). Women and the less educated were more likely to disagree, but men and women of childbearing age to agree, with incentives designed for their benefit. Trials evaluating reach, impact on health inequalities and ethnic

  13. Public Acceptance on Nuclear Power: A Strategic Need to Shift to 5Ps (Politicians, Policy Makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Acceptance on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)

  14. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  15. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full-scale physical testing of spent fuel shipping casks has been proposed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2006 report on spent nuclear fuel transportation, and by the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future 2011 draft report. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2005 proposed full-scale testing of a rail cask, and considered 'regulatory limits' testing of both rail and truck casks (SRM SECY-05-0051). The recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, NRC evaluation of extended spent fuel storage (possibly beyond 60-120 years) before transportation, nuclear industry adoption of very large dual-purpose canisters for spent fuel storage and transport, and the deliberations of the BRC, will fundamentally change assumptions about the future spent fuel transportation system, and reopen the debate over shipping cask performance in severe accidents and acts of sabotage. This paper examines possible approaches to full-scale testing for enhancing public confidence in risk analyses, perception of risk, and acceptance of spent fuel shipments. The paper reviews the literature on public perception of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste transportation risks. We review and summarize opinion surveys sponsored by the State of Nevada over the past two decades, which show consistent patterns of concern among Nevada residents about health and safety impacts, and socioeconomic impacts such as reduced property values along likely transportation routes. We also review and summarize the large body of public opinion survey research on transportation concerns at regional and national levels. The paper reviews three past cask testing programs, the way in which these cask testing program results were portrayed in films and videos, and examines public and official responses to these three programs: the 1970's impact and fire testing of spent fuel truck casks at Sandia National

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  17. What Is the Greater Good? The Discourse on Public and Private Roles of Higher Education in the New Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Brad; Galilee-Belfer, Mika; Lee, Jenny J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ways that the "public good" of higher education is being conceptualised as economic benefits and cost/benefit rationalities in the current economic downturn. Based on the case of Arizona in the United States, a discourse analysis of speeches was performed on the way public, state and institutional leaders…

  18. 30 CFR 206.104 - What publications are acceptable to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buyers and sellers frequently use; (2) Publications frequently mentioned in purchase or sales contracts; (3) Publications that use adequate survey techniques, including development of estimates based on...

  19. Information features and activities needed to build public acceptance for the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    The global tendency toward sustainable development and free market policies, combined with the fuzzy thinking of Indonesian people and the Indonesian anti-nuclear groups, provide an opportunity to formulate options to disseminate information and conduct related activities. Obtaining successful public acceptance depends on the spectrum of cooperation and achievement of mutual understanding between Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) vendors, relevant Indonesian institutions and the nuclear communities in ASEAN and Asian countries. The most significant factor in getting good public acceptance of nuclear power usage is the proof that Indonesian engineers and scientists working with NPPs are competent and that there is a clear national benefit. However all information should be packaged in a proper way, suitable to public needs, and distributed in a way that makes optimal use of existing methods of distribution. The governmental and traditional social system methods of interaction cannot be avoided. (authors)

  20. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  1. Analysis on perception of nuclear power plant and the preference of its policy alternatives for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Byong Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. Methods reflection public opinions in order to improve public acceptance are firstly to understand what the public think about nuclear power plant and secondly to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, simplified multi-attribute utility(MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception for five power production system. And the conjoint analysis was applied to find out he quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to improve the safety and support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement these perception and preference analyses, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant. 4 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  2. Public acceptance of a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine in Aceh, Indonesia: A hospital-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harapan Harapan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the acceptance towards a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine (EVV and associated factors in a non-affected country, Indonesia. Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in four regencies of Aceh, Indonesia. A set of pre-tested questionnaires was used to obtain information on acceptance towards EVV and a range of explanatory variables. Associations between EVV acceptance and explanatory variables were tested using multi-steps logistic regression analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results: Participants who had knowledge on Ebola virus disease (EVD were 45.3% (192/424 and none of the participants achieved 80% correct answers on the knowledge regarding to EVD. About 73% of participants expressed their willingness to receive the EVV. Education attainment, occupation, monthly income, have heard regarding to EVD previously, socioeconomic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were associated significantly with acceptance towards EVV in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. In the final multivariate model, socio-economic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were the independent explanatory variables for EVV acceptance. Conclusions: The knowledge of EVD was low, but this minimally affected the acceptance towards EVV. However, to facilitate optimal uptake of EVV, dissemination of vaccine-related information prior to its introduction is required.

  3. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Gloede, Lise; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Green, Amber A; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-02-01

    Although therapeutic diets are critical to diabetes management, their acceptability to patients is largely unstudied. To quantify adherence and acceptability for two types of diets for diabetes. Controlled trial conducted between 2004 and 2006. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n=99) at a community-based research facility. Participants were randomly assigned to a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines or a low-fat, vegan diet for 74 weeks. Attrition, adherence, dietary behavior, diet acceptability, and cravings. For nutrient intake and questionnaire scores, t tests determined between-group differences. For diet-acceptability measures, the related samples Wilcoxon sum rank test assessed within-group changes; the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test compared the diet groups. Changes in reported symptoms among the groups was compared using chi(2) for independent samples. All participants completed the initial 22 weeks; 90% (45/50) of American Diabetes Association guidelines diet group and 86% (42/49) of the vegan diet group participants completed 74 weeks. Fat and cholesterol intake fell more and carbohydrate and fiber intake increased more in the vegan group. At 22 weeks, group-specific diet adherence criteria were met by 44% (22/50) of members of the American Diabetes Association diet group and 67% (33/49) of vegan-group participants (P=0.019); the American Diabetes Association guidelines diet group reported a greater increase in dietary restraint; this difference was not significant at 74 weeks. Both groups reported reduced hunger and reduced disinhibition. Questionnaire responses rated both diets as satisfactory, with no significant differences between groups, except for ease of preparation, for which the 22-week ratings marginally favored the American Diabetes Association guideline group. Cravings for fatty foods diminished more in the vegan group at 22 weeks, with no significant difference at 74 weeks. Despite its greater influence on

  4. Consideration on nuclear public acceptance. How do you think on Oni carton?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yosinobu [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Already, method with dividing to quadrants of people have been presented. It seems to be too much self conceited and not be well accepted. Then 4 frame cartoon are being tried. Peak cut, rubbish generation electricity, Plutonium, MOX fuel and earthquake are tried. Scenario have been made by my self and pictures were written by my friend. 4 frame cartoon are good to see another world, speed image, start to close moving and rationalism. And by introducing a non rationalism of Oni for alarm bell to people is easily appeared. It seems to expect too much by them. Next time more easy acceptable way is tried to think. (author)

  5. Consideration on nuclear public acceptance. How do you think on Oni carton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yosinobu

    1997-01-01

    Already, method with dividing to quadrants of people have been presented. It seems to be too much self conceited and not be well accepted. Then 4 frame cartoon are being tried. Peak cut, rubbish generation electricity, Plutonium, MOX fuel and earthquake are tried. Scenario have been made by my self and pictures were written by my friend. 4 frame cartoon are good to see another world, speed image, start to close moving and rationalism. And by introducing a non rationalism of Oni for alarm bell to people is easily appeared. It seems to expect too much by them. Next time more easy acceptable way is tried to think. (author)

  6. Women in biomedical engineering and health informatics and its impact on gender representation for accepted publications at IEEE EMBC 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Carolyn; Smith, Kathleen P; Percival, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The study of women within the professions of Engineering and Computer Science has consistently been found to demonstrate women as a minority within these professions. However none of that previous work has assessed publication behaviours based on gender. This paper presents research findings on gender distribution of authors of accepted papers for the IEEE Engineering and Medicine Society annual conference for 2007 (EMBC '07) held in Lyon, France. This information is used to present a position statement of the current state of gender representation for conference publication within the domain of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Issues in data preparation resulting from the lack of inclusion of gender in information gathered from accepted authors are presented and discussed.

  7. Environmental impacts of public transport. Why peak-period travellers cause a greater environmental burden than off-peak travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Given the difference between peak and off-peak occupancy rates in public transport, emissions per traveller kilometre are lower in the peak than in the off-peak period, whereas the opposite pattern is observed for cars. It is argued that it is much more fruitful to analyse environmental effects in marginal terms. This calls for a careful analysis of capacity management policies of public transport suppliers that are facing increased demand during both peak and off-peak periods. A detailed analysis of capacity management by the Netherlands Railways (NS) revealed that off-peak capacity supply is mainly dictated by the demand levels during the peak period. The analysis included the effects of increased frequency and increased vehicle size on environmental impacts, while environmental economies of vehicle size were also taken into account. The main conclusion is that the marginal environmental burden during the peak hours is much higher than is usually thought, whereas it is almost zero during the off-peak period. This implies a pattern that is the precise opposite of the average environmental burden. Thus, an analysis of environmental effects of public transport based on average performance would yield misleading conclusions [nl

  8. Rural public acceptance of renewable energy deployment: The case of Shandong in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Wang Can,; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    China has set ambitious goals to increase the use of renewable energy. Developing renewables in rural areas is also one of the most important energy strategies. This paper examines rural social acceptance of renewable energy deployment taking Shandong as a case study via a field questionnaire

  9. Understanding and involvement: The key to public acceptance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) that is authorized under Public Law 96-164 ''to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense programs of the United States.'' The transportation and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes require an extensive public and media information program. This program must be able to respond to numerous information requests and concerns from state governments, citizens on the transportation routes, political leaders, public interest groups, emergency responders, and national and local media. The WIPP has developed a proactive program which aggressively provides information to these audiences through written and visual products, exhibits, presentations, and tours. As a result, thousands of interested parties have had their questions and concerns addressed, resulting in public understanding and support of the project's mission and its commitment to the safety of the public and the environment

  10. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yu Yifeng; Zou Bai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  11. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.

  12. Extended UTAUT to Examine the Acceptance of Web Based Training System by Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer A Alrawashdeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, organizations have applied e-learning system to train their employees in order to enhance the its performance. In this respect, applying web based training will enable the organization to train their employees quickly, efficiently and effectively anywhere at any time. This research aims to extend Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT using some factors such flexibility of web based training system, system interactivity and system enjoyment, in order to explain the employees

  13. Social acceptability of energy policy: the case of nuclear power and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinberg, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Public protest against nuclear power and other energy policies in the US, West Germany, and Sweden contrasts sharply with an apparent lack of public involvement in Belgium, Finland, Canada, and several other countries. The author notes that the concept of an energy policy as opposed to using whatever fuel is available and cheapest is new to society, while nuclear power is unique only in its inability to overcome the historical opposition to new technology. The opposition is strengthened by the coalition of many diverse groups and the emergence of public participation in decision making. Dr. Zinberg feels that open negotiation, taken one step at a time, will be needed to depolarize the controversy and retain the nuclear option. 1 reference

  14. Labeling renewable energies: How the language surrounding biofuels can influence its public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciatore, Michael A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Shaw, Bret R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest and investments in biological fuels, little is known of how the public form opinions toward this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on several factors that can be expected to influence citizens' opinions about the issue. First, we tested the results of a framing experiment that was embedded within a public opinion survey. This experiment explored how the public responded to the term “biofuels” as compared to the term “ethanol.” Our results suggest that, overall, respondents tended to react more favorably to the former as opposed to the latter term. Second, we examined the impacts of sociodemographics on public attitudes toward biofuels. We found that while sociodemographics did little to consistently explain attitudes toward biofuels there was clear evidence of ideological influences on attitudes, with self-identifying Democrats showing more positive attitudes overall. Finally, we explored the interaction between political partisanship and our experimental manipulation. We found evidence that our wording manipulation differed based on the political party identification of our respondents, with Democrats fluctuating greatly in their assessments depending upon whether they were asked to evaluate “biofuels” or “ethanol.” - Highlights: ► This study tested how the public responds to the terms “biofuels” and “ethanol”. ► Respondents tended to react more favorably to “biofuels” as opposed to “ethanol”. ► Sociodemographics did little to consistently explain biofuels/ethanol attitudes. ► However, Democrats were more positive than Republicans toward biofuels/ethanol. ► Wording manipulation also differed based on respondent political party affiliation.

  15. The Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia edited and computerized to promote public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooke, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Editing the Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia has been in progress since 1989. It will be completed in 1993. The book is intended to provide raw material for the public to have his own judgement on nuclear energy. It is also useful as a 'text book' for specialists who lecture on the nuclear energy including the social effects at public seminars and meetings. Computerization of the book is also being made simultaneously. The trial use of the partly completed book has been started by some 150 of the nominated lectures through the country from August 1992. The computerized book has been well received so far by these lectures. (J.P.N.)

  16. Mass media differences in ''nuclear news'' reporting: implications for public opinions and acceptable safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Williams, J.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and political issues of diversion safeguards are at best confusing to the general public, who derive most of their information about nuclear science from the mass media. This investigation compared ''nuclear news'' of all kinds in three national mass media for thirty-three months of 1972-1974 to examine the quantity and quality of atom-related news they provide. Findings from The New York Times, U. S. News and World Report, and the ABC, CBS, and NBC evening news indicate grounds for low public familiarity with essential concepts of safeguards, and consequently, for consumer value conflicts and weak popular supports for safeguards-related policy

  17. Political and Public Acceptability of Congestion Pricing: Ideology and Self-Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsman, Bjorn; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the "stated preferences" of households generally report public and political opposition by urban commuters to congestion pricing. It is thought that this opposition inhibits or precludes tolls and pricing systems that would enhance efficiency in the use of scarce roadways. This paper analyzes the only case in which road…

  18. The radiological accident of Goiania and the acceptance by the public of new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, N.L.; Mattos, L.A.T.

    1998-01-01

    Misunderstandings on the peaceful uses and the safety of nuclear energy have been a leading cause of apprehension in Brazilian public opinion. A lack of knowledge of the characteristics and destination of radioactive wastes and negative media coverage of the use of nuclear energy have aggravated this situation. Believing that applications of nuclear energy are harmful to the population's welfare and the environment, Brazilian public opinion is opposed to the utilization of nuclear energy, and in particular to the construction of new nuclear power plants. For this reason, the Brazilian nuclear sector should promote a more intensive programme of public discussion, directed not solely at the technical and scientific communities, but also at the Brazilian public at large. Such a campaign would contribute towards a better understanding by Brazilian society of the different uses of nuclear energy and would present arguments in support of the benefits of this form of energy. Moreover, a campaign of this kind would show that negative associations about the use of electricity derived from nuclear power, which are based on the Goiania radiological accident, are not justified. (author)

  19. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  20. Public acceptability of forest management practices at Morgan-Monroe State Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon C. Rogers; William L. Hoover; Shorna B. Allred

    2013-01-01

    Forest management practices on public forests are controversial with many organizational and individual stakeholders. Forest managers' understanding of the attitudes of stakeholders is necessary to honor statutory requirements and the social contract under which they operate. The human dimension component of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana...

  1. Cognitive styles, user acceptance and commitment to strategic plans in public organizations: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian); E. Cools (Eva); A. Prinzie (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGiven the lack of insights into the micro-determinants of strategic planning (SP) in public organizations, this study uses information-processing theory and self-efficacy theory to investigate individual-level predictors of commitment to strategic plans among planning team members

  2. Perceived risks of nuclear fuel waste disposal: trust, compensation, and public acceptance in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, D.W.; Summers, C.

    1996-01-01

    AECL's recommendation to place the high-level radioactive waste in corrosion resistant containers and bury it in underground vaults several hundred metres deep in the rock of the Canadian shield is presently under federal review. If and when the disposal concept is approved by the federal review panel, a search will begin for a suitable host community. Given that siting guidelines prevent the government from unilaterally imposing the waste on a reluctant community, identifying a suitable site may represent the single greatest obstacle to successfully implementing the disposal concept. Even if the concept is approved by the review panel, it may be very difficult to find a community that is willing to accept the waste. In the US, efforts to site an underground disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain has run into strong opposition from local residents and politicians, resulting in long delays and major cost overruns

  3. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%. The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated ("Yes, certainly", "Yes, probably". Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7% of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001; older age (p = .002; highest or lowest level of education (p = .016; non-clerical occupation (p = .011; having only one child (p = .008; and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001. Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9% and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8% (p = .002. Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively. In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001. Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat

  4. Public health care system, a quasi-experimental study: Acceptance and attitude to implicate clinical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillani Syed Wasif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A six-month longitudinal intervention arm study with a pre-post cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed. A 3-phase objective structured clinical examination (OSCE design was utilized for evaluation of acceptance and attitude of pharmacy students towards clinical pharmacy services. The pre-OSCE survey showed increased disagreement with the role of clinical pharmacists, compared to a significant positive shift in attitude towards their services in the healthcare team after 6 months of the trial. Responses improved for awareness (the current healthcare system could be improved by involving pharmacists, p < 0.02 and positive attitude categories (doctors and nurses would be happy to welcome the services of competent clinical pharmacists as part of their team, p < 0.01 in addition to competency (pharmacists have sufficient clinical training to advise doctors and nurses, p < 0.01. The predictive model suggested a strong positive effect on patient interaction, medical information tasks, clinical decisions on drug-related problems (DRPs, and communication with healthcare professionals (R2 = 0.41, F = 1.51, p < 0.001.

  5. Public acceptance of nuclear power: some ethical issues. [Position statement of World Council of Churches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrecht, P; Arungu-Olende, S; Francis, J M; de Gaspar, D; Nashed, W; Nwosu, B C.E.; Rose, D J; Shinn, R L

    1977-12-01

    The World Council of Churches favors the widest possible discussion of nuclear power issues with the immediate purpose of raising the level of public awareness of the social, political, and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. Its general position on nuclear energy is presented as follows. (A) The availability of nuclear energy is a controversial feature of today's world in that it affords the opportunity to provide a large fraction of the world's energy needs, counter-balanced by the exceptional nature of the risks involved, and other problems related to the employment of large-scale, capital-intensive high technology. (B) The maturity of the nuclear energy system is not yet such as to justify its worldwide application; the consequences of large-scale expansion of nuclear energy production are still relatively poorly understood and require further assessment. (C) The rights of access to nuclear technology should be preserved to the extent that the nuclear ''haves'' may not deny the nuclear ''have nots'' by any form of exclusive consultation. (D) There should be sufficient discussion of the factors governing access to nuclear technology to bring all nations to a new awareness of its risks and uncertainties as well as its opportunities; and the collective responsibility for monitoring and administering safeguards should reside with the IAEA rather than with individual governments. (E) Public confidence in the use of nuclear energy, seriously shaken in recent years, can be revived only by the widest possible public discussion of the technical options and of the value judgements underlying present patterns of energy consumption.

  6. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...

  7. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  8. Retrievability - a matter of public acceptance? Reflections on the public review of the proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverin, G.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental assessment has been used as a planning tool in Canada for almost three decades. Public participation, one of its fundamental principles, is at the heart of environmental assessment in our country. To date, approximately 12 large projects related to nuclear energy have been the subject of public reviews by independent panels of experts appointed by the Government of Canada. These include: the development of uranium mines in Northern Saskatchewan; the construction and operation of two CANDU reactors in New-Brunswick, the second of which was never constructed; proposed uranium hexafluoride refineries in Ontario and Saskatchewan; expansion of a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel in Quebec; and decommissioning of uranium mine tailings areas in Ontario. All of the assessments mentioned above were conducted under the environmental assessment regimes of 1975 and 1984 that preceded the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1995). One of the public reviews of particular interest to this workshop is that of the proposed concept for deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada. This paper focuses exclusively on the public review of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal Concept developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), particularly as it relates to public acceptance of retrievability. The paper first describes the historical context in which AECL's concept was developed prior to the public review. It then briefly outlines the changes in the societal context that occurred between the time when decisions were made to proceed with the development of the concept in 1978 and the time when public hearings were held in 1996-1997 and the panel report was presented to the government in 1998. It also provides a short description of the concept itself. The paper then presents a discussion of the arguments used by the public in the panel review, arguments, which demonstrate a decrease in confidence in a concept lacking effective postclosure

  9. Economic estimation of the external effect on the security of energy and public acceptance for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes in Japan, i. e., three laws of electric power source, crude oil customs duties and oil taxes, as well as the fuel stock of the power plants have been investigated, and the economical estimation for the nuclear power generation has been carried out from standpoints of the security of energy and public acceptance. For the security, it has been clear that the nuclear power is advanced in internalization of fuel stock by external economy and diversification of electric power source by external diseconomy, but oil and LNG thermal power generation is not sufficiently internalized. None of the power source has paid for the compensation for the risk in public acceptance. The fuel stock for the thermal power is estimated to be for about one week to a month, whereas nuclear power plants have a potential stock that lasts for 3 years. The external effect could go up to 35 billion yen if it is converted to fuel. The predominance, therefore, of the nuclear power for the security of energy is confirmed. Also, it is presumable that the external cost for the fuel stock, so called, is larger than the one for risk and CO 2 reduction. (author)

  10. Promoting International Cooperation and Public Acceptance in Utilizing Proton Accelerator Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Hahn, Bong Oh; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kim, Kyu Ryung; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, In Kyu; Kim, Hyun Joon; Noh, Seung Jeong

    2002-11-01

    Proton engineering's main tool will be a high power proton accelerator which is to be established within next 10 years in the frame of Proton engineering Frontier Project. It is necessary for public to understand the meaning and importance of the project so that Project activities such as site preparation can be efficiently completed. And, it is required to establish a sound plan of international cooperation, and to develop user program to establish domestic foundation in utilizing the accelerator. Along with public relations activities through newspapers and broadcasting, there were more than 20 times of project presentations requested by various local governments, universities, and scientific societies. which resulted in strong support of the project from various societies. Based on collected information through actual visits to and internet surveys on foreign accelerators, a recommendation of international cooperation scheme has been made to complement domestic technological weak points, and there were discussions with some foreign organizations for that purpose. Especially, KEK of Japan, IHEP of China and KAERI have been deliberating on planning detail cooperation programs in developing and utilizing accelerator among 3 countries Some research items related with NT/BT/IT and utilizing proton beam were planned to be implemented in the Project. And a user program implemented in the Project In order to be prepared for future use of the accelerator. In order to upbring junior researchers for future days, an accelerator summer school has been planned to be held annually inviting prominent foreign and domestic lecturers

  11. Can waste management become an issue for the public acceptance of fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Rocco, P.

    1994-01-01

    Studies on the public perception of risks indicate that: (1) The most feared risks, together with open-quotes AIDSclose quotes and open-quotes crimeclose quotes, are those related to open-quotes nuclear accidentsclose quotes and open-quotes nuclear wasteclose quotes, which are almost as dreadful as open-quotes nuclear warclose quotes whereas, open-quotes nuclear power productionclose quotes raises less concern, almost comparable to that of other social risks. (2) Low probability, high consequence risks are those of most concern. Scarce consideration is given by the public to the likelihood of occurrence. The management strategies for fusion waste should be presented taking into account the previous statements. Sensible items are: (1) Planned waste management procedures should be describe in a well detailed fashion, indicating the aim of complying with conservative limits of environmental impact. (2) The build-up of optimistic thoughts on the complete lack of potential hazard in fusion waste as well as the opposite opinion of little or no progress at all by referring to fission waste should be avoided. (3) The hazards related to fission waste should not be over emphasized. It should be stated instead that studies on this waste have produced effective handling and segregation concepts, which are being progressively applied even to conventional waste in order to reduce risks which were not perceived before. This mature and well proven technology will be applied where pertinent to fusion waste too

  12. Public accept for environmental taxes: self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Haakon

    2010-07-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There have, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes, and few attempts to isolate the effects of selfish and social preferences. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self ( self interest ) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. (Author)

  13. Greater Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P

    1986-03-01

    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%.

  14. The role of performance assessment in validation, regulation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that regulation of public health and safety for a geologic repository for radioactive waste requires that performance assessment show that radioactive releases will not violate a safety limit. Accurate predictions of actual performance are not required. Because of the long times in the future when radioactivity can be released, performance predictions must be based on sound hypothesis of the mechanisms that control and mitigate releases. Such hypotheses are useful only if they lead to clear mathematical formulations, specify clearly the parameters that are expected to control the releases, and specify means of accelerated testing or other means for validating the hypotheses. useful hypotheses usually lead to conservative and bounding analyses that can be more reliable for this purpose than efforts to predict actual repository performance

  15. Public opinion and acceptability in Lithuania: Swedish support to the visitors' centre at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, Diana; Alvers, Margareta

    1998-01-01

    As the visitors' centre receives over 500 visitors per month it could be very interesting to take advantage of this fact and organise a survey of public opinion. First there must be a questionnaire prepared to be filled by visitors to the INPP, people of different sex, age, profession and education, coming from different regions. If needed, the same questionnaire could be spread in the biggest towns of Lithuania and in those parts of the country which are far away from the plant. The objective of the survey is to examine people's opinion about the energy sector and the role and safety of the INPP as well as to find out what they think about the future of the energy sector and nuclear. Another important question is if there is enough information about the INPP and the safety improvements. The comparison of results can certainly give interesting statistical data and conclusions. On the basis of the results of the survey an action plan can be prepared as part of the Public Information Programme. The visitors' centre was established in 1995 with the financial support from EBRD's Nuclear Safety Account. Sweden was asked for assistance by the INPP a year later and we stepped in when the centre was already well equipped and manned. Still, a lot was missing and together we made a list of priorities. First of all we ordered high quality ITV-equipment. Cameras were installed in the control room, reactor hall, turbine hall and in waste storage. Through monitors at the centre the visitors can see, in colour, what is going on inside the plant. Video films for general public were badly needed and SiP contacted a young Lithuanian film producer living in Stockholm. Two films are made: about every day work at the plant and about safety improvements financed within SiP's assistance programme. One of the films will be shown at PIME. At the same time SSI, the Swedish Institute for Radiation Protection, made a commitment to support the information centre and ordered a video film about

  16. Belarus is a 'touchstone' for public acceptance of nuclear power energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The economy of the Republic of Belarus which become an independent state at the end of 1991 is in strained circumstances because of the shortage of its own energetic resources, and the deficit of generating electric capacities. Th real way out of an energetic crisis is the development of own nuclear power as it is in Central and Eastern Europe. Besides, Belarus has suffered most that all other states as a result of the Chernobyl accident, located out of its borders. About a quarter of its population and lands are on the territory contaminated with radionuclides. That's why the author emphasised that formation of public opinion is a key problem when deciding about the construction of nuclear power plants in Berlarus. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Hakon

    2011-01-01

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: → Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? → We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. → Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. → Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. → Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  18. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen, E-mail: steffen.kallbekken@cicero.uio.n [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Saelen, Hakon [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: {yields} Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? {yields} We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. {yields} Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. {yields} Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. {yields} Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  19. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    ), as well as an improvement in speech performance regardless of intervention received. While not statistically significant, participants who received an acceptance-based intervention exhibited larger improvements in observer-rated speech performance at post-treatment in comparison to tCBT (F (1,21) = 1.91, p =.18, etap2 = .08) such that individuals in the ABBT condition exhibited a considerably greater improvement in observer-rated speech performance than those in the tCBT condition. There was no differential impact of treatment condition on subjective speech anxiety or working memory task performance. Potential mediators and moderators of treatment were also examined. Results provide support for a brief 90-minute intervention for public speaking anxiety, but more research is needed in a study with a larger sample to fully understand the relationship between ABBT strategies and improvements in behavioral performance.

  20. Reflections on public acceptance of nuclear energy and the low dose issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2001-01-01

    The present rules of radiation protection are based on the concepts adopted fifteen years ago and now outdated, and on the ICRP 60 publication. They have become a matter of dispute among experts groups, research, and the regulatory authorities. A major role in this debate is played by new basic scientific and epidemiological findings, economic and political interests, the influence of the media, and the psychology of risk perception. For instance, also the different evaluations of natural and manmade radiation exposures contribute to the general sense of uncertainty. The article summarizes the discussion, and the development, in the past two or three years. Special attention is given to the trends which are to result in sound, feasible practices from the currently dominating assumption of the LNT/collective dose hypotheses with an interpolation to low or even very low doses. The renewed discussion sparked off by current research findings should result in a reasonable way of handling radiation so as to be able to classify a potential radiation risk in an appropriate balance between natural and manmade risks. (orig.) [de

  1. Willingness to Pay and Public Acceptance for Hydrogen Buses: A Case Study of Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transportation is characterized by a positive externality on the environment, health, social security, land use and social inclusion. The increasing interest in global warming has caused attention to be paid to the introduction of the hydrogen bus (H2B. When introducing new environmental technologies, such as H2B, it is often necessary to assess the environmental benefits related to this new technology. However, such benefits are typically non-priced due to their public good nature. Therefore, we have to address this problem using the contingent valuation (CV method. This method has been developed within environmental economics as a means to economically assess environmental changes, which are typically not traded in the market. So far, several big cities have been analyzed to evaluate the perceived benefit related to H2B introduction, but to the best of our knowledge, no one has performed a CV analysis of a historical city where smog also damages historical buildings. This paper presents the results obtained using a multi-wave survey. We have investigated user preferences to elicit their willingness to pay for H2B introduction in Perugia, taking into account all types of negative externalities due to the traffic pollution. The results confirm that residents in Perugia are willing to pay extra to support the introduction of H2B.

  2. [Prenatal patient cards and quality of prenatal care in public health services in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the completeness of prenatal care information on the patients' prenatal care cards, according to coverage by various public health services: Family Health Strategy (FHS), Community-Based Health Workers' Program (CBHWP), and traditional Primary Care Units (PCU) in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, 1,006 prenatal cards were randomly selected from postpartum women at maternity hospitals in the metropolitan area. Completeness of the cards was assessed according to the criteria proposed by Romero & Cunha, which measure the quality on a scale from excellent ( 50% incomplete cards). In general, completion of information on the cards was bad (> 20% incomplete), but cards were filled out better in the FHS than in the CBHWP and PCU, especially for tetanus vaccination (p = 0.016) and gestational weight (p = 0.039). In conclusion, the quality of prenatal care in the public health system in Greater Metropolitan Vitória fails to meet the Brazilian national guidelines for maternal and child health.

  3. Health protection in the decommissioning phase in Italy and its acceptability to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frullani, S.; Rogani, A.; Tabet, E.

    2005-01-01

    All the nuclear plants in Italy have ended their commercial activity more than 15 years ago and practically since then they are in the decommissioning phase together with other facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. From the radioprotection point of view, the decommissioning phase has a minor impact than that related to the production phase. For the aspects regarding the general public, liquid discharges and gaseous effluents are at lower levels and accident analyses foresee events at lower scale; for what regards workers, operations with high level-wastes are, in principle, not more demanding in term of radiation doses than several inspection or replacement operations needed in maintenance periods during the commercial life of the nuclear plant. Then, as such, the decommissioning phase does not raise particular radioprotection problems and certainly it is of less radiological risk than the previous phase. There are however other considerations that make this phase of relevant potential risk if actions are not coordinate in a global scheme aiming to solve all the problems that this phase sets. The situation in Italy of temporary depositories of radioactive wastes has already been shown. On the contrary than in almost all European countries Italy has not a licensed centralized repository for low-medium activity wastes, not to speak of HLW. The localisation, on more than 25 places scattered all over the territory, of wastes stemming from medical activity and previous nuclear power activity as well as of spent fuel elements is from the radiological protection point of view far from being an optimised solution. Solidified high activity wastes in glass matrix, resulting from the Italian spent fuel elements reprocessed by BNFL that should be returned to our country, make the problem even worst. The need for the establishment of a national repository for nuclear wastes, raised by technical-scientific institutions long time ago, has become in Italy a shared objective among

  4. Social acceptance towards the air pollution in China: Evidence from public's willingness to pay for smog mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Yuan, Xiang; Yao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the most predominant challenges in China. In order to ensure the smog governance projects could be promoted smoothly and the public shoulder the environmental responsibilities consciously, it is necessary for the policymakers to take public attitude into consideration, and understand the public willingness to pay (WTP) for smog mitigation. This paper adopts a CV method framework to assess the value of WTP and analyze the determinants. Given the consideration of the possible presence of the selectivity bias caused by protest responses, the bivariate sample selection model is constructed for estimation. Results show that up to 14% of respondents hold the protest responses, and neglecting the selection bias caused by protest responses would lead to downward biased estimates. The mean value of WTP for the smog mitigation is 1590.36 RMB per year, accounting for about 1% of annual income. Moreover, the NIMBY (not in my backyard) attitude among public is found to be significantly correlated with their WTP, and the other determinants such as household annual income, energy expenditure and economic loss caused by smog could also substantially affect the value of WTP. We further recommend grading governance and policy transparency to address the smog crisis. - Highlights: •Evaluating the social acceptance towards the air pollution in China. •Up to 14% of respondents hold the protest responses. •WTP for the smog mitigation accounts for about 1% of income. •Household energy expenditure is closely related with public's WTP. •The grading governance and policy transparency are recommended.

  5. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C; Hollands, Gareth J; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to prediction, we

  6. Public acceptance and willingness-to-pay for a future dengue vaccine: a community-based survey in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadisoemarto, Panji Fortuna; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-01-01

    All four serotypes of dengue virus are endemic in Indonesia, where the population at risk for infection exceeds 200 million people. Despite continuous control efforts that were initiated more than four decades ago, Indonesia still suffers from multi-annual cycles of dengue outbreak and dengue remains as a major public health problem. Dengue vaccines have been viewed as a promising solution for controlling dengue in Indonesia, but thus far its potential acceptability has not been assessed. We conducted a household survey in the city of Bandung, Indonesia by administering a questionnaire to examine (i) acceptance of a hypothetical pediatric dengue vaccine; (ii) participant's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the vaccine, had it not been provided for free; and (iii) whether people think vector control would be unnecessary if the vaccine was available. A proportional odds model and an interval regression model were employed to identify determinants of acceptance and WTP, respectively. We demonstrated that out of 500 heads of household being interviewed, 94.2% would agree to vaccinate their children with the vaccine. Of all participants, 94.6% were willing to pay for the vaccine with a median WTP of US$1.94. In addition, 7.2% stated that vector control would not be necessary had there been a dengue vaccination program. Our results suggest that future dengue vaccines can have a very high uptake even when delivered through the private market. This, however, can be influenced by vaccine characteristics and price. In addition, reduction in community vector control efforts may be observed following vaccine introduction but its potential impact in the transmission of dengue and other vector-borne diseases requires further study.

  7. Public acceptance and willingness-to-pay for a future dengue vaccine: a community-based survey in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Fortuna Hadisoemarto

    Full Text Available All four serotypes of dengue virus are endemic in Indonesia, where the population at risk for infection exceeds 200 million people. Despite continuous control efforts that were initiated more than four decades ago, Indonesia still suffers from multi-annual cycles of dengue outbreak and dengue remains as a major public health problem. Dengue vaccines have been viewed as a promising solution for controlling dengue in Indonesia, but thus far its potential acceptability has not been assessed.We conducted a household survey in the city of Bandung, Indonesia by administering a questionnaire to examine (i acceptance of a hypothetical pediatric dengue vaccine; (ii participant's willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vaccine, had it not been provided for free; and (iii whether people think vector control would be unnecessary if the vaccine was available. A proportional odds model and an interval regression model were employed to identify determinants of acceptance and WTP, respectively. We demonstrated that out of 500 heads of household being interviewed, 94.2% would agree to vaccinate their children with the vaccine. Of all participants, 94.6% were willing to pay for the vaccine with a median WTP of US$1.94. In addition, 7.2% stated that vector control would not be necessary had there been a dengue vaccination program.Our results suggest that future dengue vaccines can have a very high uptake even when delivered through the private market. This, however, can be influenced by vaccine characteristics and price. In addition, reduction in community vector control efforts may be observed following vaccine introduction but its potential impact in the transmission of dengue and other vector-borne diseases requires further study.

  8. Public-private collaboration in spatial data infrastructure: Overview of exposure, acceptance and sharing platform in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Raha binti; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Mahamud, Ku Ruhana Ku

    2017-10-01

    While Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) has been established in Malaysia, the full potential can be further realized. To a large degree, geospatial industry users are hopeful that they can easily get access to the system and start utilizing the data. Some users expect SDI to provide them with readily available data without the necessary steps of requesting the data from the data providers as well as the steps for them to process and to prepare the data for their use. Some further argued that the usability of the system can be improved if appropriate combination between data sharing and focused application is found within the services. In order to address the current challenges and to enhance the effectiveness of the SDI in Malaysia, there is possibility of establishing a collaborative business venture between public and private entities; thus can help addressing the issues and expectations. In this paper, we discussed the possibility of collaboration between these two entities. Interviews with seven entities are held to collect information on the exposure, acceptance and sharing of platform. The outcomes indicate that though the growth of GIS technology and the high level of technology acceptance provides a solid based for utilizing the geospatial data, the absence of concrete policy on data sharing, a quality geospatial data, an authority for coordinator agency, leaves a vacuum for the successful implementation of the SDI initiative.

  9. Feasibility of the gamma camera acceptance testing procedure introduced by the Swiss Federal Office of public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Bochud, F.; Verdun, F.R.; Corminboeuf, F.; Linder, R.; Trueb, Ph.; Malterre, J.; Bischof Delaloye, A.

    2006-01-01

    Like in the field of radiology, digital systems are also becoming the standard in the field of nuclear medicine. This offers not only the possibility to process, transmit and archive data from patients more easily but also to introduce quantitative measurements for quality controls. In this framework, standards concerning the qualification of gamma camera systems have been updated and appeared to be useful to set legal requirements, in spite of the fact, that this is not their goals. The aim of this study was first to choose a set of tests described in standards to define measurements to be performed at the acceptance of the systems and after the regular maintenance (at least once every six months). Reference values are then established to control the stability of the system. To verify the feasibility, from a technical and a time requirements points of view, the tests proposed for the quality assurance programme have been applied on three gamma camera systems. The results of this study show that new requirements concerning the quality assurance of gamma camera of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health based on international standards required to slightly modify some procedures to reduce the time necessary for the acceptance and status tests. (authors)

  10. Psychological factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy. Comparative analysis focusing on regional characteristics and degree of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify how psychological factors' impact on public acceptance of nuclear energy varies with where they live and their degree of knowledge. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey about nuclear energy at three urban areas and two nuclear power plant siting areas. After collecting data, we applied factor analysis to the data, and found four factors which construct cognitive structure of nuclear energy. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of the four factors on two issues: the decision for or against nuclear policy and the reaction to nuclear power plant siting, and compared changes of the impact by where respondents live and their degree of knowledge. Consequently, we found that the impact of all four factors on the two issues varies with where respondents live. We also found that the impact of respondents' degree of knowledge to four factors varies with where they live. (author)

  11. FAPIG's activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    The First Atomic Power Industry Group (FAPIG) organized eighteenth visit of woman employees to nuclear power stations. They would have few chance of such a visit and to unfamiliar with mechanism of nuclear power generation as well as radiation and radioactivity. Participants were required to have a lecture on energy in general and basic understanding of nuclear energy and then had a visit to nuclear power stations to learn nuclear energy as correct knowledge. They also filled out the same questionnaire before the lecture and after the visit to express their ideas or comments on nuclear energy. This paper described analytical results of the questionnaire and significance of the organized visit for public acceptance of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  12. 78 FR 9038 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20: U.S. and Foreign Employees of Air America, Inc. Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202...

  13. 77 FR 64493 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20..., Public Law 95-202 and DoD Directive 1000.20, the Department of Defense Civilian/Military Service Review...

  14. Distance training for teachers: an inter-institutional cooperation strategy for the public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matzen, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Two experiences of teacher distance training using new information and communication technologies are described. These experiences were developed in 2000-2002 to promote the public acceptance of nuclear energy, including efforts from the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN, http://www.cchen.cl) , the Metropolitan University of Sciences of Education (UMCE, http://www.umce.cl) , the Center for Improvement, Experimentation and Pedagogical Research (CPEIP, http://cpeip.mineduc.cl) and the National University Network (REUNA, http://www.reuna.cl). The experiences described consist of improving courses for teachers working at the basic and intermediate levels in the Chilean educational system. Both courses focused on methods and resources that support constructive teaching and meaningful learning of both basic concepts and peaceful applications of nuclear energy, in line with contemporary theories and practice in the teaching of sciences, technology and society. In the first of these experiences, developed in 2000 and entitled T eacher's Workshop: Nuclear Energy in Education. A Didactic Approach , the course received support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Five interactive video conference sessions were implemented to cover a wide area of the country, thanks to the Virtual University Network at REUNA (http://www.uvirtual.cl). Another component of the instructional system was a web site to help with matters like the delivery of learning materials and communications among the participants. In the second experience, developed in 2001-2002 and entitled E ducational Debate: Man, Society and Nuclear Energy , the authors received support and funding from the InterAmerican Virtual Center of Cooperation for Teacher Formation (CIDI-OEA). The participants in the distance course were from several countries, including Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil and the Dominican Republic. Instructional resources included a virtual learning environment via Internet and

  15. Effectiveness for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analysis of questionnaire distributed at organized visits to Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In First Atomic Power Industry Group, as a part of the public acceptance activities for nuclear power, the visit to nuclear power stations for the inspection have been held. This aims at acquiring the correct knowledge on nuclear power by seeing the various facilities of nuclear power stations actually by own eyes. In the execution of the visits, mainly female employees were asked to participate, calling to the various companies in the group. On November 16 and 17, 1995, the visit to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Co. was held. In this study, the impression and opinion that all the participants possess through the visit and the seminar held beforehand were collected and analyzed by the questionnaire. The schedule of the visit, and the contents of the questionnaire are shown. As the feature of the questionnaire, the same questions were made before and after the inspection, and the change of opinion was examined. The results are summarized. The participants who trust the safety of nuclear power stations were 37% before the inspection and increased to 84% after the inspection. (K.I.)

  16. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Nudging”—modifying environments to change people’s behavior, often without their conscious awareness—can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. Methods We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Results Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. Conclusion In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less

  17. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos C Petrescu

    Full Text Available "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown.We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA, of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a via conscious processes; (b via non-conscious processes; or (c no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items.Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples.In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to

  18. Resumption of transport of KUR spent fuel from Japan to USA - Very long-term storage and public acceptance for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Nishimaki, Kenzo; Kanda, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI) has more than 250 MTR-type HEU spent fuel elements. They have been stored in water pools after irradiation in the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) core. The longest pool residence time is 25 years. In accordance with the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Receipt Program of the United States, sixty KUR spent fuel elements were shipped from KURRI to the Savannah River Site of the USDOE in August, 1999. This shipment was done successfully through a public port in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. This is the first shipment in the past twenty-six years after the last shipment through the Yokohama Port. Concerning the use of a public port, we had to solve many issues for public acceptance. In this paper, we describe how we have stored the spent fuels for a long time with high integrity and how we have obtained public acceptance for the transport. (author)

  19. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Conservation of greater sage-grouse on public lands in the western U.S.: Implications of recovery and management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Aaron J. Harp; Bruce L. Welch; Nancy Shaw; John W. Connelly; Kerry P. Reese; Clait E. Braun; Donald A. Klebenow; E. Durant McArthur; James G. Thompson; L. Allen Torell; John A. Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    The role of the Policy Analysis Center for Western Public Lands is to provide integrated social, economic and ecological analyses of public land policies that affect communities in the West. Its mission is to help rural communities, policy makers, resource managers, resource users and others understand, analyze and engage effectively in the public-land policy process...

  1. Failure probabilities of SiC clad fuel during a LOCA in public acceptable simple SMR (PASS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho, E-mail: euo@kaist.ac.kr; Kim, Ho Sik, E-mail: hskim25@kaist.ac.kr; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Graceful operating conditions of SMRs markedly lower SiC cladding stress. • Steady-state fracture probabilities of SiC cladding is below 10{sup −7} in SMRs. • PASS demonstrates fuel coolability (T < 1300 °C) with sole radiation in LOCA. • SiC cladding failure probabilities of PASS are ∼10{sup −2} in LOCA. • Cold gas gap pressure controls SiC cladding tensile stress level in LOCA. - Abstract: Structural integrity of SiC clad fuels in reference Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) (NuScale, SMART, IRIS) and a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) are assessed with a multi-layered SiC cladding structural analysis code. Featured with low fuel pin power and temperature, SMRs demonstrate markedly reduced incore-residence fracture probabilities below ∼10{sup −7}, compared to those of commercial PWRs ∼10{sup −6}–10{sup −1}. This demonstrates that SMRs can serve as a near-term deployment fit to SiC cladding with a sound management of its statistical brittle fracture. We proposed a novel SMR named Public Acceptable Simple SMR (PASS), which is featured with 14 × 14 assemblies of SiC clad fuels arranged in a square ring layout. PASS aims to rely on radiative cooling of fuel rods during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) by fully leveraging high temperature tolerance of SiC cladding. An overarching assessment of SiC clad fuel performance in PASS was conducted with a combined methodology—(1) FRAPCON-SiC for steady-state performance analysis of PASS fuel rods, (2) computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT for radiative cooling rate of fuel rods during a LOCA, and (3) multi-layered SiC cladding structural analysis code with previously developed SiC recession correlations under steam environments for both steady-state and LOCA. The results show that PASS simultaneously maintains desirable fuel cooling rate with the sole radiation and sound structural integrity of fuel rods for over 36 days of a LOCA without water supply. The stress level of

  2. Optimization methodology for large scale fin geometry on the steel containment of a Public Acceptable Simple SMR (PASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yun; NO, Hee Cheon; Kim, Ho Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization methodology for fin geometry on the steel containment is established. • Optimum spacing is 7 cm in PASS containment. • Optimum thickness is 0.9–1.8 cm when a fin height is 10–25 cm. • Optimal fin geometry is determined in given fin height by overall effectiveness correlation. • 13% of material volume and 43% of containment volume are reduced by using fins. - Abstracts: Heat removal capability through a steel containment is important in accident situations to preserve the integrity of a nuclear power plant which adopts a steel containment concept. A heat transfer rate will be enhanced by using fins on the external surface of the steel containment. The fins, however, cause to increase flow resistance and to deteriorate the heat transfer rate at the same time. Therefore, this study investigates an optimization methodology of large scale fin geometry for a vertical base where a natural convection flow regime is turbulent. Rectangular plate fins adopted in the steel containment of a Public Acceptable Simple SMR (PASS) is used as a reference. The heat transfer rate through the fins is obtained from CFD tools. In order to optimize fin geometry, an overall effectiveness concept is introduced as a fin performance parameter. The optimizing procedure is starting from finding optimum spacing. Then, optimum thickness is calculated and finally optimal fin geometry is suggested. Scale analysis is conducted to show the existence of an optimum spacing which turns out to be 7 cm in case of PASS. Optimum thickness is obtained by the overall effectiveness correlation, which is derived from a total heat transfer coefficient correlation. The total heat transfer coefficient correlation of a vertical fin array is suggested considering both of natural convection and radiation. However, the optimum thickness is changed as a fin height varies. Therefore, optimal fin geometry is obtained as a function of a fin height. With the assumption that the heat

  3. Public information and acceptance of nuclear engineering studies at the faculty of nuclear sciences and physical engineering of CTU Prague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musilek, Ladislav; Matejka, Karel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    1993-07-01

    The Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering was founded in 1955, when the nuclear program in Czechoslovakia has been launched. In approximately the same time also some nuclear research institutes were founded, as, e.g., the Institute of Nuclear Research and the Research Institute of Nuclear Instruments, etc., extensive plans of development of nuclear power production were drafted, and everybody was very enthusiastic for this new branch of science and technology. The present status of nuclear technology and the new trends in applied hard sciences have resulted in widening the profile of the Faculty, because the staff has intended to preserve it as a modern and advanced part of the University. It means that now nuclear sciences represent about one third of the programme and the structure of its responsibilities. What is the public acceptance of the Faculty nowadays? Two unfavourable trends act against the interest to enrol at the Faculty. The first one is general - a decreasing interest of the young in engineering, given probably by both higher work-load in comparison with, e.g., social sciences, and a not very high social status of engineering graduates in the former socialist society. The second trend is given by a strong antinuclear opposition and campaigns in the past few years, relatively latent between the Chernobyl accident and 1989, because the former regime had not allow any discussions about this subject, and clearly apparent after the 1989 November revolution. These antinuclear tendencies were also fuelled by the effective Greenpeace campaign in 1990, imported mostly from Austria, and, unfortunately, unfounded from the scientific point of view. How can the Faculty resist this ebb of interest? First of all this can be achieved by suitable modification of curricula towards 'computerisation' and {sup e}cologisation{sup .} Among other activities priority is given to cooperation with mass media as the press, TV etc. Direct contacts with high and

  4. Public information and acceptance of nuclear engineering studies at the faculty of nuclear sciences and physical engineering of CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, Ladislav; Matejka, Karel

    1993-01-01

    The Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering was founded in 1955, when the nuclear program in Czechoslovakia has been launched. In approximately the same time also some nuclear research institutes were founded, as, e.g., the Institute of Nuclear Research and the Research Institute of Nuclear Instruments, etc., extensive plans of development of nuclear power production were drafted, and everybody was very enthusiastic for this new branch of science and technology. The present status of nuclear technology and the new trends in applied hard sciences have resulted in widening the profile of the Faculty, because the staff has intended to preserve it as a modern and advanced part of the University. It means that now nuclear sciences represent about one third of the programme and the structure of its responsibilities. What is the public acceptance of the Faculty nowadays? Two unfavourable trends act against the interest to enrol at the Faculty. The first one is general - a decreasing interest of the young in engineering, given probably by both higher work-load in comparison with, e.g., social sciences, and a not very high social status of engineering graduates in the former socialist society. The second trend is given by a strong antinuclear opposition and campaigns in the past few years, relatively latent between the Chernobyl accident and 1989, because the former regime had not allow any discussions about this subject, and clearly apparent after the 1989 November revolution. These antinuclear tendencies were also fuelled by the effective Greenpeace campaign in 1990, imported mostly from Austria, and, unfortunately, unfounded from the scientific point of view. How can the Faculty resist this ebb of interest? First of all this can be achieved by suitable modification of curricula towards 'computerisation' and e cologisation . Among other activities priority is given to cooperation with mass media as the press, TV etc. Direct contacts with high and grammar

  5. Public Perception and Acceptance of Hydrogen Technologies. An Exploratory Study; Percepcin y Aceptacion Publica de las Tecnologias del Hidrogeno. Un Estudio Exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S; Navajas, J

    2011-11-10

    This report presents the results of a research study with lay peoples perception regarding hydrogen technologies. This study aims to explore how to shape public perception and acceptance of hydrogen technologies in Spain and permits the identification of issues that may facilitate or interfere with its development and implementation. The results showed the existence of a large and widespread lack of knowledge towards hydrogen technologies. Hydrogen is perceived as a clean energy technology and nearby to renewable energies. However, it is still not seen as an energetic option. The main drawbacks perceived by lay people have been the lack of profitability, the slow evolution of the technology and the absence of technological developments. Furthermore, hydrogen cost and safety issues appear to play an important role in public acceptance of these technologies. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  7. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending an urban public health facility in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita Nangendo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV in Uganda is 7.3%, and yet nearly 40% of people living with HIV are unaware of their status. The current HIV testing policy which is strictly blood-based poses several challenges including: a need for high level laboratory skills, stringent waste disposal needs, and painful sample collection. It is envisaged that introduction of a rapid, painless HIV oral fluid test as a potential alternative is likely to increase the number of people testing. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending Kisenyi Health Centre IV in Kampala.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 440 adults recruited consecutively at Kisenyi Health Centre IV from January to March 2016. The diagnostic accuracy of the HIV oral test was assessed by comparing to the national HIV serial testing algorithm. We also assessed for acceptability among patients and health care workers (HCWs by triangulating responses from a structured questionnaire, three focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews. Acceptability was defined as willingness to take the test at the time of the study and intention for future use of the test if it was availed. The prevalence of HIV infection among study participants was 14.8%. The HIV oral fluid test was highly accurate with sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0, specificity of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0, positive predictive value (PPV of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0 and negative predictive value (NPV of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0. Acceptability of HIV oral testing was also high at 87.0% (95% CI; 83.6-89.9. Participants preferred HIV oral testing because it was: pain free (91%, n = 399 and did not require blood draw (82%, n = 360.The HIV oral fluid test has high diagnostic accuracy and acceptability. HIV oral testing is a suitable addition to the national HIV testing strategies with the potential of increasing access to HIV testing services in

  9. Public acceptability of the use of gamma rays from spent nuclear fuel as a hazardous waste treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Wells, R.P.; Reilly, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods were used to estimate public reaction to the use of gamma irradiation of hazardous wastes as a hazardous waste treatment process. The gamma source of interest is spent nuclear fuel. The first method is Benefit-Risk Decision Making, where the benefits of the proposed technology are compared to its risks. The second analysis compares the proposed technology to the other, currently used nuclear technologies and estimates public reaction based on that comparison. The third analysis is called Analysis of Public Consent, and is based on the professional methods of the Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. The conclusion of all three methods is that the proposed technology should not result in negative public reaction sufficient to prevent implementation

  10. Public acceptance of the utilization of nuclear technology. Necessity of using the system which is similar to that of the ISO14001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Safety itself is a key factor in enhancing public acceptance of the utilization of nuclear technology. At the same time, it is indispensable for businesses using nuclear technology to foster public trust by being regarded as 'companies which are making serious efforts to attain higher level of safety'. However, recent nuclear accidents related to the MONJU plant and JCO have seriously hampered this trust. Based on the above understanding, this paper uses the ISO14001 framework to consider a possible solution to recover public trust. An examination of the ISO14001 shows that it is seen as a framework to prove to the outside world that the party in question is reliable in terms of behaving in an environmentally sound manner. Accordingly, their must be a possibility for businesses using a nuclear technology to be able to use the ideas of the framework in terms of safety instead of the environment. (author)

  11. Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson Wijeratnam, R.S.; Sivakumar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

  12. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  13. Challenge in the public acceptance and cooperation in the verge of building the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia - 59119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susetyo Hario, Putero; Haryono Budi, Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Indonesia plans to build the first nuclear power plant (NPP) to solve the country's energy problems. One of the challenges that must be handled before establishing the first NPP is the presence of anti-nuclear groups that have successfully made the government postpone its plan several times since the first nuclear research reactor was established in Bandung (1972). The basis for the groups' dissent is the presence, and handling of radioactive waste. Further, the general public perception - even among educated Indonesians - is that Indonesia's experts lack knowledge about nuclear technology, even though nuclear technology has been studied in Indonesia since 1954. So, the problem is one of disseminating information about nuclear technology. To address this challenge, the National Atomic Energy Board (BATAN) of Indonesia has to redesign its public outreach strategy by collaborating with the educational institutions and communications organizations. Gadjah Mada University is the only university in Indonesia offering a nuclear-engineering curriculum. Therefore, a teaming arrangement with this institution seems appropriate to help improve the public's general knowledge about nuclear technology. There are several strategies that could be designed within the frame work of collaboration. The first strategy is to introduce nuclear technology into Indonesia's elementary and secondary schools. These youngsters are still in their formative years and are absorbing science and technology with great attention. (authors)

  14. Acceptance and use of health information technology in Slovenian public health institutions: a national survey based on UTAUT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vinko

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: The results show a positive attitude toward IT among Slovenian healthcare professionals. These findings are especially relevant in view of the fact that all types of healthcare professionals from all kinds of public healthcare institutions across the country were included in the survey.

  15. 75 FR 52512 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Consumer Protection Act and the Rulemakings That Will Be Proposed by the Commission AGENCY...-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') was enacted on July 21, 2010... Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), Public Law 111-203, was enacted. The Dodd-Frank Act will...

  16. Are Public-Private Partnerships a Source of Greater Efficiency in Water Supply? Results of a Non-Parametric Performance Analysis Relating to the Italian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the outcome of a performance study of the water service provision industry in Italy. The study evaluates the efficiency of 21 “private or public-private” equity and 32 “public” equity water service operators and investigates controlling factors. In particular, the influence that the operator typology and service management nature - private vs. public - has on efficiency is assessed. The study employed a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis methodology. In the first stage, the operational efficiency of water supply operators is calculated by implementing a conventional BCC DEA model, that uses both physical infrastructure and financial input and output variables to explore economies of scale. In the second stage, bootstrapped DEA and Tobit regression are performed to estimate the influence that a number of environmental factors have on water supplier efficiency. The results show that the integrated water provision industry in Italy is characterized by operational inefficiencies of service operators, and scale and agglomeration economies may have a not negligible effect on efficiency. In addition, the operator typology and its geographical location affect efficiency.

  17. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  18. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  19. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  20. Preliminary Study Intended for the Application of the INPRO Methodology in the area of Infrastructure (Public Acceptance) for the Case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, R.; Puente Espel, F.

    2016-01-01

    The pronounced concern about climate change as seen in the past COP21 Conference, the increasing energy demand worldwide, and the importance of energy security are among the main issues within the pursuit of a sustainable development. In a sustainable and diverse energy portfolio, the goals focus on providing clean, carbon free, reliable and affordable electricity. Nuclear energy is one of the most efficient energy sources; considering the energy produced per amount of fuel, one of the least climate dependent sources and a clean energy source. Nuclear energy is a sustainable energy source. But the sustainability of nuclear energy systems is questioned by the public, as well as by some decision makers, mainly due to concerns related to safety, nuclear waste disposal, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was established to assist and guarantee that in order to meet the energy needs of the 21st century through a sustainable approach, nuclear energy is available. In this line, INPRO in close cooperation with Member States work to understand the future development of nuclear energy systems from a national, regional and global perspective, as well as to comprehend the role of innovation in technologies and institutional arrangements in support of this development. Through one of INPRO's main areas, Sustainability Assessment and Strategies, INPRO supports Member States in developing national long-range sustainable nuclear energy strategies and related deployment decision-making throughout the application of the INPRO Methodology. This paper presents a preliminary study intended for the application of the INPRO Methodology in the area of Infrastructure, Public Acceptance, for the case of Mexico. Mexico's current nuclear power programme is small; integrated by a nuclear power plant (NPP) with two reactors. In the scenario of a

  1. Basic information to improve public acceptance to nuclear energy in Brazil; Subsidios para a melhoria da aceitacao da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelli, Sonia M.O.; Lima e Silva, Pedro Paulo de; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    In Brazil, the current production of nuclear energy is restricted to Angra I plant, a 657 MW pressurized water reactor, in operation since 1982. Among the eight units predicted in 1975 within the Brazil Germany nuclear agreement, only two have been effectively contracted, namely Angra 2 and 3. The nuclear alternative, likewise all other energy sources, is very much dependable on the assessment of their own benefits compared to the associated risks posed to the population and the environment. The main goal of this article is to provide information to enable the improvement of public acceptance of the use of nuclear energy in the country, by comparing risks associated with different sources as well as pointing out aspects related to risk perception by the public. (author) 18 refs., 5 figs.; e-mail: sonia at cnen.gov.br; lima-e-silva at pobox.com; axavier at cnen.gov.br

  2. Assessing the public regulatory acceptability of deploying new cleanup technologies: A case study of the integrated demonstration for Remediation of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Stein, S.L.

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is funding several integrated demonstrations (IDs) around the United States in an effort to improve the pace and effectiveness of cleaning up its sites. The objective of these IDs is to demonstrate an array of innovative cleanup technologies that address the specific needs at a site and to provide deployable technologies to all DOE sites with similar environmental problems. This approach eliminates the need to redemonstrate these technologies at multiple sites, thereby minimizing technology development cost and schedule requirements. However, for an ID to be truly successful, the technologies must be technically sound, acceptable to the various interested or concerned individuals and groups who feel they have a stake in the case (often referred to as stakeholders), and acceptable to the regulators responsible for approving the technologies' deployment. As a result, the ID for Remediation of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) has instituted a process for assessing public and regulatory acceptability of the technologies that it is developing. As part of this process, an information system has been developed that describes the innovative technologies being supported under the VOC-Arid ID. It also compares innovative technologies with the baseline technologies currently in use by environmental restoration personnel

  3. Drug consumption rooms: Comparing times, spaces and actors in issues of social acceptability in French public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Cailbault, Isabelle

    2018-06-01

    In October 2016, the first French drug consumption room (DCR) opened in Paris. We propose to examine the process through which this issue has been framed as a matter of public concern, after being ignored for almost 20 years. Our analysis of the controversy on DCRs investigates how public conversations on harm reduction evolve according to the time period (from the 1990s to the present), scale of discourse (local vs. national), and involved actors (politicians, professionals, local residents, and drug users). Our methodology includes analyses of media content: we reviewed 1735 articles published between 1990 and 2017. Our theoretical approach is in line with the sociology "des épreuves" derived from pragmatic sociology and controversy analysis. This approach goes beyond interactionism by attempting to place situations back into broader sociological realities. We also pay special attention to governance, a political lens that focuses on local aspects of negotiations and on the implication of a variety of actors. While the current debate on DCRs in France draws on constraints and resources already present in the harm reduction debate of the 1980s, it also repositions itself by avoiding moral argumentation and featuring less confrontation in the professional sphere. Today, we can see that the center of this tense debate has shifted from the professional sphere to the political and residential spheres. Most often, residents advance concerns that are not directly related to drug users themselves, but that derive from their apprehension of living in a displaced and stranded neighborhood. The public conversation leaves little room for drug users, even though they are the primary stakeholders of harm reduction and play a crucial role in DCR advocacy. Our work reveals that the controversy about DCR is the product of complex interactions between different kinds of actors harm reduction professionals, political actors at the local and national levels, local residents, and

  4. The Technology Acceptance of a TV Platform for the Elderly Living Alone or in Public Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Mancilla, Pedro C; Anido-Rifón, Luis E

    2017-06-08

    In Mexico, many seniors are alone for most of the day or live in public nursing homes. Simple interaction with computer systems is required for older people. This is why we propose the exploration of a medium well known by seniors, such as the television (TV). The primary objective of this study is to improve the quality of life of seniors through an easier reminder system, using the television set. A technological platform was designed based on interactive television, through which seniors and their caregivers can have a better way to track their daily activities. Finally, an evaluation of the technology adoption was performed with 50 seniors living in two public nursing homes. The evaluation found that the elderly perceived the system as useful, easy to use, and they had a positive attitude and good intention to use it. This helped to generate initial evidence that the system supported them in achieving a better quality of life, by reminding them to take their medications and increasing their rate of attendance to their medical appointments.

  5. Public perception and characteristics related to acceptance of the sugar-sweetened beverage taxation launched in France in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Vicari, Florence; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In France, an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages was introduced on 1 January 2012. Our objective was to assess perception of this tax as well as the sociodemographic characteristics of its supporters and opponents. Cross-sectional study within the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. A sub-sample of 1996 individuals was selected among participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Perceptions of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. The sociodemographic and dietary profiles of supporters and opponents of this tax were explored by multinomial logistic regression. Setting Nationally representative French sample, 2012. Adults aged >18 years (largest sample n 1996). Half of the study sample was generally supportive of the tax and 57·7 % perceived it as helpful in improving population health. Participants were more likely to support the tax model if the revenue it generated would be used for health-care system improvement (72·7 %) and if such taxing was associated with a corresponding decrease in the prices of other foodstuffs (71·5 %). Older participants were more likely to support the tax than were their younger counterparts (OR=2·37; 95 % CI 1·60, 3·49 for >65 years v. 26-45 years; P<0·001). Participants with lower educational levels were less likely to support the tax than were those with more formal education (OR=0·31; 95 % CI 0·19, 0·52 for low educational level v. high education level; P<0·001). In our models, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not associated with tax perception. The French sugar-sweetened beverage tax appeared to be favourably perceived by the public. Sociodemographic factors modulated such perceptions and should thus be taken into consideration when drafting future public health measures.

  6. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  7. Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorea, Valica

    2006-01-01

    In the end of 2004, according to the information available to the IAEA, there were 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, with a total net capacity of 366.3 GW(e), 6 of them being connected to the grid in 2004 ( 2 in Ukraine, one each in China, Japan and the Russian Federation and a reconnection in Canada) by comparison with 2 connections and 2 re-connections in 2003. Also, in the end of 2004, 26 nuclear power plants were under construction with a total net capacity of 20.8 GW(e). The conclusion accepted by common consent is that the nuclear power is still in progress and represents one of the options for power security on long and middle term. If we refer to the nuclear fusion which will produce commercial electric power, over 30 - 40 years, in practically unlimited quantities, the above underlining becomes even more evident. Fortunately, besides the beneficent characteristics, such as: clean, stable as engendering and price, has also a negative characteristic, which generally breathes fear into the people: radioactive waste. A classification of the radioactive waste is not the target of this presentation. I just want to point that a nuclear power plant produces during the time spent fuel - long life high radioactive, generating heat. Another high radioactive waste have similar characteristics (HLW = High Level Waste) for which reason these two categories of wastes are treated together. The spent fuel and the High Level Waste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment

  8. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.

  9. Improvement of the public acceptance of nuclear safety regulation for the request of the deregulation and the reorganization of electric power industrial structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Ji, Min Gu; Kim, Jong Sam; Yun, Yo Il; Kim, Jin A; Kim, Young Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop the solutions for feasible alternatives and strategies by seeking the rationalization, optimization and democratization of nuclear regulatory policies and systems, under the new public demands for the restructuring or privatization, deregulation and local governance. One of the most important tasks is to evaluate and improve current nuclear safety regulatory administrative system which is in need of reform, by analyzing the various cases of foreign privatization, regulatory compliance, and relationships between government and NGO. Based on the results of these analyses, the problems and the preliminary direction to the improvement of the optimal and democratic regulatory requirements are proposed, to be accepted and supported from residents in the long run.

  10. Improvement of the public acceptance of nuclear safety regulation for the request of the deregulation and the reorganization of electric power industrial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, D. I.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the solutions for feasible alternative and strategies by seeking the rationalization, optimization and democratization of nuclear regulatory policies and systems, under the new public demands for the restructuring or privatization, deregulation and local governance. One of the most important tasks is to evaluate and improve current nuclear safety regulatory administrative system which is in need of reform by analyzing the various cases of foreign privatization, regulatory compliance, and relationships between government and NGO. Based on the results of these analyses, the problems and the preliminary direction to the improvement of the optimal and democratic regulatory requirements are proposed, to be accepted and supported from residents in the long run

  11. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes; Moranchel y Mejia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  12. Public acceptance of MOX - fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettmann, A.; Reddehase, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany 'Plutonium-Business' got fresh nutrient because of the carried out licensing of the use of Mixed Oxide (MOX)-fuel LWR and in connection with the negative attitude of the Hessian authorities, who are responsible for the licensing procedures of the production of MOX-fuel in the Siemens-factories at Hanau. The opponents of the peaceful use of nuclear energy try with the emotive expression 'Plutonium' (Pu) a frontal attack against the use of nuclear energy in Germany. They justify their actions with so-called safety deficits of the plants and increased danger of cancer in case of using MOX-fuel. (orig./HP)

  13. Memetic engineering and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Current popular perception of nuclear power is characterized as a meme. Recognition of this condition leads to insight regarding the most useful approaches to changing current perceptions. Some current approaches considered to be counter-productive are examined, particularly in the communication of risks regarding low-level radiation exposure. (author)

  14. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the "Borda" Method: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran's public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called "Borda" in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software "Math-lab"7, "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. "Borda" estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance decision making.

  15. Accompanying socioeconomic research on the public acceptance of carbon capture and storage (CCS) at the national and international level; Soziooekonomische Begleitforschung zur gesellschaftlichen Akzeptanz von Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Clemens [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Esken, Andrea; Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (DE)] (and others)

    2008-02-22

    The final report covers the following core issues: state of research on acceptance and results of past studies on public acceptance of CCS; comparison with experiences gained with other energy technologies (nuclear power, wind power, natural gas storage); hazard potentials, risk perception and legal classification; media analysis regarding the topic of CCS; empirical surveys and acceptance of CCS in Germany; factors relevant to public acceptance and their significance; conclusions from the foregoing for the conceptualisation of an information campaign. [German] Stand der Akzeptanzforschung, Ergebnisse aus bereits bestehenden Studien zum Thema Akzeptanz und CCS; Vergleich mit Erfahrungen anderer Energietechnologien (Kern- und Windenergie, Erdgasspeicherung); Gefahrenpotenziale, Risikowahrnehmung und rechtliche Einordnung; Medienanalyse zum Thema CCS; Empirische Umfragen und Akzeptanz gegenueber CCS in Deutschland; Relevante Faktoren fuer die gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz und deren Bedeutung; Resultierende Hinweise fuer die Konzeption einer Informationskampagne. (orig.)

  16. Comparisons of the risks and potential detriments of various energetic alternatives as a basis for adequate public acceptance - Looking for new ways of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    It is widely adopted that modern energy production technologies (and a nuclear power among them) have to be economically attractive, safe enough, provided with resources and publicly acceptable. In such case they could be convinced of winning the competition with other technologies in the future But now nuclear industry is going through a period of stagnation. After the euphoria of 70th the catastrophes on TMI-2 and Chernobyl have affected very seriously on the rate of the construction of new plants and changed drastically a public perception of nuclear power problems. Later on an unacceptance of nuclear power spread and became a real obstacle for nuclear progressing in some countries. Now only in South-East Asia it can see some development in atomic area. But now a problem of nuclear energy unacceptance is seems very hard to be resolved. To change a situation and ensure the approval of nuclear power in the society it needs to shatter the myths about extraordinary danger and risks of the nuclear energy. his paper discusses the general methodology of risk analysis and the risks and benefits of future energy production. Just before end of our age a lot attention is being paid in forecasting the future and the energy production trend in particular. Typically it is declared that energy production will be doubled in next 50 years. But much concern is expressed about harmful greenhouse gases. Which way will be chosen by energy producers? In assessment the impacts of different energy scenarios a Catalog of Risk proposed by B.Cohen can be used. There an estimation of the loss of life expectancy is given for various harmful factors for USA conditions ten years ago

  17. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  18. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  19. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  20. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Applying the technology acceptance model to explore public health nurses' intentions towards web-based learning: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I Ju; Yang, Kuei-Feng; Tang, Fu-In; Huang, Chun-Hsia; Yu, Shu

    2008-06-01

    In the era of the knowledge economy, public health nurses (PHNs) need to update their knowledge to ensure quality of care. In pre-implementation stage, policy makers and educators should understand PHNs' behavioural intentions (BI) toward web-based learning because it is the most important determinant of actual behaviour. To understand PHNs' BI toward web-based learning and further to identify the factors influencing PHNs' BI based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) in pre-implementation stage. A nationwide-based cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Three hundred and sixty-nine health centres in Taiwan. A randomly selected sample, 202 PHNs participated in this study. Data were collected by mailing in a questionnaire. The majority of PHNs (91.6%, n=185) showed an affirmative BI toward web-based learning. PHNs rated moderate values of perceived usefulness (U), perceived ease of use (EOU) and attitude toward web-based learning (A). Multiple regression analyses indicated that only U revealed a significantly direct influence on BI. U and EOU had significantly direct relationships with A; however, no significant relationship existed between A and BI. Additionally, EOU and an individual's computer competence revealed significant relationships with U; Internet access at the workplace revealed a significant relationship with EOU. In the pre-implementation stage, PHNs perceived a high likelihood of adopting web-based learning as their way of continuing education. In pre-implementation stage, perceived usefulness is the most important factor for BI instead of the attitude. Perceived EOU, an individual's computer competency, and Internet access at workplaces revealed indirect effects on BI. Therefore, increasing U, EOU, computer competence, and Internet access at workplace will be helpful in increasing PHNs' BI. Moreover, we suggest that future studies should focus on clarifying problems in different stages of implementation to build a more complete

  2. At first glance, informal payments experience on track: why accept or refuse? Patients' perceive in cardiac surgery department of public hospitals, northeast of Iran 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei Najar, Ali; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Pourtaleb, Arefeh; Esmaily, Habibollah; Jafari, Mehdi; Nejatzadegan, Zohre; Taleghani, Yasamin Molavi

    2017-03-14

    Patient's Informal payments is among the main source of health care financing in some countries. This paper aimed at determining the patient informal payments and relative factors in Cardiac Surgery Departments (CSD) in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in 2013. In this cross-sectional study, 316 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage sampling. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire which was filled by structured telephone interviews. We used quantitative content analysis for open-ended questions besides descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests by SPSS 16 at 0.05 Sig level. Sixteen (5.93%) patients made voluntary informal payments. The purpose of payment was: "gratitude" (43.75%), satisfaction with health services provided" (31.25%) and (18.75%) for better quality of services. About 75% of the payments were occurred during receiving health care services. The main causes were "no request for informal payments" (98.14%), "not affording to pay for informal payments" (73.33%) and "paying the hospital expenses by taking out a loan" (55.91%). Responders said they would pay informally in demand situation (51.85%) just for patient's health priority, 40.71% would also "search for other alternative solutions" and 27.33% "accepted the demand as a kind of gratitude culture". Twenty four patients (8.9%) had experienced mandatory informal payments during the last 6 months. The minimum amount of payment was 62.5$ and the maximum was 3125$. There was a significant relationship between the way of referring to medical centers and informal patient's payment (P ≤0.05). Despite the widespread prevalent belief about informal payments in public hospitals -particularly to the well-known physicians - such judgment cannot be generalized. The main reasons for the low informal payments in the current study were the personality characteristics of the physicians and hospital staff, their moral conscience and commitment to professional

  3. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  4. Model of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Acceptance and Use for Teaching Staff in Sub-Saharan Africa Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2017-01-01

    This article uses data survey on 82 teachers from the University of Ouagadougou and the model of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to assess the determinants of acceptance and educational use of ICT by teachers. The paper's outcomes show that the construct "performance expectancy" of ICT (expected utility and…

  5. The current acceptance, accessibility and recognition of Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine in the United States in the public, governmental, and industrial sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongbae J; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Cho, Gayoung; Kim, Duckhee; Kim, Hangon

    2012-06-01

    To assess the current level of acceptance in the United States of complementary and alternative medicine, recent research into the prevalence, acceptance, accessibility, and recognition of complementary and alternative therapies were reviewed. Several signs point to an increasing acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States; the use of complementary and alternative medicine is significantly increasing, many aspects of Chinese medicine and Ayurveda are becoming mainstream, practitioners in the United States are beginning to be licensed, and insurance companies are beginning to cover some complementary and alternative therapies. Remaining challenges to true acceptance include the restrictive Western mindset, the absence of published studies, a lack of consistent manufacturing processes and quality standards, and a fear of adulteration. Although the field still faces many challenges, alternative and complementary medicine, including Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, is becoming more accepted and accessible in the United States.

  6. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  7. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  8. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  9. The role of an EU harmonised E and T system in radiation protection for public acceptance and confidence building in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Zsombori, Vilmos; Rosca, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims at presenting the efforts made in the last two years for modernizing the Romanian education and training (E and T) system in Radiation Protection (RP). Increasing the responsive capacity in emergency situations is an important element for public acceptance and confidence building in Romania regarding the nuclear power. The responsive capacity in emergency situations is related to the Romanian E and T system in RP. Since January 1st, 2007 Romania became an EU member but the Romania's EU integration process will continue for still several years. The Romania's EU integration priorities are not only to transform the economy radically, but also to modernize its E and T system in general and in RP in particular. The modernization of the Romanian E and T system in RP is a real concern, related to the National Nuclear Programme (NNP) which foresees the commissioning of unit 2 of Cernavoda NPP in 2007 and the completion of units 3 and 4 until 2015. The natural way of modernizing the Romanian E and T system in RP is the cooperation with EUropean Training and Education in RP (EUTERP) Platform which was created in 2006 as a network covering the 25 European Union Member States as well as the Candidate States Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Turkey. Romania's integration process into EU radiation protection field is ongoing and has produced the following results: -- the Romanian branch of EUTERP Platform, called ROmanian Training and Education in Radiation Protection Platform (RO T ERP Platform) was established ; -- the RO T ERP Platform serves as a network, aiming at improving the cooperation between the various actors in the field of radiation protection E and T: - national authorities implied in RP, as CNCAN; - national bodies responsible for professional education and dedicated training, Ministry of Education and Research; - providers of training and education in the radiation protection area, universities and training centers; - professional organizations

  10. Causal beliefs of the public and social acceptance of persons with mental illness: a comparative analysis of schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Matschinger, H; Angermeyer, M C

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether biological illness explanations improve tolerance towards persons with mental illness or not. Several theoretical models have been proposed to predict the relationship between causal beliefs and social acceptance. This study uses path models to compare different theoretical predictions regarding attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we elicited agreement with belief in biogenetic causes, current stress and childhood adversities as causes of either disorder as described in an unlabelled case vignette. We further elicited potentially mediating attitudes related to different theories about the consequences of biogenetic causal beliefs (attribution theory: onset responsibility, offset responsibility; genetic essentialism: differentness, dangerousness; genetic optimism: treatability) and social acceptance. For each vignette condition, we calculated a multiple mediator path model containing all variables. Biogenetic beliefs were associated with lower social acceptance in schizophrenia and depression, and with higher acceptance in alcohol dependence. In schizophrenia and depression, perceived differentness and dangerousness mediated the largest indirect effects, the consequences of biogenetic causal explanations thus being in accordance with the predictions of genetic essentialism. Psychosocial causal beliefs had differential effects: belief in current stress as a cause was associated with higher acceptance in schizophrenia, while belief in childhood adversities resulted in lower acceptance of a person with depression. Biological causal explanations seem beneficial in alcohol dependence, but harmful in schizophrenia and depression. The negative correlates of believing in childhood adversities as a cause of depression merit further exploration.

  11. 1991 Acceptance priority ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High- Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) that the Department of Energy (DOE) has executed with the owners and generators of civilian spent nuclear fuel requires annual publication of the Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR). The 1991 APR details the order in which DOE will allocate Federal waste acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the ranking is based on the age of permanently discharged spent nuclear fuel (SNF), with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. the 1991 APR will be the basis for the annual allocation of waste acceptance capacity to the Purchasers in the 1991 Annual Capacity Report (ACR), to be issued later this year. This document is based on SNF discharges as of December 31, 1990, and reflects Purchaser comments and corrections, as appropriate, to the draft APR issued on May 15, 1991

  12. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2009-01-01

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  13. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  14. The strategy of APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency in forming the model of public acceptance of Croatian Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klika, M.C.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Some of basic elements related to public participation in hazardous and radioactive waste management in Croatia are underlined in the paper. Most of them are created or led by the APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency. Present efforts in improvement of public participation in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management are important in particular due to negligible role of public in environmentally related issues during former Yugoslav political system. For this reason it is possible to understand the public fearing to be deceived or neglected again. Special attention is paid to the current APO editions related to public information and education in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management. It is important because only the well-informed public can present an active and respectful factor in hazardous and radioactive waste management process

  15. Same-sex marriage and other moral taboos : cultural acceptances, change in American public opinion and the evidence from the opinion polls

    OpenAIRE

    MORINI, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Published online: 25 January 2017 Creative Commons Licence This article analyzes the evolution of gay and lesbian rights and same-sex marriage in American public opinion. It describes how Obergefell v. Hodges, state-level decisions and the public opinion trends can be considered as the outcome of a grassroots coordinated campaign which began more than a decade ago and was able to conquer the majority of Americans. It also focuses on the American public opinion trends related to moral is...

  16. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerschott, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  17. Public acceptance of disturbance-based forest management: a study of the Blue River Landscape Strategy in the Central Cascades Adaptive Management Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Shindler; Angela L. Mallon

    2009-01-01

    This report examines public perspectives on disturbance-based management conducted in the central Cascade Range in Oregon as part of the Blue River Landscape Strategy. A mail survey to local residents was used to describe the public’s understanding of this form of management, identify perceived associated risks and potential barriers to implementation, and the overall...

  18. The MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage] task force: Economic and non-economic incentives for local public acceptance of a proposed nuclear waste packaging and storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1987-03-01

    A joint Oak Ridge - Roane County citizen task force (TF) evaluated the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility in Tennessee in terms of environmental, transportation, and socioeconomic impacts. The case study examines how the TF used mitigation, compensation and incentives (economic and non-economic) to address the problem of distrust of DOE and to change the net local impact balance from negative to positive. Intensive group interaction during their investigations and development of trust within the TF led to consensus decisions on safety and conditional acceptance. DOE accepted most of the TF conditions after informal negotiations. The siting process was stopped by extensive state-wide opposition resulting in legal challenge by the state and vetoes by the governor and state legislature

  19. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  20. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper outlines the current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad, the evolution of the public opinion in the last decade, and the interaction between the former and the latter. It emphasises the absolute priority of a professional communication and exchange to gain public acceptance. (orig.)

  1. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  2. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  3. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  4. Devolved regulation as a two-stage rocket to public acceptance of experiments with human gametes and embryos : A UK example to be followed by the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, Nicolle

    2014-01-01

    Kazancigil endorses governance to the extent that it has a greater capacity to cope with policy making on complex issues in our differentiated societies. At the same time, he is skeptical of how governance excludes ‘politics’ from the process of policy-making. Policy fields that are highly dependent

  5. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  6. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  7. Development and implementation of public relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.; Stritar, A.; Isteni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the strong public opposition after the announcement of the results of possible site selections for the final low and intermediate waste repository in Slovenia in 1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management has completely revised its public information strategy. The information and education programs, that should lead to greater public acceptance, are described. At present the bulletin, leaflets, booklet, permanent exhibition and lectures in the Nuclear Training Centre are applied. (author)

  8. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.

    2012-01-01

    Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...

  9. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  10. Metabolic Environments and Genomic Features Associated with Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions between Bacteria and Plants is accepted for publication in MPMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL; Syed, Mustafa H [ORNL; Klotz, Martin G [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Most bacterial symbionts of plants are phenotypically characterized by their parasitic or matualistic relationship with the host; however, the genomic characteristics that likely discriminate mutualistic symbionts from pathogens of plants are poorly understood. This study comparatively analyzed the genomes of 54 plant-symbiontic bacteria, 27 mutualists and 27 pathogens, to discover genomic determinants of their parasitic and mutualistic nature in terms of protein family domains, KEGG orthologous groups, metabolic pathways and families of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). We further used all bacteria with sequenced genomesl, published microarrays and transcriptomics experimental datasets, and literature to validate and to explore results of the comparison. The analysis revealed that genomes of mutualists are larger in size and higher in GC content and encode greater molecular, functional and metabolic diversity than the investigated genomes of pathogens. This enriched molecular and functional enzyme diversity included constructive biosynthetic signatures of CAZymes and metabolic pathways in genomes of mutualists compared with catabolic signatures dominant in the genomes of pathogens. Another discriminative characteristic of mutualists is the co-occurence of gene clusters required for the expression and function of nitrogenase and RuBisCO. Analysis of previously published experimental data indicate that nitrogen-fixing mutualists may employ Rubisco to fix CO2 not in the canonical Calvin-Benson-Basham cycle but in a novel metabolic pathway, here called Rubisco-based glycolysis , to increase efficiency of sugar utilization during the symbiosis with plants. An important discriminative characteristic of plant pathogenic bacteria is two groups of genes likely encoding effector proteins involved in host invasion and a genomic locus encoding a putative secretion system that includes a DUF1525 domain protein conserved in pathogens of plants and of other organisms. The

  11. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution.

  12. [Implementation of preventive measures recommended by the federal public health office and acceptance of advice by managers of commercial solaria--studies by the public health office of the Ammerland district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, H G

    1990-06-01

    Commercial solaria are not always up to the standards that would be desirable from a Public Health point of view in respect of protection of users against health hazards of exposure to UV radiation, and also with regard to supervision, qualified personal advice given to users by the staff, and qualification of the staff members to give such advice. Hygiene is definitely also a problem, as is evident from bacteriological swabs made from tanning beds. However, the talks conducted by a local Public Health board in Lower Saxony (North Germany) revealed considerable open-mindedness on the part of the entrepreneurs who were quite willing to follow expert health advice and to display a poster with recommendations regarding protective measures. This was combined with a questioning procedure that has proved successful with the proprietors.

  13. Sustainability and acceptance - new challenges for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensa, W. von

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in relation to acceptance of nuclear energy. Acceptance is viewed in terms of public acceptance, industrial acceptance, and internal acceptance/consensus within the nuclear community. It addresses sustainability criteria, the need for innovation, and the different levels of acceptability. The mechanisms of risk perception are discussed along with the technological consequences from risk perception mechanisms leading to specific objections against nuclear energy. (author)

  14. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  15. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  16. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  17. Anticipating Public Acceptance : The Hydrogen Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Ruggero, O.

    2014-01-01

    Current energy related issues, such as climate change or the oil depletion, demand technological and societal change towards new ways of producing and using energy. One of the challenges coming with the development of these new solutions relates to the impact that these technologies will have on

  18. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    component regards the organisation of public bus transport at the local level. This involves the deregulation and privatisation reforms introduced by the Conservative Government from 1986 onwards, as well as the ‘partnerships’ and other new instruments introduced by the Labour Government in the Transport...

  19. 42 CFR 137.138 - Once the Indian Tribe's final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law, what is the next step? 137.138 Section 137.138 Public... final offer has been accepted or deemed accepted by operation of law, what is the next step? After the... the acceptance or the deemed acceptance. Rejection of Final Offers ...

  20. Zone of Acceptance Under Performance Measurement: Does Performance Information Affect Employee Acceptance of Management Authority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2018-01-01

    Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the “romance of leadership” perspective, the authors argue th...... that performance measurement can alter public sector authority relations and have implications regarding how public managers can use performance information strategically to gain acceptance of management authority and organizational change....

  1. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  2. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    As a response to climate change and the desire to gain independence from imported fossil fuels, there is a pressure to increase the proportion of electricity from renewable sources which is one of the reasons why electricity grids are currently being turned into Smart Grids. In this paper, we focus...... on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness...... in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...

  3. Superincentive public transport contracting in the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Van de Velde, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    All suburban/regional bus services around Amsterdam City have been submitted to competitive tendering. This is done under a very innovative form of revenue-based contract that can be classified as a ‘super incentive’ contract. Payments to operators (‘subsidies’) are based on realised passenger

  4. Mayors and Public Education: The Case for Greater Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last generation, a new politics of education has evolved throughout the United States. Since the 1983 watershed report "A Nation at Risk" (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), the country's most influential business and political leaders--and, more recently, mayors--have spearheaded efforts to improve student achievement…

  5. Electricity supply between acceptance, acceptability and social compatibility; Energieversorgung zwischen Akzeptanz, Akzeptabilitaet und Sozialvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Katharina; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Energiesysteme und Energiewirtschaft (LEE)

    2012-11-01

    Acceptance promotion is supposed to be an indispensable premise for a successful realization of an energy concept. The contribution identifies deficiencies of the energy policy, including intransparency, complexity of decision procedures, for instance in case of the so called energy transmission line extension acceleration law, that has caused irritation and anger in the public. The justification of acceptance promotion is questioned in connection with the German nuclear policy reversal following the Fukushima accident. A research program ''public acceptance of large-scale power plants for electricity generation'' is presented. The issues criteria and limits of acceptability are of main importance for this discussion.

  6. OTM Machine Acceptance: In the Arab Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Abdullah; Santos, Henrique

    Basically, neglecting the human factor is one of the main reasons for system failures or for technology rejection, even when important technologies are considered. Biometrics mostly have the characteristics needed for effortless acceptance, such as easiness and usefulness, that are essential pillars of acceptance models such as TAM (technology acceptance model). However, it should be investigated. Many studies have been carried out to research the issues of technology acceptance in different cultures, especially the western culture. Arabic culture lacks these types of studies with few publications in this field. This paper introduces a new biometric interface for ATM machines. This interface depends on a promising biometrics which is odour. To discover the acceptance of this biometrics, we distributed a questionnaire via a web site and called for participation in the Arab Area and found that most respondents would accept to use odour.

  7. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV; Estimacion de la contribucion por neutrones a la dosis equivalente para personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y publico en instalaciones de uso medico: rayos X de energia igual y/o superior a 10MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes, E-mail: amgesfm@hotmail.com, E-mail: rojimenez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Moranchel y Mejia, Mario, E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM/IPN), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas. Departamento de lngenieria Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  8. Science to Action: Thoughts on Convincing a Skeptical Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, William

    2016-01-01

    Acceptance by the public of findings widely accepted by scientists varies dramatically, issue by issue. The danger of smoking, for example, readily achieved public acceptance, while the arguably greater danger of climate change has, thus far, not. What are the relevant variables that make some public issues more difficult than others? A hypothesis consistent with the historical data is that, in communicating to the public, scientists fail to adequately distinguish two different types of messages, the first relating to the nature of scientific evidence, and the second relating to the rational choice of evidence-based decision-making. As scientists we take both for granted, but the public often may not. Different kinds of communication are required for the two different messages.

  9. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. (De)Centralization of Public Procurement at the Local Level in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Boštjan BREZOVNIK; Žan Jan OPLOTNIK; Borut VOJINOVIĆ

    2015-01-01

    The so-called decentralization of public procurement in EU Member States is accepted as the most suitable design of the public procurement system, often justifi ed by greater economic effi ciency and by the possibility of boosting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, which act on the public procurement market as providers of goods, services and works. Despite the existence of highly decentralized public procurement systems which refl ect the decentralization of administrativ...

  11. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  12. Use of Videoconferencing for Lactation Consultation: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey of Mothers' Acceptance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mona F; Springer, Cary M; Spence, Marsha L; Hansen-Petrik, Melissa B; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2018-05-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates are a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need for identifying effective tools for use in interventions targeting specific barriers to optimal breastfeeding outcomes. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between acceptance of remote lactation consultation using videoconferencing and (a) maternal demographic factors, (b) technology acceptance subscales, (c) maternal learning style preferences, and (d) other potentially explanatory maternal factors. This was a cross-sectional, online study. English-speaking mothers of at least 18 years of age, with an infant age 4 months or younger, and who reported initiating breastfeeding were eligible to participate. Mothers were recruited from 27 randomly selected states. One hundred one mothers completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 71%. The main outcome was acceptance of videoconferencing use for lactation consultation. No significant differences were found in acceptance by maternal demographic factors or learning style preferences. Acceptance was significantly related to perceived ease of use ( r = .680, p acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation ( r = .432, p model ( R 2 = .616, p acceptance, maternal age was inversely related. This sample of mothers indicated general acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation, with younger mothers and those perceiving it to be more useful demonstrating greater acceptance.

  13. How acceptable has become tolerable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A brief article discusses the differing conclusions drawn by the Royal Society Study Group and the Health and Safety Executive on the acceptability of the level of annual risk of death to the individual due to radiation. Regarding occupational exposure, both groups arrived at the same figure of 1 in 1000 per year but the former group considered this to be 'hardly totally unacceptable' while the latter group considered this to be 'borderline of intolerable'. Regarding exposure of the members of the public, the levels of risk concluded from both groups were even more divergent. (U.K.)

  14. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  15. On risks and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    A very attractive notion is that it should be possible not only to determine how much risk is associated with any particular activity, but also to determine if that risk is acceptable. Stated boldly this seems an entirely unobjectionable and indeed a very acceptable notion. There is, however, underlying this idea, a mistaken view of risk which we might refer to as the ''phlogiston'' theory of risk. In this paper, presented at the SRP meeting on Ethical and Legal Aspects of Radiological Protection, the phlogiston theory of risk is described; secondly, it will be argued that it is too simple a theory to be realistic or useful; and thirdly, the management of risk will be placed in a wider decision framework. Acceptability, it will be argued is highly dependent on context, and it is not possible, therefore, to lay down generally applicable notions of acceptability. (author)

  16. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  17. Operations Acceptance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the process of Operations Acceptance Management, whose main task is to control Operations Acceptance Tests (OAT). In the first part the author focuses on the theoretical ground for the problem in the context of ITSM best practices framework ITIL. Benefits, process pitfalls and possibilities for automation are discussed in this part. The second part contains a case study of DHL IT Services (Prague), where a solution optimizing the overall workflow was implemented using simp...

  18. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  19. An approach for determining the acceptable levels of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for determining the acceptable levels of risk with respect to nuclear energy. It was concluded that the Atomic Energy Control Board should identify the interest groups that affect its choice of an acceptable level of risk, determine their expectations, and balance the expectations of the various groups such that the resulting acceptable level of risk is still acceptable to the Board. This would be done by interviewing experts on the subject of nuclear safety, developing and pretesting a public questionnaire, and surveying the public on acceptable cost-risk combinations

  20. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  1. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seung Kook; Lee, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance

  2. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Won [School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2017-08-15

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  3. Nuclear power and public opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences.

  4. Nuclear power and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences

  5. Managing Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: A strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This strategic plan describes the DOE goals, objectives, and strategy for fulfilling its responsibility to dispose of Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), in accordance with the requirements of Section 3(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The strategy for fulfilling this responsibility consists of three sequential tasks: interim storage of limited quantities of GTCC LLW at currently operating DOE facilities on an as-needed basis; general acceptance of GTCC LLW for storage in a DOE dedicated facility pending disposal; and disposal in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The objectives, assumptions, and strategies for each of these tasks are presented in this plan

  6. Greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste management concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 assigned to the Federal Government responsibility for the disposal of commercial greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1987, DOE committed to Congress to accept GTCC LLW and provide storage and other waste management as necessary until disposal capacity is available. Current estimates are that about 6,000 m 3 of unpackaged GTCC LLW will be generated to the year 2020. Generators estimate that 100 m 3 of raw GTCC LLW might exceed planned storage capacity to the year 2020. This paper reports the activities of the National Low-Level Waste Program to manage GTCC low-level radioactive waste

  7. Nuclear energy: beliefs, values, and acceptability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R

    1985-06-01

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it has become recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in the long-term future of nuclear energy. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with nuclear energy. Qualitative aspects of risks play a dominant role in the public's perception of risks, and it seems necessary for experts to recognize this in order to improve relations with the general public. It is also clear, however, that differences in the perception of risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more general beliefs and values, and the issue of nuclear energy is embedded in a much wider moral and political domain. 8 references.

  8. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  9. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  10. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarlund, K. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Social and Economic Geography

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas, they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes a positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains ideological and practical contradictions between development and preservation of landscapes. 16 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarlund, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Missouri. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Missouri is vested in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years. Commissioners must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. The Public Service Commission Law passed in 1913, makes no provision for the regulation of public utilities by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr-Andres, Christina B.

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is intended to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) consists of three tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, and Technology Verification. As currently conceived, the ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. This report covers activities during the first 6 months of the 3-year ETA program

  14. Public procurement process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG Policy Brief: April 2017. Public ... transparency in public procurement; and greater concerns about efficiency, fairness, and equity. ... government enacted the Public Procurement Act (2007) [1] which provides legislative framework for.

  15. Wind energy and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurtey, E.

    2008-01-01

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  17. Nuclear power and acceptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 a workshop was held organized by the IAEA and the Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose was to investigate under which circumstances a large-scale extension of nuclear power can be accepted. Besides the important technical information, the care for the environment determined the atmosphere during the workshop. The opinion dominated that nuclear power can contribute in tackling the environment problems, but that the social and political climate this almost makes impossible. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  18. Geografía del poder y diseño del espacio público periférico en el Gran Concepción./ Geography of power and the design of peripheral public spaces in the Greater Concepción area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ulloa Tesser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca identificar los factores jurídico–urbanos que condicionan la morfología y gobernanza del espacio público en la periferia del Gran Concepción colocando énfasis en el conocimiento de las estructuras de poder existentes en el área de estudio. Se postula que la geografía del poder privado y público limita la soberanía de las comunidades locales sobre sus espacios públicos dificultando la toma de decisiones y su diseño. Este análisis permite caracterizar la crisis del espacio público periférico, la que se expresa en dificultades en la gestión de riesgos de desastres, conectividad centro periferia, falta de identidad urbana y de barrio y gobernabilidad. A juicio del autor, las soluciones de fondo a esta crisis, pasan por cambios profundos en la institucionalidad urbana, que corrijan las inequidades de poder en las periferias de las grandes ciudades y en especial del área de estudio./The goal of this article is to identify the legal and urban factors that influence the morphology and governance of public spaces of the Greater Concepción’s peripheral neighbourhoods, in order to unveil the “structures of power” acting on the area. The main premise of the research is that the geography of power, both public and private, restricts the local communities’ attributes to control and design their own spaces. This analysis, by exposing the difficulties in the management of risk zones, the poor connectivity conditions between central and peripheral areas, as well as the lack of urban identity and local governance, allows us to define the critical condition in which the peripheral public space of Concepción is immersed. From the author’s stand point, the only way to solve this situation is through deep institutional changes, aimed to amend the unbalance of power in the urban governance structures of Chile’s largest metropolitan areas.

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New York. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the New York Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. Commissioners may not have any pecuniary or financial interest in any public utility. Local governing bodies are authorized to exercise such power, jurisdiction and authority in enforcing the laws of the state and the orders, rules, and regulations of the commission as may be prescribed by statute or by the commission with respect to public utilities. A Commission spokesman confirmed that no statutes have been passed pursuant to this provision and the Commission has not ceded any of its regulatory powers to local governments. With the exception of the granting of franchises and permits to use public ways, local governments exercise no regulatory powers over public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  2. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization. PMID:28827344

  3. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Caitlin; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2017-09-05

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization.

  4. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Illinois. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Illinois Commerce Commission, comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate and appointed for five year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any business subject to regulation by the Commission. Local governments may exercise a large degree of regulatory authority over public utilities providing services within a municipality. The question of whether a municipality will exercise regulatory control over local public utilities must be put to the voters of the city. If the proposition is approved by a majority of the voters, the municipality may regulate services and rates and exercise most of the regulatory functions otherwise assigned to the Commission. If any public utility is dissatisfied with any action of a municipality, the utility is entitled to apply to the Commission for review of the action. On review, the Commission may take any determination which it deems just and reasonable. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are excluded specifically from the definition of public utility. These utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission and are regulated locally. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. [Could infant euthanasia be ever acceptable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, J P; Leiva, A

    2014-10-01

    The recent enactment of a law that allows infant euthanasia in Belgium raises questions with varied answers. To contribute to a better understanding of the topic, euthanasia and legislation concepts are described. After a bioethical analysis, we propose as conclusion that children euthanasia could only be acceptable in very exceptional situations in which palliative measures have failed. The answer should be that it is not acceptable in our setting, not until we have public policies, protocols and palliative care services for terminally ill children.

  8. Den betingede accept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    1999-01-01

    The article focus on aspects of identity and social order in relation to the interaction between ‘normals' and ex-prisoners, that is, ex-prisoners, who wants to live a normal life without criminality. It is argued, that this interaction and the normality that the ex-prisoner is granted often......, on the surface, can look rather unproblematic, but that it, none the less, is ruled by, what the author calls the conditioned accept. That is, the ex-prisoner should see himself as normal, at the same time that he withdraw from those situations, practices and attitude where the normals would have difficulties...

  9. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  10. Acceptance, Tolerance, Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management from an ethical and societal viewpoint was treated in this seminar, which had participants from universities (social, theological, philosophical and science institutes), waste management industry, and regulatory and controlling authorities. After initial reviews on repository technology, policies and schedules, knowledge gaps, and ethical aspects on decision making under uncertainty, four subjects were treated in lectures and discussions: Democratic collective responsibility, Handling threats in democratic decision making, Waste management - a technological operation with a social dimension, Acceptance and legitimity. Lectures with comments and discussions are collected in this report

  11. Marketing for Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008. The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for acceptance that provides the reader with insight into ways that classic grounded theorists have published their works. This is followed by a discussion of ideas for normalizing classic grounded theory research methods in our substantive fields.

  12. Harz/Vesper: Acceptance Research with Logical Relations and Pragma-Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, M.

    2012-04-01

    We use two different theories for our research on the acceptance of carbon capture and storage (CCS), geothermal energy and shale gas: logical relations and pragma-dialectics. With the theory of logical relations we can describe the structure of the terminus "acceptance" as a three-place or more relationship. We use the Newtonian binominal coefficients order to reflect on the complexity of the concept of acceptance. We are exploring relations between citizens, politicians, scientists, businesses and technologies. The technological-philosophical reflection on the topic "Determinants for acceptance of new technologies" concerns the issues of "Trust", "Security" as well as "Interest and Use" as the essential constituents of acceptance. Trust: Politicians, scientists and entrepreneurs need to understand themselves as advocates of acceptance. Acceptance is not automatic but requires a great effort and continuous personal commitment, as you want to secure acceptance not only for the short-term but for the long-term. The confidence curve follows a hysteresis loop as known from the magnetization of materials: It requires a significant effort. If the existing trust is lost due to erroneous communication or incorrect political action, the restoration effort is significantly greater. Citizens need to understand themselves as being asked for acceptance and as actively influencing the shapes of their life. They may not feel as victims or sufferers from technological developments but should have a realistic feeling of being able to influence - in fact - anything. "Openness creates openness." (H.-J. Bullinger) Security: The advocate promoting acceptance must take into account the security needs of the citizens with regard to the technologies which are supposed to be accepted. Even irrational fears are actual fears that can prevent acceptance. Interests and Goals of Usage: The advocate promoting acceptance must - sincerely and publicly - express his interest in the use and goals

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Jersey. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operations of public utilities in New Jersey is generally vested in the Board of Public Utilities. The Board is subsumed within the Department of Energy for administrative purposes, but functions largely independently of supervision or control by that agency. The Board is composed of three members who serve for six-year terms. They are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Board supersedes that of local governments. The Board, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning provisions, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Board, however, cannot override the refusal of a municipality to grant consent to the initiation of operations by a public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Does the use of Nintendo Wii Sports™ improve arm function and is it acceptable to patients after stroke? Publication of the Protocol of the Trial of Wii™ in Stroke - TWIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Katja; Schofield, Christine; Berrow, Margie; Wingham, Jennifer; Freeman, Janet; Humfryes, John; Pritchard, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Many stroke patients experience loss of arm function requiring rehabilitation, which is expensive, repetitive, and does not always translate into "real life." Nintendo Wii Sports™ (Wii™) may offer task-specific training that is repetitive and motivating. The Trial of Wii™ in Stroke (TWIST) is designed to investigate feasibility, efficacy, and acceptability using Wii™ to improve affected arm function for patients after stroke. This is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), incorporating a qualitative study and health economics analysis that compares playing Wii™ versus arm exercises in patients receiving standard rehabilitation in a home setting within 6 months of stroke with a motor deficit of less than 5 on the MRC (Medical Research Council) scale (arm). In this study, we expect to randomize 240 participants. Primary outcome is change in affected arm function at 6 weeks follow-up in intervention and control group using the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes include occupational performance using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, quality of life using the Stroke Impact Scale, cost effectiveness analysis, and a qualitative study investigating factors that influence use of Wii™ for patients and carers. TWIST is the first UK RCT assessing the feasibility, cost effectiveness, and acceptability of Wii™ in stroke rehabilitation. The trial has been registered with ISRCTN 06807619 and UK CRN 11030. Results of the study will be published after completion of study in August 2014.

  16. Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, I.; Hart, D.; Vorst, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    While the topic of hydrogen as an alternative vehicle fuel is gaining increasing attention internationally, one significant aspect of its introduction has been given less attention than others: the public acceptance of such a new technology and fuel. After reviewing the existing literature on acceptance, risk perception and customer satisfaction, this paper describes the development of a model that illustrates important aspects in influencing a person's attitude towards a new product. 'Values', 'wants' and 'perception' are the three components found to influence acceptance, they themselves are affected by 'social background' and 'experience'. Suggestions are then given on how to use marketing methods, education projects and product exposure in order to maximise the likelihood of a successful introduction of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. (author)

  17. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  18. Zone of Acceptance Under Performance Measurement: Does Performance Information Affect Employee Acceptance of Management Authority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2018-01-01

    Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the ‘romance of leadership’ perspective, we argue that perfor......Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the ‘romance of leadership’ perspective, we argue...... that performance information shapes employee attributions of leader quality and perceptions of a need for change in ways that affect their acceptance of management authority, conceptualized using Simon’s notion of a ‘zone of acceptance.’ We conducted a survey experiment among 1,740 teachers, randomly assigning...... true performance information about each respondent’s own school. When employees were exposed to signals showing low or high performance, their acceptance of management authority increased, whereas average performance signals reduced employee acceptance of management authority. The findings suggest...

  19. 45 CFR 2544.150 - How will accepted donations be recorded and used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will accepted donations be recorded and used... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.150 How will accepted donations be recorded and used? (a) All accepted donations of money and other property will be...

  20. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether the...

  1. Consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis

  2. The radiological accident of Goiania and the acceptance by the public of new nuclear power plants; El accidente radiologico de Goiania y la aceptacion publica de nuevas centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldonian, N L; Mattos, L A.T. [Grupo de Energia e Ambiente, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-01

    Misunderstandings on the peaceful uses and the safety of nuclear energy have been a leading cause of apprehension in Brazilian public opinion. A lack of knowledge of the characteristics and destination of radioactive wastes and negative media coverage of the use of nuclear energy have aggravated this situation. Believing that applications of nuclear energy are harmful to the population`s welfare and the environment, Brazilian public opinion is opposed to the utilization of nuclear energy, and in particular to the construction of new nuclear power plants. For this reason, the Brazilian nuclear sector should promote a more intensive programme of public discussion, directed not solely at the technical and scientific communities, but also at the Brazilian public at large. Such a campaign would contribute towards a better understanding by Brazilian society of the different uses of nuclear energy and would present arguments in support of the benefits of this form of energy. Moreover, a campaign of this kind would show that negative associations about the use of electricity derived from nuclear power, which are based on the Goiania radiological accident, are not justified. (author) 10 refs, 5 tabs

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Massachusetts. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Department of Public Utilities. The Department is under the supervision and control of a commission consisting of three members appointed by the governor for terms of four years. No more than two of the commissioners may be members of the same political party. Commissioners must be freee from any employment or financial interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Department. The Department is responsible for regulating public utilities. The Department is specifically granted general supervisory authority over all gas and electric companies. Specific provisions for the appeal of local decisions exist only in the case of a municipality's approval or disapproval of new operaions by an electric or gas company in a municipality already being served by another such utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. 7 CFR 2045.1753 - Authority to accept gratuitous services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Personnel Division, and Director, Finance Office, are hereby authorized to accept and utilize gratuitous... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 State or County Office from a source listed in § 2045...

  5. Acceptance of hydrogen technologies and the role of trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, R. [Independent Institute for Environmental Concerns, Berlin (Germany). Resource Protection and Landscape Ecology; Hoelzinger, N. [Spilett New Technologies GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    It is well known in socio-economic studies, that the success of an innovation process depends not only on the technological innovation itself or the state of the economic and institutional environment, but also on the public acceptance of the innovation. Public acceptance can be an obstacle for the development and introduction of a new and innovative idea as the example of genetic engineering in agriculture shows. In respect to hydrogen technology this means, that the compilation and communication of scientific risk assessments are not sufficient to generate or enhance public acceptance. Moreover, psychological, social and cultural aspects of risk perception have to be considered when introducing new technologies. This paper focuses on trust as a central parameter of risk perception and the public acceptance of new technologies. (orig.)

  6. Does the use of Nintendo Wii Sports™ improve arm function and is it acceptable to patients after stroke? Publication of the Protocol of the Trial of Wii™ in Stroke – TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Katja Adie,1 Christine Schofield,1 Margie Berrow,2 Jennifer Wingham,3 Janet Freeman,1 John Humfryes,1 Colin Pritchard3 1Royal Cornwall Hospital Trust, Cornwall, UK; 2Peninsula Clinical Trials Unit, Plymouth University Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, Devon, UK; 3Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, UKIntroduction: Many stroke patients experience loss of arm function requiring rehabilitation, which is expensive, repetitive, and does not always translate into “real life.” Nintendo Wii Sports™ (Wii™ may offer task-specific training that is repetitive and motivating. The Trial of Wii™ in Stroke (TWIST is designed to investigate feasibility, efficacy, and acceptability using Wii™ to improve affected arm function for patients after stroke.Method: This is a randomized controlled trial (RCT, incorporating a qualitative study and health economics analysis that compares playing Wii™ versus arm exercises in patients receiving standard rehabilitation in a home setting within 6 months of stroke with a motor deficit of less than 5 on the MRC (Medical Research Council scale (arm. In this study, we expect to randomize 240 participants.Outcome measures: Primary outcome is change in affected arm function at 6 weeks follow-up in intervention and control group using the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes include occupational performance using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, quality of life using the Stroke Impact Scale, cost effectiveness analysis, and a qualitative study investigating factors that influence use of Wii™ for patients and carers.Conclusion: TWIST is the first UK RCT assessing the feasibility, cost effectiveness, and acceptability of Wii™ in stroke rehabilitation. The trial has been registered with ISRCTN 06807619 and UK CRN 11030. Results of the study will be published after completion of study in August 2014.Keywords: virtual reality, rehabilitation

  7. Community Cleavages: Gay and Bisexual Men’s Perceptions of Gay and Mainstream Community Acceptance in the Post-AIDS, Post-Rights Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathaniel M.; Bauer, Greta R.; Coleman, Todd A.; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gay and bisexual men’s connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada. PMID:26011048

  8. Assessment of the structural shielding integrity of some selected computed tomography facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, A.

    2010-01-01

    The structural shielding integrity was assessed for four of the CT facilities at Trust Hospital, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, the 37 Military Hospital and Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. From the shielding calculations, the concrete wall thickness computed are 120, 145, 140 and 155mm, for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. 37 Military, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively using Default DLP values. The wall thickness using Derived DLP values are 110, 110, 120 and 168mm for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd, 37 Military Hospital, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively. These values are within the accepted standard concrete thickness of 102- 152mm prescribed by the National Council of Radiological Protection and measurement. The ultrasonic pulse testing indicated that all the sandcrete walls are of good quality and free of voids since pulse velocities estimated were approximately equal to 3.45km/s. an average dose rate measurement for supervised areas is 3.4 μSv/wk and controlled areas is 18.0 μSv/wk. These dose rates were below the acceptable levels of 100 μSv per week for the occupationally exposed and 20 μSv per week for members of the public provided by the ICRU. The results mean that the structural shielding thickness are adequate to protect members of the public and occupationally exposed workers (au).

  9. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  10. Four nuclear paradoxes which affect Japanese public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Four major paradoxes - sociological, political, economic and psychological - are described with respect to the contemporary use of nuclear energy, drawing attention to Japan. Sociologically nuclear energy is a paradox because it is an irreversible social process; politically because it discriminates between the 'have' and 'have not' countries, making rich countries richer and poor countries poorer (political power); economically because, despite strong opposition for various reasons, there are also strong economic incentives for localities and individuals (stronger opposition may bring about greater profit in the long run); psychologically, because its acceptance or rejection tends to depend on the emotional 'psycho-logic' which seems to operate in the psychological process of individuals. Public acceptance seems to be both an institutional and a psychological process; consequently a close examination of the cross-pressures, resulting from all the influences is needed, to achieve public acceptance. Finally, it seems important to take into consideration cultural uniqueness as well as cross-cultural similarities. (author)

  11. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  12. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. HPS simulation and acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Luiz Martins [UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pol, Maria Elena [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The High Precision Spectrometer (HPS) is a proposal of sub-detector to be installed in the region of 200-240m from each side of CMS along the LHC beam-line to measure scattered protons from exclusive centrally produced processes, pp → p + X + p. In order to study the protons that reach the detectors, the beam-line of the LHC accelerator has to be taken into account, as the particles are deflected by dipoles and suffer the influence of quadrupoles and other beam devices. The LHC team provides a detailed description of these elements, currents, energies, magnetic fields, and all the information needed to study the propagation of the protons. The program HECTOR, developed at the University of Louvain, uses the information from LHC to calculate at any point along the beam-line the kinematic quantities that characterize the scattered protons. A simple minded program was initially developed for the preliminary studies of acceptances varying the position and size of the foreseen detectors. Also, it took into account vertex and position smearing, to simulate a realistic resolution of the tracking detectors. These studies were performed using a particle gun generator which shoot protons from the IP within reasonable ranges of possible t and ξ (the square of the four-momentum transfer and the fractional energy loss of the outgoing proton in a diffractive collision), and propagated them to the position of the tracking detectors. These kinematic quantities were reconstructed back at the IP using the transport equations from HECTOR. This simplified simulation was afterwards interfaced with the full software of CMS, CMSSW, in such a way that when a diffractive event was fully simulated and reconstructed in the central detector, the outgoing protons were treated by the HPS software and then the complete (CMS+HPS) event was output. The ExHuME generator was used to produce Monte Carlo simulations to study the mass acceptance of the HPS detector, and central and

  14. Promoting the acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, E.

    1998-01-01

    Restoring the public acceptance of nuclear technology requires optimized public relations work and an enhanced interaction among the nuclear industry and schools and universities. Thinking in contexts needs to be promoted, also in order to improve knowledge of mass flows. Specific terms often mean different things to experts and to the public. This can be corrected by careful use of language and precision in public relations work. The young generation is more openminded towards technology now than it was in the seventies and eighties. This is a point of departure in winning young people also for nuclear technology. For this to happen, science education in schools needs to be improved and the appropriate courses need to be introduced. (orig.) [de

  15. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial e fatores associados em estudantes de Ensino Médio de escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2006 Prevalence of high blood pressure and associated factors in students from public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia da Mata Ribeiro Gomes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e fatores associados à saúde em adolescentes, por meio de estudo epidemiológico transversal de base populacional, realizado no período de abril a setembro de 2006, empregando amostragem estratificada segundo porte da escola e turnos. Utilizando-se o questionário Global School-based Student Health Survey, 1.878 estudantes de 29 escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram investigados quanto a: idade; sexo; índice de massa corporal; consumo de frutas, verduras, álcool e tabaco; e pressão arterial, admitindo os parâmetros da Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescent, de 1996, para pressão arterial, do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention para estado nutricional. As prevalências de hipertensão arterial (medida apenas uma vez, sobrepeso e obesidade igualaram-se a 17,3%, 6,9% e 3,7%, respectivamente. Comportaram-se como fatores associados para hipertensão arterial: sexo masculino, obesidade, sobrepeso e falta de atividade física. Concluiu-se que o conhecimento dos fatores associados para hipertensão arterial em adolescentes poderá subsidiar campanhas de educação para a saúde.The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (high blood pressure and associated health factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional, population-based, epidemiological design from April to September 2006, within a stratified sample according to school size and shift. Using the Portuguese version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire, 1,878 students from 29 public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, were analyzed for: age, gender, body mass index, fruit, vegetable, alcohol, and tobacco consumption, as well as blood pressure, adopting the 1996 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and

  16. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam

    2017-10-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological risk, particularly when we evaluate technologies with transnational and intergenerational risks. I argue that good governance of risky technology requires analyzing both social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Conceptually, these two notions are mostly complementary. Social acceptance studies are not capable of sufficiently capturing all the morally relevant features of risky technologies; ethical analyses do not typically include stakeholders' opinions, and they therefore lack the relevant empirical input for a thorough ethical evaluation. Only when carried out in conjunction are these two types of analysis relevant to national and international governance of risky technology. I discuss the Rawlsian wide reflective equilibrium as a method for marrying social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Although the rationale of my argument is broadly applicable, I will examine the case of multinational nuclear waste repositories in particular. This example will show how ethical issues may be overlooked if we focus only on social acceptance, and will provide a test case for demonstrating how the wide reflective equilibrium can help to bridge the proverbial acceptance-acceptability gap. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  18. Determinants of accepting unintended pregnancies by Ukrainian women: Results of a 2007 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska, Julia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Ukraine, much public attention is given to adolescent girls and young women as a main ‘risk group’ for terminating an unplanned pregnancy in case it occurs. The objective of the study was to clarify whether this concern is substantiated.METHODS. Data from a nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey on women of reproductive age were used to examine the relationship of pregnancy order number, age when a woman became pregnant and her marital status to accepting unintended pregnancy. A subsample of 517 women having been pregnant within five years preceding the interview were divided into non-acceptors (unintended pregnancy was terminated and acceptors (pregnancy ended with live birth though was unintended at the time of conception. Independent variables included pregnancy- and childbearing-related, socio-demographic, and behavioral characteristics. Odds ratios were calculated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS. Controlling for all other factors, being 23 years and younger compared to 24-37 years old was positively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy. With every next pregnancy, odds of accepting an unintended pregnancy decreased by 0.6. Being married compared to being unmarried was negatively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy in bivariate analysis, which was attenuated in multivariate analysis because of predominance of the first pregnancies among never married women. Furthermore, women from all other regions of Ukraine compared to women from Western regions were less likely to accept an unintended pregnancy, and so did women of Christian Orthodox and no religion compared to women of other religions. CONCLUSIONS. Attention of public health programs and policies should be paid to the women with children, whose needs in reliable contraceptive methods are not met. Post-delivery contraceptive consultations may be a great tool in overcoming this gap. In

  19. Is nuclear energy acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear hazards are assessed as being unique only in the sense of their unfamiliarity, with future development of nuclear energy dependent on overcoming public fears. Economics is clearly in favor of properly operated nuclear energy facilities for long-term power generation. Risks arise over the potential for human error to permit