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Sample records for greater physiological stress

  1. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  2. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  3. Physiologic stress interventions in cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Physiologic stress interventions are designed to assess the reserve capability of coronary flow and myocardial function. In the normal individual, a sufficiently intense physiologic stress may increase coronary flow and cardiac output by 500% to 600%. However, in patients with cardiac disease, these reserve responses may be absent, or considerably blunted. Thus, physiologic stress testing has proved extremely helpful in detecting cardiac abnormalities when resting cardiac function appears normal. Although dynamic exercise remains the standard approach to physiologic stress testing, a number of other interventions have been used, including: (1) isometric exercise, (2) atrial pacing, (3) cold pressor testing, (4) postextrasystolic potentiation, (5) volume loading, and (6) negative intrathoracic pressure. Each of these may be considered an alternative physiologic intervention whenever dynamic exercise is not feasible. These alternative approaches are important since, in our experience, 20% to 30% of subjects are unable to perform dynamic exercise, or exercise inadequately to produce a sufficiently intense cardiac stress. This chapter reviews physiologic considerations, indications, contraindications, protocols, and results of these physiologic stress interventions when used in combination with cardiac radionuclide procedures

  4. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  5. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  7. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with

  9. Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits and Parenting Stress: The Utility of Using a Physiological Measure of Parental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Reina S.; Swain, Deanna M.; Scarpa, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report greater stress due to unique parenting demands (e.g.; Estes et al. in "Brain Dev" 35(2):133-138, 2013). Stress is often studied through self-report and has not been extensively studied using physiological measures. This study compared parenting stress in mothers of…

  10. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  11. Speaking under pressure: low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; McCoy, Shannon; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Cosley, Brandon; Vartan, Arbi; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Moskowitz, Judith T; Epel, Elissa S

    2014-03-01

    What can a speech reveal about someone's state? We tested the idea that greater stress reactivity would relate to lower linguistic cognitive complexity while speaking. In Study 1, we tested whether heart rate and emotional stress reactivity to a stressful discussion would relate to lower linguistic complexity. In Studies 2 and 3, we tested whether a greater cortisol response to a standardized stressful task including a speech (Trier Social Stress Test) would be linked to speaking with less linguistic complexity during the task. We found evidence that measures of stress responsivity (emotional and physiological) and chronic stress are tied to variability in the cognitive complexity of speech. Taken together, these results provide evidence that our individual experiences of stress or "stress signatures"-how our body and mind react to stress both in the moment and over the longer term-are linked to how complex our speech under stress. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  13. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  14. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  15. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms......, perceived stress) and the mediating effect of these factors on changes in physiological stress markers. We used data from a longitudinal study that studied the health consequences of a major reorganization of non-state public offices executed in Denmark on 1 January 2007. Collection of clinical...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...

  16. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  17. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  18. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy--a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary

  19. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary

  20. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  1. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  2. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2000-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  3. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) to quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2) To examine...

  4. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2001-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  5. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2005-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  6. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  7. The role of physiological active substances implant adaptation to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronina, L.; Morachevskaya, E.

    2009-01-01

    It is known, that brassinosteroids are capable in small quantities (10 - 12-10 - 7M) to optimize physiology-biochemical processes in plants in stressful conditions. the aim of this study was to investigate the role of anti stress and protective properties of phyto hormone 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBS). in view of its functional features and biological activity. (Author)

  8. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Akinola, Modupe; Martin, Ashley; Fath, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Prior research suggests that altering situation-specific evaluations of stress as challenging versus threatening can improve responses to stress. The aim of the current study was to explore whether cognitive, physiological and affective stress responses can be altered independent of situation-specific evaluations by changing individuals' mindsets about the nature of stress in general. Using a 2 × 2 design, we experimentally manipulated stress mindset using multi-media film clips orienting participants (N = 113) to either the enhancing or debilitating nature of stress. We also manipulated challenge and threat evaluations by providing positive or negative feedback to participants during a social stress test. Results revealed that under both threat and challenge stress evaluations, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in anabolic ("growth") hormones relative to a stress-is-debilitating mindset. Furthermore, when the stress was evaluated as a challenge, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in positive affect, heightened attentional bias towards positive stimuli, and greater cognitive flexibility, whereas a stress-is-debilitating mindset produced worse cognitive and affective outcomes. These findings advance stress management theory and practice by demonstrating that a short manipulation designed to generate a stress-is-enhancing mindset can improve responses to both challenging and threatening stress.

  9. Distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress predict women's problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-06-01

    Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The relationships among bullying or witnessing bullying at work, self-reported health symptoms, and physiological stress reactivity were analysed in a sample of 437 employees (294 women and 143 men). Physiological stress reactivity was measured as cortisol in the saliva. Of the respondents, 5......% of the women (n=15) and 5% of the men (n=7) reported bullying, whereas 9% of the women (n=25) and 11% of the men (n=15) had witnessed bullying at work. The results indicated that the bullied respondents had lower social support from coworkers and supervisors, and they reported more symptoms of somatisation...... with nonbullied respondents. Previous studies have reported lower diurnal concentration of cortisol for people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic fatigue. To our knowledge, this is the first full study on the associations among being subjected to bullying, health outcomes, and physiological...

  12. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  13. Physiological adaptation to recurrent social stress of extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  15. Physiological response of heat stressed broiler chickens to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing the drinking water of broilers reared under natural heat stress with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ascorbic acid (AA) on physiological response was investigated. A 200, one-day Arbor acre chicks were randomly allotted to five treatments in ...

  16. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  17. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, D.; Verhoeven, J.; Milaneschi, Y.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune

  18. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a catastrophic episode, ... as well as cellular levels through osmotic and ionic adjustments that result in reduced biomass ... plant physiology such as increased respiration rate, ion toxicity ... eventually death of leaf cells and tissues (Marschner,.

  19. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  20. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  1. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  2. The Role of Nature in Coping with Psycho-Physiological Stress: A Literature Review on Restorativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Berto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical settings can play a role in coping with stress; in particular experimental research has found strong evidence between exposure to natural environments and recovery from physiological stress and mental fatigue, giving support to both Stress Recovery Theory and Attention Restoration Theory. In fact, exposure to natural environments protects people against the impact of environmental stressors and offer physiological, emotional and attention restoration more so than urban environments. Natural places that allow the renewal of personal adaptive resources to meet the demands of everyday life are called restorative environments. Natural environments elicit greater calming responses than urban environments, and in relation to their vision there is a general reduction of physiological symptoms of stress. Exposure to natural scenes mediates the negative effects of stress reducing the negative mood state and above all enhancing positive emotions. Moreover, one can recover the decrease of cognitive performance associated with stress, especially reflected in attention tasks, through the salutary effect of viewing nature. Giving the many benefits of contact with nature, plans for urban environments should attend to restorativeness.

  3. Some problems with the physiological concept of "stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J

    1986-11-01

    Stress has become a central concept in discussion of animal welfare, partly because it has been seen to have a precise physiological definition. However, stress is a term in ordinary language with a variety of connotations, not all of which can be related to activity of the pituitary adrenal axis. There is good evidence against the idea that the rise in plasma corticosteroids that occurs in response to some treatment can be used to assess the degree of suffering or distress experienced by an animal. The rise may simply reflect demands on the learning abilities of the animals. Veterinarians should be careful in their use of the term, and in their interpretation of such physiological data, in the context of animal welfare.

  4. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  5. Runners with Patellofemoral Pain Exhibit Greater Peak Patella Cartilage Stress Compared to Pain-Free Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tzu-Chieh; Keyak, Joyce H; Powers, Christopher M

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running. Input parameters to the finite element model included subject-specific patellofemoral joint geometry, quadriceps muscle forces, and lower extremity kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes. Tibiofemoral joint kinematics and kinetics were quantified to determine the best predictor of stress using stepwise regression analysis. Compared to the pain-free runners, those with PFP exhibited greater peak hydrostatic pressure (PFP vs. control, 21.2 ± 5.6 MPa vs. 16.5 ± 4.6 MPa) and maximum shear stress (11.3 ± 4.6 MPa vs. 8.7 ± 2.3 MPa). Knee external rotation was the best predictor of peak hydrostatic pressure and peak maximum shear stress (38% and 25% of variances, respectively) followed by the knee extensor moment (21% and 25% of variances, respectively). Runners with PFP exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress during running compared to pain-free individuals. The combination of knee external rotation and a high knee extensor moment best predicted elevated peak stress during running.

  6. Behavioral phenotype relates to physiological differences in immunological and stress responsiveness in reactive and proactive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, Elizabeth A; Navara, Kristen J

    2018-05-15

    It has now been demonstrated in many species that individuals display substantial variation in coping styles, generally separating into two major behavioral phenotypes that appear to be linked to the degree of physiological stress responsiveness. Laying hens are perfect examples of these dichotomous phenotypes; white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to both acute and chronic stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Given the linkages between stress physiology and many other body systems, we hypothesized that behavioral phenotype would correspond to additional physiological responses beyond the stress response, in this case, immunological responses. Because corticosterone is widely known to be immunosuppressive, we predicted that the reactive white hens would show more dampened immune responses than the proactive brown hens due to their exposure to higher levels of corticosterone throughout life. To assess immune function in white and brown hens, we compared febrile responses, corticosterone elevations, feed consumption, and egg production that occurred in response an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, inflammatory responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in the toe web, innate phagocytic activity in whole blood, and antibody responses to an injection of Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBCs). Contrary to our predictions, white hens had significantly greater swelling of the toe web in response to PHA and showed a greater inhibition of feeding and reproductive output in response to LPS. These results indicated that reactive individuals are more reactive in both stress and immunological responsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops or the model plant Arabidopsis. There is only a handful of studies available investigating the transcriptome and metabolome of waterlogged trees. Main physiological responses of trees to waterlogging include the stimulation of fermentative pathways and an accelerated glycolytic flux. Many energy-consuming, anabolic processes are slowed down to overcome the energy crisis mediated by waterlogging. A crucial feature of waterlogging tolerance is the steady supply of glycolysis with carbohydrates, particularly in the roots; stress-sensitive trees fail to maintain sufficient carbohydrate availability resulting in the dieback of the stressed tissues. The present review summarizes physiological and molecular features of waterlogging tolerance of trees; the focus is on carbon metabolism in both, leaves and roots of trees. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...

  10. Physiological stress and refuge behavior by African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Jachowski

    Full Text Available Physiological stress responses allow individuals to adapt to changes in their status or surroundings, but chronic exposure to stressors could have detrimental effects. Increased stress hormone secretion leads to short-term escape behavior; however, no studies have assessed the potential of longer-term escape behavior, when individuals are in a chronic physiological state. Such refuge behavior is likely to take two forms, where an individual or population restricts its space use patterns spatially (spatial refuge hypothesis, or alters its use of space temporally (temporal refuge hypothesis. We tested the spatial and temporal refuge hypotheses by comparing space use patterns among three African elephant populations maintaining different fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM concentrations. In support of the spatial refuge hypothesis, the elephant population that maintained elevated FGM concentrations (iSimangaliso used 20% less of its reserve than did an elephant population with lower FGM concentrations (Pilanesberg in a reserve of similar size, and 43% less than elephants in the smaller Phinda reserve. We found mixed support for the temporal refuge hypothesis; home range sizes in the iSimangaliso population did not differ by day compared to nighttime, but elephants used areas within their home ranges differently between day and night. Elephants in all three reserves generally selected forest and woodland habitats over grasslands, but elephants in iSimangaliso selected exotic forest plantations over native habitat types. Our findings suggest that chronic stress is associated with restricted space use and altered habitat preferences that resemble a facultative refuge behavioral response. Elephants can maintain elevated FGM levels for ≥ 6 years following translocation, during which they exhibit refuge behavior that is likely a result of human disturbance and habitat conditions. Wildlife managers planning to translocate animals, or to initiate other

  11. Post-menopausal Women Exhibit Greater Interleukin-6 Responses to Mental Stress Than Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Acute stress triggers innate immune responses and elevation in circulating cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effect of sex on IL-6 responses remains unclear due to important limitations of previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in IL-6 responses to mental stress in a healthy, older (post-menopausal) sample accounting for several moderating factors. Five hundred six participants (62.9 ± 5.60 years, 55 % male) underwent 10 min of mental stress consisting of mirror tracing and Stroop task. Blood was sampled at baseline, after stress, and 45 and 75 min post-stress, and assayed using a high sensitivity kit. IL-6 reactivity was computed as the mean difference between baseline and 45 min and between baseline and 75 min post-stress. Main effects and interactions were examined using ANCOVA models. There was a main effect of time for the IL-6 response (F 3,1512 = 201.57, p = stress compared to males. Results were independent of age, adiposity, socioeconomic position, depression, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, statin use, testing time, task appraisals, hormone replacement, and baseline IL-6. Other significant predictors of IL-6 reactivity were lower household wealth, afternoon testing, and baseline IL-6. Healthy, post-menopausal females exhibit substantially greater IL-6 responses to acute stress. Inflammatory responses if sustained over time may have clinical implications for the development and maintenance of inflammatory-related conditions prevalent in older women.

  12. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  13. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Subjective Social Status, and Perceived Stress: Associations with Stress Physiology and Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.

  15. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L. were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs such as photosystems I (PSI and II (PSII to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters.

  17. Physiological performance of the soybean crosses in salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, F.; Armaniar

    2018-02-01

    Plants grown in saline soils will experience salinity stress. Salinity stresses, one of which causes oxidative stress, that cause an imbalance in the production ROS compounds (Reactive Oxygen Species), antioxidants and chlorophyll. Where the reaction of this compound can affect plant growth and plant production. This study aims to inform performance and action gene to soybean physiological character that potential to tolerant from salinity soil that characterized by the presence of SOD and POD antioxidant compounds and chlorophyll. This research used a destructive analysis from crossbred (AxN) and (GxN). A = Anjasmoro varieties and G = Grobogan varieties as female elders and N = Grobogan varieties as male elders (N1, N2, N3, N4, N5) that have been through the stage of saline soil selection. Research result can be concluded that GxN cross is more potential for Inheritance of the offspring. This can be seen from the observed skewness of character SOD, POD compounds, Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.

  18. Physiological responses of Daphnia pulex to acid stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirow Ralph

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acidity exerts a determining influence on the composition and diversity of freshwater faunas. While the physiological implications of freshwater acidification have been intensively studied in teleost fish and crayfish, much less is known about the acid-stress physiology of ecologically important groups such as cladoceran zooplankton. This study analyzed the extracellular acid-base state and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2, circulation and ventilation, as well as the respiration rate of Daphnia pulex acclimated to acidic (pH 5.5 and 6.0 and circumneutral (pH 7.8 conditions. Results D. pulex had a remarkably high extracellular pH of 8.33 and extracellular PCO2 of 0.56 kPa under normal ambient conditions (pH 7.8 and normocapnia. The hemolymph had a high bicarbonate concentration of 20.9 mM and a total buffer value of 51.5 meq L-1 pH-1. Bicarbonate covered 93% of the total buffer value. Acidic conditions induced a slight acidosis (ΔpH = 0.16–0.23, a 30–65% bicarbonate loss, and elevated systemic activities (tachycardia, hyperventilation, hypermetabolism. pH 6.0 animals partly compensated the bicarbonate loss by increasing the non-bicarbonate buffer value from 2.0 to 5.1 meq L-1 pH-1. The extracellular PCO2 of pH 5.5 animals was significantly reduced to 0.33 kPa, and these animals showed the highest tolerance to a short-term exposure to severe acid stress. Conclusion Chronic exposure to acidic conditions had a pervasive impact on Daphnia's physiology including acid-base balance, extracellular PCO2, circulation and ventilation, and energy metabolism. Compensatory changes in extracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity and the improved tolerance to severe acid stress indicated the activation of defense mechanisms which may result from gene-expression mediated adjustments in hemolymph buffer proteins and in epithelial properties. Mechanistic analyses of the interdependence between extracellular acid-base balance and CO2 transport

  19. Relationship between sociability toward humans and physiological stress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2017-07-28

    Sociability is an essential trait for dogs to successfully interact with humans. In this study, the relationship between sociability and physiological stress was examined. Additionally, whether differences exist between companion dogs (C group) and shelter dogs (S group) was examined. Overall, healthy 37 dogs (C group=21 and S group=16) were examined. After 5 min of walking, the dog and the owner (or the chief manager) rested freely in the experimental location for 5 min. The behavioral test with 6 categories was conducted to evaluate sociability over 4 min. The establishment of two groups (H group=dogs with high sociability; L group=dogs with low sociability) was supported by the statistical results of the behavioral tests. Saliva was collected before (P1) and after the test period (P2), and salivary cortisol levels were determined and statistically analyzed. The cortisol concentrations at P2 and the differences in concentrations between P1 and P2 (P2-P1) in the groups with high sociability were significantly lower than those in the groups with low sociability. These results may demonstrate that sociable dogs adapt more comfortably to strangers and unfamiliar situations. Meanwhile, there were significant differences in hormonal results between the C and S groups. For this reason, their sociability should be evaluated using behavioral and physiological assessments before re-adoption to ensure their successful adaptation.

  20. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  2. Ability to Discriminate Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Heat Stress Exposures-Part 2: Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Villalba, Ximena P; Wu, Yougui; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    There are times when it is not practical to assess heat stress using environmental metrics and metabolic rate, and heat strain may provide an alternative approach. Heat strain indicators have been used for decades as tools for monitoring physiological responses to work in hot environments. Common indicators of heat strain are body core temperature (assessed here as rectal temperature Tre), heart rate (HR), and average skin temperature (Tsk). Data collected from progressive heat stress trials were used to (1) demonstrate if physiological heat strain indicators (PHSIs) at the upper limit of Sustainable heat stress were below generally accepted limits; (2) suggest values for PHSIs that demonstrate a Sustainable level of heat stress; (3) suggest alternative PHSIs; and (4) determine if metabolic rate was an effect modifier. Two previous progressive heat stress studies included 176 trials with 352 pairs of Sustainable and Unsustainable exposures over a range of relative humidities and metabolic rates using 29 participants. To assess the discrimination ability of PHSIs, conditional logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression were used to find the best combinations of predictors of Unsustainable exposures. The accuracy of the models was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Current recommendations for physiological heat strain limits were associated with probabilities of Unsustainable greater than 0.5. Screening limits for Sustainable heat stress were Tre of 37.5°C, HR of 105 bpm, and Tsk of 35.8°C. Tsk alone resulted in an area under the curve of 0.85 and the combination of Tsk and HR (area under the curve = 0.88) performed the best. The adjustment for metabolic rate was statistically significant for physiological strain index or ∆Tre-sk as main predictors, but its effect modification was negligible and could be ignored. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, PHSIs (Tre, HR, and Tsk) can accurately predict Unsustainable heat

  3. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Milaneschi, Yuri; de Geus, Eco J C N; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve [area under the curve indicators, with respect to the ground and increase], evening levels, 0.5 mg dexamethasone cortisol suppression ratio), and autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period) were determined. Linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Shorter LTL was significantly associated with higher c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, area under the curve with respect to increase, and heart rate. A cumulative index score was calculated based on the number of highest tertiles of these 4 stress markers. LTL demonstrated a significant gradient within subjects ranging from having zero (5528 base pairs) to having 4 elevated stress markers (5371 base pairs, p for trend = 0.002), corresponding to a difference of 10 years of accelerated biological aging. Contrary to the expectations, shorter LTL was also associated with longer pre-ejection period, indicating lower sympathetic tone. This large-scale study showed that inflammation, high awakening cortisol response, and increased heart rate are associated with shorter LTL, especially when they are dysregulated cumulatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Work stress, Chinese work values, and work well-being in the Greater China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Work values influence our attitudes and behavior at work, but they have rarely been explored in the context of work stress. The aim of this research was thus to test direct and moderating effects of Chinese work values (CWV) on relationships between work stressors and work well-being among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Work stressors were negatively related to work well-being, whereas CWV were positively related to work well-being. In addition, CWV also demonstrated moderating effects in some of the stressor-job satisfaction relationships.

  5. [Physiological responses of mycorrhizal Pinus massoniana seedlings to drought stress and drought resistance evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ding, Gui-jie

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculating Pisolithus tinctorius, Cenococcum geophilum, Cantharellus cibarius, and Suillus luteus on the physiological characteristics of Pinus massoniana seedlings under the conditions of drought stress and re-watering, with the drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings evaluated. Under drought stress, the MDA content and membrane' s relative permeability of P. massoniana seedlings increased, but these two indices in the inoculated (mycorrhizal) seedlings were significantly lower than these in the un-inoculated (control) seedlings. After re-watering, the MDA content and membrane's relative permeability of mycorrhizal seedlings had a rapid decrease, as compared with the control. In the first 21 days of drought stress, the production rate of superoxide radical of the seedlings increased, and the SOD, POD and NR activities of mycorrhizal seedlings increased significantly. With the extending of drought stress, the seedlings after re-watering had different recovery ability. Under the re-watering after 14 days drought stress, the SOD, POD and NR activities recovered. The drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings was in the order of Suillus luteus 1 > Suillus luteus 7 > Cantharellus cibarius > Cenococcum geophilum > Pisolithus tinctorius. The SOD and MDA activities had a greater correlation with the mycorrhizal seedlings drought resistance, being able to be used as the indicators to evaluate the drought resistance of mycorrhizal seedlings.

  6. Physiological stress mediates the honesty of social signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R Bortolotti

    Full Text Available Extravagant ornaments used as social signals evolved to advertise their bearers' quality. The Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis proposes that testosterone-dependent ornaments reliably signal health and parasite resistance; however, empirical studies have shown mixed support. Alternatively, immune function and parasite resistance may be indirectly or directly related to glucocorticoid stress hormones. We propose that an understanding of the interplay between the individual and its environment, particularly how they cope with stressors, is crucial for understanding the honesty of social signals.We analyzed corticosterone deposited in growing feathers as an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a wild territorial bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We manipulated two key, interrelated components, parasites and testosterone, which influence both ornamentation and fitness. Birds were initially purged of parasites, and later challenged with parasites or not, while at the same time being given testosterone or control implants, using a factorial experimental design. At the treatment level, testosterone enhanced ornamentation, while parasites reduced it, but only in males not implanted with testosterone. Among individuals, the degree to which both parasites and testosterone had an effect was strongly dependent on the amount of corticosterone in the feather grown during the experiment. The more stressors birds had experienced (i.e., higher corticosterone, the more parasites developed, and the less testosterone enhanced ornamentation.With this unique focus on the individual, and a novel, integrative, measure of response to stressors, we show that ornamentation is ultimately a product of the cumulative physiological response to environmental challenges. These findings lead toward a more realistic concept of honesty in signaling as well as a broader discussion of the concept of stress.

  7. Salinity stress and some physiological relationships in Kochia (Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nabati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and production. It is estimated that approximately half of the irrigated lands of Iran are affected by salinity and much of the agricultural lands of Iran especially in the central regions are susceptible to salinity. According to the development of saline soils and water resources, utilization of halophytes as alternatives for cultivation in saline conditions could be a suitable strategy to crop production. In addition to understanding the physiological salinity tolerance pathways, studying such crops could help to plant breeding and transferring these useful traits to crop species and also domestication of these plants. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in 2009-2010 in Salinity Research Station of faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as split-plot based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. Salinity as the main plot had two levels of 5.2 and 16.5 dSm-1 and five kochia ecotypes including Birjand, Urmia, Borujerd, Esfahan and Sabzevar were allocated as sub-plot. Seedlings were irrigated with saline water having electrical conductivity (EC of 5.2 dSm-1 until the full establishment and thereafter salinity stress was imposed with saline water having EC=16.5 dSm-1. Physiological and biochemical traits were measured in the youngest fully expanded leaf at the beginning of the anthesis and shoot biomass at the end of the growth season. Data analysis was performed using Minitab 16 and means were compared by LSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Results and Discussion Results indicated that biomass was increased in Birjand, Isfahan and Urmia ecotypes as salinity level increased while it was decreased in Sabzevar and Boroujerd ecotypes. A reduction of 34, 31, 11 and 29 percentage and an increase of 4 percentage in seed yield was seen in Sabzevar, Birjand, Boroujerd, Urmia and Isfahan, respectively. Harvest

  8. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-05-01

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  9. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated.

  11. Physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation for prevention and treatment of stress related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kukolja, Davor; Horvat, Marko; Dropuljić, Branimir

    2010-02-01

    The significant proportion of severe psychological problems related to intensive stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation presented in this work, based on estimation of the person's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Following an overview of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation, its major functional subsystems are described in more detail. A specific algorithm of stimuli delivery applicable to SIT is outlined.

  12. Stress inoculation training supported by physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Sinisa; Horvat, Marko; Kukolja, Davor; Dropuljić, Branimir; Cosić, Kresimir

    2009-01-01

    Significant proportion of psychological problems related to combat stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores importance of effective methods for strengthening the stress resistance of military personnel. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation, based on estimation of the subject's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Therefore, following an overview of SIT and its applications in the military setting, generic concept of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation is presented in the paper. Toward the end of the paper, closed-loop adaptive control strategy applicable to SIT is outlined.

  13. Wearable physiological sensors reflect mental stress state in office-like situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface

  14. Physiological responses of salt stress and osmoprotection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Keywords: Salt stress, bacterial growth, osmoregulation, proline, stress protein synthesis. ... genous origin by regulation of proline metabolism. (Kawahara et al., 1989). .... osmoprotectant effect of proline and corroborate with ...

  15. Diversity of Physiological Traits In jerusalem Artichoke genotypes under Non-stress and Drought Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttanaprasert, R.; Banterng, P.; Vorasoot, N.; Kesmala, T.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological traits such as SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), specific leaf area (SLA) and harvest index (HI) play an important role in crop yield. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of drought stress on HI, SCMR and SLA and explore genetic variability for these physiological traits in Jerusalem artichoke (JA) (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Field experiments were conducted in the dry period of 2010/11 and 2011/12 in the Northeast of Thailand using a strip plot design with four replications. A horizontal factor was three different water regimes (W1:100 percent Crop water requirement (ETcrop), W2: 75 percent ETcrop and W3: 45 percent ETcrop) and a vertical factor was 40 JA genotypes. Measurements on HI, relative water content (RWC), SLA and SCMR were conducted at 40, 60 and 70 days after transplantation. Drought stress significantly reduced RWC and SLA but significantly increased SCMR. High variations in SCMR (32-59) and SLA (78-213 cm/sup 2/ g/sup -1/) were found among genotypes. The correlations between HI and SCMR (r = 0.56 to 0.78, p<=0.01) were positive and significant, whereas the respective ones between HI and SLA (r = -0.60 to -0.76, p<=0.01) were negative and significant as those between SCMR and SLA (r = -0.73 to -0.90, p<=0.01). These findings suggested that SCMR was linked with SLA and HI in JA. SCMR could be used as a physiological trait for indirect selection for HI and productivity under various water regimes in JA. (author)

  16. Psychosocial versus physiological stress – meta-analyses on deactivations and activations of the neural correlates of stress reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Mueller, Veronika I.; Chang, Amy; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Gur, Ruben C.; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Stress is present in everyday life in various forms and situations. Two stressors frequently investigated are physiological and psychosocial stress. Besides similar subjective and hormonal responses, it has been suggested that they also share common neural substrates. The current study used activation-likelihood-estimation meta-analysis to test this assumption by integrating results of previous neuroimaging studies on stress processing. Reported results are cluster-level FWE corrected. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the anterior insula (AI) were the only regions that demonstrated overlapping activation for both stressors. Analysis of physiological stress showed consistent activation of cognitive and affective components of pain processing such as the insula, striatum, or the middle cingulate cortex. Contrarily, analysis across psychosocial stress revealed consistent activation of the right superior temporal gyrus and deactivation of the striatum. Notably, parts of the striatum appeared to be functionally specified: the dorsal striatum was activated in physiological stress, whereas the ventral striatum was deactivated in psychosocial stress. Additional functional connectivity and decoding analyses further characterized this functional heterogeneity and revealed higher associations of the dorsal striatum with motor regions and of the ventral striatum with reward processing. Based on our meta-analytic approach, activation of the IFG and the AI seems to indicate a global neural stress reaction. While physiological stress activates a motoric fight-or-flight reaction, during psychosocial stress attention is shifted towards emotion regulation and goal-directed behavior, and reward processing is reduced. Our results show the significance of differentiating physiological and psychosocial stress in neural engagement. Furthermore, the assessment of deactivations in addition to activations in stress research is highly recommended. PMID:26123376

  17. Behavioral and physiological responses to stress are affected by high-fat feeding in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B; Blom, WAM; Koolhaas, JM; van Dijk, G; Blom, Wendy A.M.

    Interactions between monoaminergic neurochemistry and macronutrient intake have been frequently shown. Because monoaminergic systems in the brain are also closely involved in behavioral and physiological stress responses it can be hypothesized that differences in the macronutrient composition of

  18. Physiological correlates of stress-induced decrements in human perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Stress-induced changes in human performance have been thought to result from alterations in the "multidimensional arousal state" of the individual, as indexed by alterations in the physiological and psychological mechanisms controlling performance. I...

  19. A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress resistance and resilience with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Seals, Douglas R; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2017-09-01

    Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the arrival index predict physiological stress reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test time, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol arrival index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA arrival index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA arrival indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an arrival index.

  1. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  2. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  3. Physiological roles of plastid terminal oxidase in plant stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The absence of PTOX in plants usually results in photo-bleached variegated leaves and impaired adaptation to environment alteration. Although PTOX level and activity has been found to increase under a wide range of stress conditions, the functions of plant PTOX in stress responses are still disputed now. In this paper ...

  4. Investigation of an alternative generic model for predicting pharmacokinetic changes during physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Edginton, Andrea N; Cheung, Bob

    2013-10-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed using MATLAB Simulink® and PK-Sim®. We compared the capability and usefulness of these two models by simulating pharmacokinetic changes of midazolam under exercise and heat stress to verify the usefulness of MATLAB Simulink® as a generic PBPK modeling software. Although both models show good agreement with experimental data obtained under resting condition, their predictions of pharmacokinetics changes are less accurate in the stressful conditions. However, MATLAB Simulink® may be more flexible to include physiologically based processes such as oral absorption and simulate various stress parameters such as stress intensity, duration and timing of drug administration to improve model performance. Further work will be conducted to modify algorithms in our generic model developed using MATLAB Simulink® and to investigate pharmacokinetics under other physiological stress such as trauma. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Educators' emotion regulation strategies and their physiological indicators of chronic stress over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Deirdre A; Harris, Alexis; Abenavoli, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark T; Jennings, Patricia A

    2018-04-01

    Studies show teaching is a highly stressful profession and that chronic work stress is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study analysed physiological markers of stress and self-reported emotion regulation strategies in a group of middle school teachers over 1 year. Chronic physiological stress was assessed with diurnal cortisol measures at three time points over 1 year (fall, spring, fall). The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the changes in educators' physiological level of stress. Results indicate that compared to those in the fall, cortisol awakening responses were blunted in the spring. Further, this effect was ameliorated by the summer break. Additionally, self-reported use of the emotion regulation strategy reappraisal buffered the observed blunting that occurred in the spring. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The physiological stress response and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout and brook trout from selenium-impacted streams in a coal mining region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.L.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Palace, V.P.; Hontela, A. [University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-11-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element that can be toxic at concentrations slightly greater than those required for homeostasis. The main chronic toxic effects of Se in fish are teratogenic deformities, but Se can also activate the physiological stress response and redox cycle with reduced glutathione causing oxidative damage. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, appear to be more sensitive to Se than brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological stress response (plasma cortisol, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, cortisol secretory capacity, K and liver somatic index) and oxidative stress biomarkers (liver GSH, GPx, lipid peroxidation, vitamin A and vitamin E) in rainbow trout (RNTR) and brook trout (BKTR) collected from reference and Se-exposed streams. The physiological stress response was not impaired (cortisol secretory capacity unchanged); although there were species differences in plasma cortisol and plasma glucose levels. Liver GSH, GPx and vitamin levels were higher in RNTR than BKTR, but lipid peroxidation levels were not different. The elevated GSH reserves may make RNTR more sensitive to Se-induced lipid peroxidation, but this may be offset by the RNTR's higher antioxidant (GPx and vitamin) levels. Species-specific biochemical differences may mediate differences in Se sensitivity and be used in aquatic Se risk assessments.

  7. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most.

  8. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... response of the plant to cut stem (Ichimura et al., 1999). When the vessel is blocked, ... E-mail: m.r.s.v@hotmail.com. of complex physiological ... of cells which protrude into the vessel lumen xylem whose shape is similar to a.

  9. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most effective parameter to ...

  10. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowers have been designed primarily for cutting because of the diversity of shapes, colors and also durability. However, ornamental plants are used in floral arrangements in vases and have limited shelf-life. Thus, this study showed that one of the factors contributing to this limitation is the physiological blockage that occurs ...

  11. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-invasive evaluation of physiological stress in an iconic Australian marsupial: the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Webster, Koa; Nicolson, Vere; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are the only extant representatives of Australia's unique marsupial family Phascolarctidae and were listed as nationally Vulnerable in 2012. Causes of mortality are diverse, although the disease chlamydiosis, dog attacks, collisions with cars, and loss of habitat represent the principal reasons for the continued species decline. Koala breeding facilities in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia have been established for conservation and tourism. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress is important for determining the sub-lethal effects of environmental stressors on the well-being, reproduction and survival of Koalas in Zoos and also in the wild. In this study, we developed a faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for monitoring physiological stress in Koalas from two established Zoos in Australia and also within a free-living sub-population from Queensland. Biological validation of the FCM EIA was done using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. We discovered excretory lag-times of FCM of 24 h in females (n=2) and 48 h in male (n=2) Koalas in response to the ACTH challenge. FCM levels showed an episodic and delayed peak response lasting up to 9 days post ACTH challenge. This finding should be taken into consideration when designing future experiments to study the impacts of short-term (acute) and chronic stressors on the Koalas. Laboratory validations were done using parallelism and recovery checks (extraction efficiency) of the cortisol standard against pooled Koala faecal extracts. Greater than 99% recovery of the cortisol standard was obtained as well as a parallel displacement curve against Koala faecal extracts. FCM levels of the captive Koalas (n=10 males and 13 females) significantly differed by sex, reproductive condition (lactating versus non-lactating Koalas) and the handling groups. Handled male Koalas had 200% higher FCM levels than their non-handled counterparts, while females

  13. Food Insecurity During Pregnancy Leads to Stress, Disordered Eating, and Greater Postpartum Weight Among Overweight Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines food insecurity during and after pregnancy and how that affects postpartum weight retention. The results show that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of stress, eating behaviors, dietary fat intake, and higher postpartum weight status.

  14. A physiological evaluation of the enhanced osmotic stress tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... SR3 and Jinan 177 were hydroponically subjected to osmotic stress, the accumulation of proline .... hydroponically in half strength Hoagland's solution for three weeks ..... ascrobate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts.

  15. Stress physiology as a predictor of survival in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-10-22

    Although glucocorticoid hormones are considered important physiological regulators for surviving adverse environmental stimuli (stressors), evidence for such a role is sparse and usually extrapolated from glucocorticoid effects under laboratory, short-term and/or non-emergency conditions. Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) provide an excellent model for determining the ultimate function of a glucocorticoid response because susceptibility to starvation induced by El Niño conditions is essentially their only major natural stressor. In a prospective study, we captured 98 adult male marine iguanas and assessed four major components of their glucocorticoid response: baseline corticosterone titres; corticosterone responses to acute stressors (capture and handling); the maximal capacity to secrete corticosterone (via adrenocorticotropin injection); and the ability to terminate corticosterone responses (negative feedback). Several months after collecting initial measurements, weak El Niño conditions affected the Galápagos and 23 iguanas died. The dead iguanas were typified by a reduced efficacy of negative feedback (i.e. poorer post-stress suppression of corticosterone release) compared with surviving iguanas. We found no prior differences between dead and alive iguanas in baseline corticosterone concentrations, responses to acute stressors, nor in capacity to respond. These data suggest that a greater ability to terminate a stress response conferred a survival advantage during starvation.

  16. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  17. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  18. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  19. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p memory (p stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p's stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p = 0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women.

  20. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An introduction to the 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST-A standardized instrument for evaluating stress reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Neureiter

    Full Text Available Using a standardized instrument to evaluate patients' stress reactions has become more important in daily clinical routines. Different signs or symptoms of stress are often unilaterally explored: the physiological, psychological or social aspects of stress disorders are each viewed on a single dimension. However, all dimensions afflict patients who have persistent health problems due to chronic stress. Therefore, it is important to use a multidimensional approach to acquire data. The 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST was established to achieve a comprehensive understanding of stress and was further developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin in collaboration with the Psychological Department of Freie Universität Berlin. The PPST includes a series of varying stress phases, embedded in two periods of rest. Physiological and psychological parameters are simultaneously measured throughout the test session. Specifically, the PPST activates the sympathetic stress axis, which is measured by heart rate, blood pressure, respiration depth and rate, electro dermal activation and muscle tension (frontalis, masseter, trapezius. Psychological data are simultaneously collected, and include performance, motivation, emotion and behavior. After conducting this diagnostic test, it is possible to identify individual stress patterns that can be discussed with the individual patient to develop and recommend (outpatient treatment strategies. This paper introduces the PPST as a standardized way to evaluate stress reactions by presenting the results from a sample of psychosomatic inpatients (n = 139 who were treated in Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. We observed that the varying testing conditions provoked adjusted changes in the different physiological parameters and psychological levels.

  2. Geodynamics and Stress State of the Earth's Crust in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) collision region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Akhmedova, Elnare; Babayev, Elvin

    2017-04-01

    The current study researches the present-day stress state of the Earth's crust within the territory of Azerbaijan by using the database of the international research project "World Stress Map" (WSM). The present stress state was also assessed by exploring the effects of the contemporary topographic properties of Caucasus in three-dimensional frame. Aiming to explore the relative roles of regional tectonic conditions in the definition of stress state of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, stress distribution model was developed by the earthquake data (1998-2016) and by the standard techniques of stress field calculation. The results show that the stress orientations are influenced also by the combination of topography and crust thickness distribution even at very large depth. Stress data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the stress state of the Earth's crust of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is characterized by the compression predominantly oriented across the regional strike. The model results suggest that the Lesser Caucasus and Kur depression are rotating coherently, with little or no internal deformation in a counter-clockwise rotation located near the north-eastern corner of the Black Sea. Orientation of stress axes well consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms revealed that within Upper and Lower Crusts, earthquakes are predominantly thrust-faulting with a number of normal-faulting and some strike-slip faulting. The map of the focal mechanisms and stress distribution suggests that the research area is characterized by the thrust of horizontal compression trending north-north-east in the western part of the southern Caucasus. In the western part of Azerbaijan, the compression takes place between the Main Caucasus Fault and the Kur depression, which strikes south along the northern margin of the mountain range. In addition, a clear transition from the left-lateral strike slip to the predominantly right-lateral strike slip is observed in the southern of

  3. Effect of the fungus Piriformospora indica on physiological characteristics and root morphology of wheat under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Q p , of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i.e., placing a weight on the sand surface) in the root medium. Slight, moderate and severe drought stresses were induced using PEG 6000 solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa, respectively. After 30 days, plant physiological characteristics and root morphology were measured. An increase in Q p from 1.17 to 5.96 MPa led to greater leaf proline concentration and root diameter, and lower relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (LWP), chlorophyll contents and root volume. Moreover, severe drought stress decreased root and shoot fresh weights, root volume, leaf area, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll content compared to control. Catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities under severe drought stress were about 1.5 and 2.9 times greater than control. Interaction of the stresses showed that mechanical stress primarily controls plant water status and physiological responses. However, endophyte presence mitigated the adverse effects of individual and combined stresses on plant growth. Colonized plants were better adapted and had greater root length and volume, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll contents under stressful conditions due to higher absorption sites for water and nutrients. Compared with uncolonized plants, colonized plants showed lower CAT activity implying that wheat inoculated with P. indica was more tolerant and experienced less oxidative damage induced by drought and/or mechanical stress. Copyright

  4. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-01

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland.

  5. Sex-related differences in stress tolerance in dioecious plants: a critical appraisal in a physiological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvany, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Sex-related differences in reproductive effort can lead to differences in vegetative growth and stress tolerance. However, do all dioecious plants show sex-related differences in stress tolerance? To what extent can the environmental context and modularity mask sex-related differences in stress tolerance? Finally, to what extent can physiological measurements help us understand secondary sexual dimorphism? This opinion paper aims to answer these three basic questions with special emphasis on developments in research in this area over the last decade. Compelling evidence indicates that dimorphic species do not always show differences in stress tolerance between sexes; and when sex-related differences do occur, they seem to be highly species-specific, with greater stress tolerance in females than males in some species, and the opposite in others. The causes of such sex-related species-specific differences are still poorly understood, and more physiological studies and diversity of plant species that allow comparative analyses are needed. Furthermore, studies performed thus far demonstrate that the expression of dioecy can lead to sex-related differences in physiological traits-from leaf gas exchange to gene expression-but the biological significance of modularity and sectoriality governing such differences has been poorly investigated. Future studies that consider the importance of modularity and sectoriality are essential for unravelling the mechanisms underlying stress adaptation in male and female plants growing in their natural habitat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Physiology and transcriptomics of water-deficit stress responses in wheat cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srirama Krishna; Liu, Shuyu; Rudd, Jackie C; Xue, Qingwu; Payton, Paxton; Finlayson, Scott A; Mahan, James; Akhunova, Alina; Holalu, Srinidhi V; Lu, Nanyan

    2014-09-01

    Hard red winter wheat crops on the U.S. Southern Great Plains often experience moderate to severe drought stress, especially during the grain filling stage, resulting in significant yield losses. Cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112 are widely cultivated in the region, share parentage and showed superior but distinct adaption mechanisms under water-deficit (WD) conditions. Nevertheless, the physiological and molecular basis of their adaptation remains unknown. A greenhouse study was conducted to understand the differences in the physiological and transcriptomic responses of TAM 111 and TAM 112 to WD stress. Whole-plant data indicated that TAM 112 used more water, produced more biomass and grain yield under WD compared to TAM 111. Leaf-level data at the grain filling stage indicated that TAM 112 had elevated abscisic acid (ABA) content and reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis as compared to TAM 111. Sustained WD during the grain filling stage also resulted in greater flag leaf transcriptome changes in TAM 112 than TAM 111. Transcripts associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormone metabolism, and other dehydration responses were uniquely regulated between cultivars. These results suggested a differential role for ABA in regulating physiological and transcriptomic changes associated with WD stress and potential involvement in the superior adaptation and yield of TAM 112. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological Response of Lactobacillus plantarum to Salt and Nonelectrolyte Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaasker, Erwin; Tjan, Frans S. B.; Ter Steeg, Pieter F.; Konings, Wil N.; Poolman, Bert

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we compared the effects on the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum of raising the medium molarity by high concentrations of KCl or NaCl and iso-osmotic concentrations of nonionic compounds. Analysis of cellular extracts for organic constituents by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that salt-stressed cells do not contain detectable amounts of organic osmolytes, whereas sugar-stressed cells contain sugar (and some sugar-derived) compounds. The cytoplasmic concentrations of lactose and sucrose in growing cells are always similar to the concentrations in the medium. By using the activity of the glycine betaine transport system as a measure of hyperosmotic conditions, we show that, in contrast to KCl and NaCl, high concentrations of sugars (lactose or sucrose) impose only a transient osmotic stress because external and internal sugars equilibrate after some time. Analysis of lactose (and sucrose) uptake also indicates that the corresponding transport systems are neither significantly induced nor activated directly by hyperosmotic conditions. The systems operate by facilitated diffusion and have very high apparent affinity constants for transport (>50 mM for lactose), which explains why low sugar concentrations do not protect against hyperosmotic conditions. We conclude that the more severe growth inhibition by salt stress than by equiosmolal concentrations of sugars reflects the inability of the cells to accumulate K+ (or Na+) to levels high enough to restore turgor as well as deleterious effects of the electrolytes intracellularly. PMID:9721316

  8. Physiological roles of plastid terminal oxidase in plant stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metabolism is getting increased attention (Carol and Kuntz. 2001 ... sis capacity, and reduces the adaptation to environment ... utilized for CO2 assimilation under high light, or lower demand for electrons required for carbon fixing reactions under stresses such as ..... and Hüner NPA 2011 Flexibility in photosynthetic electron.

  9. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  10. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and ..... at 3 h after a 6 h journey in male Japanese goats. During ..... animals are subjected to concomitant action of transport- tation and heat stress .... those measured in moving vehicles (Warriss et al., 1993).

  11. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are ...

  12. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... water and nutrient stress made significant effects on nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, but no .... Measurements of relative water content (RWC), leaf relative ... C1 is the electrical conductivity value of samples at the first .... biomass, root, stem and leaf mass) were significant. ..... Plant, Cell and Environ.

  13. Physiological responses to known intake of ergot alkaloids by steers at environmental temperatures within or greater than their thermoneutral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Joan; Huntington, Gerald; Williamson, Megan; Hanna, Michelle; Poore, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Two studies separated effects of dietary ergot alkaloids from effects of feed intake or ambient temperature on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), surface temperature (ST), rectal temperature (RT), blood pressure (BP), serum hormone, and plasma metabolite concentrations in beef steers. The balanced, single reversal design for each experiment used 8 beef steers fed tall fescue seed (2.5 g/kg body weight, (BW)) with (E+) or without (E-) ergot alkaloids as part of a 60:40 switchgrass hay: supplement diet. Periods were 35 d with 21 d of preliminary phase and 14 d of feeding fescue seed once daily. Measures of dependent variables were collected on d 20, 25, 29 and 35 of each period at 0730 (before feeding), 1230 and 1530. In Expt 1 steers weighed 286 kg, gained 0.61 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 2.72 mg ergot alkaloids including 1.60 mg ergovaline per steer daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 23.6 and 32.3°C. In Expt 2 steers weighed 348 kg, gained 1.03 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 3.06 mg ergot alkaloids including 2.00 mg ergovaline daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 11.9 and 17.4°C. Dry matter intake was not affected by fescue seed treatment (P < 0.20) in either experiment. In both experiments, E+ reduced HR (P < 0.01) and increased insulin (P = 0.07). Systolic BP minus diastolic BP decreased (P< 0.05) for E+ in both experiments, due to increased diastolic BP in Expt 1 (P < 0.03) and decreased systolic BP in Expt 2 (P < 0.07). In Expt 1, above the thermoneutral zone, E+ increased (P< 0.05) RR, RT and left side ST in comparison to E-, but in Expt 2, within the thermoneutral zone, E+ and E- did not differ (P < 0.18). Ergot alkaloids from fescue seed affect the cardiovascular system of steers separately from effects of feed intake or environmental temperature. Ergot alkaloids interact with ambient temperatures above the steers’ thermoneutral zone to exacerbate the symptoms of hyperthermic stress.

  14. Stress enhances fear by forming new synapses with greater capacity for long-term potentiation in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvrathan, Aparna; Bennur, Sharath; Ghosh, Supriya; Tomar, Anupratap; Anilkumar, Shobha; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-01-05

    Prolonged and severe stress leads to cognitive deficits, but facilitates emotional behaviour. Little is known about the synaptic basis for this contrast. Here, we report that in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress, long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic responses are enhanced in principal neurons of the lateral amygdala, a brain area involved in fear memory formation. This is accompanied by electrophysiological and morphological changes consistent with the formation of 'silent synapses', containing only NMDARs. In parallel, chronic stress also reduces synaptic inhibition. Together, these synaptic changes would enable amygdalar neurons to undergo further experience-dependent modifications, leading to stronger fear memories. Consistent with this prediction, stressed animals exhibit enhanced conditioned fear. Hence, stress may leave its mark in the amygdala by generating new synapses with greater capacity for plasticity, thereby creating an ideal neuronal substrate for affective disorders. These findings also highlight the unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala that are strikingly different from the stress-induced impairment of structure and function in the hippocampus.

  15. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  16. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points...

  17. Evaluation of mental stress by physiological indices derived from finger plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Emiko; Ohnishi, Eriko; Ohnishi, Junji; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Hori, Miyo; Motomura, Miwa; Hoshino, Junichi; Murakami, Kazuo; Kawaguchi, Takayasu

    2013-10-12

    Quantitative evaluation of mental stress is important to prevent stress-related disorders. Finger plethysmography (FPG) is a simple noninvasive method to monitor peripheral circulation, and provides many physiological indices. Our purpose is to investigate how FPG-derived indices reflect on mental stress, and to clarify any association between these physiological indices and subjective indices of mental stress. Thirty-one healthy women (mean age, 22 years ± 2) participated. The participants rested by sitting on a chair for 10 min. They then performed a computerized version of the Stroop color-word conflict test (CWT) for 10 min. Finally, they rested for 10 min. FPG was recorded throughout the experiment. The participants completed a brief form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire before and after the test. Using the FPG data, we conducted chaos analysis and fast Fourier transform analysis, and calculated chaotic attractors, the largest Lyapunov exponent, a high-frequency (HF) component, a low-to-high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio, finger pulse rate and finger pulse wave amplitude. The HF component decreased and the LF/HF ratio increased significantly during the test (P stress. Our findings indicate that FPG is one of the easiest methods to evaluate mental stress quantitatively. In particular, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the LF/HF ratio might be associated with acute mental stress. Farther examination is needed to find any association between the physiological indices and various types of mental stress.

  18. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  19. water stress mediated changes in growth, physiology and secondary metabolites of desi ajwain (trachyspermum ammi l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, N.; Hussain, B.; Abbasi, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses exert a considerable influence on the production of several secondary metabolites in plants; water stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors. This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of drought stress on growth, physiology and secondary metabolite production in desi ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Plants were grown in pots and three drought levels (100%, 80% and 60%) of field capacity were created. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Data on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were recorded and analyzed statistically. Physiological parameters like transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased concentration increased. The photosynthetic rate showed significantly with increasing water stress levels, but internal CO/sub 2/ non-significant reduction from 100% field capacity to 80% field capacity but increased at 60% field capacity. Growth parameters including plant height, herb fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly with increasing stress levels, while total phenolic contents and chlorophyll contents increased under water stress conditions. These results suggest that cultivation of medicinal plants like desi ajwain under drought stress could enhance the production of secondary metabolites. (author)

  20. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  1. Repetitive Supra-Physiological Shear Stress Impairs Red Blood Cell Deformability and Induces Hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Jarod T; Sabapathy, Surendran; Simmonds, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The supra-physiological shear stress that blood is exposed to while traversing mechanical circulatory assist devices affects the physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), impairs RBC deformability, and may induce hemolysis. Previous studies exploring RBC damage following exposure to supra-physiological shear stress have employed durations exceeding clinical instrumentation, thus we explored changes in RBC deformability following exposure to shear stress below the reported "hemolytic threshold" using shear exposure durations per minute (i.e., duty-cycles) reflective of that employed by circulatory assist devices. Blood collected from 20 male donors, aged 18-38 years, was suspended in a viscous medium and exposed to an intermittent shear stress protocol of 1 s at 100 Pa, every 60 s for 60 duty-cycles. During the remaining 59 s/min, the cells were left at stasis until the subsequent duty-cycle commenced. At discrete time points (15/30/45/60 duty-cycles), an ektacytometer measured RBC deformability immediately after shear exposure at 100 Pa. Plasma-free hemoglobin, a measurement of hemolysis, was quantified via spectrophotometry. Supra-physiological shear stress impaired RBC properties, as indicated by: (1) decreased maximal elongation of RBCs at infinite shear stress following 15 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress protocol (100 Pa) following exposure to 1 duty-cycle (F (1.891, 32.15) = 12.21, P = 0.0001); and (3) increased plasma-free hemoglobin following 60 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress, impairs RBC deformability, with the extent of impairment exacerbated with each duty-cycle, and ultimately precipitates hemolysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  3. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  4. Growth and Physiological Responses of Phaseolus Species to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the changes on growth, photosynthesis, water relations, soluble carbohydrate, and ion accumulation, for two salt-tolerant and two salt-sensitive Phaseolus species grown under increasing salinity (0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl. After 20 days exposure to salt, biomass was reduced in all species to a similar extent (about 56%, with the effect of salinity on relative growth rate (RGR confined largely to the first week. RGR of salt-tolerant species was reduced by salinity due to leaf area ratio (LAR reduction rather than a decline in photosynthetic capacity, whereas unit leaf rate and LAR were the key factors in determining RGR on salt-sensitive species. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased gradually with salinity, showing significant reductions only in salt-sensitive species at the highest salt level. There was little difference between species in the effect of salinity on water relations, as indicated by their positive turgor. Osmotic adjustment occurred in all species and depended on higher K+, Na+, and Cl− accumulation. Despite some changes in soluble carbohydrate accumulation induced by salt stress, no consistent contributions in osmotic adjustment could be found in this study. Therefore, we suggest that tolerance to salt stress is largely unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation in Phaseolus species.

  5. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  6. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study....... Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Methods: Participants were 5,309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Ageing and Midlife Biobank. SEC included socio......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  7. Insulin resistance as a physiological defense against metabolic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Christopher J; Ruderman, Neil B; Kahn, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Stratifying the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has to take into account marked variability in patient phenotype due to heterogeneity in its pathophysiology, different stages of the disease process, and multiple other patient factors including comorbidities. The focus here is on the very...... with intensive insulin therapy, could therefore be harmful. Treatments that nutrient off-load to lower glucose are more likely to be beneficial. The concepts of "IR as an adaptive defense mechanism" and "insulin-induced metabolic stress" may provide explanation for some of the unexpected outcomes of recent major...... clinical trials in T2D. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying these concepts; their clinical implications for stratification of T2D management, particularly in overweight and obese patients with difficult glycemic control; and future research requirements are discussed....

  8. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  9. Physiological acclimation to drought stress in Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolf, Markus; Pagitz, Konrad; Mayr, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Solidago canadensis is an invasive species from North America that is spreading across Europe, Australia and temperate Asia. We hypothesized that the species' wide ecological amplitude is also based on its potential in hydraulic acclimation, and analyzed hydraulic and anatomical properties along a transect with decreasing soil humidity. Stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced embolism, stomatal closure during dehydration and xylem-anatomical parameters were quantified at three sites. At the humid site, specific hydraulic conductivity of stems (1.0 ± 0.2 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) was about twofold higher, and leaf-specific conductivity about 1.5 times higher (3.1 ± 0.5 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) than at the dry site. Water potential (Ψ) at 50% loss of conductivity was -3.7 ± 0.1 MPa at the dry site and -3.1 ± 0.2 MPa at the humid site (September). Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism decreased along the transect and over the vegetation period. At drier sites, stomata started closing at lower Ψ while complete stomatal closure was reached at less negative Ψ (12% of maximum stomatal conductance: -2.5 ± 0.0 and -3.0 ± 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid site). The safety margin between stomatal closure and 50% loss of conductivity was 1.2 and 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid sites. The observed variability indicated an efficient acclimation in hydraulic conductivity and safety: plants at dry sites exhibited lower specific hydraulic conductivity, higher embolism resistance and broader safety margins, signifying a trade-off between the hydraulic safety and efficiency. The observed intraspecific plasticity in hydraulic and anatomical traits may help to explain the invasive potential of this species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Physiological adaptations to osmotic stress and characterization of a polyethylene glycol-responsive gene in Braya humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lirong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Braya humilis (Brassicaceae is a widely distributed plant in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Asia. This plant is well adapted to extremely arid conditions and is a promising candidate species to discover novel drought tolerance strategies. However, not much information about the mechanism(s mediating drought resistance in this species is currently available. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the physiological traits and expression patterns of a polyethylene glycol (PEG-responsive gene in B. humilis responding to different levels of osmotic stress induced by PEG-6000. Several important physiological parameters were examined, including the levels of relative water content, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activity. A tolerance threshold between 20 and 30% PEG-6000 was identified for B. humilis. The water status and oxidative damage below this threshold were maintained at a relatively constant level during the 12 h of treatment. However, once the threshold was exceeded, the water status and oxidative damage were obviously affected after treatment for 4 h. The soluble protein results suggest that B. humilis maintains a vigorous resistance to osmotic stress and that it may play a greater role in osmotic regulation at late stages of stress. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase may be important at preventing oxidative damage in plants at early stages of stress, while peroxidase may be more involved in some biological processes that resist osmotic stress at the late stage, especially in severely damaged plants. Furthermore, a PEG-responsive gene, BhCIPK12, was identified by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR, cloned, and characterized by quantitative real-time PCR. We hypothesized that this gene may play an important role in mediating osmotic stress or drought resistance in plants. Altogether, these results provide valuable insights into the mechanism

  11. Timing effects of heat-stress on plant physiological characteristics and growth: a field study with prairie vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic agricultural, economic and ecological impacts. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS treatment at different timing in naturally-occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5 ºC were applied to 12 1m2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by Andropogon gerardii (warm-season C4 grass and Solidago canadensis (warm-season C3 forb at different growing stages. During and after HS, air, canopy, and soil temperature were monitored; net CO2 assimilation (Pn, quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII, stomatal conductance (gs, and internal CO2 level (Ci of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species was determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii, indicated by negative heat stress effect on both physiological and growth responses. There were significant timing effect of heat stress on the two species, with greater reductions in the photosynthesis and productivity occurred when heat stress was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that heat stress, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe heat stress occur in the future.

  12. Effect of terminal drought stress on morpho-physiological traits of wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Chandio, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Development of wheat varieties with low moisture requirements and their ability to withstand moisture stress may cope-up well with the on-coming peril of drought conditions. Ten wheat genotypes including two new strains, PBGST-3, Hero, Bhittai, Marvi, Inqlab, Sarsabz, Abadgar, Kiran, Khirman and PBGST-4 were sown in split plot design with factorial arrangement in four replications at Experimental Field, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agricutlure University, Pakistan during 2012-13. The results revealed that water stress caused significant reductions in all morpho-physiological traits. The genotypes differed significantly for all the yield and physiological traits. The interaction of treatments * genotypes were also significant for all the traits except plant height, productive tillers/plant, grains/spike and harvest index, were non-significant which indicated that cultivars responded variably over the stress treatments suggesting that breeders can select the promising genotypes for both stress and non-stress environments. Among the genotypes evaluated Bhittai, Kiran-95, PBGST-3 and Sarsabz showed good performance as minimum reductions occurred under terminal stress conditions for all the traits studied. Hence, above mentioned genotypes were considered as drought tolerant group. The high positive correlations of physiological traits like chlorophyll content and relative water content with almost all yield traits indicated that these physiological traits could serve as reliable criteria for breeding drought tolerance in wheat. The negative correlations of electrolyte leakage with several important yield traits indicated that though this physiological trait has adverse effect on yield attributes, yet it could reliably be used to distinguish between drought tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. (author)

  13. Perceived Stress, Its Physiological Correlates, and Quality of Life in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kristen R; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Fletcher, Jason; Henderson, Wendy A

    2018-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life. A total of 101 participants (35 with IBS [predominant subtypes IBS-constipation and IBS-diarrhea] and 66 healthy controls [HCs]) completed self-report inventories regarding perceived stress and quality of life, and fasting peripheral blood was drawn. Participants with IBS did not differ from the HC in demographic or physiological measures but did differ in psychological measures, reporting significantly higher levels of perceived stress and lower levels of quality of life. Perceived stress and quality of life were not significantly associated in IBS participants. However, differential findings of the stress response were found within IBS participants by sex, race, and subtype. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the IBS patient population, underscore the necessity of evaluating larger sample sizes and increasing the diversity of such samples to include males and ethnic minorities, and demonstrate the importance of taking an individualized approach to evaluation and treatment in the IBS patient population.

  14. Physiological stress and ethanol accumulation in tree stems and woody tissues at sublethal temperatures from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Douglas J. Westlind

    2017-01-01

    The lethal temperature limit is 60 degrees Celsius (°C) for plant tissues, including trees, with lower temperatures causing heat stress. As fire injury increases on tree stems, there is an accompanying rise in tissue ethanol concentrations, physiologically linked to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation energy production. We theorize that sublethal tissue...

  15. Associations of Marital Conflict with Emotional and Physiological Stress: Evidence for Different Patterns of Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore theoretically suggested but untested links between interparental conflict and stress physiology in late adolescence. A multi-method study was conducted involving families (n = 42) who previously participated in the University California, Irvine site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development;…

  16. Physiological coherence in healthy volunteers during laboratory-induced stress and controlled breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Mejía, Elisa; Torres, Robinson; Restrepo, Diana

    2018-06-01

    Physiological coherence has been related with a general sense of well-being and improvements in health and physical, social, and cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between acute stress, controlled breathing, and physiological coherence, and the degree of body systems synchronization during a coherence-generation exercise. Thirty-four university employees were evaluated during a 20-min test consisting of four stages of 5-min duration each, during which basal measurements were obtained (Stage 1), acute stress was induced using validated mental stressors (Stroop test and mental arithmetic task, during Stage 2 and 3, respectively), and coherence states were generated using a controlled breathing technique (Stage 4). Physiological coherence and cardiorespiratory synchronization were assessed during each stage from heart rate variability, pulse transit time, and respiration. Coherence measurements derived from the three analyzed variables increased during controlled respiration. Moreover, signals synchronized during the controlled breathing stage, implying a cardiorespiratory synchronization was achieved by most participants. Hence, physiological coherence and cardiopulmonary synchronization, which could lead to improvements in health and better life quality, can be achieved using slow, controlled breathing exercises. Meanwhile, coherence measured during basal state and stressful situations did not show relevant differences using heart rate variability and pulse transit time. More studies are needed to evaluate the ability of coherence ratio to reflect acute stress. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  18. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert Jan; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We

  19. Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Brittany E.; Stam, Jacqueline; Huizink, Anja C.; Willemen, Agnes M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n=327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17 years,

  20. Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... the strain is closely related to Frankia sp. strain CcI3. ... [Oshone R, Mansour SR and Tisa LS 2013 Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6. .... This work was supported in part by US-Egypt Joint Research.

  1. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2016-09-01

    Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated. Ninety-two healthy adults (mean age, 58.0 years; 79.3% women) were randomly assigned to three aroma groups (lavender, perceptible placebo [coconut], and nonperceptible placebo [water] and to two prime subgroups (primed, with a suggestion of inhaling a powerful stress-reducing aroma, or no prime). Participants' performance on a battery of cognitive tests, physiologic responses, and subjective stress were evaluated at baseline and after exposure to a stress battery during which aromatherapy was present. Participants also rated the intensity and pleasantness of their assigned aroma. Pharmacologic effects of lavender but not placebo aromas significantly benefited post-stress performance on the working memory task (F(2, 86) = 5.41; p = 0.006). Increased expectancy due to positive prime, regardless of aroma type, facilitated post-stress performance on the processing speed task (F(1, 87) = 8.31; p = 0.005). Aroma hedonics (pleasantness and intensity) played a role in the beneficial lavender effect on working memory and physiologic function. The observable aroma effects were produced by a combination of mechanisms involving aroma-specific pharmacologic properties, aroma hedonic properties, and participant expectations. In the future, each of these mechanisms could be manipulated to produce optimal functioning.

  2. Distinguish self- and hetero-perceived stress through behavioral imaging and physiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Aigrain, Jonathan; Bourvis, Nadège; Dubuisson, Séverine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Cohen, David

    2018-03-02

    Stress reactivity is a complex phenomenon associated to multiple and multimodal expressions. Response to stressors has an obvious survival function and may be seen as an internal regulation to adapt to threat or danger. The intensity of this internal response can be assessed as the self-perception of the stress response. In species with social organization, this response also serves a communicative function, so-called hetero-perception. Our study presents multimodal stress detection assessment - a new methodology combining behavioral imaging and physiological monitoring for analyzing stress from these two perspectives. The system is based on automatic extraction of 39 behavioral (2D+3D video recording) and 62 physiological (Nexus-10 recording) features during a socially evaluated mental arithmetic test. The analysis with machine learning techniques for automatic classification using Support Vector Machine (SVM) show that self-perception and hetero-perception of social stress are both close but different phenomena: self-perception was significantly correlated with hetero-perception but significantly differed from it. Also, assessing stress with SVM through multimodality gave excellent classification results (F1 score values: 0.9±0.012 for hetero-perception and 0.87±0.021 for self-perception). In the best selected feature subsets, we found some common behavioral and physiological features that allow classification of both self- and hetero-perceived stress. However, we also found the contributing features for automatic classifications had opposite distributions: self-perception classification was mainly based on physiological features and hetero-perception was mainly based on behavioral features. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Executive functioning performance predicts subjective and physiological acute stress reactivity: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Donny; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kimura, Motohiro; Murakami, Hiroki; Ohira, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in baseline executive functioning (EF) capacities have been shown to predict state anxiety during acute stressor exposure. However, no previous studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between EF and physiological measures of stress. The present study investigated the efficacy of several well-known EF tests (letter fluency, Stroop test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) in predicting both subjective and physiological stress reactivity during acute psychosocial stress exposure. Our results show that letter fluency served as the best predictor for both types of reactivity. Specifically, the higher the letter fluency score, the lower the acute stress reactivity after controlling for the baseline stress response, as indicated by lower levels of state anxiety, negative mood, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance. Moreover, the predictive power of the letter fluency test remained significant for state anxiety and cortisol indices even after further adjustments for covariates by adding the body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. Thus, good EF performance, as reflected by high letter fluency scores, may dampen acute stress responses, which suggests that EF processes are directly associated with aspects of stress regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  6. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  7. Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K; Fisher, Daniel K; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-11-20

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  8. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  9. Does Physiological Stress Slow Down Wound Healing in Patients With Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjouyan, Javad; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Talal, Talal K; Armstrong, David G; Mills, Joseph L; Najafi, Bijan

    2017-07-01

    Poor healing is an important contributing factor to amputation among patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Physiological stress may slow wound healing and increase susceptibility to infection. The objective was to examine the association between heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of physiological stress response and healing speed (Heal Speed ) among outpatients with active DFUs. Ambulatory patients with diabetes with DFUs (n = 25, age: 59.3 ± 8.3 years) were recruited. HRV during pre-wound dressing was measured using a wearable sensor attached to participants' chest. HRVs were quantified in both time and frequency domains to assess physiological stress response and vagal tone (relaxation). Change in wound size between two consecutive visits was used to estimate Heal Speed . Participants were then categorized into slow healing and fast healing groups. Between the two groups, comparisons were performed for demographic, clinical, and HRV derived parameters. Associations between different descriptors of HRV and Heal Speed were also assessed. Heal Speed was significantly correlated with both vagal tone ( r = -.705, P = .001) and stress response ( r = .713, P = .001) extracted from frequency domain. No between-group differences were observed except those from HRV-derived parameters. Models based on HRVs were the highest predictors of slow/fast Heal Speed (AUC > 0.90), while models based on demographic and clinical information had poor classification performance (AUC = 0.44). This study confirms an association between stress/vagal tone and wound healing in patients with DFUs. In particular, it highlights the importance of vagal tone (relaxation) in expediting wound healing. It also demonstrates the feasibility of assessing physiological stress responses using wearable technology in outpatient clinic during routine clinic visits.

  10. Temperature-induced physiological stress and reproductive characteristics of the migratory seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a thermal stress simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Geng; Johnson, Cara; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Huixian; Yin, Jianping; Miller, Glen; Turingan, Ralph G; Guisbert, Eric; Lin, Qiang

    2018-05-15

    Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C, 2-10 hours) increased the basal metabolic rate (breathing rate) and the expression of stress response genes ( Hsp genes) significantly and further stimulated seahorse appetite. Chronic thermal treatment (30°C, 4 weeks) led to a persistently higher basal metabolic rate, higher stress response gene expression, and higher mortality, indicating that the seahorses could not acclimate to chronic thermal stress and might experience massive mortality due to excessive basal metabolic rates and stress damage. Additionally, no significant negative effects on gonad development or reproductive endocrine regulation genes were observed in response to chronic thermal stress, suggesting that seahorse reproductive behavior could adapt to higher-temperature conditions during migration and within seahorse breeding grounds. In conclusion, this simulation experiment indicated that temperature variations during inshore-offshore migration have no effect on reproduction but promote basal metabolic rates and stress responses significantly. Therefore, we suggest that the high observed tolerance of seahorse reproduction was in line with the inshore-offshore reproductive migration pattern of lined seahorse. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  12. The relieving effects of shelter modes on physiological stress of traffic police in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G. Z.; Wang, Y. J.; Bu, W. T.; Lu, Y. Z.; Li, Ke; Li, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    In summer, high temperature and strong sun radiation last for a long time. However, traffic police still stick to their positions to ensure normal traffic order. Therefore, the health and safety of traffic police are challenged by the high temperature weather. To protect the safety of the traffic police in the outdoor high temperature environment, some shelter modes, such as sun hat and sun umbrella are selected for duty traffic police. The relieving effects on the physiological stress of the shelter modes are analyzed by comparison of the physiological parameters in these shelter modes. The results show that sun umbrella has a good effect on relieving physiological stress. And sun hat has no effect on relieving physiological stress, although it avoids the direct sunlight on the face. However, it causes the increase of the thermal sensation. This study can provide important methods for health protecting of traffic police in the outdoor high temperature environment. It also provides a theoretical support for the revision of the outdoor high temperature labour protection standard.

  13. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  14. Regulation and physiological role of silicon in alleviating drought stress of mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Mohamed Naser; El-Hoseiny, Hanan; El-Sheery, Nabil Ibrahim; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-09-01

    Improvement of drought stress of mango plants requires intensive research that focuses on physiological processes. In three successive seasons (2014, 2015and 2016) field experiments with four different strains of mango were subjected to two water regimes. The growth and physiological parameters of possible relevance for drought stress tolerances in mango were investigated. Yield and its components were also evaluated. The data showed that all growth and physiological parameters were increased under K 2 SiO 3 (Si) supplement and were followed by the interaction treatment (Si treatment and its combination with drought stress) compared to that of the controlled condition. Drought stress decreased the concentration of auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA) and cytokinins (CK) in the three mango cultivars leaves, whereas, it increased the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). On the contrary, IAA, GA, and CK (promoters) endogenous levels were improved by supplementing Si, in contrary ABA was decreased. Drought stress increased the activity of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the leaves of all mango cultivars grown during three experimental seasons. However, Si supplementation reduced the levels of all these antioxidative enzymes, especially the concentration of SOD when compared to that of control leaves. Fruit quality was improved in three successive seasons when Si was applied. Our results clearly show that the increment in drought tolerance was associated with an increase in antioxidative enzyme activity, allowing mango plants to cope better with drought stress. Si possesses an efficient system for scavenging reactive oxygen species, which protects the plant against destructive oxidative reactions, thereby improving the ability of the mango trees to withstand environmental stress in arid regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Cadmium and Chromium Stress on Growth, Physiology and Metal Uptake Using Mirabilis Jalapa

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Shahanaz Begum; Tharakeswar Yadamari; Kalyan Yakkala; Sreevani Parvathareddy; Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala

    2015-01-01

    Phytoextraction potential of Mirabilis jalapa, with tuberous root having high ecological adoptability was studied in the present work . Different levels of cadmium and chromium stress on growth, physiology and metal uptake were studied using pot experiments. The experiment comprised of 5 dosages of cadmium and chromium with different test concentrations (TC) viz, TC1(0), TC2(25), TC3(50), TC4(75) and TC5(100) ppm, for the period of 45 days. Growth, physiological parameters and metal accumulat...

  16. Physiological behaviors and recovery responses of four galician grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of four pot grown Galician grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño, Brancellao, Godello and Treixadura were examined under different levels of water stress in greenhouse. After extreme stress, gas exchange recovery responses were evaluated. Average ΨPD for control and stressed plants were -0.4MPa and -1.45MPa respectively. All varieties showed gradual declining of all gas exchange parameters (gs, E and A with increasing of stress periods. Under stressed conditions, Albariño and Godello showed higher CO2 assimilation rate. At the end of stress period leaf defoliation was found in Albariño and Brancellao. Gas exchange recovery was higher for both Godello and Treixadura. A better response of auxiliary bud recovery was present in Albariño than in Brancellao. Close correlations between water stress and gas exchange parameters were found and it varies on genotype. Albariño, Godello and Treixadura followed same diurnal patterns of gas exchange rate for control and stressed plant respectively. Diurnal pattern of CO2 assimilation rate of all tested varieties followed gs and E. Only Brancellao showed treatment effect on mid-day Fv/Fm. Among four varieties photoinhibition was only found in Brancellao. At stressed condition physiological responses of grapevines were genotype depended.

  17. Effects of salt stress and mycorrhiza fungi on morpho-physiological characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Abdolreza kazemeini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interaction of mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth and physiological characteristics of sweet corn, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, in 2014. The experimental design was factorial based on Completely Randomized Design in three replications. Treatments included salinity at four levels (0.4 (control, 4, 7, 10 dS m-1, and the fungi at three levels (no fungi (control, Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices. Results indicated that at flowering stage, with increasing salinity levels, leaf chlorophyll a, b and a+b content and carotenoid decreased at a rate of 18.9, 52.4, 33.1, and 34.5 respectively. Application of mycorrhiza under salinity, partially offset the negative impacts and increased tolerance of maize to NaCl by enhancing SOD and CAT activities, chlorophyll contents, carotenoid and K concentrations in leaves, plant height, leaf area, and total dry weight at flowering stage significantly, compared to control. The Na/K ratio at salinity level of 10 dS m-1 in treatments inoculated with GIN and GM fungi decreased by 39.69 and 40.45 percentage, respectively. Increases plant height, leaf area, total dry weight, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid and K, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared with the control. Moreover, GIN type fungi had a greater advantage over GM and reduced the negative effects of salinity. Results indicated that application of mycorrhiza alleviated the adverse effect of salinity stress and improve the sweet corn dry weight up to 38 percentage at salinity level of 10 dS m-1.

  18. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Li

    Full Text Available Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis. The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis.

  19. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  20. Effects of Drought Stress and Rewatering on some Morphological and Physiological Properties of Three Grapevine Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most plants have developed morphological and physiological mechanisms which allow them to cope with drought stress. Almost all the studies conducted on grapevines (Vitisvinifera L. responses to drought conditions have focused on physiological responses such as stomatal reactions, photosynthesis and osmotic adjustment, and biochemical responses like carbohydrates and proline. According to these studies, physiological and biochemical responses of grapevines to water stress are quite variable. This variability could be related to cultivar, time of the year, previous water stress level, intensity of stress, and environmental conditions. Osmotic adjustment in terms of compatible solutes accumulation has been considered as an important physiological adaptation for plant to resist drought, which facilitates the extraction of water from dry soils and maintenance of cell turgor, gas exchange and growth in very dry environments. Acting as compatible solutes as well as antioxidants, a significant rise in proline amount was observed in grapevine leaves under water stress conditions, suggesting that this amino acid has a protective role against the formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants, in order to overcome oxidative stress, have developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms against scavenge ROS. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted to assess the effect of different levels of irrigation on some characteristics of three cultivars of grapevine (Yaghooti, Bidanesefid and Askari, as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design in two years with four replications. The experiment started in June 21, 2014 and 2015. Water treatments were applied in four levels including: control plant (100% FC, moderate stress (60% FC, severe stress (30% FC and rewatering treatment after severe stress treatment. Increase height, leaf number, stem diameter, leaf fresh and dry weight, stem dry weight

  1. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  2. Physiological Stress Elicits Impaired Left Ventricular Function in Preterm-Born Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstep, Odaro J; Williamson, Wilby; Telles, Fernando; Burchert, Holger; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Herdman, Charlotte; Arnold, Linda; Smillie, Robert; Mohamed, Afifah; Boardman, Henry; McCormick, Kenny; Neubauer, Stefan; Leeson, Paul; Lewandowski, Adam J

    2018-03-27

    Experimental and clinical studies show that prematurity leads to altered left ventricular (LV) structure and function with preserved resting LV ejection fraction (EF). Large-scale epidemiological data now links prematurity to increased early heart failure risk. The authors performed echocardiographic imaging at prescribed exercise intensities to determine whether preterm-born adults have impaired LV functional response to physical exercise. We recruited 101 normotensive young adults born preterm (n = 47; mean gestational age 32.8 ± 3.2 weeks) and term (n = 54) for detailed cardiovascular phenotyping. Full clinical resting and exercise stress echocardiograms were performed, with apical 4-chamber views collected while exercising at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak exercise capacity, determined by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Preterm-born individuals had greater LV mass (p = 0.015) with lower peak systolic longitudinal strain (p = 0.038) and similar EF to term-born control subjects at rest (p = 0.62). However, by 60% exercise intensity, EF was 6.7% lower in preterm subjects (71.9 ± 8.7% vs 78.6 ± 5.4%; p = 0.004) and further declined to 7.3% below the term-born group at 80% exercise intensity (69.8 ± 6.4% vs 77.1 ± 6.3%; p = 0.004). Submaximal cardiac output reserve was 56% lower in preterm-born subjects versus term-born control subjects at 40% of peak exercise capacity (729 ± 1,162 ml/min/m 2 vs. 1,669 ± 937 ml/min/m 2 ; p = 0.021). LV length and resting peak systolic longitudinal strain predicted EF increase from rest to 60% exercise intensity in the preterm group (r = 0.68, p = 0.009 and r = 0.56, p = 0.031, respectively). Preterm-born young adults had impaired LV response to physiological stress when subjected to physical exercise, which suggested a reduced myocardial functional reserve that might help explain their increased risk of early heart failure. (Young Adult Cardiovascular Health sTudy [YACHT]; NCT02103231

  3. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-07-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  4. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-01-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  5. On the use of wearable physiological monitors to assess heat strain during occupational heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-05-04

    Workers in many industries are required to perform arduous work in high heat stress conditions, which can lead to rapid increases in body temperature that elevate the risk of heat-related illness or even death. Traditionally, effort to mitigate work-related heat injury has been directed to the assessment of environmental heat stress (e.g., wet-bulb globe temperature), rather than the associated physiological strain responses (e.g., heart rate, skin and core temperatures). However, since a workers physiological response to a given heat stress is modified independently by inter-individual factors (e.g., age, sex, chronic disease, others) and intra-individual factors both within (e.g., medication use, fitness, acclimation and hydration state, others) and beyond a workers control (e.g., shift duration, illness, others), it becomes challenging to protect workers on an individual basis from heat-related injury without assessing those physiological responses. Recent advancements in wearable technology have made it possible to monitor one or more physiological indices of heat strain. Nonetheless, information on the utility of the wearable systems available for assessing occupational heat strain is unavailable. This communication is therefore directed at identifying the physiological indices of heat strain that may be quantified in the workplace and evaluating the wearable monitoring systems available for assessing those responses. Finally, emphasis is directed to the barriers associated with implementing these devices to assist in mitigating work-related heat injury. This information is fundamental for protecting worker health and could also be utilized to prevent heat illnesses in vulnerable people during leisure or athletic activities in the heat.

  6. A closed-loop hybrid physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Emad; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Linkens, Derek A

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this research study is to derive a comprehensive physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress conditions. The model should describe the behaviour of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thermoregulation and brain activity in response to physical workload. An experimental testing rig was built which consists of recumbent high performance bicycle for inducing the physical load and a data acquisition system comprising monitors and PCs. The signals acquired and used within this study are the blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and EEG signals. The proposed model is based on a grey-box based modelling approach which was used because of the sufficient level of details it provides. Cardiovascular and EEG Data relating to 16 healthy subject volunteers (data from 12 subjects were used for training/validation and the data from 4 subjects were used for model testing) were collected using the Finapres and the ProComp+ monitors. For model validation, residual analysis via the computing of the confidence intervals as well as related histograms was performed. Closed-loop simulations for different subjects showed that the model can provide reliable predictions for heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration, and the EEG signals. These findings were also reinforced by the residual analyses data obtained, which suggested that the residuals were within the 90% confidence bands and that the corresponding histograms were of a normal distribution. A higher intelligent level was added to the model, based on neural networks, to extend the capabilities of the model to predict over a wide range of subjects dynamics. The elicited physiological model describing the effect of physiological stress on several physiological variables can be used to predict performance breakdown of operators in critical environments. Such a model architecture lends itself naturally to exploitation via feedback control in a 'reverse

  7. Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: From physiological to pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances.

  8. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  9. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  10. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  11. Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Analysis of Haloxylon ammodendron in Response to Osmotic Stress

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    Hui-Juan Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haloxylon ammodendron, a perennial xero-halophyte, is an essential species for investigating the effects of drought on desert tree. To gain a comprehensive knowledge on the responses of H. ammodendron to drought stress, we specially performed the molecular and physiological analysis of H. ammodendron in response to −0.75 MPa osmotic stress for six and 24 h in lab condition via RNA-seq and digital gene expression (DGE. In total, 87,109 unigenes with a mean length of 680 bp and 13,486 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs were generated, and 3353 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in shoots and 4564 in roots were identified under stress. These DEGs were mainly related to ion transporters, signal transduction, ROS-scavenging, photosynthesis, cell wall organization, membrane stabilization and hormones. Moreover, the physiological changes of inorganic ions and organic solute content, peroxidase (POD activity and osmotic potential were in accordance with dynamic transcript profiles of the relevant genes. In this study, a detailed investigation of the pathways and candidate genes identified promote the research on the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in the xero-halophytic species. Our data provides valuable genetic resources for future improvement of forage and crop species for better adaptation to abiotic stresses.

  12. ACTIONS OF PROLACTIN IN THE BRAIN: FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO STRESS AND NEUROGENESIS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

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    Luz eTorner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin is one of the most versatile hormones known. It is considered an adaptive hormone due to the key roles it plays in the modulation of the stress response and during pregnancy and lactation. Within the brain, prolactin acts as a neuropeptide to promote physiological responses related to reproduction, stress adaptation, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. The action of prolactin on the nervous system contributes to the wide array of changes that occur in the female brain during pregnancy and result in the attenuation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Together, all these changes promote behavioral and physiological adaptations of the new mother to enable reproductive success. Brain adaptations driven by prolactin are also important for the regulation of maternal emotionality and wellbeing Prolactin also affects the male brain during the stress response but its effects have been less studied. Prolactin regulates neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus. Therefore, alterations in the prolactin system due to stress, or exposure to substances that reduce neurogenesis or other conditions, could contribute to maladaptive responses and pathological behavioral outcomes. Here we review the prolactin system and the role it plays in the modulation of stress response and emotion regulation. We discuss the effects of prolactin on neurogenesis and neuroprotection, the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects, and their contribution to the onset of psychopathological states like depression.

  13. Stress tolerance and growth physiology of yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry.

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    Della-Bianca, B E; Gombert, A K

    2013-12-01

    Improved biofuels production requires a better understanding of industrial microorganisms. Some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from the fuel ethanol industry in Brazil, present exceptional fermentation performance, persistence and prevalence in the harsh industrial environment. Nevertheless, their physiology has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a first systematic evaluation of the widely used industrial strains PE-2, CAT-1, BG-1 and JP1, in terms of their tolerance towards process-related stressors. We also analyzed their growth physiology under heat stress. These strains were evaluated in parallel to laboratory and baker's strains. Whereas the industrial strains performed in general better than the laboratory strains under ethanol or acetic acid stresses and on industrial media, high sugar stress was tolerated equally by all strains. Heat and low pH stresses clearly distinguished fuel ethanol strains from the others, indicating that these conditions might be the ones that mostly exert selective pressure on cells in the industrial environment. During shake-flask cultivations using a synthetic medium at 37 °C, industrial strains presented higher ethanol yields on glucose than the laboratory strains, indicating that they could have been selected for this trait-a response to energy-demanding fermentation conditions. These results might be useful to guide future improvements of large-scale fuel ethanol production via engineering of stress tolerance traits in other strains, and eventually also for promoting the use of these fuel ethanol strains in different industrial bioprocesses.

  14. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  15. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jason W; Simpson, Joshua B; Roach, Jeffrey; Kwintkiewicz, Jakub; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains ( L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001) at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress) showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene ( bsh ) revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143), while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  16. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential

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    Jason W. Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010 of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains (L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001 at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143, while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  17. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  18. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

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    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1 weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid, amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid, and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose. ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  19. TRANSCRIPTOMIC CHANGES DRIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PROGRESSIVE DROUGHT STRESS AND REHYDRATION IN TOMATO

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    Paolo eIovieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence, abscisic acid (ABA and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included

  20. Physiological adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the literature.

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    Moraska, Albert; Pollini, Robin A; Boulanger, Karen; Brooks, Marissa Z; Teitlebaum, Lesley

    2010-12-01

    Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress-reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles were included in this review if (i) the massage therapy account consisted of manipulation of soft tissues and was conducted by a trained therapist, and (ii) a dependent measure to evaluate physiological stress was reported. Hormonal and physical parameters are reviewed. A total of 25 studies met all inclusion criteria. A majority of studies employed a 20-30 min massage administered twice-weekly over 5 weeks with evaluations conducted pre-post an individual session (single treatment) or following a series of sessions (multiple treatments). Single treatment reductions in salivary cortisol and heart rate were consistently noted. A sustained reduction for these measures was not supported in the literature, although the single-treatment effect was repeatable within a study. To date, the research data is insufficient to make definitive statements regarding the multiple treatment effect of massage therapy on urinary cortisol or catecholamines, but some evidence for a positive effect on diastolic blood pressure has been documented. While significant improvement has been demonstrated following massage therapy, the general research body on this topic lacks the necessary scientific rigor to provide a definitive understanding of the effect massage therapy has on many physiological variables associated with stress.

  1. Working Memory Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: The Roles of Anxiety and Stress Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ashley F.; Hobbs, Diana A.; Stephenson, David D.; Laird, Robert D.; Beaton, Elliott A.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety have a negative impact on working memory systems by competing for executive resources and attention. Broad memory deficits, anxiety, and elevated stress have been reported in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). We investigated anxiety and physiological stress reactivity in relation to visuospatial…

  2. Physiological Basis for the Tolerance of Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bisporus to Salt Stress

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    Akshya Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bisporus is a moderately halotolerant yeast isolated from highly sugary and salty foods. We performed various evident biochemical and in vivo experiments as first of its kind to sketch out the possible overlay of salt tolerance mechanism in this model organism. The growth and survival curve analysis revealed that 1.0 M NaCl concentration (sublethal enacts growth inhibitory effects with prompting immediate delay in cell division cycle; however, yeast cells adopted modified stress physiologically with further stretched stress spans which was accompanied by an upsurge in the level of cellular metabolites such as trehalose (reserve carbohydrate and chiefly glycerol (polyols as major compatible osmolytes, suggesting their role in defense mechanism against osmotic stress. To further elucidate the relation of osmotic stress cell physiology to salinity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and reduced glutathione content were measured in salt-stressed cells demonstrating positive correlation of reactive oxygen species generation in Z. bisporus with an elevated concentration of lipid and protein oxidation, thereby damaging cell membrane and eventually causing cell death. We assessed NaCl exposure sourcing increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration, by an electron transfer-based colorimetric cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assay justifying that cellular total antioxidant capacity which uses all the combined antioxidant activities present within vitamins, proteins, lipids, and glutathione reverses these deleterious stress effects. Henceforth, performance of Z. bisporus MTCC 4801 mounted because of stress regime seems to be multifactorial.

  3. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Physiological Mechanism of Salicylic Acid for Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice

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    D. Jini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems of crop production in estuarine and coastal zones. Improvement in salt tolerance of major food crops is an important way for the economic utilization of coastal zones. This study proved that the application of salicylic acid (SA improved the growth and yield under salt stress conditions and investigated its physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance. The investigation on the effect of SA for salt tolerance during germination showed that the decreased rates of germination and growth (in terms of shoot and root lengths by the salt stress were significantly increased by the SA application (SA + NaCl. The treatment of SA to the high and low saline soils enhanced the growth, yield and nutrient values of rice. The effects of SA on Na+, K+ and Cl– ionic accumulation were traced under salt stress condition by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. It was revealed that the increased accumulation of Na+ and Clˉ ions by the salt stress were reduced by SA application. An increased concentration of endogenous SA level was detected from the SA-treated rice varieties (ASD16 and BR26 by liquid chromatography electrospray Ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were increased by salt stress whereas decreased by the SA application. The study proved that the application of SA could alleviate the adverse effects of salt stress by the regulation of physiological mechanism in rice plants. In spite of salt stress, it can be applied to the coastal and estuarine regions to increase the rice production.

  5. Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress? A virtual TSST experiment.

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    Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse

    2014-08-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

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    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  7. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

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    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  8. Growth and physiological responses of two phenotypically distinct accessions of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.) to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianJian; Ma, Jingjing; Guo, Hailin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Wang, Yi; Li, Dandan; Li, Ling; Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Jianxiu

    2018-05-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic environmental stress factors affecting plant growth and development. Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro)] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species with low turf maintenance requirements, but is sensitive to salinity stress. To explore salt tolerant germplasms in centipedegrass and better understand the growth and physiological responses of centipedegrass to salinity, we conducted anatomic observation and phytochemical quantification, examined growth parameters, and investigated photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in two phenotypically distinct centipedegrass accessions under NaCl salt stress. The morphophenotypical difference of the stems in the two accessions mainly depends on whether or not a thickened epidermal horny layer with purple colour was formed, which was caused by anthocyanin accumulation in the tissue. Successive salinity treatment was found to result in an inhibition of leaf growth, a marked decrease in photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Under the same treatment, purple-stem accession (E092) showed a lower degree of inhibition or decrease than green-stem one (E092-1). With the exception of malondialdehyde level, both proline content and antioxidant enzymes were upregulated to a greater extent in E092 following exposure to salinity condition. Meanwhile, significant enhancements of anthocyanin accumulation and total protein synthesis were detected in E092 after salt treatment, but not in E092-1. These results demonstrated that E092 favor better accumulation of anthocyanins under salinity condition, which contribute to salt tolerance by adjusting physiological functions and osmotic balance, and better maintenance of high turf quality. Hence, genetic phenotype can be utilized as a key indicator in E. ophiuroides breeding for salt-tolerance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological and proteomic analyses of Saccharum spp. grown under salt stress.

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    Aline Melro Murad

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is the world most productive sugar producing crop, making an understanding of its stress physiology key to increasing both sugar and ethanol production. To understand the behavior and salt tolerance mechanisms of sugarcane, two cultivars commonly used in Brazilian agriculture, RB867515 and RB855536, were submitted to salt stress for 48 days. Physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, water potential, dry root and shoot mass and malondialdehyde (MDA content of leaves were determined. Control plants of the two cultivars showed similar values for most traits apart from higher root dry mass in RB867515. Both cultivars behaved similarly during salt stress, except for MDA levels for which there was a delay in the response for cultivar RB867515. Analysis of leaf macro- and micronutrients concentrations was performed and the concentration of Mn(2+ increased on day 48 for both cultivars. In parallel, to observe the effects of salt stress on protein levels in leaves of the RB867515 cultivar, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis was performed. Four proteins were differentially expressed between control and salt-treated plants. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was down-regulated, a germin-like protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed increased expression levels under salt stress, and heat-shock protein 70 was expressed only in salt-treated plants. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism and defense-related responses and we suggest that they may be involved in protection mechanisms against salt stress in sugarcane.

  11. Soil microbial communities buffer physiological responses to drought stress in three hardwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, Steven A; Phillips, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A. saccharum, L. tulipifera or Q. alba stands), while the other half of the pots received a sterile soil slurry. Soil microbes ameliorated drought stress in L. tulipifera by minimizing reductions in leaf water potential and by reducing photosynthetic declines. In A. saccharum, soil microbes reduced drought stress by lessening declines in leaf water potential, though these changes did not buffer the trees from declining photosynthetic rates. In Q. alba, soil microbes had no effects on leaf physiological parameters during drought stress. In all species, microbes had no significant effects on dynamic C allocation during drought stress, suggesting that microbial effects on plant physiology were unrelated to source-sink dynamics. Collectively, our results suggest that soil microbes have the potential to alter key parameters that are used to diagnose drought sensitivity (i.e., isohydry or anisohydry). To the extent that our results reflect dynamics occurring in forests, a revised perspective on plant hydraulic strategies that considers root-microbe interactions may lead to improved predictions of forest vulnerability to drought.

  12. Acute Physiologic Stress and Subsequent Anxiety Among Family Members of ICU Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Wilson, Emily L; Butler, Jorie; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Orme, James; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L

    2018-02-01

    The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center. Family members of ICU patients. Participants provided five salivary cortisol samples over 24 hours at the time of the patient ICU admission. The primary measure of cortisol was the area under the curve from ground; the secondary measure was the cortisol awakening response. Outcomes were obtained during a 3-month follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety. Secondary outcomes included depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Among 100 participants, 92 completed follow-up. Twenty-nine participants (32%) reported symptoms of anxiety at 3 months, 15 participants (16%) reported depression symptoms, and 14 participants (15%) reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. In our primary analysis, cortisol level as measured by area under the curve from ground was not significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 0.94; p = 0.70). In our secondary analysis, however, cortisol awakening response was significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; p = 0.02). Roughly one third of family members experience anxiety after an ICU admission for their loved one, and many family members also experience depression and posttraumatic stress. Cortisol awakening response is associated with anxiety in family members of ICU patients 3 months following the ICU admission. Physiologic measurements of stress among ICU family members may help identify individuals at particular risk of adverse psychologic outcomes.

  13. Morpho-physiological responses of alhagi sparsifolia shap. (leguminosae) seedlings to progressive drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, F.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; An, G.; Gao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a key limiting factor influencing plant growth and development in arid ecosystem. To explore the mechanisms of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia seedlings to tolerate drought stress in extreme desert, an experiment was conducted from July to September in 2010 with four water treatments: 100 percent (W/sub 100/), 80 percent (W80), 60 percent (W60) and 45 percent (W/sub 45/) of water holding capacity (WHC). Plant growth, photosynthesis, nutrient content and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured. The Results showed that plant growth, branch number, biomass allocation, number of leaves and area per leaf as well as leaf area ratio with drought stress treatments (W/sub 80/, W/sub 60/ and W/sub 45/) decreased than W/sub 100/ treatment, while root/shoot ratio and specific leaf area increased gradually throughout the experimental duration. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and concentration of carbon and nitrogen in plant significantly decreased with increasing drought stress. The WUE at W/sub 100/ and W/sub 80/ treatments increased significantly at the beginning of drought stress treatment and then reduced with stress prolonged. In Conclusion, the desert plant A. sparsifolia can tolerate the progressive drought stress due to the strong plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The critical level of soil WHC to limit the growth and dry mass production of A. sparsifolia seedlings in the southern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert was approximately at 45 percent. (author)

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses of Hibiscus sabdariffa to drought stress in the presence of salicylic acid

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    Marzieh Mirshekari

    2017-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA is one of the important signal molecules, which modulates plant responses to environmental stress. In the present work, impact of exogenous SA on some physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in response to drought stress was studied. Hibiscus sabdariffa seedlings were exposed to six drought levels (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.5, -0.75, and 1 MPa with two SA concentrations (0 and 500 µM in 5 days intervals up to 20 days in a factorial design. During drought stress period, the root and shoot growth, relative water content, pigments content, non-reducing sugar and starch content was significantly decreased. SA treatment cause prevention of the growth reduction and improvement of relative water content. Protein concentration was roughly unchanged during drought stress with SA, while, reducing sugars accumulates and non-reducing sugars and starch significantly decreases. The results show that exogenous SA application on leaves during drought stress can ameliorate detrimental effects of stress through reducing water loss and accumulating reducing sugars, which cause preserving turgor pressure of the cells.

  15. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  16. Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Uzarski

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.

  17. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  18. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert-Jan; Van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We have therefore conducted a meta-analysis that analyzes the effects of characteristics of digital game stressors and study design on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in studies carried out from 1976 to 2012. In order to assess the differing quality between study designs, a new scale is developed and presented, coined reliability of effect size. The results show specific and consistent moderating functions of both game and study characteristics, on average accounting for around 43%, and in certain cases up to 57% of the variance found in physiological stress responses. Possible cognitive and physiological processes underlying these moderating functions are discussed, and a new model integrating these processes with the moderating functions is presented. These findings indicate that a digital game stressor does not act as a stressor by virtue of being a game, but rather derives its stressor function from its characteristics and the methodology in which it is used. This finding, together with the size of the associated moderations, indicates the need for a standardization of digital game stressors. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Rootstock alleviates PEG-induced water stress in grafted pepper seedlings: physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Bautista, Alberto San; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Ángeles

    2014-06-15

    Recent studies have shown that tolerance to abiotic stress, including water stress, is improved by grafting. In a previous work, we took advantage of the natural variability of Capsicum spp. and selected accessions tolerant and sensitive to water stress as rootstocks. The behavior of commercial cultivar 'Verset' seedlings grafted onto the selected rootstocks at two levels of water stress provoked by adding 3.5 and 7% PEG (polyethylene glycol) was examined over 14 days. The objective was to identify the physiological traits responsible for the tolerance provided by the rootstock in order to determine if the tolerance is based on the maintenance of the water relations under water stress or through the activation of protective mechanisms. To achieve this goal, various physiological parameters were measured, including: water relations; proline accumulation; gas exchange; chlorophyll fluorescence; nitrate reductase activity; and antioxidant capacity. Our results indicate that the effect of water stress on the measured parameters depends on the duration and intensity of the stress level, as well as the rootstock used. Under control conditions (0% PEG) all plant combinations showed similar values for all measured parameters. In general terms, PEG provoked a strong decrease in the gas exchange parameters in the cultivar grafted onto the sensitive accessions, as also observed in the ungrafted plants. This effect was related to lower relative water content in the plants, provoked by an inefficient osmotic adjustment that was dependent on reduced proline accumulation. At the end of the experiment, chronic photoinhibition was observed in these plants. However, the plants grafted onto the tolerant rootstocks, despite the reduction in photosynthetic rate, maintained the protective capacity of the photosynthetic machinery mediated by osmotic adjustment (based on higher proline content). In addition, water stress limited uptake and further NO3(-) transfer to the leaves. Increased

  20. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si, the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  1. Global plant-responding mechanisms to salt stress: physiological and molecular levels and implications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The increasing seriousness of salinization aggravates the food, population and environmental issues. Ameliorating the salt-resistance of plants especially the crops is the most effective measure to solve the worldwide problem. The salinity can cause damage to plants mainly from two aspects: hyperosmotic and hyperionic stresses leading to the restrain of growth and photosynthesis. To the adverse effects, the plants derive corresponding strategies including: ion regulation and compartmentalization, biosynthesis of compatible solutes, induction of antioxidant enzymes and plant hormones. With the development of molecular biology, our understanding of the molecular and physiology knowledge is becoming clearness. The complex signal transduction underlying the salt resistance is being illuminated brighter and clearer. The SOS pathway is the central of the cell signaling in salt stress. The accumulation of the compatible solutes and the activation of the antioxidant system are the effective measures for plants to enhance the salt resistance. How to make full use of our understanding to improve the output of crops is a huge challenge for us, yet the application of the genetic engineering makes this possible. In this review, we will discuss the influence of the salt stress and the response of the plants in detail expecting to provide a particular account for the plant resistance in molecular, physiological and transgenic fields.

  2. Association between human and animal thermal comfort indices and physiological heat stress indicators in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2018-06-06

    Warm summer episodes have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being of young cattle; however, it is not known which temperature measure should be used for estimating heat stress in dairy calves. In this study, generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the relationships between thermal comfort indices and animal-based heat stress indicators in sixteen Holstein bull calves that were housed in individual calf hutches. Data were collected under continental weather characteristics over a 5-day period: day 1 (lower-temperature day), days 2 and 3 (heat stress days), and a 2-day post-stress period. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, the heat index, the humidex and five different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were used as thermal indices. Physiological variables monitored included respiratory rate, rectal temperature, ear skin temperature and heart rate. The heat index and the humidex measuring human thermal comfort were more closely associated with physiological measures than were the ambient temperature or the THIs (in case of heat index: R 2 = 0.87 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.63 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.70 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.78 for heart rate, respectively; in case of humidex: R 2 = 0.85 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.60 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.68 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.75 for heart rate, respectively). Based on our results, parameters of human outdoor comfort seem better to estimate heat stress in dairy calves in a continental region than those of THIs or ambient temperature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The concentration of fear: mice's behavioural and physiological stress responses to different degrees of predation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Beatriz; Planillo, Aimara; Navarro-Castilla, Álvaro; Barja, Isabel

    2018-02-01

    Predation is an unavoidable and dangerous fact in the lifetime of prey animals and some sign of the proximity of a predator may be enough to trigger a response in the prey. We investigated whether different degrees of predation risk by red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) evoke behavioural and physiological stress responses in wood mice ( Apodemus sylvaticus) . We examined the variation in mice responses due to individual factors (sex and reproductive status) and related them to the concentration of the volatile compounds from fox faeces over time. In our experiment, we introduced predation cues into four plots, each subjected to a different concentration treatment (0, 10, 50 and 100% concentration of fresh faeces of red fox), based on the following outline: initial odourless phase 0, phase1 in which predation treatment was renewed daily, and phase 2 in which we renewed the treatment only on the first day. Wood mice were live trapped during all three phases and the physiological response was measured non-invasively by analysing faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in freshly collected faeces. Data were analysed by Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Overall, males were trapped less often than females, and reproductively active individuals from both sexes avoided traps more than non-reproductively active individuals, especially in medium- and high- concentration plots. Variations in FCM concentrations were explained by plot, the interaction between plot and treatment phase, and the interaction between the treatment phase and the reproductive status. During phase 1, we detected a significant rise in FCM levels that increased with predator faecal odour concentration. Additionally, reproductively active individuals showed a strong physiological response during both phases 1 and 2 in all plots, except the control plot. Our results indicated that wood mice are able to discriminate different degrees of predation risk, which allows them to trigger gradual changes in their

  4. [Immune dysfunction and cognitive deficit in stress and physiological aging (Part I): Pathogenesis and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, A L; Shmarina, G V; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of stressful cognitive dysfunction, which is under consideration in this review, allows picking out several therapeutic targets. The brain, immune and endocrine systems being the principal adaptive systems in the body permanently share information both in the form of neural impulses and soluble mediators. The CNS differs from other organs due to several peculiarities that affect local immune surveillance. The brain cells secluded from the blood flow by a specialized blood-brain-barrier (BBB) can endogenously express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines without the intervention of the immune system. In normal brain the cytokine signaling rather contributes to exclusive brain function (e.g. long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis) than serves as immune communicator. The stress of different origin increases the serum cytokine levels and disrupts BBB. As a result peripheral cytokines penetrate into the brain where they begin to perform new functions. Mass intrusion of biologically active peptides having a lot of specific targets alters the brain work that we can observe both in humans and in animal experiments. In addition owing to BBB disruption dendritic cells and T cells also penetrate into the brain where they take up a perivascular position. The changes observed in stressed subject may accumulate during repeated episodes of stress forming a picture typical of the aging brain. Moreover long-term stress as well as physiological aging result in hormonal and immunological disturbances including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis depletion, regulatory T-cell accumulation and dehydroepiandrosterone decrease.

  5. Physiological response to drought stress in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings from two provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqing eYing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a key environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of Camptotheca acuminata (C. acuminata to different drought stresses and compare the drought tolerance between the provenances Kunming (KM and Nanchang (NC, which are naturally distributed in different rainfall zones with annual rainfalls of 1000-1100 mm and 1600-1700 mm, respectively. We determined relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities of C. acuminata seedlings under both moderate (50% of maximum field capacity and severe drought stress (30% of maximum field capacity. As the degree of water stress increased, RWC, Chl(a+b content, Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, transpiration rate (Tr and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci values decreased, but water use efficiency (WUE, REC, MDA content and SOD and POD activities increased in provenances KM and NC. Under moderate and severe drought stress, provenance KM had higher RWC, Chl(a+b, Pn, WUE, SOD and POD and lower Gs, Tr, Ci and REC in leaves than provenance NC. The results indicated that provenance KM may maintain stronger drought tolerance via improvements in water-retention capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane integrity.

  6. Screening of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. cultivars for drought stress based on vegetative and physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Younis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important genotypic character to be exploited for the plant cultivar selection under water deficit conditions. In the recent study, we examined the response of two marigold cultivars (Inca and Bonanza under different regimes of drought stress. The aim was to determine the best performing cultivar under water/drought stress. Three irrigation treatments include; 4 days (T1, 6 days (T2 and 8 days (T3 in comparison to control 1 day (T0 interval were imposed. Response characters under study were morphological, physiological and anatomical. Complete Randomized Design (CRD with four replications in two factorial arrangements was followed for experiment layout. The results revealed that increasing water stress adversely affect plant height, in both cultivars. Both cultivars showed a decreasing trend to the number of flowers under water stress. Total chlorophyll contents including a, b were also showed reduction under prolonged drought treatment in both cultivars from (2.7 mg g-1 FW to (1 mg g-1 FW. Overall, the performance of cultivar (cv. Inca was satisfactory under water stress regimes. These results are helpful for selecting drought tolerant marigold cultivars in water scarce areas.   

  7. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  8. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  9. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  10. Transcriptomic and Physiological Evidence for the Relationship between Unsaturated Fatty Acid and Salt Stress in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Na; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Fang; Wan, Shubo

    2018-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the five major oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Salt stress is a common adverse condition for the growth of this crop in many countries and regions. In this study, physiological parameters and transcriptome profiles of peanut seedlings exposed to salt stress (250 mM NaCl for 4 days, S4) and recovery for 3 days (when transferred to standard conditions for 3 days, R3) were analyzed to detect genes associated with salt stress and recovery in peanut. We observed that the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m ) decreased in S4 compared with the control, and increased in R3 compared with those in S4. Seedling fresh weight, dry weight and PSI oxidoreductive activity (Δ I / I o ) were inhibited in S4 and did not recover in R3. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased in S4 and increased in R3, whereas superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contents increased in S4 and decreased in R3. Transcriptome analysis revealed 1,742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress and 390 DEGs under recovery. Among these DEGs, two DEGs encoding ω-3 fatty acid desaturase that synthesized linolenic acid (18:3) from linoleic acid (18:2) were down-regulated in S4 and up-regulated in R3. Furthermore, ω-3 fatty acid desaturase activity decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery. Consistent with this result, 18:3 content decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery compared with that under salt treatment. In conclusion, salt stress markedly changed the activity of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid composition. The findings provide novel insights for the improvement of salt tolerance in peanut.

  11. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  12. Physiological responses of somaclonal variants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon) to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Chen, Chuanhao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Guo, Zhenfei; Li, Haihang

    2009-03-01

    Eight somaclonal variants with enhanced drought tolerance were isolated from regenerated plants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis cv., TifEagle). Three of them (10-17, 89-02, 117-08) with strong drought tolerance were selected for investigations of physiological responses to drought stress. Compared to the parent control, TifEagle, the somaclonal variants had higher relative water contents and relative growth, and lower ion leakages in the greenhouse tests, while no difference in evapotranspirational water losses and soil water contents was observed between the variants and TifEagle. The variants also had less leaf firing in the field tests under drought stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased gradually in responses to drought stress in all plants and exhibited negative correlations with ion leakage, indicating that the declined activities of these antioxidant enzymes were associated with drought injury in the triploid bermudagrass. However, CAT activities were significantly higher in all three variants than in TifEagle during drought stress. Two variants, 10-17 and 89-02, also had significantly higher APX activities than TifEagle before and during the first 4 days of drought treatments. These two lines also showed higher SOD activities after prolonged drought stress. Proline, total soluble sugars and sucrose were accumulated under drought stress in all plants and exhibited positive correlations with ion leakage. More proline and sugars were accumulated in TifEagle than in the variants. The results indicated that higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the variants during drought stress are associated with their increased drought tolerance.

  13. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  14. Oxidative stress under ambient and physiological oxygen tension in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Cuddapah, Suresh; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) levels range from 2–9% in vivo. However, cell culture experiments are performed at atmospheric O2 levels (21%). Oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells cultured at higher than physiological levels is implicated in multitude of deleterious effects including DNA damage, genomic instability and senescence. In addition, oxidative stress activates redox sensitive transcription factors related to inflammatory signaling and apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, several chromatin-modifying enzymes are affected by ROS, potentially impacting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. While primary cells are cultured at lower O2 levels due to their inability to grow at higher O2, the immortalized cells, which display no such apparent growth difficulties, are typically cultured at 21% O2. This review will provide an overview of issues associated with increased oxygen levels in in vitro cell culture and point out the benefits of using lower levels of oxygen tension even for immortalized cells. PMID:27034917

  15. Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S; Blomberg, Bonnie

    2009-07-01

    A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma] production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. This intervention may have facilitated a "recovery or maintenance" of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.

  16. Drought stress limits the geographic ranges of two tree species via different physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Leander D L; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-03-01

    Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which drought stress controls dry range boundaries in trees, we quantified elevational variation in drought tolerance and in drought avoidance-related functional traits of a widespread gymnosperm (ponderosa pine - Pinus ponderosa) and angiosperm (trembling aspen - Populus tremuloides) tree species in the southwestern USA. Specifically, we quantified tree-to-tree variation in growth, water stress (predawn and midday xylem tension), drought avoidance traits (branch conductivity, leaf/needle size, tree height, leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio), and drought tolerance traits (xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin, wood density) at the range margins and range center of each species. Although water stress increased and growth declined strongly at lower range margins of both species, ponderosa pine and aspen showed contrasting patterns of clinal trait variation. Trembling aspen increased its drought tolerance at its dry range edge by growing stronger but more carbon dense branch and leaf tissues, implying an increased cost of growth at its range boundary. By contrast, ponderosa pine showed little elevational variation in drought-related traits but avoided drought stress at low elevations by limiting transpiration through stomatal closure, such that its dry range boundary is associated with limited carbon assimilation even in average climatic conditions. Thus, the same climatic factor (drought) may drive range boundaries through different physiological mechanisms - a result that has important implications for process-based modeling approaches to tree biogeography. Further, we show that comparing intraspecific patterns of

  17. Physiological stress response to loss of social influence and threats to masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The

  19. Structural development and stress evolution of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system, southwestern Greater Caucasus, Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.; Russo, E.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    The southern front of the Greater Caucasus is quite rectilinear in plan view, with the exception of part of the Rioni Basin, where marine and continental deposits of Cretaceous-Neogene age were locally folded and uplifted; this resulted in the formation of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system that extends 45 km into the foreland. Although previous studies suggested that this system has developed only since Miocene times, our new detailed and systematic field measurements of brittle and ductile structures show a very complex history, consisting in four main phases of brittle deformation and folding, dated from Eocene to Quaternary times. We collected microtectonic data at 248 faults, and calculated the related paleostress tensors. The first two phases which we document here, predated folding and were characterised by dominant transcurrent faulting and subordinate reverse motions; the greatest principal stress σ1 was perpendicular and later parallel to the mountain belt. Afterwards, NW-SE, E-W and NE-SW trending, south-vergent asymmetrical folds started to form. In the western sector of the study area, folds are sinuous in plan view, whereas to the east they show a left-stepping, en-échelon geometry. Another two, brittle deformation phases took place after the folding, due to the activity of a set of right-lateral, strike-slip faults that strike NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively, as well as by left-lateral strike-slip faults, mostly striking NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. These two additional phases were produced by a NE-SW to N-S trending σ1. The arcuate belt is marked by along-strike variations in the tectonic regime and deformation geometry, plus belt-parallel stretching. Based on our field data, integrated with published analogue models, we suggest a possible explanation for the Rioni structure, in terms of the oblique, asymmetric indentation of an upper crustal blocks moving to the SSW.

  20. The effect of consignment to broodmare Sales on physiological stress measured by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin; Becker, Annet; Ganswindt, Stefanie; Guthrie, Alan; Stout, Tom; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation of a method for the minimally-invasive measurement of physiological stress will help understanding of risk factors that may contribute to stress-associated events including recrudescence of Equid herpesvirus (EHV), which is anecdotally associated with sales consignment of

  1. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in physiological response to the combination of stress and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; Thuras, Paul; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Stressful situations are among the most commonly cited smoking triggers. Smoking and stress exposure each individually increase cardiovascular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal measures with larger increases occurring when stress and smoking are combined. In this analysis, sex differences in the physiological response to the combination of stress and smoking are examined. Smokers (36 males; 34 females) completed a laboratory session in which systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), plasma epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking a cigarette, during a speech task occurring immediately after smoking and at several time-points following the stressor. Significant period by sex effects were observed for HR, SBP, DBP and Epi but not for cortisol or norepinephrine concentrations. For SBP (p=0.002), the increase between resting and speech were larger in men than in women, primarily due to a larger increase between smoking and speech occurring in men. A similar pattern was observed for DBP and Epi with a significantly larger Epi increase from smoking to speech observed in men than in women (p=0.016). A different pattern emerged for HR - the total increase was larger in women (psex difference in smoking cessation success rates and in the cardiovascular risks of smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  4. Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Leon, Lisa R; Montain, Scott J; Sonna, Larry A

    2011-10-01

    This article emphasizes significant recent advances regarding heat stress and its impact on exercise performance, adaptations, fluid electrolyte imbalances, and pathophysiology. During exercise-heat stress, the physiological burden of supporting high skin blood flow and high sweating rates can impose considerable cardiovascular strain and initiate a cascade of pathophysiological events leading to heat stroke. We examine the association between heat stress, particularly high skin temperature, on diminishing cardiovascular/aerobic reserves as well as increasing relative intensity and perceptual cues that degrade aerobic exercise performance. We discuss novel systemic (heat acclimation) and cellular (acquired thermal tolerance) adaptations that improve performance in hot and temperate environments and protect organs from heat stroke as well as other dissimilar stresses. We delineate how heat stroke evolves from gut underperfusion/ischemia causing endotoxin release or the release of mitochondrial DNA fragments in response to cell necrosis, to mediate a systemic inflammatory syndrome inducing coagulopathies, immune dysfunction, cytokine modulation, and multiorgan damage and failure. We discuss how an inflammatory response that induces simultaneous fever and/or prior exposure to a pathogen (e.g., viral infection) that deactivates molecular protective mechanisms interacts synergistically with the hyperthermia of exercise to perhaps explain heat stroke cases reported in low-risk populations performing routine activities. Importantly, we question the "traditional" notion that high core temperature is the critical mediator of exercise performance degradation and heat stroke. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. [Relationship between occupational stress, recovery experience, and physiological health of nurses in a municipal grade A tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Zhang, C L; Yang, T; Lan, Y J

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To examine the relationship between recovery experience, occupational stress, and physiological health of nurses in a municipal grade A tertiary hospital. Methods: A total of 296 in-service nurses from 7 municipal grade A tertiary hospitals were selected from October 2015 to February 2016. Individual characteristics of the subjects were collected using a self-made questionnaire. The recovery experience, occupational stress, and physiological health of the subjects were assessed based on the physiological health dimensions in the Chinese version of Recovery Experience Questionnaire (REQ-C) , Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) , and Quality of Work Life (QWL7-32) . Results: The mean recovery experience score of nurses from the municipal grade A tertiary hospital was 45.04±7.72, and 51.35% of the nurses had satisfactory recovery experience. Occupational stress was identified in 81.76% of the nurses. Based on the four categories of occupational stress, 65 nurses were identified with high-strain jobs (21.95%) , 56 with relaxed (low-strain) jobs (18.92%) , 49 with passive jobs (16.55%) , and 126 with active jobs (42.57%) . In addition, the mean physiological health score of the nurses was 21.20±4.24. Physiological health was negatively correlated with occupational stress ( r =-0.173, P stress ( r =-0.116, P stress, where subjects with high-demand active jobs had the poorest recovery experience ( F =2.610, P stress of nurses, where increased job demand can lead to stronger stress response, reduced recovery experience, and poorer physiological health.

  6. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  7. Kaolin modulates ABA and IAA dynamics and physiology of grapevine under Mediterranean summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Luzio, A; Pinto, G; Meijón, M; Pintó-Marijuan, M; Cotado, A; Correia, C; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2018-01-01

    The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven to be an effective short-term climate change mitigation strategy for Mediterranean vineyards. In this work, we address the hypothesis that kaolin could improve both the hormonal dynamics and physiological responses of grapevines growing in Douro Region, northern Portugal. For this purpose, the leaf water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were monitored, as well as the abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) quantification and immunolocalization were assessed. The study revealed a slight decrease in ABA and an increase in IAA in the kaolin treatment, which in turn were associated with the improvement of physiological performance. A month after spraying, kaolin improves the water potential respectively, 30% and 17% in the predawn and midday periods. Besides, plants treated with kaolin showed higher values of stomatal conductance, net CO 2 assimilation rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. Kaolin also ameliorates the effective PSII efficiency (67%), as well as the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the photosynthetic electron transport rate (>73%). These results were consistent with the higher photochemical quenching and the lower non-photochemical quenching observed in treated leaves and with the better performance obtained by the JIP test parameters. Physiological and hormonal analysis confirmed that kaolin effectively enhance grapevine summer stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  9. An integrated analysis of social stress in laying hens: The interaction between physiology, behaviour, and hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renata Rezende; Palme, Rupert; da Silva Vasconcellos, Angélica

    2018-04-01

    Livestock is the category of animals that suffers the most severe welfare problems. Among these, physical, physiological, and behavioural distress caused by artificial grouping are some of the challenges faced by these animals. Groups whose members are frequently changed have been reported as socially unstable, which could jeopardise the welfare of animals. Here, we assessed the effect of social instability on aggression, stress, and productivity in groups of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We studied 36 females, distributed into three stable groups (without group membership change) and three unstable groups (where the dominant member was rotated every week) over the course of 10 weeks. We evaluated the frequency of agonistic interactions, glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations, and egg production. In both treatments, dominant hens produced more eggs compared to intermediate and subordinates, and intermediate hens had the highest GCM concentrations. Socially unstable groups had lower productivity and higher frequencies of agonistic interactions than stable groups. Social instability also affected GCM of the animals: in stable groups, subordinate hens had higher concentrations than dominants; in unstable groups, this pattern was reversed. Our results point to a social destabilisation in groups whose members were alternated, and suggest the welfare of individuals in unstable groups was compromised. Our results pointed to a complex relationship between hierarchy, productivity, physiological stress and aggression in laying hens, and have implications for their husbandry and management and, consequently, for their welfare levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  12. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  13. Do physiological and pathological stresses produce different changes in heart rate variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBravi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although physiological (e.g. exercise and pathological (e.g. infection stress affecting the cardiovascular system have both been documented to be associated with a reduction in overall heart rate variability (HRV, it remains unclear if loss of HRV is ubiquitously similar across different domains of variability analysis or if distinct patterns of altered HRV exist depending on the stressor. Using Continuous Individualized Multiorgan Variability Analysis (CIMVATM software, heart rate (HR and four selected measures of variability were measured over time (windowed analysis from two datasets, a set (n=13 of patients who developed systemic infection (i.e. sepsis after bone marrow transplant, and a matched set of healthy subjects undergoing physical exercise under controlled conditions. HR and the four HRV measures showed similar trends in both sepsis and exercise. The comparison through Wilcoxon sign-rank test of the levels of variability at baseline and during the stress (i.e. exercise or after days of sepsis development showed similar changes, except for LF/HF, ratio of power at low and high frequencies (associated with sympathovagal modulation, which was affected by exercise but did not show any change during sepsis. Furthermore, HRV measures during sepsis showed a lower level of correlation with each other, as compared to HRV during exercise. In conclusion, this exploratory study highlights similar responses during both exercise and infection, with differences in terms of correlation and inter-subject fluctuations, whose physiologic significance merits further investigation.

  14. Organismal climatology: analyzing environmental variability at scales relevant to physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Broitman, Bernardo R; Yamane, Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Mach, Katharine; Mislan, K A S; Denny, Mark W

    2010-03-15

    Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales.

  15. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  16. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  17. Physiological and Metabolic Changes of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in Response to Drought, Heat, and Combined Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Ruijie; Gou, Junbo; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is a fleshy herbaceous plant. So far, little information is available on the response of this plant to combined drought and heat stress. In this study, changes in physiological and metabolic levels were characterized after treatments with drought, heat and combined stresses. Both individual and combined stress treatments increased malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), O2•− and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), while declined chlorophyll content. No significant differences were found between control and treatments in leaf water content (LWC) and catalase (CAT) activity. Additionally, 37 metabolic compounds were detected in purslane. Through pathway analysis, 17 metabolites were directly involved in the glycolysis metabolic pathway. The present study indicated that combined drought and heat stress caused more serious damage in purslane than individual stress. To survive, purslane has a high capability to cope with environmental stress conditions through activation of physiological and metabolic pathways. PMID:26779204

  18. Physiological and metabolic changes of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. in response to drought, heat and combined stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eJin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is a fleshy herbaceous plant. So far, little information is available on the response of this plant to combined drought and heat stress. In this study, changes in physiological and metabolic levels were characterized after treatments with drought, heat and combined stresses. Both individual and combined stress treatments increased malondialdehyde (MDA, electrolyte leakage (EL, O2•− and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, while declined chlorophyll content. No significant differences were found between control and treatments in leaf water content (LWC and catalase (CAT activity. Additionally, 37 metabolic compounds were detected in purslane. Through pathway analysis, 17 metabolites were directly involved in the glycolysis metabolic pathway. The present study indicated that combined drought and heat stress caused more serious damage in purslane than individual stress. To survive, purslane has a high capability to cope with environmental stress conditions through activation of physiological and metabolic pathways.

  19. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Saulou-Bérion

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these

  20. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  1. Neuro emotional technique effects on brain physiology in cancer patients with traumatic stress symptoms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniel A; Tobia, Anna; Stoner, Marie; Wintering, Nancy; Matthews, Michael; He, Xiao-Song; Doucet, Gaelle; Chervoneva, Inna; Tracy, Joseph I; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neurophysiological and clinical effects that may result from the neuro emotional technique (NET) in patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that self-regulatory processing of traumatic memories would be observable as physiological changes in key brain areas after undergoing the NET intervention and that these changes would be associated with improvement of traumatic stress symptoms. We enrolled 23 participants with a prior cancer diagnosis who expressed a distressing cancer-related memory that was associated with traumatic stress symptoms of at least 6 months in duration. Participants were randomized to either the NET intervention or a waitlist control condition. To evaluate the primary outcome of neurophysiological effects, all participants received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of both a neutral stimulus and a description of the specific traumatic event. Pre/post-comparisons were performed between the traumatic and neutral condition, within and between groups. Psychological measures included the Impact of Event Scale (IES), State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18, and Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). The initial fMRI scans in both groups showed significant increases in the bilateral parahippocampus and brainstem. After NET, reactivity in the parahippocampus, brainstem, anterior cingulate, and insula was significantly decreased during the traumatic stimulus. Likewise, participants receiving the NET intervention had significant reductions (p stress as measured by the IES and PTCI. This study is an initial step towards understanding mechanistic features of the NET intervention. Specifically, brain regions involved with traumatic memories and distress such as the brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampus had significantly reduced activity after the NET

  2. Physiological and fitness differences between cytotypes vary with stress in a grassland perennial herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Pavlíková

    Full Text Available Understanding the consequences of polyploidization is a major step towards assessing the importance of this mode of speciation. Most previous studies comparing different cytotypes, however, did so only within a single environment and considered only one group of traits. To take a step further, we need to explore multiple environments and a wide range of traits. The aim of this study was to assess response of diploid and autotetraploid individuals of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae to two stress conditions, shade or drought.We studied eleven photosynthetic, morphological and fitness parameters of the plants over three years in a common garden under ambient conditions and two types of stress.The results indicate strong differences in performance and physiology between cytotypes in ambient conditions. Interestingly, higher fitness in diploids contrasted with more efficient photosynthesis in tetraploids in ambient conditions. However, stress, especially drought, strongly reduced fitness and disrupted function of the photosystems in both cytotypes reducing the between cytotype differences. The results indicate that drought stress reduced function of the photosynthetic processes in both cytotypes but particularly in tetraploids, while fitness reduction was stronger in diploids.The photosynthesis related traits show higher plasticity in polyploids as theoretically expected, while the fitness related traits show higher plasticity in diploids especially in response to drought. This suggests that between cytotype comparisons need to consider multiple traits and multiple environments to understand the breath of possible responses of different cytotypes to stress. They also show that integrating results based on different traits is not straightforward and call for better mechanistic understanding of the relationships between species photosynthetic activity and fitness. Still, considering multiple environments and multiple species traits is crucial for

  3. Physiological Response of Wheat to Chemical Desiccants Used to Simulate Post-Anthesis Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrein Mohamed Kamal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-anthesis drought stress is one of the main constraints on the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Because field screening for post-anthesis drought tolerance is difficult, effective and validated methods to simulate drought in order to identify sources of tolerance can facilitate screening of breeding materials. Chemical desiccants are widely used to simulate post-anthesis drought stress. We aimed to identify physiological traits that respond to desiccants as they do to drought. We examined the responses of ‘Norin 61’ to six treatments in a greenhouse: irrigated control, drought after anthesis, and 2% or 4% potassium chlorate (KClO3 at anthesis (A or grain filling (GF. We measured δ13C in leaves, aboveground fresh biomass, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, harvest index, and grain yield. Both 2% and 4% KClO3 at both A and GF simulated the effect of drought stress. Selection of drought-tolerant genotypes can be aided by chlorophyll content and δ13C measurement of leaves when 2% or 4% KClO3 is used to simulate drought.

  4. The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jason L; Labbé, Elise; Arke, Brooke; Capeless, Kirsten; Cooksey, Bret; Steadman, Angel; Gonzales, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress were evaluated. Sixty undergraduate psychology students, 31 males and 29 females, rated their level of relaxation and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after they were told that they would be taking a stressful, mental test. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to different types of music or silence while skin temperature, frontalis muscle activity, and heart rate were recorded. Participants rated their relaxation and anxiety levels after listening to music or silence and completed the Mental Rotations Task Test. MANOVA's resulted in significant differences between groups for trait anxiety, F(57, 3) = 3.058, p =.036, and postmusic phase heart rate, F(57, 3) = 3.522, p =.021. Significant differences were also found between groups on state anxiety when trait anxiety was used as a covariate, F(57, 3) = 3.95, p =.024. The results of the research suggest that music may have an effect on the cognitive component of the stress response.

  5. The effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza khazaeii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets, a field experiment was arranged in a randomised complete block as a split-plot design with three replication during 2004 growing season at Reasearch Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Irrigation intervals (weekly interval, 14-day interval and three types of millet (Pennisetum glaceum , Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that, grain yield, panicle weight, grain weight, number of tillers, number of fertile tillers, panicle harvest index, leaf area and percentage of nitrogen leaf was not affected by water stress treatments. Although, type of millets had significiant effect on these traits. Exposure of plants to water stress led to noticeable decreases in plant height for all three cultivars. In this experiment, grain yield, plant height, panicle weight, grain weight, panicle harvest index and percentage of nitrogen of Panicum miliaceum was lowest, also Pennisetum glucum had relatively highest grain leaf yield, panicle weight, leaf area and percentage of leaf nitrogen and had favorable production potential in semi-arid tropical regions.

  6. Perception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, Is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…

  7. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Shi, Shangli

    2018-01-01

    Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl free radical (OH•) and superoxide anion free radical (O2•-) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H2O2, OH• and O2•- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell wall and

  8. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Shi, Shangli

    2018-01-01

    Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl free radical (OH • ) and superoxide anion free radical (O 2 •- ) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H 2 O 2 , OH • and O 2 •- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell

  9. Physiological-metabolic variables of caloric stress in cows under silvopastoral and prairie without trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan Hernandez, Wilson Andres; Cajas-Giron, Yasmin Socorro; Mahecha-Ledesma, Lilliana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in physiological and metabolic parameters were assessed as indicators of caloric stress of cows under grazing were investigated. The study was developed at the Centro de Investigacion Corpoica Turipana, Region Caribe, Cerete, Colombia, during the years 2011-2012. Temperature (T) and relative humidity (H), and in animals: rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (TP), respiratory rate (RF) and acid-base status were determined. The variables were measured in the morning (6:00 h) and in the afternoon (13:00 h). Effect of treatment on environmental temperature was found with 7 and 6% less temperature in p-Arbur-Arbor and p-Arbor, respectively, compared with the grass treatment. There was an effect of time (p [es

  10. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physiological and molecular responses to drought in Petunia: the importance of stress severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongyun

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress vary depending on the severity of stress and the stage of drought progression. To improve the understanding of such responses, the leaf physiology, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of genes associated with ABA metabolism and signalling were investigated in Petunia × hybrida. Plants were exposed to different specific substrate water contents (θ = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, or 0.40 m3·m–3) to induce varying levels of drought stress. Plant responses were investigated both during the drying period (θ decreased to the θ thresholds) and while those threshold θ were maintained. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (A) decreased with decreasing midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf). Leaf ABA concentration increased with decreasing midday Ψleaf and was negatively correlated with gs (r = –0.92). Despite the increase in leaf ABA concentration under drought, no significant effects on the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes were observed. However, the ABA catabolism-related gene CYP707A2 was downregulated, primarily in plants under severe drought (θ = 0.10 m3∙m–3), suggesting a decrease in ABA catabolism under severe drought. Expression of phospholipase Dα (PLDα), involved in regulating stomatal responses to ABA, was enhanced under drought during the drying phase, but there was no relationship between PLDα expression and midday Ψleaf after the θ thresholds had been reached. The results show that drought response of plants depends on the severity of drought stress and the phase of drought progression. PMID:23077204

  12. Physiological stress and Hendra virus in flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress. Pooled and individual urine samples were non-invasively collected from under roosting flying-foxes at two latitudinally disparate regions in the eastern Australian state of Queensland. Hendra virus detection, and (in individual urine samples sex and species determination were PCR-based. Urinary cortisol measurement used a validated enzyme immunoassay. We found no direct correlation between increased urinary cortisol and Hendra virus excretion, but our findings do suggest a biologically plausible association between low winter temperatures and elevated cortisol levels in P. alecto in the lower latitude Southeast Queensland roosts. We hypothesize an indirect association between low winter temperatures and increased Hendra virus infection and excretion, mediated by the physiological cost of thermoregulation. Our findings and our approach are directly relevant to elaboration of the disease ecology of Nipah virus and other emerging henipaviruses in bats. More broadly, they inform investigation of emerging disease infection dynamics across the wildlife/livestock/human interface.

  13. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms involved in desiccation-stress physiology of these organisms. The very limited existing information is described in the present review. PMID:23986769

  14. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: Consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. For example, Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in desiccation-stress physiology of

  15. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  16. Physiological effects of potassium chloride, formalin and handling stress on bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Catherine L.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Gould, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the sublethal physiological changes in bonytail Gila elegans subjected to consecutive 750-mg/L potassium chloride (KCl) and 25-mg/L formalin treatments for the removal of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussel D. bugensis veligers. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and osmolality were measured over 24 h and at 14 d posthandling after exposing bonytail to KCl and one net stressor (capture with a net), KCl plus formalin and two net stressors, and one or two net stressors without chemicals. Elevated plasma cortisol (322–440 ng/mL) and glucose (254–399 mg/dL) concentrations were observed in all treatments compared with the concentrations in control fish (plasma cortisol, 56 ng/mL; glucose, 43 mg/dL). While there were no detectable differences in plasma osmolality among the treatment and control fish, a difference was observed between fish that were handled once versus twice. Chemical effects of stress were not observed in any of the physiological responses when the KCl treatment was compared with the one-net stressor treatment or when the KCl plus formalin treatment was compared with the two-net stressor treatment. Cumulative responses, however, were observed between one net stressor and two net stressors for plasma glucose and osmolality but not for plasma cortisol. Plasma cortisol and glucose levels remained elevated at 24 h posthandling, indicating that bonytail had not completely recovered from the handling stressors and would benefit from a recovery period in protected refugia before being released.

  17. Physiological and photosynthesis response of popcorn inbred seedings to waterlogging stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, J.; Li, F.; Shi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is one of the most severe global problems, which affects crop growth and yield worldwide, especially in the low-lying rainfed areas, and irrigated and heavy rainfall environment. Our objective was to study the physiological and photosynthetic characteristics of two popcorn genotypes under waterlogging conditions. The experiment was carried out in pots with two contrasting inbred lines differing in waterlogging tolerance: Q5 (tolerant) and Q10 (sensitive). Leaf gas exchange, oxidative stress, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6d in the control and waterlogged plants. A decrease in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration was observed in both genotypes. The waterlogging-sensitive plants showed reduced chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content and increased activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Response curves for the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net photosynthetic rate (P /subN/ ) for waterlogged plants were similar in both genotypes. The different physiological and photosynthetic response in the two popcorn inbred lines might be responsible for higher tolerance of Q5 than Q10. These results suggest that Q5 popcorn inbred lines are a source of genetic diversity for important traits such as P /subN/ and WUE. (author)

  18. Growth and physiological responses to cadmium stress of two populations of Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, R.; Bertrand, A. [Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, Universidad de Oviedo, Catedrático Rodrigo Uría s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Biotecnología de Asturias (Spain); Reis, R.; Mourato, M.P.; Martins, L.L. [Departamento de Química Agrícola e Ambiental, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017, Lisboa (Portugal); González, A., E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es [Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, Universidad de Oviedo, Catedrático Rodrigo Uría s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Biotecnología de Asturias (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Cd tolerance and accumulation are constitutive traits in D. viscosa. ► The physiological mechanisms involved in Cd stress differed between clones. ► The metallicolous clone was more Cd tolerant than the non-metallicolous one. ► Antioxidant enzymes had important roles in each clone, especially peroxidases. -- Abstract: Two clones of Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter from contrasting populations, DV-A (metallicolous) and DV-W (non-metallicolous), were studied to compare Cd accumulation and tolerance. After 10 days of hydroponic culture with 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg Cd L{sup −1}, metal accumulation and plant growth were measured as well as other stress markers such as decrease in the content of photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, phenols, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and free proline. We also analyzed the activity of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol and ascorbate peroxidases, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase as well as their isoform patterns. Our results confirmed a high Cd tolerance and accumulation in both clones of D. viscosa, which suggests that these traits are constitutive in this species. However, when the Cd concentration in solution exceeded 10 mg Cd L{sup −1}, DV-A was more tolerant than DV-W. The physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance also differed between them, although phenols and guaiacol peroxidase played an important role in both clones. The effective Cd detoxification of DV-A consisted mainly in a promoted ascorbate peroxidase activity and better efficiency of catalase and glutathione reductase enzymes.

  19. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  20. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  1. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Atta, Mostafa A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  2. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  3. Interactive effects of salinity stress and nicotinamide on physiological and biochemical parameters of Faba bean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Sadak, Mervat Sh; Schmidhalter, Urs; El Saady, Abdel Kareem M.

    2013-01-01

    solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. Nicotinamide not only neutralized the effect of salinity stress but resulted in a significant improvement in physiological and biochemical parameters as well as the concentrations of soluble sugars, proline, amino acids, and total N and other mineral contents.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  5. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Vaz

    Full Text Available India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12% than leopards (7% during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g. Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was

  6. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ferula flabelliloba Rech. F. & Aell., (Apiaceae, a perennial plant with medicinal value, is one of important soil protective grown in Binalood mountains. Decreased precipitation in the previous years caused plants subjected to drought stress condition. Drought stress limits the growth and productivity of plants more than any other environmental factors. Drought stress can alter plant light absorption and consumption processes and increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS is responsible for lipid peroxidation and associated injury to membranes, nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes. To detoxify ROS, plants develop different types of antioxidants to reduce oxidative damage and confer drought tolerance. ROS scavengers are either non- enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids and phenolic compound or enzymatic containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The activity of these antioxidants and enzymes allows short-term acclimation to temporary water deficit, but these biochemicals cannot overcome the effects of extreme or prolonged drought. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer formed by low alkaline deacetylation of chitin, an important component of the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crab, crawfish and shrimp. Chitosan can affect plant physiology and gene expression, hence these materials can increase the plant resistant to many unfavorable environmental condition. The biological properties of chitosan have led to use it for various purposes. Chitosan has been used as plant protectant against fungi, bacteria and viruses, to improve soil fertility and to stimulate plant defense system. Thus, it seems that chitosan is a promising material for improving plant growth, especially under drought stress conditions where water deficit limits plant growth and establishment. In the present study, the effects of chitosan as foliar spraying of F. flabelliloba

  7. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    number per head, head weight and chlorophyll contents decreased and the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed significant increase in the plant. Based on the results we concluded that, decrease in seed yield and plant growth by lead exposure can be in relation to this toxicity and oxidative stress. Also the present results revealed that the increase in the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde content prevent the occurrence of oxidative damage under Pb stress. The results showed that lead and zinc interaction effects were significant on grain yield, chlorophyll b and malondialdehyde. The foliar application of zinc improved catalases enzymatic activity, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and prevented destruction of chlorophyll and maintained yield in stress lead. The optimization of zinc under Pb stress could alleviate Pb-induced toxic effects by enhancing biochemical reactions and physiological processes in safflower plant. The variance analysis showed that only lead and calcium interaction effects on chlorophyll a were significant. Content of chlorophyll a increased at non-stress conditions along with the foliar treatment of calcium (10 mM compared to the control. Conclusions The lead toxicity led to decline in growth and dry matter accumulation and the reduction of chlorophyll synthesis in plants and finally the reduction of the safflower yield. In the lead stress condition, the foliar application of zinc sulfate can be affected in the activation of plant defense systems and prevented the destruction of chlorophyll. Calcium successfully prevented occurrence of chlorosis and increased chlorophyll content. Based on the results, it seems that the application of zinc can have a greater impact on improving safflower growth than calcium fertilizer in lead stress. So in areas contaminated by heavy metals lead, zinc sulfate fertilizer can be as a solution to keep growing and production plants.

  8. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F(20,442) = 9.140, P night (F(23,459) = 8.356, P day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F(6,183) = 2.450, P night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F(6,174) = 4.071, P day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants' ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake.

  9. Physiological Response to Salinity Stress by Primed Seedsof Three Species of Lawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Sedaghathoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most important ecological stresses which have undesirable effects on seed germination. This study was carried out to evaluate the germination of three species of lawn (Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, Cynodon dactylon seeds under salinity stress. The effect of different treatments (Gibberellins 50 mgl-1, 2% CaCl2 and hydroprimig in 24 hours was evaluated on total germination, mean daily germination, maximum and mean germination percent in three species of lawn, under four levels of salinity (0, 3, 6, 9 dS/m. Priming factor (Gibberellins and water was more effective than salinity on the seed germination. Among lawn types, Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon indicated greater seed germination percentage and germination rate. The least rate and percentage of germination belonged to Poa pratensis. Among priming treatments, gibberellins had the greatest effect on germination, followed by hydropriming. However, interaction effects of "Lolium × CaCl2" were greater than other treatments on the mean daily germination and germination value. Based on the results, seed priming specially Gibberellins could be an appropriate substrate to improve seed germination in lawns, when grown under salinity.

  10. [Study on physiological characteristics and effects of salt stress in Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Gu, Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Shao, Jing; Geng, Chao

    2014-08-01

    To study the physiological characteristics and effects of salt stress in Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata was treated with NaCl of different concentration. The photosynthetic characteristics and transpiration rate were an- alyzed by LI-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System. The activities of enzymes were studied with kits. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) showed a diurnal variation of bimodal curve, the transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal limitation (Ls) both had a single peak diurnal variation, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and the water use efficiency (WUE) presented a single valley type of diurnal variation. With salt concentration rising, Pn, Tr, Ci, Ca and WUE decreased but L, increased, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD increased firstly and then decreased, while the MDA and proline content showed a rising trend. Andrographis paniculata is a type of sun plant. The net photosynthetic rate of Andrographis paniculata leaves has an obvious "midday depression" phenomenon. The results also indicate that Andrographis paniculata has a resistance to salt stress and appropriate shade is good for the quality improvement.

  11. Physiological and Proteomics Analyses Reveal Low-Phosphorus Stress Affected the Regulation of Photosynthesis in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shanshan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiangqian; Yu, Kaiye; Chao, Maoni; Han, Suoyi; Zhang, Dan

    2018-06-06

    Previous studies have revealed a significant genetic relationship between phosphorus (P)-efficiency and photosynthesis-related traits in soybean. In this study, we used proteome profiling in combination with expression analysis, biochemical investigations, and leaf ultrastructural analysis to identify the underlying physiological and molecular responses. The expression analysis and ultrastructural analysis showed that the photosynthesis key genes were decreased at transcript levels and the leaf mesophyll and chloroplast were severely damaged after low-P stress. Approximately 55 protein spots showed changes under low-P condition by mass spectrometry, of which 17 were involved in various photosynthetic processes. Further analysis revealed the depression of photosynthesis caused by low-P stress mainly involves the regulation of leaf structure, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, absorption and transportation of CO₂, photosynthetic electron transport, production of assimilatory power, and levels of enzymes related to the Calvin cycle. In summary, our findings indicated that the existence of a stringent relationship between P supply and the genomic control of photosynthesis in soybean. As an important strategy to protect soybean photosynthesis, P could maintain the stability of cell structure, up-regulate the enzymes’ activities, recover the process of photosystem II (PSII), and induce the expression of low-P responsive genes and proteins.

  12. Physiological concepts in physical education and sports training: stress, homeostasis and allostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácito Pessoa de Souza Junior

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p206 The objective of this review article is to discuss the concepts of stress and homeostasis (homeos = equal; stasis = stable and to expose their limitations on the basis of recent evidence demonstrating that the supposed internal stability of living organisms is merely apparent, and is even independent of environmental factors. This internal instability is often observed by researchers investigating circadian rhythms (hormone secretion, temporal series (heart rate and behavior (hunger and satiety, who argue in favor of substituting the theory of homeostasis by the concept of allostasis (allo = different; stasis = stable. Indeed, these researchers suggest that the objective of regulation and control is not stability. There are two consequences for Physical Education and Sport if allostasis is accepted as a physiological paradigm: 1. Selye’s concept of stress requires a new defi nition and interpretation, with a clear impact on the concept of load and overload; 2. Noakes’ central governor hypothesis to explain the fatigue resulting from intense physical exercise loses its relevance, as will be discussed in this paper. Furthermore, it is very diffi cult for the model of stability by staying the same to explain why performance is improved by physical training or why we have a predisposition for this type of recognizedly anti-homeostatic activity. We intend to demonstrate the possibility that the allostatic concept of stability through change can explain these contradictions.

  13. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  14. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non...... by transient Na+ binding due to its high adsorption capacity, decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content, and by releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution. Growth, physiology and yield of wheat were affected positively with biochar amendment...

  15. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  16. Physiological performance of sesame seeds under the water stress at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Silva de Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. shows great economic potential because it can be explored by the national as well as the international market. It can be grown in the second season when it is subject to less favorable weather conditions such as drought during the sowing and emergence. Given this the objective was to evaluate the effect of water stress induced by polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 6000 at different temperatures in order to asses the physiological quality of sesame seeds. In this work, were used PEG 6000 with different osmotic potentials (0.0 control and (-0.2, –0.4, –0.6, –0.8, –1.0 –1,2 and –1.4 MPa at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35 °C. For determine the effect of the treatments it was evaluated seed germination and vigor (first count and length of the primary root and shoot, in a completely randomized, with four replications. The sesame seeds are affected by water stress, with significant reductions in germination and vigor. A temperature of 30 °C favored the germination performance in less restrictive water potentials.

  17. Stress-physiological reactions of the green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis to water pollution with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gyula KERESZTES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis proves to be a suitable bioindicator of water pollution with different herbicides. One of the best molecular markers of stress condition imposed by herbicides is overproduction of malondialdehyde resulting from lipid peroxidation in the damaged membranes. Methylviologen, a largely used pre-emergence herbicide which generates reactive oxygen species in the illuminated chloroplasts, triggers the accumulation of ascorbic acid and enhances the enzymatic activity of catalase, both of these substances being involved in the antioxidative protection of algal cells. Diuron, a herbicide that inhibits photosynthetic electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II, causes a decline in oxygen production and in biomass accumulation of algae. Glufosinate induces accumulation of toxic ammonia and leads to enhanced net oxygen production, associated with a low rate of carbon assimilation. Long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of herbicides results in significant changes in the rate of cell division, in hotosynthetic parameters and in the intensity of antioxidative defense. A proper bioindication of toxic effects of herbicides on algae requires a selected combination of different physiological and biochemical parameters which reflect the degree of stress exerted on living organisms by water pollution with xenobiotic organic compounds.

  18. Supervised machine learning algorithms to diagnose stress for vehicle drivers based on physiological sensor signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Begum, Shahina; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms play an important role in computer science research. Recent advancement in sensor data collection in clinical sciences lead to a complex, heterogeneous data processing, and analysis for patient diagnosis and prognosis. Diagnosis and treatment of patients based on manual analysis of these sensor data are difficult and time consuming. Therefore, development of Knowledge-based systems to support clinicians in decision-making is important. However, it is necessary to perform experimental work to compare performances of different machine learning methods to help to select appropriate method for a specific characteristic of data sets. This paper compares classification performance of three popular machine learning methods i.e., case-based reasoning, neutral networks and support vector machine to diagnose stress of vehicle drivers using finger temperature and heart rate variability. The experimental results show that case-based reasoning outperforms other two methods in terms of classification accuracy. Case-based reasoning has achieved 80% and 86% accuracy to classify stress using finger temperature and heart rate variability. On contrary, both neural network and support vector machine have achieved less than 80% accuracy by using both physiological signals.

  19. [Effects of exogenous silicon on physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Hai; Wang, Ya-Kun; Lu, Xiao-Min; Jia, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exogenous silicon on growth and physiological characteristics of hydroponically cultured cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress. The results showed that the growth, especially the aerial part growth of cucumber seedlings cultured with ammonium were significantly inhibited than those with nitrate, especially after treatment for 10 d, the aerial part fresh mass of cucumber seedlings were reduced 6.17 g per plant. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also promoted in cucumber seedlings under ammonium, and the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly increased in cucumber leaves. With the exogenous silicon treatment, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly improved, the ability to remove reactive oxygen species was enhanced, the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly reduced in cucumber leaves, decreasing the reactive oxygen damage to the cell membrane, and the ratio of electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA in cucumber leaves. Also, with exogenous silicon treatment, the plasma membrane and activity of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATP was significantly increased, transport capacity of intracellular proton was improved, and the level of ammonium in cucumber body was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the toxicity of ammonium. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could relieve ammonium stress, by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity, H(+)-ATP activity, and decreasing the ammonium content in cucumber seedlings.

  20. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  1. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  2. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  3. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  4. Study of exposure to cold stress and body physiological responses in auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Saedpanah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous exposure to cold air is considered to be a hazardous agent in the workplace in cold seasons. This study aimed to determine the level of cold stress and relation with physiological responses in auto mechanic employees. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the winter of 1395 on auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city. Physiological responses during daily activity were measured in accordance with ISO 9886 standard method. Environmental air measures like air temperature and air velocity were measured simultaneously and cold stress indexes were also determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 software. Result: The result showed that mean wind chill index, equivalent chill temperature and required clothing insulation were 489.97±47.679 kcal/m2.h, 13.78± 1.869 0c and 2.04 ± 0.246 clo, respectively. According to the results of cold stress indexes, the studied employees are exposed to cold stress. Pearson correlation test showed that there are significant relationship between cold stress indexes with physiological responses (p<0.05, however, IREQ min showed more correlation than the others.  There is also a significant relationship between body fat percentage and deep temperature (p<0.05, r=0.314. Conclusion: The result confirmed that IREQ min index has high validity for estimation of cold stress among auto mechanic employees. Moreover, the increase of body fat percentage leads to an increase of cold tolerance power of employees.

  5. Linking physiological and cellular responses to thermal stress: β-adrenergic blockade reduces the heat shock response in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Nicole M; LeBlanc, Sacha; Perry, Steve F; Currie, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    When faced with stress, animals use physiological and cellular strategies to preserve homeostasis. We were interested in how these high-level stress responses are integrated at the level of the whole animal. Here, we investigated the capacity of the physiological stress response, and specifically the β-adrenergic response, to affect the induction of the cellular heat shock proteins, HSPs, following a thermal stress in vivo. We predicted that blocking β-adrenergic stimulation during an acute heat stress in the whole animal would result in reduced levels of HSPs in red blood cells (RBCs) of rainbow trout compared to animals where adrenergic signaling remained intact. We first determined that a 1 h heat shock at 25 °C in trout acclimated to 13 °C resulted in RBC adrenergic stimulation as determined by a significant increase in cell swelling, a hallmark of the β-adrenergic response. A whole animal injection with the β2-adrenergic antagonist, ICI-118,551, successfully reduced this heat-induced RBC swelling. The acute heat shock caused a significant induction of HSP70 in RBCs of 13 °C-acclimated trout as well as a significant increase in plasma catecholamines. When heat-shocked fish were treated with ICI-118,551, we observed a significant attenuation of the HSP70 response. We conclude that circulating catecholamines influence the cellular heat shock response in rainbow trout RBCs, demonstrating physiological/hormonal control of the cellular stress response.

  6. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  7. Linking stress and immunity: Immunoglobulin A as a non-invasive physiological biomarker in animal welfare studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Conners, Melinda G; Hall, Katie; Miller, Lance J

    2018-04-26

    As the animal welfare community strives to empirically assess how care and management practices can help maintain or even enhance welfare, the development of tools for non-invasively measuring physiological biomarkers is essential. Of the suite of physiological biomarkers, Immunoglobulin A (IgA), particularly the secretory form (Secretory IgA or SIgA), is at the forefront because of its crucial role in mucosal immunity and links to physical health, stress, and overall psychological well-being. While interpretation of SIgA values on short time scales is complex, long-term SIgA patterns are consistent: conditions that create chronic stress lead to suppression of SIgA. In contrast, when welfare is enhanced, SIgA concentrations are predicted to stabilize at higher concentrations. In this review, we examine how SIgA concentrations are reflective of both physiological stress and immune function. We then review the literature associating SIgA concentrations with various metrics of animal welfare and provide detailed methodological considerations for SIgA monitoring. Overall, our aim is to provide an in-depth discussion regarding the value of SIgA as physiological biomarker to studies aiming to understand the links between stress and immunity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are

  9. Maternal separation modulates short-term behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yoav; Tovote, Philip; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Zeyda, Thomas; King, Lanikea B; Vasconcellos, Amy J; Dunlap, Christopher; Spiess, Joachim; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. Here, we compared the short-term effects of two durations of maternal separation stress and one unseparated group (US) on behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response in rat pups. Separations included 3h on each of 12days, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 13 (MS2-13) and 3days of daily, 6-h separation from PND11-13 (MS11-13). On PND14 (Experiment 1), both MS2-13 and MS11-13 produced marked reductions in freezing toward an adult male conspecific along with reduced levels of glucocorticoid type 2 (GR) and CRF type-1 (CRF(1)) receptor mRNA in the hippocampus. Group MS2-13 but not MS11-13 produced deficits in stressor-induced corticosterone secretion, accompanied by reductions in body weight. Our results suggest that GR and/or CRF(1) levels, not solely the magnitude of corticosterone secretion, may be involved in the modulation of freezing. In a second experiment, we aimed to extend these findings by testing male and female separated and unseparated pups' unconditioned defensive behaviors to cat odor on PND26, and subsequent cue+context conditioning and extinction throughout postnatal days 27-32. Our results show that maternal separation produced reductions in unconditioned freezing on PND26, with MS2-13 showing stronger deficits than MS11-13. However, separation did not affect any other defensive behaviors. Furthermore, separated rats failed to show conditioned freezing, although they did avoid the no-odor block conditioned cue. There were no sex differences other than weight. We suggest that maternal separation may have produced these changes by disrupting normal development of hippocampal regions involved in

  10. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  11. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  12. Effects of salt stress on growth and physiological characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Yan, M.; Huang, X.; Yuan, Z.

    2018-01-01

    With 2-years-old pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. 'Tunisia' cuttings as materials, the growth properties, salt injury indexes, leaf membrane permeability, Chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline and soluble protein content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were investigated under different NaCl concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%, w/w) treatments after 7, 21 and 35 days. The results showed that: the height and ground diameter of pomegranate were increased at low salinity (0.1%), and they were significantly inhibited at high salinity (= 0.5%). With increased NaCl concentrations, Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents were decreased and chlorophyll a/b were increased. Leaf membrane permeability was seriously enhanced and the amount of MDA was markedly increased at high salinity (= 0.5%). The proline and soluble protein were significantly accumulated and quickly responded to NaCl stress. The activities of SOD, CAT, and POD showed a trend of first rising and then decreasing, with the maximum appearing at 0.4% salinity. In addition, the adverse effects on these physiological indexes aggravated gradually over time. Our study suggested that pomegranate 'Tunisi' was a moderately salt tolerant cultivar (0.4% NaCl) with a promoting effect on the growth below 0.1% salinity. This cultivar presents a mechanism of alleviating the detrimental effects of salt stress through improving the proline content, soluble protein content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. But the protections of antioxidant enzymes are in a limited range of salinity. (author)

  13. Development and application of an antibody-based protein microarray to assess physiological stress in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ruth I; Cattet, Marc R L; Sarauer, Bryan L; Nielsen, Scott E; Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2016-01-01

    A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis proteins, apoptosis/cell cycle proteins, cellular stress/proteotoxicity proteins and oxidative stress/inflammation proteins. Small skin samples (50-100 mg) were collected from captured bears using biopsy punches. Proteins were isolated and labelled with fluorescent dyes, with labelled protein homogenates loaded onto microarrays to hybridize with antibodies. Relative protein expression was determined by comparison with a pooled standard skin sample. The assay was sensitive, requiring 80 µg of protein per sample to be run in triplicate on the microarray. Intra-array and inter-array coefficients of variation for individual proteins were generally bears. This suggests that remotely delivered biopsy darts could be used in future sampling. Using generalized linear mixed models, certain proteins within each functional category demonstrated altered expression with respect to differences in year, season, geographical sampling location within Alberta and bear biological parameters, suggesting that these general variables may influence expression of specific proteins in the microarray. Our goal is to apply the protein microarray as a conservation physiology tool that can detect, evaluate and monitor physiological stress in grizzly bears and other species at risk over time in response to environmental change.

  14. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  15. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  16. Behavioral and physiological changes during heat stress in Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the behavioral and physiological changes of heat stressed Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation. Nine Corriedale ewes (average BW = 45 ± 3.7 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned into three groups (9 sheep per treatment) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design for 3 periods with 21-d duration for each period. The control (CON) group was given free access to water, 2 h water deprivation (2hWD), and 3 h water deprivation (3hWD) following feeding. No differences were found in fecal excretion frequency, standing frequency (number/d), and sitting frequency among the groups ( p  > 0.05). Measurements of standing duration (min/d) and urine excretion frequency (number/d) showed a significant decrease whereas sitting duration (min/d) showed a significant increase in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups when compared with the CON group ( p   0.05). However, respiratory rate (number/min) and panting score were found to be significantly higher in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups than in the CON group ( p  ewes. Daily adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions may occur actively in ewes.

  17. Maternal Behavior and Physiological Stress Levels in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Margaret A; Heintz, Matthew R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Santymire, Rachel M; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii , at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After accounting for temporal variation in FGM concentrations, we found that mothers interacted socially (groomed and played) with and nursed their infants more on days when FGM concentrations were elevated compared to days when FGM concentrations were within the range expected given the time of year. However, the proportion of time mothers and infants spent in contact did not differ based on FGM concentrations. These results generally agree with the suggestion that elevated GC concentrations are related to maternal motivation and responsivity to infant cues and are the first evidence of a hormonal correlate of maternal behavior in a wild great ape.

  18. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  19. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  20. The association between changes in pressure pain sensitivity and changes in cardiovascular physiological factors associated with persistent stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille B.; Harboe, Gitte S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate the possible association between pressure pain sensitivity of the chest bone (PPS) and cardiovascular physiological factors related to persistent stress in connection with a three-month PPS-guided stress-reducing experimental intervention programme. Methods. Forty......-two office workers with an elevated PPS (≥ 60 arbitrary units) as a sign of increased level of persistent stress, completed a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. The active treatment was a PPS (self-measurement)-guided stress management programme. Primary endpoints: Blood pressure (BP), heart...... between-group reductions were observed in respect to BP, HR, PRP, total and LDL cholesterol, and total number of elevated risk factors (p stress intervention method applied in this study induced a decrease in PPS which was associated with a clinically relevant decrease in resting...

  1. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, M V; Scholz, U; Ehlert, U; Nater, U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 individuals (mean = 24.89 ± 5.34 years, 55.3% women) completed the questionnaire. Quantitative aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour, i.e. average duration of music listening and subjective relevance of music, were not associated with physiological and psychological functioning. In contrast, qualitative aspects, i.e. reasons for listening (especially 'reducing loneliness and aggression', and 'arousing or intensifying specific emotions') were significantly related to physiological and psychological functioning (all p = 0.001). These direct effects were mediated by distress-augmenting emotion regulation and individual stress reactivity. The habitual music-listening behaviour appears to be a multifaceted behaviour that is further influenced by dispositions that are usually not related to music listening. Consequently, habitual music-listening behaviour is not obviously linked to physiological and psychological functioning.

  2. Turbidity and salinity affect feeding performance and physiological stress in the endangered delta smelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Komoroske, Lisa M; Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen; Fangue, Nann A

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most heavily impacted ecosystems worldwide with many keystone fauna critically endangered. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary in northern California, and is considered as an indicator species for ecosystem health. This ecosystem is characterized by tidal and seasonal gradients in water parameters (e.g., salinity, temperature, and turbidity), but is also subject to altered water-flow regimes due to water extraction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of turbidity and salinity on feeding performance and the stress response of delta smelt because both of these parameters are influenced by water flows through the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) and are known to be of critical importance to the completion of the delta smelt's life cycle. Juvenile delta smelt were exposed to a matrix of turbidities and salinities ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) and 0.2 to 15 parts per thousand (ppt), respectively, for 2 h. Best statistical models using Akaike's Information Criterion supported that increasing turbidities resulted in reduced feeding rates, especially at 250 NTU. In contrast, best explanatory models for gene transcription of sodium-potassium-ATPase (Na/K-ATPase)-an indicator of osmoregulatory stress, hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-a precursor protein to adrenocorticotropic hormone (expressed in response to biological stress), and whole-body cortisol were affected by salinity alone. Only transcription of glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme that protects cells against reactive oxygen species, was affected by both salinity and turbidity. Taken together, these data suggest that turbidity is an important determinant of feeding, whereas salinity is an important abiotic factor influencing the cellular stress response in delta smelt. Our data support habitat association studies that have shown greater

  3. Pilot Study of A Novel Biobehavioral Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participational

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-25

    Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participation presented at...Pilot Study of a Novel Biobehavioral lntervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of Laughter Yoga MHSRS...was to explore the practice of the evidence-based biobehavioral interv~ntion, laughter yoga, as a means to lessen the physiologic and psychological

  4. Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under peg-induced water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, G.; Suo, H.; Ashraf, U.; Mo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Stress induced variations in seed germination of various crops has been well reported but germination potential of sweet corn seeds under osmotic stress with relation to time dynamics is still elusive. Present study explored the water absorption, germination potential and physiological indices and of sweet corn seeds exposed to five different levels of PEG-induced water stress i.e., 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 M Pa water potential (Psi /sub w/) with respect to time dynamics. Results showed that enhanced water stress for prolonged time period (96 h) led to substantial reduction in water absorption and seed moisture contents, seed germination and vigor index as well as seedlings growth and fresh and dry biomass. Osmotic stress triggered antioxidant defense system like super-oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and accumulation of soluble sugars, proline and protein contents considerably. Initially, activities of SOD and CAT were higher but then reduced as stress persisted, however, POD showed a linear increase with respect to stress exposure time. Water stress also increased MDA contents up to 36 h then declined. Further, alpha-amylase activity and soluble protein showed significant correlations with maize seed germination. Overall, germination potential decreased with increase in osmotic stress in sweet corn seeds. (author)

  5. The role of shear stress in Blood-Brain Barrier endothelial physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvenna Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important and often neglected physiological stimuli contributing to the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs into a blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype is shear stress (SS. With the use of a well established humanized dynamic in vitro BBB model and cDNA microarrays, we have profiled the effect of SS in the induction/suppression of ECs genes and related functions. Results Specifically, we found a significant upregulation of tight and adherens junctions proteins and genes. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability measurements to know substances have shown that SS promoted the formation of a tight and highly selective BBB. SS also increased the RNA level of multidrug resistance transporters, ion channels, and several p450 enzymes. The RNA level of a number of specialized carrier-mediated transport systems (e.g., glucose, monocarboxylic acid, etc. was also upregulated. RNA levels of modulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase were downregulated by SS while those involved in the Krebs cycle (e.g., lactate and other dehydrogenases were upregulated. Measurements of glucose consumption versus lactate production showed that SS negatively modulated the glycolytic bioenergetic pathways of glucose metabolism in favor of the more efficient aerobic respiration. BBB ECs are responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Our data showed that SS increased the RNA levels of integrins and vascular adhesion molecules. SS also inhibited endothelial cell cycle via regulation of BTG family proteins encoding genes. This was paralleled by significant increase in the cytoskeletal protein content while that of membrane, cytosol, and nuclear sub-cellular fractions decreased. Furthermore, analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis (which allows identifying a large number of proteins per sample of EC proteins extracted from membrane sub-cellular endothelial fractions showed that SS increased

  6. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz

    2017-06-20

    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Physiological effects of stress related to helicopter travel in Federal Emergency Management Agency search-and-rescue canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E; Gulson, N; Liu Cross, T-W; Swanson, K S

    2017-01-01

    Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015. Rectal temperature, behavioural stress indicators and saliva swabs (for cortisol) were collected at baseline, loading, mid-flight and post-flight. After flight, canines completed a standardised search exercise to monitor work performance. Faecal samples were collected for microbial DNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. All canines were on a standardised diet (CANIDAE ® Grain Free PURE Land ® ) for 3 weeks prior to the study. Visible indicators of stress were observed at loading and at mid-flight and corresponded with an increase ( P  travel did not affect search performance ( P  > 0·05). We found that α- and β-diversity measures of faecal microbiota were not affected ( P  > 0·05). Our data suggest that although helicopter travel may cause physiological changes that have been associated with stress in working dogs, it does not make an impact on their search performance or the stability of faecal microbiota.

  8. A novel bZIP gene from Tamarix hispida mediates physiological responses to salt stress in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Liang, Yenan; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping; Liu, Guifeng

    2010-02-15

    Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) are transcription factors that bind abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) and enable plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In the present study, a novel bZIP gene, ThbZIP1 was cloned from Tamarix hispida. Expression studies in T. hispida showed differential regulation of ThbZIP1 in response to treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, NaHCO(3), and CdCl(2), suggesting that ThbZIP1 is involved in abiotic stress responses. To identify the physiological responses mediated by ThbZIP1, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing exogenous ThbZIP1 were generated. Various physiological parameters related to salt stress were measured and compared between transgenic and wild type (WT) plants. Our results indicate that overexpression of ThbZIP1 can enhance the activity of both peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the content of soluble sugars and soluble proteins under salt stress conditions. These results suggest that ThbZIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by mediating signaling through multiple physiological pathways. Furthermore, ThbZIP1 confers stress tolerance to plants by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, facilitating the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and inducing and/or enhancing the biosynthesis of soluble proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Food, stress, and reproduction: short-term fasting alters endocrine physiology and reproductive behavior in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Stamplis, Teresa B; Barrington, William T; Weida, Nicholas; Hudak, Casey A

    2010-07-01

    Stress is thought to be a potent suppressor of reproduction. However, the vast majority of studies focus on the relationship between chronic stress and reproductive suppression, despite the fact that chronic stress is rare in the wild. We investigated the role of fasting in altering acute stress physiology, reproductive physiology, and reproductive behavior of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with several goals in mind. First, we wanted to determine if acute fasting could stimulate an increase in plasma corticosterone and a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and testosterone. We then investigated whether fasting could alter expression of undirected song and courtship behavior. After subjecting males to fasting periods ranging from 1 to 10h, we collected plasma to measure corticosterone, CBG, and testosterone. We found that plasma corticosterone was elevated, and testosterone was decreased after 4, 6, and 10h of fasting periods compared with samples collected from the same males during nonfasted (control) periods. CBG was lower than control levels only after 10h of fasting. We also found that, coincident with these endocrine changes, males sang less and courted females less vigorously following short-term fasting relative to control conditions. Our data demonstrate that acute fasting resulted in rapid changes in endocrine physiology consistent with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis deactivation. Fasting also inhibited reproductive behavior. We suggest that zebra finches exhibit physiological and behavioral flexibility that makes them an excellent model system for studying interactions of acute stress and reproduction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of consignment to broodmare sales on physiological stress measured by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Martin; Becker, Annet; Ganswindt, Stefanie; Guthrie, Alan; Stout, Tom; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-01-17

    Validation of a method for the minimally-invasive measurement of physiological stress will help understanding of risk factors that may contribute to stress-associated events including recrudescence of Equid herpesvirus (EHV), which is anecdotally associated with sales consignment of pregnant Thoroughbred mares. In this study we compared two similar groups of late-gestation Thoroughbred broodmares on the same farm: a consigned Sales group (N = 8) and a non-consigned Control group (N = 6). The Sales mares were separated from their paddock companions and grouped prior to their preparation for, transport to, and return from the sales venue. Both groups were monitored by sampling at regular intervals from 5 days prior to until 14 days after the sales date (D0) to measure physiological stress in terms of changes in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, and for event-related viral recrudescence via daily body temperature measurements and periodic nasal swabs for PCR analysis for EHV-1 and -4 DNA. In both groups, FGM levels increased post-sales before returning to pre-sales levels. Specifically, FGM concentrations in the Sales mares were significantly higher on D + 3 and D + 10 than on D-4 and D-3 (F = 12.03, P Sales) mare showed PCR evidence of EHV-1 shedding. Using FGM to measure physiological stress was supported by the increases observed in all mares after Sales consignment, including those not consigned to the sale. Monitoring FGM levels therefore represents an appropriate, minimally-invasive method for future studies to assess the contribution of physiological stress to EHV recrudescence in horses transported to sales or equestrian events.

  11. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  12. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the main problems which limits crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Iran is the most important producer of pistachio in the world. However, its performance is low in many areas. Most pistachio plantations are irrigated with saline water and with low quality (28. On the other hand, nitrogen is a dynamic element which is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and Enzymes and it has a vital role in plant physiology, growth, chlorophyll formation and production of fruit and seeds (34. Gibberellic acid is known as phytohormon which varied physiological responses in plants under stress. acid gibberellic increases the photosynthesis and growth under stress and impact on the physiology and metabolism of plant (29. Based on previous studies, production and activity of plant hormones are affected by natural factors and plant nutrient requirements and the nitrogen has an important influence on production and transmission of acid gibberellic plant shoot. Therefore, in this study the effect of acid gibberellic and nitrogen on some characteristics of physiology parameters and micronutrient pistachio seedlings (Cv. Qazvini under saline conditions was studied. Materials and methods: Experiment under greenhouse condition and factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse agriculture college, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 mg of sodium chloride per kg of soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 150 mg per kg of ammonium nitrate source and three acid gibberellic levels (0, 250 and 500 mg per liter. Adequate soil with little available salinity conditions was collected from the top 30-cm layer of a pistachio-culture region of Kerman province. After air drying and ground through passing a 2 mm sieve, some of the physical-chemical properties of this soil include pH (7

  13. Stress and food deprivation: linking physiological state to migration success in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Food deprivation is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how food deprivation interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial migration, whereby a portion of the population smoltifies and migrates to the ocean, and the rest remain in their natal stream. This distinct, natural dichotomy of life-history strategies provides an excellent opportunity to explore the roles of energetic state (as affected by food deprivation) and activation of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species. Using an experimental approach, the relative influences of short-term food deprivation and experimental cortisol elevation (i.e. intra-coelomic injection of cortisol suspended in cocoa butter) on migratory status, survival and growth of juvenile brown trout relative to a control were evaluated. Fewer fish migrated in both the food deprivation and cortisol treatments; however, migration of fish in cortisol and control treatments occurred at the same time while that of fish in the food deprivation treatment was delayed for approximately 1 week. A significantly greater proportion of trout in the food deprivation treatment remained in their natal stream, but unlike the cortisol treatment, there were no long-term negative effects of food deprivation on growth, relative to the control. Overall survival rates were comparable between the food deprivation and control treatments, but significantly lower for fish in the cortisol treatment. Food availability and individual energetic state appear to dictate the future life-history strategy (migrate or remain resident) of juvenile salmonids while experimental elevation of the stress hormone cortisol causes impaired growth and reduced survival of both resident and migratory individuals. © 2016. Published by The

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of a Medicinal Halophyte Limonium Bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze to Salt-Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Li, W.; Yang, H.; Wu, W.; Ma, L.; Huang, T.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Limonium bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze is a perennial herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family. It is a typical recretohalophyte as well as a medicinal plant, distributing at saline soil areas in coastal areas and grasslands. In this paper,physiological mechanisms of L. bicolor to defend salt stress and effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients were investigated. The effects of different NaCl concentrations on the number of salt glands, Na/sup +/ content, dry weight and water content in tissues, gas exchange parameters involving net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration and transpiration rate, malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and accumulations of secondary metabolites such as total phenolic, total flavonoid, gallic acid and myricetrin of leaves were determined. The results show that 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced facilitated effects in L. bicolor reflected in the increase in dry weight, tissue water content, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, the number of salt glands, activity of superoxide dismutase, and content of gallic acid and myricetrin. The 300 mM NaCl treatment resulted in obviously decline in gas exchange parameters, and significant increases in Na/sup +/ levels, malondialdehyde level and electrolyte leakage. It was suggested that increased salt tolerance of L. bicolor was due to the corresponding resistance mechanisms involving an increased number of salt glands, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an accelerated accumulation of secondary metabolites. What's more, the results on effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients in L. bicolor under different salt concentrations could provide theoretical basis for the standardization cultivation technique of L. bicolor. (author)

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yini; Ma, Chuanxin; Chen, Guangcai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg -1 ) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg -1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg -1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50-49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase (CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integra has high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohino-Herranz, Inma; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Ferreira, Javier; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-10-08

    Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution is negligible

  17. Assessment of Mental, Emotional and Physical Stress through Analysis of Physiological Signals Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Mohino-Herranz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the stress level of a subject in real time could be of special interest in certain professional activities to allow the monitoring of soldiers, pilots, emergency personnel and other professionals responsible for human lives. Assessment of current mental fitness for executing a task at hand might avoid unnecessary risks. To obtain this knowledge, two physiological measurements were recorded in this work using customized non-invasive wearable instrumentation that measures electrocardiogram (ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB signals. The relevant information from each measurement is extracted via evaluation of a reduced set of selected features. These features are primarily obtained from filtered and processed versions of the raw time measurements with calculations of certain statistical and descriptive parameters. Selection of the reduced set of features was performed using genetic algorithms, thus constraining the computational cost of the real-time implementation. Different classification approaches have been studied, but neural networks were chosen for this investigation because they represent a good tradeoff between the intelligence of the solution and computational complexity. Three different application scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, the proposed system is capable of distinguishing among different types of activity with a 21.2% probability error, for activities coded as neutral, emotional, mental and physical. In the second scenario, the proposed solution distinguishes among the three different emotional states of neutral, sadness and disgust, with a probability error of 4.8%. In the third scenario, the system is able to distinguish between low mental load and mental overload with a probability error of 32.3%. The computational cost was calculated, and the solution was implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones. The results indicate that execution of such a monitoring solution

  18. The dtudy of physiological and biochemical responses of Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Alibiglouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a main limiting factor of turfgrass growth in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, in this study, the physiological and biochemical changes in two turfgrass species Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea schreb during drought stress (70-75 centibar in a 40-day period and recovery were investigated. Control plants during drought stress were regularly irrigated at soil field capacity (20-25 centibar. The results showed that leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content with long-term stress decreased. Electrolyte leakage and proline during drought stress significantly increased and in recovery stage, the level of electrolyte leakage and proline reached to the control. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in two turfgrass significantly increased after 30 days and then significantly reduced. In F. arundinacea schreb the activity of ascorbat peroxidase after 20 days significantly increased and then significantly reduced. Also, in F. arundinacea schreb species the activity of catalase increased during drought stress and in recovery stage the activity of catalase reduced. In studied species during drought stress and recovery stage, the activity of ascorbat peroxidase and catalase significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggested that the resistant species F. arundinacea schreb, under drought stress had a low level of electrolyte leakage, higher level of relative water content and chlorophyll destruction was less than A. stolonifera.

  19. GASICA : Design, validation and use of a system for inducing and controlling physiological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijgh, B.H.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a prevalent condition in the Western world. In the Netherlands, a recent study reported the costs of stress to be around 4 billion euro per year, only factoring in work-related stress. In addition, the societal and individual impact of stress is high: the same study estimated that every

  20. Ocean acidification increases the sensitivity of and variability in physiological responses of an intertidal limpet to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Russell, Bayden D.; Ding, Meng-Wen; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2018-05-01

    Understanding physiological responses of organisms to warming and ocean acidification is the first step towards predicting the potential population- and community-level ecological impacts of these stressors. Increasingly, physiological plasticity is being recognized as important for organisms to adapt to the changing microclimates. Here, we evaluate the importance of physiological plasticity for coping with ocean acidification and elevated temperature, and its variability among individuals, of the intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma from the same population in Xiamen. Limpets were collected from shaded mid-intertidal rock surfaces. They were acclimated under combinations of different pCO2 concentrations (400 and 1000 ppm, corresponding to a pH of 8.1 and 7.8) and temperatures (20 and 24 °C) in a short-term period (7 days), with the control conditions (20 °C and 400 ppm) representing the average annual temperature and present-day pCO2 level at the collection site. Heart rates (as a proxy for metabolic performance) and expression of genes encoding inducible and constitutive heat-shock proteins (hsp70 and hsc70) at different heat-shock temperatures (26, 30, 34, and 38 °C) were measured. Hsp70 and Hsc70 play important roles in protecting cells from heat stresses, but have different expression patterns, with Hsp70 significantly increased in expression during stress and Hsc70 constitutively expressed and only mildly induced during stress. Analysis of heart rate showed significantly higher temperature coefficients (Q10 rates) for limpets at 20 °C than at 24 °C and post-acclimation thermal sensitivity of limpets at 400 ppm was lower than at 1000 ppm. Expression of hsp70 linearly increased with the increasing heat-shock temperatures, with the largest slope occurring in limpets acclimated under a future scenario (24 °C and 1000 ppm pCO2). These results suggested that limpets showed increased sensitivity and stress response under future conditions. Furthermore, the

  1. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Chen, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Growing plants can be used to clean waste water in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, NaCl contained in the human urine always restricts plant growth and further reduces the degree of mass cycle closure of the system (i.e. salt stress). This work determined the effect of NaCl stress on physiological characteristics of plants for the life support system. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Huahong) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Luoma) were cultivated at nutrient solutions with different NaCl contents (0, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively) for 10 to 18 days after planted in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experimental Facility in China. Results showed that the two plants have different responses to the salt stress. The amaranth showed higher salt-tolerance with NaCl stress. If NaCl content in the solution is below 5000 ppm, the salt stress effect is insignificant on above-ground biomass output, leaf photosynthesis rate, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis pigment contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and inducing lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the lettuce is sensitive to NaCl which significantly decreases those indices of growth and physiology. Notably, the lettuce remains high productivity of edible biomass in low NaCl stress, although its salt-tolerant limitation is lower than amaranth. Therefore, we recommended that amaranth could be cultivated under a higher NaCl stress condition (lettuce should be under a lower NaCl stress (<1000 ppm) for water cleaning in future BLSS.

  2. Enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes: do differences in defect prevalence imply differential levels of physiological stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    1999-11-01

    five times more often than maxillary canine teeth. Differences in LHPC prevalence by sex are small and not significant. Intergeneric differences are large and non-random: chimpanzees (Pan) exhibit a significantly lower frequency of LHPC (22%, n = 50) by individual count, than either the orangutan (Pongo, 88.0%, n = 25) or the gorilla (Gorilla, 88.7%, n = 53). Tooth count prevalences exhibit a similar pattern of variation and are also statistically significant. These findings suggest that large bodied great apes (gorilla and orangutan) may be under greater physiological stress during perinatal and early postnatal development than the chimpanzee. The size, position, and timing of LHPC lesions are currently under analysis and may yield more insight into the etiological origin of this enamel defect. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' genotypes to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. Objectives. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Method. Plants of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity [FC] in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC, gas exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla and chlorophyll b (Chlb content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars, antioxidant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Results. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX, osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Conclusions. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance.

  4. Influence of low stress handling during clinical visit on physiological and behavioural indicators in adult dogs: a preliminary study

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    Bruno Scalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low stress handling techniques or “Fear Free principles” in veterinary clinics are becoming an important research area aimed at improving small animal welfare, considering that the majority of dogs who undergo clinical examinations exhibit fear or anxiety signs. Objective of this study was to compare a number of physiological and behavioural indicators using low stress handling (LSH and traditional (TT techniques in order to assess whether the LSH approach had a positive impact on the dog’s welfare. Eight adult dogs were filmed while undergoing both LSH and TT visits (separated by a distance of seven weeks. The same usual sequence of events was followed for both visits (e. g. muzzle wearing, heart and lungs stethoscope examination, etc. except that 1 during the LSH visit, the dog was free to explore the environment (while receiving treats and play for five minutes before and after the visit 2 throughout the medical examination the veterinarians’ attitude and handling techniques were always aimed at preventing stress and guaranteeing the best physical support possible. The videos were then evaluated for the number of fear and stress signs the subjects showed. The examined physiological variables were respiration (breath/min, heart rate (HR and rectal temperature (RT. Physiological variables were analysed by t-Test for paired data while frequency of behavioural fear indicators by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Rectal temperature was within range in both groups but significantly higher (P<0.05 during LSH visit, while low head, lip licks and whale eye behaviours were significantly higher (P<0.05 during TT visit. These results suggest that low stress handling decreases frequency of some fear-related behaviours and could improve the quality of human-dog interactions. Future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results in a large canine population is required.

  5. Exploratory behavior is linked to stress physiology and social network centrality in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Sahnzi C; Adelman, James S; Farine, Damien R; Moore, Ignacio T; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-05-21

    Animal personality has been linked to individual variation in both stress physiology and social behaviors, but few studies have simultaneously examined covariation between personality traits, stress hormone levels, and behaviors in free-living animals. We investigated relationships between exploratory behavior (one aspect of animal personality), stress physiology, and social and foraging behaviors in wild house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We conducted novel environment assays after collecting samples of baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations from a subset of house finches. We then fitted individuals with Passive Integrated Transponder tags and monitored feeder use and social interactions at radio-frequency identification equipped bird feeders. First, we found that individuals with higher baseline corticosterone concentrations exhibit more exploratory behaviors in a novel environment. Second, more exploratory individuals interacted with more unique conspecifics in the wild, though this result was stronger for female than for male house finches. Third, individuals that were quick to begin exploring interacted more frequently with conspecifics than slow-exploring individuals. Finally, exploratory behaviors were unrelated to foraging behaviors, including the amount of time spent on bird feeders, a behavior previously shown to be predictive of acquiring a bacterial disease that causes annual epidemics in house finches. Overall, our results indicate that individual differences in exploratory behavior are linked to variation in both stress physiology and social network traits in free-living house finches. Such covariation has important implications for house finch ecology, as both traits can contribute to fitness in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction of Osmoadaptive Mechanisms and Modulation of Cellular Physiology Help Bacillus licheniformis Strain SSA 61 Adapt to Salt Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sangeeta; Aggarwal, Chetana; Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Bandeppa, G. S.; Khan, Md. Aslam; Pearson, Lauren M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Giometti, Carol S.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-01-06

    Bacillus licheniformis strain SSA 61, originally isolated from Sambhar salt lake, was observed to grow even in the presence of 25 % salt stress. Osmoadaptive mechanisms of this halotolerant B. licheniformis strain SSA 61, for long-term survival and growth under salt stress, were determined. Proline was the preferentially accumulated compatible osmolyte. There was also increased accumulation of antioxidants ascorbic acid and glutathione. Among the different antioxidative enzymes assayed, superoxide dismutase played the most crucial role in defense against salt-induced stress in the organism. Adaptation to stress by the organism involved modulation of cellular physiology at various levels. There was enhanced expression of known proteins playing essential roles in stress adaptation, such as chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and general stress protein YfkM and polynucleotide phosphorylase/polyadenylase. Proteins involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathway, ribosome structure, and peptide elongation were also overexpressed. Salt stress-induced modulation of expression of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism was observed. There was up-regulation of a number of enzymes involved in generation of NADH and NADPH, indicating increased cellular demand for both energy and reducing power.

  7. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  8. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  9. CO2 enrichment affects eco-physiological growth of maize and alfalfa under different water stress regimes in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh; Ppoyil, Shaijal Babu Thru; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed

    2018-03-01

    Water stress has been reported to alter morphology and physiology of plants affecting chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density. In this study, drought stress mitigating effects of CO 2 enrichment was assessed in greenhouse conditions in the hot climate of UAE. Commercially purchased maize ( Zea mays L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were seeded in three different custom-built cage structures, inside a greenhouse. One cage was kept at 1000 ppm CO 2 , the second at 700 ppm CO 2 , and the third at ambient greenhouse CO 2 environment (i.e. 435 ppm). Three water stress treatments HWS (200 ml per week), MWS (400 ml per week), and CWS (600 ml per week) were given to each cage so that five maize pots and five alfalfa pots in each cage received same water stress treatments. In maize, total chlorophyll content was similar or higher in water stress treatments compared to control for all CO 2 concentrations. Stomatal lengths were higher in enriched CO 2 environments under water stress. At 700 ppm CO 2 , stomatal widths decreased as water stress increased from MWS to HWS. At both enriched CO 2 environments, stomatal densities decreased compared to ambient CO 2 environment. In alfalfa, there was no significant increase in total chlorophyll content under enriched CO 2 environments, even though a slight increase was noticed.

  10. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  11. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  12. Mechanisms of Change: Testing how Preventative Interventions Impact Psychological and Physiological Stress Functioning in Mothers in Neglectful Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventative interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) or Psychoeducational Parenting (PPI) interventions was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services (CS) as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers (NC). The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were: CPP (n = 44), PPI (n = 34), CS (n = 27), and NC (n = 52). Mothers and infants who were 13-months of age were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and post-intervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year post-intervention. Results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventtive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multi-level assessments of intervention process and outcome. PMID:26535951

  13. Comparative Physiological and Molecular Analyses of Two Contrasting Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotypes under Progressive Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crop growth and productivity. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide and its productivity is vulnerable to drought. However, comparative analyses of physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in flue-cured tobacco varieties differing in drought tolerance under long-term drought stress are scarce. In this study, drought stress responses of two flue-cured tobacco varieties, LJ851 and JX6007, were comparatively studied at the physiological and transcriptional levels. After exposing to progressive drought stress, the drought-tolerant LJ851 showed less growth inhibition and chlorophyll reduction than the drought-sensitive JX6007. Moreover, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of H2O2, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and electrolyte leakage after drought stress were found in LJ851 when compared with JX6007. Further analysis showed that LJ851 plants had much less reductions than the JX6007 in the net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance during drought stress; indicating that LJ851 had better photosynthetic performance than JX6007 during drought. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis revealed that LJ851 exhibited significantly increased transcripts of several categories of drought-responsive genes in leaves and roots under drought conditions. Together, these results indicated that LJ851 was more drought-tolerant than JX6007 as evidenced by better photosynthetic performance, more powerful antioxidant system, and higher expression of stress defense genes during drought stress. This study will be valuable for the development of novel flue-cured tobacco varieties with improved drought tolerance by exploitation of natural genetic variations in the future.

  14. Physiological behaviors and recovery responses of four Galician grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ) cultivars under water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.; Berrios, J.

    2012-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of four pot grown Galician grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño, Brancellao, Godello and Treixadura) were examined under different levels of water stress in greenhouse. After extreme stress, gas exchange recovery responses were evaluated. Average ΨPD for control and stressed plants were -0.4MPa and -1.45MPa respectively. All varieties showed gradual declining of all gas exchange parameters (gs, E and A) with increasing of stress perio...

  15. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS INDUCED BY MANNITOL ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. SEEDLINGS AND PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Możdżeń

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to various stress factors which might lead to structural damage and physiological function abnormalities. Drought is one of the environmental stress factors that reduce the productivity of plants. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of drought stress induced by mannitol (-0.5 and -1.5MPa on selected physiological processes in Z. mays L. In the first stage we studied the effect of mannitol on the germination. In the second stage the effect of mannitol on the growth of plants germinated on distilled water and watered with mannitol in growth phase were measured. Mannitol, which decreased the water content in a concentration-dependent manner, had an inhibitory effect on germination and growth of seedlings and adult plants. Electrolyte leakage of cell membranes of the Z. mays seedlings showed high disturbances in the functioning of the membrane structures in the osmotic drought conditions. Similar results were obtained for maize roots, shoots and leaves in both treatment studies. Chlorophyll content showed only significant differences in plants from treated during the growth phase. Drought stress caused a decrease in chlorophyll content by almost a half compared to the control plants. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence of plant leaves from the second stage of experiments showed changes in fluorescence activity parameters Fv/Fm, NPQ, Rfd, qP, ect.; gas exchange measurements also showed changes in activity in each of the two phases.

  16. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Drought Stress Detection in Tomato Plants Using Novel Physiological Variables and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Duarte-Galvan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil drought represents one of the most dangerous stresses for plants. It impacts the yield and quality of crops, and if it remains undetected for a long time, the entire crop could be lost. However, for some plants a certain amount of drought stress improves specific characteristics. In such cases, a device capable of detecting and quantifying the impact of drought stress in plants is desirable. This article focuses on testing if the monitoring of physiological process through a gas exchange methodology provides enough information to detect drought stress conditions in plants. The experiment consists of using a set of smart sensors based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs to monitor a group of plants under controlled drought conditions. The main objective was to use different digital signal processing techniques such as the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT to explore the response of plant physiological processes to drought. Also, an index-based methodology was utilized to compensate the spatial variation inside the greenhouse. As a result, differences between treatments were determined to be independent of climate variations inside the greenhouse. Finally, after using the DWT as digital filter, results demonstrated that the proposed system is capable to reject high frequency noise and to detect drought conditions.

  17. Growth and Physiological Performance of Aerobic and Lowland Rice as Affected by Water Stress at Selected Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic rice technology is still new in Malaysia, and information regarding MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1, the first local aerobic rice variety, is still lacking. Therefore, comparative studies were carried out to determine the physiological performance of aerobic rice variety MA1 and lowland rice variety MR253 under water stress given at the panicle initiation, flowering and ripening stages. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Stomatal conductance (gs, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, leaf relative water content (leaf RWC, and soil moisture content (SMC as well as yield component parameters such as panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight were measured. Results revealed that gs and leaf RWC for both varieties decreased with depletion of SMC. The correlation study between the physiological parameters and SMC indicated that Fv/Fm was not affected by water stress, regardless of varieties. The yield components (panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight for both varieties greatly decreased when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. This study showed that the panicle initiation period was the most sensitive stage to water stress that contributed to a substantial reduction in yield for both varieties. Under the aerobic condition (control, MR253 produced higher panicle number, 100-grain weight and yield than MA1. Although MR253 is bred for lowland, it is well adapted to aerobic condition.

  18. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of air permeability characteristics of protective garments on the induced physiological strain under exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Heled, Yuval; Ketko, Itay; Muginshtein, Jeni; Yanovich, Ran; Druyan, Amit; Moran, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The high values of thermal resistance (Rct) and/or vapor resistance (Ret) of chemical protective clothing (CPC) induce a considerable thermal stress. The present study compared the physiological strain induced by CPCs and evaluates the relative importance of the fabrics' Rct, Ret, and air permeability in determining heat strain. Twelve young (20-30 years) healthy, heat-acclimated male subjects were exposed fully encapsulated for 3h daily to an exercise-heat stress (35°C and 30% relative humidity, walking on a motor-driven treadmill at a pace of 5 km h(1) and a 4% inclination, in a work-rest cycle of 45 min work and 15 min rest). Two bipack CPCs (PC1 and PC2) were tested and the results were compared with those attained by two control suits-a standard cotton military BDU (CO1) and an impermeable material suit (CO2). The physiological burden imposed by the two bilayer garments was within the boundaries set by the control conditions. Overall, PC2 induced a lower strain, which was closer to CO1, whereas PC1 was closer to CO2. Air permeability of the PC2 cloth was almost three times higher than that of PC1, enabling a better heat dissipation and consequently a lower physiological strain. Furthermore, air permeability characteristic of the fabrics, which is associated with its construction and weave, significantly correlated with the physiological strain, whereas the correlation with Rct, Ret, and weight was poor. The results emphasize the importance of air permeability in reducing the physiological strain induced by CPCs.

  1. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Identification of drought-responsive miRNAs and physiological characterization of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqiong; Zhao, Shanshan; Zhu, Chen; Chang, Xiaojun; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zhong; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2017-11-21

    Drought stress is one of the major natural challenges in the main tea-producing regions of China. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a traditional beverage plant whose growth status directly affects tea quality. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in plant growth and development. Although some miRNAs have been identified in C. sinensis, little is known about their roles in the drought stress response of tea plants. Physiological characterization of Camellia sinensis 'Tieguanyin' under drought stress showed that the malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity of leaves of drought-stressed plants increased when the chlorophyll concentration decreased under severe drought stress. We sequenced four small-RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from leaves of plants subjected to four different treatments, normal water supply (CK); mild drought stress (T1); moderate drought stress (T2) and severe drought stress (T3). A total of 299 known mature miRNA sequences and 46 novel miRNAs were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the most highly enriched pathways under drought stress were D-alanine metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and mineral absorption pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate the expression patterns of 21 miRNAs (2 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated under drought stress). The observed co-regulation of the miR166 family and their targets ATHB-14-like and ATHB-15-like indicate the presence of negative feedback regulation in miRNA pathways. Analyses of drought-responsive miRNAs in tea plants showed that most of differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. The results of study revealed that the expressions of phase-specific miRNAs vary with morphological, physiological, and

  3. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  4. Fluctuations in daily energy intake do not cause physiological stress in a Neotropical primate living in a seasonal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Palme, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    Animals may face periods of nutritional stress due to short-term food shortage and/or low energy consumption associated with seasonal fluctuations in resource availability. We tested the hypothesis that periods of restricted macronutrient and energy intake result in energy deficits and physiological stress in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting seasonal tropical semi-deciduous forests. We conducted full-day follows of focal animals recording feeding rates, time spent feeding, and total amount of food ingested. We carried out nutritional analysis of foods collected from feeding trees and calculated the daily nutrient and energy intake of each focal individual. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) of focal animals were used as an indicator of physiological stress. We found that fluctuations in daily energy intake across seasons did not have significant effects on fGCM of individuals. However, protein intake was negatively associated with fGCM, highlighting the interplay among macronutrients, metabolism, and the endocrine system. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were also positively related to fruit availability, but this relationship was most likely due to social stress associated with intergroup encounters and resource defense that occurred when preferred trees were fruiting. Behavioral strategies such as dietary shifts and nutrient mixing, and metabolic adaptations such as low energy expenditure allowed individuals to fulfill their minimum energy requirements even during periods of decreased resource availability and intake. The present study suggests that seasonal variations in food, macronutrient, and energy acquisition may have limited physiological costs for animals that exploit different types of plant resources such as howler monkeys.

  5. Physiological Indices of Stress Prior to and Following Total Knee Arthroplasty Predict the Occurrence of Severe Post-Operative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans-Smith, Julie K; Greene, Kenneth; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-05-01

    The severe pain and disability associated with osteoarthritis often motivate individuals to undergo arthroplastic surgery. However, a significant number of surgical patients continue to experience pain following surgery. Prior research has implicated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the sensitization of pain receptors and chronic pain conditions. This study uses a prospective, observational, cohort design to examine whether physiological stress responses before and after surgery could predict post-operative pain severity. Participants included 110 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Physiological indices of stress included the measurement of catecholamine and cortisol levels in 15-hour urine samples collected prior to and 1 month following surgery, as well as in-hospital heart rate and blood pressure (before and after surgery), which were abstracted from medical records. Patients completed the pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) [Bellamy et al., J Orthop Rheumatol 1: , 95 (1988)] 2.5 weeks prior to surgery and at a 3-month follow-up. Contrary to expectations, lower stress hormone levels at baseline were related to more severe post-operative pain. Data at later time points, however, supported our hypothesis: cardiovascular tone shortly before surgery and urinary levels of epinephrine 1 month following surgery were positively related to pain severity 3 months later. Results suggest that the occurrence of post-operative pain can be predicted on the basis of stress physiology prior to and following arthroplastic surgery. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  7. Physiological and metabolomic analysis of Punica granatum (L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Marino, Giovanni; Emiliani, Giovanni; Huseynova, Taravat; Musayev, Mirza; Akparov, Zeynal; Maserti, Bianca Elena

    2016-02-01

    Punica granatum has a noticeable adaptation to drought stress. The levels of the green leaf volatile trans-2-hexenal increased in response to drought stress suggesting a possible role of this compound in drought stress response in pomegranate. Punica granatum (L.) is a highly valued fruit crop for its health-promoting effects and it is mainly cultivated in semi-arid areas. Thus, understanding the response mechanisms to drought stress is of great importance. In the present research, a metabolomics analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of drought stress on volatile organic compounds extracted from the leaves of pomegranate plants grown under water shortage conditions. The time course experiment (7 days of water deprivation and 24-h recovery) consisted of three treatments (control, drought stress, and rehydration of drought-stressed plants). Plant weights were recorded and control plants were irrigated daily at pot capacity to provide the lost water. Fraction of transpirable soil water has been evaluated as indicator of soil water availability in stressed plants. The levels of proline, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation as well as of the photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (g s), photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II, and photochemical quenching were monitored after the imposition of drought stress and recovery as markers of plant stress. Constitutive carbon volatile components were analyzed in the leaf of control and drought-stressed leaves using Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction sampling coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. A total of 12 volatile compounds were found in pomegranate leaf profiles, mainly aldehydes, alcohols, and organic acids. Among them, the trans-2-hexenal showed a significant increase in water-stressed and recovered leaves respect to the well-watered ones. These data evidence a possible role of the oxylipin pathway in the response to water stress in pomegranate

  8. Diurnal patterns and relationships between physiological and self-reported stress in patients with epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Barbora; Harris, Peter R; Reuber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Patients with epilepsy and those with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) experience high levels of stress and stress is one of the most frequently self-identified seizure precipitants. Although stress is a multifaceted phenomenon, few studies have systematically examined its different components in patients with seizures. The aim of this study was therefore to describe diurnal patterns of psychological and physiological measures of stress in patients with epilepsy and patients with PNES, and explore their relationships to each other in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress and seizure occurrence in these patients. A range of stress markers including self-reported stress, salivary cortisol, and heart rate variability (HRV) were explored in adult patients with refractory epilepsy (N=22) and those with PNES (N=23) undergoing three- to five-day video-telemetry. A diurnal pattern was observed in the physiological measures, characterized by higher levels of physiological arousal in the mornings and lower levels at night in both patients with epilepsy and PNES. The physiological measures (cortisol and HRV) were associated with each other in patients with epilepsy; no close relationship was found with self-reported stress in either of the two patient groups. The findings contribute to and expand on previous studies of the patterns of stress in patients with seizures. The results also indicate a discrepancy between patients' physiological responses and their subjective stress perceptions, suggesting that simple self-reports cannot be used as a proxy of physiological arousal in patients with seizures and stress. Stress in these patient groups should be studied using a combination of complementary measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal variations in the physiological stress response to discrete bouts of aerial exposure in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicia, Angela M; Schlenker, Lela S; Sulikowski, James A; Mandelman, John W

    2012-06-01

    Aerial exposure and acute thermal stress have been shown to elicit profound physiological disruptions in obligate water-breathing teleosts. However, no study has investigated these responses in an elasmobranch. To address this, venous blood samples were collected and evaluated from little skates (Leucoraja erinacea) subjected to discrete aerial exposure durations (0, 15, and 50 min) coupled with differing abrupt thermal changes (gradient between seawater and air; winter: ΔT=-3 °C; summer: ΔT=+9 °C) in two distinct laboratory studies. In general, blood acid-base properties (e.g. decline in pH; elevation in PCO(2)) and select metabolites (elevated whole-blood lactate) and electrolytes (elevated plasma K(+)) were significantly disrupted by aerial exposure, and were most disturbed after skates were exposed to air for 50 min. However, the magnitude of the blood acid-base perturbations, metabolic contribution to the resulting blood acidosis, elevations to ionic and metabolic parameters, and delayed mortality were more extreme during the summer study, suggesting that acute thermal stress exacerbates the physiological impairments associated with aerial exposure in little skates. Conversely, a reduced thermal gradient (from seawater to air) may attenuate the magnitude of metabolic and ionic perturbations, resulting in a high physiological threshold for coping with extended aerial exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological-metabolic variables of heat stress in cows grazing in silvopastoral systems and in one treeless prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrés Berragán-Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze changes of physiological and metabolic parameters as indicators of heat stress of cows in pasture systems. The research was carried out from 2011 to 2012 at the Turipaná Agricultural Research Center of Corpoica located in the Caribbean region in Cereté–Colombia. Environmental temperature (T and relative humidity (H were determined, as well as and rectal temperature (RT, skin temperature (ST, respiratory frequency (RF and the acid-basic status of animals. The variables were measured in the morning (6:00 h and in the afternoon (13:00 h. Significant Statistical differences were observed (p<0.05 in environmental temperature treatments (T with 7% and 6% less temperature in p-Arbus-Arbor y p-Arbor, respectively, compared with grass treatment. There was a significant hour effect on T and H (p<0.05 and a significant treatment-hour interaction on T (p<0.05. TP and FR showed a significant treatment-hour interaction per hour (6:00/13:00 h. The results show a positive effect of shadow from trees on the physiological variables. The negative effects observed on the physiological variables of unshaded treatments impacted in a minimal way the metabolic variables suggesting homeostatic responses in the animals under the evaluated stressful environmental conditions.

  11. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  12. Neotectonic stress field of the south-eastern East European platform as related to the Late Alpine collision deformation of the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Mikhail L.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksei; Vassiliev, Nikita; Mostryukov, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    Greater Caucasian orogen built by an actived basement of the Scythyan plate. Signs of influence of collisional pressure onto intraplate deformations are also demonstrated by the Cenozoic stress/deformation field studied by the authors by means of mesotectonic measurements of tectonic striation, slickensides and veins in the Upper Mesozoic-Quaternary rocks. As a result, a series of maps of the Cenozoic stress field of the area studied has been first computered. The maps show an orientation and dip of general normal and tangential tectonic stresses as well as a character of a stress regime type (compression, extension, or horizontal shear) determined with the Lode-Nadai coefficient. A combination of the macrotectonic and mesotectonic data allows the following conclusions on dynamics of the platform neotectonic structures formation. (1) In the southern part of the studied platform area (the Zhigouli, Saratov and Kerensk-Chembar dislocations, and Donets coal basin in the Alpine stage), formation of the structures was greatly affected by increasing toward the Greater Caucasus compression in the thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. Horizontal projections of a compression axis in all these areas are oriented submeridionally (up to NE-SW) whereas horizontal projections of an extension axis are oriented sublatitudinally (up to WSW-ESE)). (2) The compression is also growing eastward, to the Uralian-Mougodjary recent orogen but its axis is directed there sublatitudinally, with the extension axis orienting submeridionally. (3) In the right angle between mutually perpendicular domains: the southern (adjacent to the Caucasus) and eastern ("the Uralian") ones, a domain of horizontal extension is present; its axis was oriented both sublatitudinally and submeridionally. In topography this area represents a vast depression, with its centre approximately marked by the point of a confluence of Kama with Volga, the greatest rivers of the Russian plain. There the collision (?) compression

  13. Thermal Stress Limit Rafting Migration of Seahorses: Prediction Based on Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Li, C.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fish species escape from harmful environment by migration. Seahorses, with upright posture and low mobility, could migrate from unfavorable environment by rafting with their prehensile tail. The present study was designed to examine the tolerance of lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus to thermal stress and evaluate the effects of temperature on seahorse migration. The results figured that seahorses' tolerance to thermal stress was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C) increased breathing rate and HSP genes expression significantly, but didn't affect seahorse feeding behavior. Chronic thermal treatment lead to persistent high expression of HSP genes, higher breathing rate, and decreasing feeding, and final higher mortality, suggesting that seahorse cannot adapt to thermal stress by acclimation. No significant negative effects were found in seahorse reproduction in response to chronic thermal stress. Given that seahorses make much slower migration by rafting on sea surface compared to other fishes, we suggest that thermal stress might limit seahorse migration range. and the influence might be magnified by global warming in future.

  14. Experimental evidence for the physiological role of bacterial luciferase in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilewska, Hanna; Czyz, Agata; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-11-01

    The origin and function of bioluminescence was considered a problematic question of the Charles Darwin theory. Early evolution of bacterial luminescence and its current physiological importance seem to be especially mysterious. Recently, it was proposed that stimulation of DNA repair may be a physiological role for production of light by bacterial cells. On the other hand, it was also proposed that primary role of luminescent systems could be detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. Although some previous results might suggest that this hypothesis can be correct, until now experimental evidence for such a mechanism operating in bacterial cells and having physiological importance was generally lacking. Here we demonstrate that in the presence of various oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and ferrous ions) at certain concentrations in the culture medium, growth of Vibrio harveyi mutants luxA and luxB, but not of the mutant luxD, is severely impaired relative to wild-type bacteria. This deleterious effect of oxidants on the mutants luxA and luxB could be significantly reduced by addition of the antioxidants A-TEMPO or 40H-TEMPO. We conclude that bacterial luciferase may indeed play a physiological role in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

  15. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exp...

  16. Physiological Signals and Their Fractal Response to Stress Conditions, Environmental Changes and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scafetta, N; Moon, R. E; West, B. J

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of these studies have been intended to develop more reliable methodologies for understanding how biological systems respond to peculiar altered conditions induced by internal stress, environment...

  17. Molecular and physiological responses to abiotic stress in forest trees and their relevance to tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfouche, Antoine; Meilan, Richard; Altman, Arie

    2014-11-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and cold, are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect tree growth and, thus, forest productivity, and play a major role in determining the geographic distribution of tree species. Tree responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex biological processes that are best analyzed at a systems level using genetic, genomic, metabolomic and phenomic approaches. This will expedite the dissection of stress-sensing and signaling networks to further support efficient genetic improvement programs. Enormous genetic diversity for stress tolerance exists within some forest-tree species, and due to advances in sequencing technologies the molecular genetic basis for this diversity has been rapidly unfolding in recent years. In addition, the use of emerging phenotyping technologies extends the suite of traits that can be measured and will provide us with a better understanding of stress tolerance. The elucidation of abiotic stress-tolerance mechanisms will allow for effective pyramiding of multiple tolerances in a single tree through genetic engineering. Here we review recent progress in the dissection of the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance in forest trees, with special emphasis on Populus, Pinus, Picea, Eucalyptus and Quercus spp. We also outline practices that will enable the deployment of trees engineered for abiotic stress tolerance to land owners. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  19. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  20. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  1. Chasing as a model of psychogenic stress: characterization of physiological and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kimm, Sunwhi; Han, Jung-Soo; Choi, June-Seek

    2018-03-25

    Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not. Plasma corticosterone levels significantly increased following the chasing and were comparable to those of the restraint-stress group (n = 6). In Experiment 2, the long-lasting memory of the chasing event was tested after three weeks. The chasing-stress group (n = 15) showed higher levels of freezing and USV than the no-chasing group (n = 14) when they were presented with the tone associated with the object's chasing action. Subsequently, the rats were subjected to Pavlovian threat conditioning with a tone as a conditioned stimulus and footshock as an unconditioned stimulus. The chasing-stress group showed higher levels of freezing and USV during the conditioning session than the no-chasing group, indicating sensitized defensive reactions in a different threat situation. Taken together, the current results suggest that chasing stress can induce long-lasting memory and sensitization of defensive responses to a new aversive event as well as immediate, significant stress responses.

  2. A pilot study: the effect of healing touch on anxiety, stress, pain, pain medication usage, and physiological measures in hospitalized sickle cell disease adults experiencing a vaso-occlusive pain episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda S; Stephenson, Nancy; Swanson, Mel; Jesse, D Elizabeth; Brown, Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Healing Touch on anxiety, stress, pain, pain medication usage, and selected physiological measures of hospitalized adults with sickle cell disease experiencing a vaso-occlusive pain episode. Healing Touch sessions were administered for 30 minutes on four consecutive days, and the self-reported data on anxiety, stress, pain, and the selected physiological data were collected while controlling for music and presence. A parallel-group randomized control trial comparing the effects of Healing Touch with Music (HTM) to Attention Control with Music (ACM). Due to the small sample size, there were no statistically significant changes in any between-group comparisons, except for present pain on Day 4 for the ACM group. For both groups, the within-group comparison showed a nonsignificant reduction in physiological parameters, a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and stress for the ACM group after Day 4, and a statistically significant reduction in stress in the HTM group after Days 2 and 4. The pre- to postintervention reductions in present pain were greater in the HTM group across all 4 days, but the only statistically significant within groups findings were in the HTM group (p < .01) on Day 1. Further research is needed.

  3. Monitoring environmental stress in forest trees using biochemical and physiological markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; S. Long

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the usefulness of polyamines, particularly putrescine, and amino acids such as arginine, as foliar indicators of abiotic stress in visually asymptomatic trees. An evaluation of apparently healthy trees is essential in developing risk assessment and stress remediation strategies for forest trees prior to the onset of obvious decline....

  4. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  5. Psychological and physiological stress negatively impacts early engagement and retention of opioid-dependent individuals on methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Kellie M; Sterling, Robert C; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17 and 37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual's discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TheEffect of Salicylic Acid Application on Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Grape Cultivars (Vitisvinifera L. Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abbaspour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water stress is considered as a main environmental factor limiting crop growth and yield, including grape in Mediterranean areas.Selection for drought-tolerantvarieties is possible through investigation of their performance under stress conditions. The estimation of physiological characteristics as reliable indices can be used as a tool to select tolerant plants. For this reason, varieties and genotypes of one plant species are usually investigated through physiological characteristics and its relation to drought tolerance. Investigation of the effects of water stress on some growth and physiological characteristics in grape plants has revealed that plant height, number of leaves and nodes, leaf area and the percentage of dry weightdecreased under increasing drought stress. Salicylic Acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone whichinfluences various morphological and physiological functions in plant. It can act as an important signaling molecule and has diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance capacity. Materials and Methods: In this research, two-yearold grapesplanted in plastic pots containingingredients of humus, soil and sand (1:2:1 were used. The experiment was conducted using a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three factors including irrigation periods (every 5, 10 and 15 days, salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1 and 2 mM and grape cultivars (Rasheh andBidanesefid with 3 replications in thegreenhouse of faculty of agricultureinUrmia University. Plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and chlorophyll indicesweremeasuredby usingruler, digital caliper (Model22855 NO: Z, leaf Area Meter (ModelAM200 and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter (Minolta Crop, Japan,respectively. In order to determine proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and total soluble sugars, spectrophotometric methods [51,25,6and28] were utilized,respectively. Results and Discussion: Based on comparing the averages

  7. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, Aditya K.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.; Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors

  8. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  9. Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Carballo, E.C.; Komen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded

  10. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 2...

  11. [Individual physical performance capacity with physiological and biochemical indicators of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, K D; Nestler, K; Böttger, H; Schettler, R

    1989-09-01

    22 health male subjects were exposed by a combination of physical exercises and heat. Strain related physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. Different individual reactions were obtained under controlled conditions. In dependence on the individual performance an increased mobilisation of lactat, free fatty acids and catecholamines were found. The determination of aerob physical performance can be applied for the evaluation of working capacity.

  12. The reaction to social stress in social phobia: discordance between physiological and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbies, Elisabeth; Braeuer, David; Hoyer, Juergen; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Research on the biopsychological background of social phobia (SP) is scarce and inconsistent. We investigated endocrine and autonomic markers along with subjective responses to a standardized stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in SP patients and healthy controls (HC). We examined 88 patients with the primary diagnosis of SP as well as 78 age and sex comparable HCs with the TSST. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after the TSST for the assessment of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and prolactin. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded continuously. Scalp-near hair samples were collected for the assessment of long-term cortisol secretion. The self-reported stress response was measured with different state and trait scales. While self-reported anxiety was elevated in SP before, during, immediately after, and one week after the TSST, no significant differences in biological stress responses were observed between SP and HC. There was a trend for SP to show higher baseline stress markers. Also long-term cortisol deposition in hair remained unaltered. Our results suggest that the excessive self-reported stress in SP is not reflected by a respective biological stress response. Patients with SP apparently show neither an extreme form of focused fear reactivity nor excessive defensive impairment.

  13. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  14. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  15. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  16. Physiologic response of rats to cold stress after exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Free, M.J.; Lang, L.L.; Chandon, J.H.; Kaune, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In two experiments, the responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems were assessed in rats subjected to cold stress after exposure to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 100 kV/m for one month. In the first experiment, plasma corticosterone levels were measured following exposure or sham exposure with the animals maintained at room temperature (∼23 deg). Corticosterone levels were also measured in rats subjected to cold stress (-13 deg. for one hour) immediately after the exposure period. Plasma corticosterone levels in the cold-stressed animals were significantly higher than in those kept at room temperature; however, there were no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals for either the ambient or cold-stress situations. The second experiment followed the same field exposure and cold-stress protocol, only measurements of heart rate, deep colonic temperature and skin temperature were made before, during and after cold-stressing. The results for exposed and sham-exposed animals were essentially identical, failing to demonstrate any effect of electric field exposure on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular response to cold stress. (author)

  17. Sedation or Inhalant Anesthesia before Euthanasia with CO2 Does Not Reduce Behavioral or Physiologic Signs of Pain and Stress in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Helen; Williams, Wendy O; Maurer, Kirk J

    2012-01-01

    CO2 administration is a common euthanasia method for research mice, yet questions remain regarding whether CO2 euthanasia is associated with pain and stress. Here we assessed whether premedication with acepromazine, midazolam, or anesthetic induction with isoflurane altered behavioral and physiologic parameters that may reflect pain or stress during CO2 euthanasia. Mice were assigned to 1 of 6 euthanasia groups: CO2 only at a flow rate of 1.2 L/min which displaces 20% of the cage volume per minute (V/min; control group); premedication with acepromazine (5 mg/kg), midazolam (5 mg/kg), or saline followed by 20% V/min CO2; induction with 5% isoflurane followed by greater than 100% V/min CO2 (>6L/min); and 100% V/min CO2 only (6 L/min). Measures included ultrasonic sound recordings, behavioral analysis of video recordings, plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels immediately after euthanasia, and quantification of c-fos from brain tissue. Compared with 20% V/min CO2 alone, premedication with acepromazine or midazolam did not significantly alter behavior but did induce significantly higher c-fos expression in the brain. Furthermore, the use of isoflurane induction prior to CO2 euthanasia significantly increased both behavioral and neuromolecular signs of stress. The data indicate that compared with other modalities, 20% V/min CO2 alone resulted in the least evidence of stress in mice and therefore was the most humane euthanasia method identified in the current study. PMID:22330868

  18. Reflex impairment, physiological stress, and discard mortality of European plaice Pleuronectes platessa in an otter trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Madsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    whether reflex impairment can predict short-term mortality in commercially trawled European plaice upon landing and after air exposure of up to 90 min. Sub-lethal stress was assessed by a suite of physiological variables. Over a 10-day period, mortality was monitored for a total of 199 plaice following...... trawl and air exposure of varying duration, and for 50 control fish scored for reflex impairment on board the vessel. Mortality was only observed in fish exposed to air for >60 min, and averaged 11.1% (95% CI = 7.1–16.3%). Reflex impairment was found to be a significant (P ... of mortality in a generalized linear model, excluding other initially included variables by using a stepwise method. Plasma cortisol, haematocrit, and plasma osmolality all indicated a profound and increasing level of stress with air exposure, accompanied by a near depletion of muscle phosphocreatine...

  19. Influence of priming on the physiological traits of corn seed germination under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Roghayyeh KHATAMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of drought stress and priming on germination of corn seeds (cultivar SC704 as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were drought stress in four levels including 0,-3,-6 and -9 bar and priming as control, hydro, osmo, vitamin and hormone priming. Results showed that interaction of two factors was significant on radicle and plumule dry weight, seedling vigor and germination rate. Osmo-priming remained the radicle dry weight and seedling vigor index same to control but germination rate decreased in this treatment about 38% to control. Drought stress at any severity caused seed reservoirs were not use inefficiently. In conclusion, osmo and hormone primings were the best treatments for seed invigoration under severe drought stress.

  20. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    , results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits

  1. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann; Peter ePeyk; Markus eStreb; Elena eHolz; Tanja eMichael

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (...

  2. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  3. Molecular and physiological responses of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to pgpr and sa under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 micro M) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress. (author)

  4. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Filter Cake, due to high salinity and salt accumulation in the root zone, causes secondary oxidative stress and increases damage to cell membranes and reduces the economic benefit. In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake levels application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and ear yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, at 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments of experiment were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and filter cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton.ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress significant on more traits and led to decrease of plant height, leaf area index (LAI, membrane stability index(MSI, leaf osmotic potential, soluble protein contents, ear and biological yield while effect of drought stress on shoot sodium concentration was not significant. The intensive drought stress led to decrease 21.7 and 27.3% ear and biological yield compared to control respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress led to increase height of plant and ear and biological yield. But high levels of filter cake in intensive stress led to increase salinity and damage to cell membranes and reduce LAI and MSI and thus reduce economic performance. It also the amount of 30 ton.ha-1 of filter cake in intensive stress condition has been decrease ear and biological yield 18.7 and 23.3% compared to non-filter cake application respectively.

  5. Examining the Relationship between Physiological Measurements and Self-Reports of Stress and Well-Being in Middle School Teachers over One School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…

  6. [Immune dysfunction and cognitive deficit in stress and physiological aging. Part II: New approaches to cognitive disorder prevention and treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, A L; Shmarina, G V; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stress as well as physiological aging result in similar immunological and hormonal disturbances including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis depletion, aberrant immune response (regulatory T-cells, Tregs, and T(h17)-lymphocyte accumulation) and decreased dehydroepian-drosterone synthesis both in the brain and in the adrenal glands. Since the main mechanisms of inflammation control, "prompt" (stress hormones) and "delayed" (Tregs), are broken, serum cytokine levels increase and become sufficient for blood-brain-barrier disruption. As a result peripheral cytokines penetrate into the brain where they begin to perform new functions. Structural and functional alterations of blood-brain-barrier as well as stress- (or age-) induced neuroinflammation promote influx of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and lymphocyte effectors into the brain parenchyma. Thereafter, mass intrusion ofpro-inflammatory mediators and immune cells having a lot of specific targets alters the brain work that we can observe both in humans and in animal experiments. The concept of stressful cognitive dysfunction, which is under consideration in this review, allows picking out several therapeutic targets: 1) reduction of excessive Treg accumulation; 2) supporting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory reaction attenuation; 3) recovery of dehydroepiandrosterone level; 4) improvement of blood-brain-barrier function.

  7. Perturbations in dopamine synthesis lead to discrete physiological effects and impact oxidative stress response in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanna, M. E.; Bednářová, Andrea; Rakshit, K.; Chaudhuri, A.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Krishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, Feb 1 (2015), s. 11-19 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14047 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 140/2014/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Catecholamine * circadian * dopamine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191015000037

  8. The Physiological Response of Soybean Genotypes to VAM Inoculation on Selected Drought Stress Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSOH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Present research was aimed to study physiological changes of soybean which were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM. Glomus etunicatum was exposed to moderate and severe drought condition. Symbiotic association with VAM improved adaptability as it was shown by the increasing leaf proline content. The MLG 3474 and Sindoro are the more tolerant genotypes while the responses of plant to VAM on improving the adaptability to drought were larger on Lokon.

  9. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  10. Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S. K.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, M. J.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Bernaldo de Quirós, Y.; Brubakk, A. O.; Costa, D. P.; Costidis, A. M.; Dennison, S.; Falke, K. J.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrigno, M.; Fitz-Clarke, J. R.; Garner, M. M.; Houser, D. S.; Jepson, P. D.; Ketten, D. R.; Kvadsheim, P. H.; Madsen, P. T.; Pollock, N. W.; Rotstein, D. S.; Rowles, T. K.; Simmons, S. E.; Van Bonn, W.; Weathersby, P. K.; Weise, M. J.; Williams, T. M.; Tyack, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS; ‘the bends’) is a disease associated with gas uptake at pressure. The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that reduce nitrogen gas (N2) loading during dives. However, recent observations have shown that gas bubbles may form and tissue injury may occur in marine mammals under certain circumstances. Gas kinetic models based on measured time-depth profiles further suggest the potential occurrence of high blood and tissue N2 tensions. We review evidence for gas-bubble incidence in marine mammal tissues and discuss the theory behind gas loading and bubble formation. We suggest that diving mammals vary their physiological responses according to multiple stressors, and that the perspective on marine mammal diving physiology should change from simply minimizing N2 loading to management of the N2 load. This suggests several avenues for further study, ranging from the effects of gas bubbles at molecular, cellular and organ function levels, to comparative studies relating the presence/absence of gas bubbles to diving behaviour. Technological advances in imaging and remote instrumentation are likely to advance this field in coming years. PMID:22189402

  11. Effect of Nitrogen and Triple Super Phosphate Levels on Physiological Characteristics of Kochia scoparia in Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed khaninejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing yield and forage quality in saline water irrigating conditions, is one of the problems of forage production. Therefore, using the chemical fertilizers can be considered as a useful solution. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different levels of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers with saline water on physiological characteristics of Kochia, through a split plot factorial experiments with three replications .The main experimental units consisted of the levels of salinity of irrigating water, 5.2 and 16.5 dS m-1, and the subsidiary experimental units consisted of three nitrogen levels in form of 46%N (0, 100, 200 kg ha-1 and three phosphorus levels in form of triple super phosphate (0, 75, 150 kg ha-1, arranged in factorial form in experimental units. Results showed that the effect of salinity on studied physiological properties was not significant. Green area index (GAI and membrane stability index (MSI were significantly increased with using nitrogen fertilizers on 5.2 dS/m salinity level to control group ,while phosphorus did not affect on them. In all properties, fertilizers application on 16.5 dS/m salinity level not only had no considerable effect on stress tolerance, but also increased the harmful effects of salinity. GAI had a high correlation (0.71 with dry forage yield related to the studied factors. Generally, 75 kg Triple Super Phosphate fertilizer from 100 kg Urea improved studied physiological properties without side effects.

  12. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect.

  13. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  14. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  15. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l -1 O 3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l -1 O 3 . Significant O 3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O 3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O 3 -induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O 3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O 3 when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term

  16. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-08-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea.

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance Basil Tolerance to Salt Stress through Improved Physiological and Nutritional Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salwa, A.; Abeer, H.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Abdullah, E.F.; Egamberdieva, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of salinity on some physio-biochemical traits in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars with contrasting salt stress tolerance and to determine the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ameliorating the salt stress in plant. Salt stress (250 mM NaCl) reduced the colonization potential of AMF and inhibited photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll and carotenoids in plant tissue. AMF inoculated plants contained higher level of chlorophyll pigments. Salt stressed plants showed increased lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD). Plants inoculated with AMF showed lower lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, the content of lipids, proline, and soluble sugars in basil plants was improved with AMF inoculation. AMF inoculation reduced accumulation of Na+ and improved nutrient acquisition. In conclusion, AMF were capable to reduce oxidative stress via supporting of the antioxidant system. Salt tolerant cultivar showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and accumulation of osmolytes. (author)

  18. Effect of Excessive Soil Moisture Stress on Sweet Sorghum: Physiological Changes and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential bioenergy feedstock. Research explaining the response of sweet sorghum to excessive soil moisture (EM) stress at different growth stage is limited. To investigate the effect of EM stress on sweet sorghum antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation, biomass, quality, and ethanol production, an experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the National Sorghum Improvement Center, Shenyang, China. Sweet sorghum (cv. LiaoTian1) was studied in four irrigation treatments with a randomized block design method. The results showed that the protective enzyme, particularly the SOD, CAT and APX in it, was significantly affected by EM stress. EM stress deleteriously affected sweet sorghum growth, resulting in a remarkable reduction of aboveground biomass, stalk juice quality, stalk juice yield, and thus, decreased ethanol yield. EM stress also caused significant reduction in plant relative water content, which further decreased stalk juice extraction rate. Sweet sorghum grown under light, medium, and heavy EM treatments displayed 5, 19, and 30% fresh stalk yield reduction, which showed a significant difference compared to control. The estimated juice ethanol yield significantly declined from 1407 ha/sup -1/ (under optimum soil moisture) to 1272, 970, and 734 L ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  19. Time course of physiological, biochemical, and gene expression changes under short-term salt stress in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-imposed limitations on plant growth are manifested through osmotic and ionic imbalances. However, because salinity-induced responses vary considerably among crop plants, monitoring of such responses at an early stage has relevance. In this study, physiological (seed germination, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and biochemical attributes (osmoprotectants, K+/Na+ ratio were analyzed for a time-course assessment of salt responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. with an emphasis on early monitoring. The results showed strong correlations for total soluble sugars at germination phase (24 h, proline content in the seedling establishment phase (48 h and various physiological parameters including seed vigor index (R2 = 0.901, shoot length (R2 = 0.982, and fresh weight (R2 = 0.980 at 72 h (adaptation under stress. In addition, transcriptional changes were observed under NaCl treatment for key genes belonging to the family of selective ion transporters (NHX, HKT and abscisic acid synthesis (AAO-3. The status of mitochondrial respiration was also examined as a probe for salinity tolerance at an early stage. The results suggested that although all the analyzed parameters showed correlations (negative or positive with salt stress magnitude, their critical response times differed, with most of the studied biochemical, physiological, or molecular markers providing valuable information only after radicle emergence, whereas mitochondrial respiration via alternative oxidase was useful for the early detection of salt responses.

  20. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  1. Physiological characteristics under the influence of heat stress working in the hot environment, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Yoshino, Kenji; Takano, Ken-ichi

    1987-01-01

    There is a possibility that physical and mental stress appears under hot environmental condition for the cause of wearing protection suits on reactor maintenance work. It is important to reduce heat stress rapidly and effectively. This paper mentioned following about the results of static state and simulation work done by testees with or without protection suits under 25 kinds of temperatures and wind velocities in a artificial climate chamber. (1) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and subjective symptoms without protection suits. (2) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures without protection suits. (3) investigation of the parts of body affecting subjective symptoms. (4) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures at working with protection suits. (5) working out countermeasures of recovery from heat stress with the index of skin temperatures and subjective symptoms. (author)

  2. Using the reactive scope model to understand why stress physiology predicts survival during starvation in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael

    2012-05-01

    Even though the term "stress" is widely used, a precise definition is notoriously difficult. Notwithstanding this difficulty, stress continues to be an important concept in biology because it attempts to describe how animals cope with environmental change under emergency conditions. Without a precise definition, however, it becomes nearly impossible to make testable a priori predictions about how physiological and hormonal systems will respond to emergency conditions and what the ultimate impact on the animal will be. The reactive scope model is a recent attempt to formulate testable predictions. This model provides a physiological basis to explain why corticosterone negative feedback, but not baseline corticosterone concentrations, corticosterone responses to acute stress, or the interrenal capacity to secrete corticosterone, is correlated with survival during famine conditions in Galápagos marine iguanas. Reactive scope thus provides a foundation for interpreting and predicting physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of Morphological and Physiological Response of Agropyron spp. toDrought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi yaghoobi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water resources is one of the most problems ofincreasing urban green spaces. Over the last threedecades, turfgrass and lawn researches have put significant effort into developing and evaluating turf species that have good drought resistance. As water conservation becomes an important issue, considerable interest is increasing in identifying grasses that require less water. Plants with good drought resistance are those that are able to survive stress by means of drought avoidance, drought tolerance at leaf water potentials, or both. The efficient use of water is made possible by understanding the effects of irrigation water on crop development and yield. Drought affects the visual quality, growth rate and evapotranspiration. Researchers reported that turfgrass subjected to drought conditions for short periods could sustain a fairly good appearance by irrigation about half of its consumptive use whenever soil moisture level falls to near permanent wilting point. Drought stress caused decrease in RWC and visual quality of many grass cultivars. In drought conditions resistance grass showed increase in proline content on their leaves. Therefore the use of native grasses with high-strength instead of grass imported with low-resistance is one way to increase green space and reduce costs. The purpose of this study was comparednative grasses with commercial grass cultivars. Materials and Methods: This study was to evaluate the yield and resistance of native grasses to drought stress in 2014. This experiment was conducted in Khorasan Agricultural Research Center. NativeAgropyron grass species includedAgropyronelangatum, A. desertrum, A. cristatum and commercial cultivarwassuper sport and third level of stress, including severe stress (45% FC, moderate stress (65% FC and control (85% field capacity were experimental treatments. Plants were cultured in PVC containers measuring 9 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep under greenhouse condition

  4. Effects of heat stress on the physiological parameters and productivity of hair sheep in tropical and coastal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with sheep during the finishing phase in a partial confinement system to evaluate the following physiological parameters: rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, productive performance and carcass characteristics. Fourteen uncastrated sheep with an average initial age of 90 days belonging to two genetic groups were used. There were seven Santa Inês animals, whose average initial live weight (ILW was 23.65 kg, and seven F1 Dorper × St. Inês animals, with an ILW of 20.02 kg. The treatments were the two genetic groups and two times for the collection of the physiological parameters, at 09.00 h and 15.00 h. Evaluation took place once a week, in a shared stall, always following a 20-min grazing activity. The animals had daily access to a Megathyrsus maximus(Jacquin pasture, cultivar Masai, from 08.00 h to 17.00 h and their feed was placed in a trough, at a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 in the total dry matter. The concentrate consisted of 900 g/kg of ground corn and 100 g/kg of soybean meal, and the roughage supplied was alfalfa hay. There was no interaction between treatments for the studied variables. The physiological parameters were affected only by the time of day. The variables RR and RT were higher at 15.00 h, while the highest HR values were observed at 09.00 h. Neither of the two genetic groups differed for performance and carcass characteristics. Hair sheep belonging to close genetic groups show no differences in performance, carcass characteristics and physiological responses when subjected to heat stress.

  5. Short- and long-term behavioural, physiological and stoichiometric responses to predation risk indicate chronic stress and compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dievel, Marie; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-06-01

    Prey organisms are expected to use different short- and long-term responses to predation risk to avoid excessive costs. Contrasting both types of responses is important to identify chronic stress responses and possible compensatory mechanisms in order to better understand the full impact of predators on prey life history and population dynamics. Using larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum, we contrasted the effects of short- and long-term predation risk, with special focus on consequences for body stoichiometry. Under short-term predation risk, larvae reduced growth rate, which was associated with a reduced food intake, increased metabolic rate and reduced glucose content. Under long-term predation risk, larvae showed chronic predator stress as indicated by persistent increases in metabolic rate and reduced food intake. Despite this, larvae were able to compensate for the short-term growth reduction under long-term predation risk by relying on physiological compensatory mechanisms, including reduced energy storage. Only under long-term predation risk did we observe an increase in body C:N ratio, as predicted under the general stress paradigm (GSP). Although this was caused by a predator-induced decrease in N content, there was no associated increase in C content. These stoichiometric changes could not be explained by GSP responses because, under chronic predation risk, there was no decrease in N-rich proteins or increase in C-rich fat and sugars; instead glycogen decreased. Our results highlight the importance of compensatory mechanisms and the value of explicitly integrating physiological mechanisms to obtain insights into the temporal dynamics of non-consumptive effects, including effects on body stoichiometry.

  6. [Physiological mechanisms of the etiology of visual fatigue during work involving visual stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniushina, T A

    2000-01-01

    Physiological parameters of vision were studied in three professional groups (a total of 1204 subjects): microscope operators, subjects working with magnifying glasses, and computer users. General and specific features of visual system fatigue formation were identified. Because of complete (in microscope operators) or partial (in subjects working with magnifying glasses and display users) "deprivation" of accommodation, these subjects develop early presbyopia (at the age of 30-35 years). In microscope operators long strain of accommodation system leads to professional myopia, while display users develop pseudomyopia. The highest overstrain is observed after 4 years of work in microscope operators, after 5 years in magnifying glass users, and after 6 years in computer users.

  7. Emotional, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Andrew; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the psychophysiological impact of Three Mile Island on nearby residents (N=38) compared to people living near an undamaged nuclear plant (N=32), a coal-fired plant (N=24) and a control group. Results indicated that residents of the TMI area exhibited more symptoms of stress a year after the accident. (WAS)

  8. Physiological and biochemical changes in Matricaria chamomilla induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MOHAMMADI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses and rhizosphere microorganisms affect growth parameters and accumulation of active ingredients especially in plants with medicinal properties. The present study examined the effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. seedling inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-135 strain on its growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and essential oil concentration at both regular watering and water deficit experiments. Based on the obtained results, water deficit stress reduced root dry mass, and flower fresh and dry mass as well. However, amount of H2O2 and MDA in root and shoot tissues were considerably lower in inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones under both normal watering and water deficit regimes. It indicates that lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species has been diminished in inoculated plants. Also, essential oil content in inoculated plants significantly increased compared with that of non-inoculated ones under water deficit stress condition. It can be concluded that P. fluorescens PF-135 strain has an outstanding potential to alleviate adverse effects of water deficit on plant growth, and hence can be used as an excellent PGPR in order to boost chamomile productivity especially under water deficit stress condition.

  9. Spinach biomass yield and physiological response to interactive salinity and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical shortages of fresh water throughout arid regions means that growers must face the choice of applying insufficient fresh water, applying saline water, or consider the option of combined water and salt stress. The best approach to manage drought and salinity is evaluation of the impact of wat...

  10. Physiological responses of selected African sorghum landraces to progressive water stress and re-watering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Devnarain, N

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available stress treatments and a moderate re-watered treatment on day 7. Plant height, soil moisture, and LWC were measured during harvests. Chlorophyll, carotenoid, and proline contents were quantified. All five genotypes maintained LWC above 80% during mild...

  11. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  12. The role of glycerol transporters in yeast cells in various physiological and stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Michala; Borovikova, D.; Herynková, Pavla; Rapoport, A.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * glycerol transport * desiccation * osmotic stress Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.858, year: 2015

  13. Physiological and fitness differences between cytotypes vary with stress in a grassland perennial herb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, Z.; Holá, D.; Vlasáková, Blanka; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), s. 1-22, č. článku e0188795. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Knautia arvensis * polyploid * stress conditions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao Fan

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME. The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage (EL, higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes.

  15. Interpretation of metabolic memory phenomenon using a physiological systems model: What drives oxidative stress following glucose normalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, Veronika; Zhudenkov, Kirill; Helmlinger, Gabriel; Peskov, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is generally associated with oxidative stress, which plays a key role in diabetes-related complications. A complex, quantitative relationship has been established between glucose levels and oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo. For example, oxidative stress is known to persist after glucose normalization, a phenomenon described as metabolic memory. Also, uncontrolled glucose levels appear to be more detrimental to patients with diabetes (non-constant glucose levels) vs. patients with high, constant glucose levels. The objective of the current study was to delineate the mechanisms underlying such behaviors, using a mechanistic physiological systems modeling approach that captures and integrates essential underlying pathophysiological processes. The proposed model was based on a system of ordinary differential equations. It describes the interplay between reactive oxygen species production potential (ROS), ROS-induced cell alterations, and subsequent adaptation mechanisms. Model parameters were calibrated using different sources of experimental information, including ROS production in cell cultures exposed to various concentration profiles of constant and oscillating glucose levels. The model adequately reproduced the ROS excess generation after glucose normalization. Such behavior appeared to be driven by positive feedback regulations between ROS and ROS-induced cell alterations. The further oxidative stress-related detrimental effect as induced by unstable glucose levels can be explained by inability of cells to adapt to dynamic environment. Cell adaptation to instable high glucose declines during glucose normalization phases, and further glucose increase promotes similar or higher oxidative stress. In contrast, gradual ROS production potential decrease, driven by adaptation, is observed in cells exposed to constant high glucose.

  16. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  17. Physiological responses of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb leaves to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Bingzhong; Shi Guoxin; Xu Ye; Hu Jinzhao; Xu Qinsong

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes were found to be the potential scavengers of heavy metals from aquatic environment. In this study, several physiological responses of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb leaves to elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 10 mM) were investigated. It was found that A. philoxeroides was able to accumulate cadmium in its leaves. The pigment contents decreased with the increase of the Cd concentrations. The Cd could induce rise of the activity of peroxidase (POD) at lower concentration (<5 mM), however, when the concentration of Cd rose up to 10 mM, the POD activity declined. The changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities were exactly opposite to that of POD. In the leaves of Cd-treated fronds, the amounts of three polypeptides with apparent molecular weights 80, 39 and 28 kDa, respectively, were became visible in SDS-PAGE. The nature of these polypeptides remains to be determined. - Cd modified a number of physiological processes and particularly chlorophyll degradation

  18. Effect of plant-derived smoke solutions on physiological and biochemical attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Shakir, S.K.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, salinity is an important factor reducing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke solutions have been used as growth promoters since last two decades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cymbopogon jwaracusa smoke extracts (1:100 and 1:400) on physiological and biochemical aspects of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress (100, 150, 200 and 250 mM). Results showed that seed germination percentage was improved up to 93% with smoke as compared to control (70%), while seedling vigor in term of root and shoot fresh weights and dry weights were also significantly increased in seeds primed with smoke extracts. Similarly, in case of alleviating solutions, there occurred a significant alleviation in the adverse effects of salt solutions when mixed smoke in all studied end points. Application of smoke solution has also increased the level of K+ and Ca+2 while reduced the level of Na+ content in maize. In addition, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, total nitrogen and protein contents were also alleviated with the application of smoke as compared to salt. There occurred an increase in the activities of Anti-oxidant in response of salt stress but overcome with the smoke application. It can be concluded that plant-derived smoke solution has the potential to alleviate the phytotoxic effects of saline condition and can increased the productivity in plants. (author)

  19. Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in drought and salinity stress conditions and salicylic acid foliar application, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completly randomized design with three replications in Yasouj university in 2015. Treatments including different levels of salinity and drought with similar osmotic potentials (-2, -4, -7 and -9 bar in 8 levels and a control treatment were applied in Hoagland solution. Second factor was salicylic acid foliar application in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM. Salinity and drought applied using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that leaf protein content, catalase activity, total chlorophyll and carotenoid significantly decreased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought levels, however salicylic acid could prevent this trend.  Proline soluble sugars and malodealdehide content significantly increased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought. However salicylic acid could not prevent this trend. Shoot and root dry weights significantly decreased in salinity and drought stress treatments, compared to control and salicylic acid could prevent this decrease. Generally regarded to the most of the measured traits, impact of drought was more than salinity and salicylic acid could compensate the stress impacts on linseed.

  20. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piebiep Goufo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Jorge, Tiago F; Correia, Carlos M; Oliveira, Manuela R; Rosa, Eduardo A S; António, Carla; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  2. Silicon alleviates simulated acid rain stress of Oryza sativa L. seedlings by adjusting physiology activity and mineral nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Wang, Liping; Yin, Ningning; Li, Dan; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Cuiying

    2017-11-01

    Silicon (Si) has been a modulator in plants under abiotic stresses, such as acid rain. To understand how silicon made an effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress, the growth, physiologic activity, and mineral nutrient content in leaves of rice were investigated. The results showed that combined treatments with Si (1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mM) and SAR (pH 4.0, 3.0, or 2.0) obviously improved the rice growth compared with the single treatment with SAR. Incorporation of Si into SAR treatment decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content; increased soluble protein and proline contents; promoted CAT, POD, SOD, and APX activity; and maintained the K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu content balance in leaves of rice seedlings under SAR stress. The moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) was better than the low and high concentration of Si (1.0 and 4.0 mM). Therefore, application of Si could be a better strategy for maintaining the crop productivity in acid rain regions.

  3. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Stress and food deprivation: linking physiological state to migration success in a teleost fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, J.D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-01-01

    for the cortisol treatment. Food availability and individual energetic state appear to dictate the future life-history strategy (migrate or remain resident) of juvenile salmonids while experimental elevation of the stress hormone cortisol caused impaired growth and reduced survival of both resident and migratory......Food deprivation (FD) is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how FD interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial...... of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species. Using an experimental approach, the relative influences of short-term FD and experimental cortisol elevation (i.e., intra-coelomic injection of cortisol suspended in cocoa butter) on migratory status...

  5. Detection of equine herpesvirus-4 and physiological stress patterns in young Thoroughbreds consigned to a South African auction sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Marcha; Page, Patrick; Ganswindt, Andre; Laver, Peter; Guthrie, Alan; Schulman, Martin

    2015-06-02

    The prevalence of equine herpesvirus types-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and -4) in South African Thoroughbreds at auction sales is currently undefined. Commingling of young Thoroughbreds from various populations together with physiological stress related to their transport and confinement at a sales complex, may be associated with shedding and transmission of EHV-1 and -4. This prospective cohort study sampled 90 young Thoroughbreds consigned from eight farms, originating from three provinces representative of the South African Thoroughbred breeding demographic to a sales complex. Nasal swabs for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect EHV-1 and -4 nucleic acid and blood samples for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for EHV-1 and -4 antibodies were collected from all horses on arrival and departure. Additional nasal swabs for qPCR were obtained serially from those displaying pyrexia and, or nasal discharge. Daily faecal samples were used for determination of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a measurement of physiological stress and these values were modelled to determine the factors best explaining FGM variability. EHV-4 nucleic acid was detected in 14.4 % and EHV-1 from none of the animals in the study population. Most (93.3 %) and very few (1.1 %) of this population showed antibodies indicating prior exposure to EHV-4 and EHV-1 respectively. Pyrexia and nasal discharge were poor predictors for detecting EHV-4 nucleic acid. The horses' FGM concentrations increased following arrival before decreasing for most of the remaining study period including the auction process. Model averaging showed that variation in FGM concentrations was best explained by days post-arrival and transport duration. In this study population, sales consignment was associated with limited detection of EHV-4 nucleic acid in nasal secretions, with most showing prior exposure to EHV-4 and very few to EHV-1. The physiological stress response shown by

  6. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  7. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  8. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  9. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Requena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis.

  10. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M.; Montalvo, Ana M.; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges) for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis. PMID:26167482

  11. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  12. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz-Serrano, J.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. L.; Gjøen, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using......Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping...... hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations...

  13. Physiological effects of autotoxicity due to DHAP stress on Picea schrenkiana regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    Full Text Available Picea Schrenkiana as one of the most important zonal vegetation was an endemic species in Middle Asia. Natural regeneration of P. Schrenkiana is a long existing problem troubling scientists. The autotoxicity of 3,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone (DHAP was found to be a causative factor causing the failure of P. Schrenkiana natural regeneration. The effects of concentrations of DHAP treatment on the viability of root cell, activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of P. Schrenkiana phytohormones were performed to disclose the physiological mechanism of DHAP autotoxicity. It was observed that high concentration of DHAP could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth, but had a hormesis at low concentrations. Analyses showed that the root cells significantly lost their viability treated with high DHAP. The enzymes activities of seedlings were significantly stimulated by the treatment of 0.5 mM DHAP to give a transient increase and then decrease as DHAP concentration increased to 1.0 mM except for GR (glutathione reductase in which DHAP treatment had little effect on its activity. Comparing with the control, an increase in the levels of phytohormones ZT (zeatin, GA3 (gibberellic acid and IAA (indole acetic acid was induced by the treatment of DHAP at low concentrations (0.1-0.25 mM, but the significant deficiency was found treated by high concentrations (0.5-1.0 mM. In addition, the ABA (abscisic acid level increased in all experimental observations. These results suggested that DHAP significantly affected indices of growth and physiology, and provided some new information about different effect in P. Schrenkiana treated with DHAP.

  14. Impacts of Habitat Complexity on Physiology: Purple Shore Crabs Tolerate Osmotic Stress for Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, I. J.

    2001-12-01

    Purple shore crabs, Hemigrapsus nudus (Crustacea: Decapoda), can survive indefinitely in salinities of 8 (25% SW), but also tolerate short-term exposure to salinities as low as 2. In the laboratory their salinity preference range, determined from choice chamber experiments, is 22-32 and they can discriminate between pairs of salinities separated by a difference of 2. These crabs show a strong positive thigmotaxis and a weak negative phototaxis and tend to choose environments with available shelter. The presence of shelter significantly alters the behaviour of this species. When shelter is available the salinity preference range is 10-32. Even in salinities below this preference range, the presence of shelter prolongs the time spent in the lower test salinities. This change in behaviour has implications on the crab's physiology: the haemolymph osmolality falls to lower levels when crabs remain in low salinity under shelters. In the field, H. nudus is found in creeks with salinities close to freshwater and they may remain in this salinity for up to 11 h, if there are rocks under which to shelter. An increase in habitat complexity increases the number of crabs that are found within the creek. These crabs in the low salinity environment have a lower haemolymph osmolality than crabs on the nearby open shore. In H. nudus the behavioural selection of a shelter appears to outweigh the physiological costs associated with osmotic regulation of the body fluids. Therefore, the distribution of H. nudus in estuaries may depend more on the availability of suitable habitats rather than the salinity tolerance of this species.

  15. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  16. Adaptive Calibration of Children's Physiological Responses to Family Stress: The Utility of Evolutionary Developmental Theory--Comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2012-01-01

    Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress.…

  17. Impact of short-term heat stress on physiological responses and expression profile of HSPs in Barbari goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Nagar, Vimla; Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Saroj K.; Shankar, Om; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2014-12-01

    Six, nonpregnant, Barbari goats aged 4-5 years were selected for the study. For the first 6 days, the animals were kept in psychrometric chamber at thermoneutral temperature for 6 h each day to make them acclimated to climatic chamber. On the 7th day, the animals were exposed to 41 °C temperature for 3 h and then to 45 °C for the next 3 h. Cardinal physiological responses were measured, and blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 1-h interval during the heat exposure period and then once after 6 h of the heat exposure. The rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) during the heat exposure compared to pre- and postexposure. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heat shock protein (HSP)60, HSP70, and HSP90 increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within 1 h after exposure to heat stress at 41 and 45 °C and decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) in next 2 h but remain significantly ( P < 0.05) elevated from preexposure. HSP105/110 relative mRNA expression level remained unchanged during the first 4 h, and thereafter, it increased significantly ( P < 0.05) and reached the peak at 6 h. Relative protein expression pattern of HSPs during exposure to heat stress showed similar trend as observed for the relative mRNA expression. Given the response sensitivity and intensity of HSP genes to environmental stresses, HSP70 was found to be the most sensitive to temperature fluctuation, and it could be used as an important molecular biomarker to heat stress in animals.

  18. Correlation of anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with physiological and psychological indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Haihong; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Dai Tingting; Qiu Mengyue; Bian Huahui; Chen Weibo; Liu Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation of the anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with their heart rate, blood pressure and mental health. Methods: A total of 136 male nuclear power plant operators received the continuous performance test (CPT) and mental health test (MHT), while 37 male senior students were used as the control group. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after the test. The nuclear power plant operators were divided to high score group and low score group by CPT scores. The correlation of the anti-stress ability and blood pressure,heart rate and their mental health was analyzed. Results: The scores of CPT and MHT test with the operators were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=-1.25, 6.25, P<0.05). After the test, the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of the operators were all significantly lower than those of the control group (t=-2.07, 3.28, 2.74, P<0.05). The CPT score of the high score group was lower in the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure than the low score group (t=-3.15, -2.78, -2.54, P<0.05), while the scores of CPT and MHT were better (t=0.63, 6.90, P<0.05). CPT scores were negatively correlated with the increasing range of the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (r=- 0.69, -0.94, and -0.62, P<0.05), and positively correlated with the MHT scores (r=0.54, P<0.05). Conclusions: To a certain extent, CPT and MHT test can reflect the anti-stress ability and be used as one of the bases to select nuclear power plant operators and to assess their competence. (authors)

  19. The physiological role of the brain GLP-1 system in stress

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, M. K.; Trapp, S.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) within the brain is a potent regulator of food intake and most studies have investigated the anorexic effects of central GLP-1. A range of brain regions have now been found to be involved in GLP-1 mediated anorexia, including some which are not traditionally associated with appetite regulation. However, a change in food intake can be indicative of not only reduced energy demand, but also changes in the organism's motivation to eat following stressful stimuli. I...

  20. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, i...

  1. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  2. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-06-01

    The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i) to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii) to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%), hands (93%), knees (86%), wrists (85%), shoulders (76%) and neck (65%). Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%), carrying bricks (95%) and molding (87%). The results showed a significantly lower p value workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  3. Physiological, physical and behavioural changes in dogs (Canis familiaris) when kennelled: testing the validity of stress parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, C E; Kiddie, J L; Hayes, W A; Mills, D S; Neville, R F; Morton, D B; Collins, L M

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) housed in kennelling establishments are considered at risk of suffering poor welfare. Previous research supporting this hypothesis has typically used cortisol:creatinine ratios (C/Cr) to measure acute and chronic stress in kennelled dogs. However, the value of C/Cr as a welfare indicator has been questioned. This study aimed to test the validity of a range of physiological, physical and behavioural welfare indicators and to establish baseline values reflecting good dog welfare. Measurements were taken from 29 privately-owned dogs (14 males, 15 females), ranging in age and breed, in their own home and in a boarding kennel environment, following a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. Pairwise comparisons revealed that C/Cr and vanillylmandelic acid:creatinine ratios (VMA/Cr) were higher in the kennel than home environment (P=0.003; P=0.01, respectively) and were not associated with differences in movement/exercise between environments. Dogs' surface temperature was lower in kennels (P=0.001) and was not associated with ambient temperature. No association with age, or effects of kennel establishment, kennelling experience, sex or source were found. Dogs were generally more active in kennels, but showed considerable individual variability. C/Cr and 5-HIAA:creatinine ratios (5-HIAA/Cr) were negatively correlated with lip licking in kennels. Baseline values for each parameter are presented. The emotional valence of responses was ambiguous and no definitive evidence was found to suggest that dogs were negatively stressed by kennelling. It was concluded that C/Cr and, particularly, VMA/Cr and surface temperature provide robust indicators of psychological arousal in dogs, while spontaneous behaviour might be better used to facilitate interpretation of physiological and physical data on an individual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banibrata Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. Material and Methods: For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Results: Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%, hands (93%, knees (86%, wrists (85%, shoulders (76% and neck (65%. Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%, carrying bricks (95% and molding (87%. The results showed a significantly lower p value < 0.001 in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR in brick field workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. Conclusions: This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  5. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of camellia oleifera to low-temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Shu, Q.; Fu, S.; Wu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel originates from China and is high healthy effect food oil species. It is also a high additional plant in southern China and can help to keep some people of mountain area out of poverty. In recent years, climate change has been abnormal frequently. Abnormal low temperature in winter and late spring coldness may cause the hard hit to C. oleifera farmers. Freezing injury can be caused by sudden decreases in temperature in winter. However, C. oleifera varieties differ in their hardiness to low temperatures. The paper investigated cold-resistance mechanisms by determining and analyzing the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of C. oleifera from eastern, western and southern Anhui, respectively. Sensitivity to low temperature was assessed via the number of leaves in spring shoots, leaf thickness, the activities of protective enzymes such as CAT, POD and SOD, and the inclusion contents of WSS, FPro, MDA, benzene-alcohol extracts and lignin. The results showed that C. oleifera varieties had different physiological and biochemical, and morphological responses to low winter temperatures. In different regions, the number of leaves, leaf thickness, WSS content, FPro content and MDA content varied from 5.2-7.8, 398.79 micro m-465.27 micro m, 23.41 mg/g-24.74 mg/g, 41.86 micro g/g-44.18 micro g/g and 10.08 micro mol/g-14.51 micro mol/g, respectively. The varieties from eastern Anhui, the leaf thickness were thicker. Meanwhile, the protective enzyme activities and inclusion contents were relatively higher. The protective enzyme activities and chemical components contents such as benzene-alcohol extract and lignin represented significantly difference (p<0.05) among three regions. In the future, for the abnormal low temperature in winter, a serious of cultivation measures such as improving the contents of WSS, FPro, benzene-alcohol extract and lignin, were taken to enhance the cold resistance of C. oleifera. The result broadens the

  6. Calcification and associated physiological parameters during a stress event in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Aurélie; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Furla, Paola; Richier, Sophie; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2008-09-01

    High calcification rates observed in reef coral organisms are due to the symbiotic relationship established between scleractinian corals and their photosynthetic dinoflagellates, commonly called zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellae are known to enhance calcification in the light, a process referred as "light-enhanced calcification". The disruption of the relationship between corals and their zooxanthellae leads to bleaching. Bleaching is one of the major causes of the present decline of coral reefs related to climate change and anthropogenic activities. In our aquaria, corals experienced a chemical pollution leading to bleaching and ending with the death of corals. During the time course of this bleaching event, we measured multiple parameters and could evidence four major consecutive steps: 1) at month 1 (January 2005), the stress affected primarily the photosystem II machinery of zooxanthellae resulting in an immediate decrease of photosystem II efficiency, 2) at month 2, the stress affected the photosynthetic production of O2 by zooxanthellae and the rate of light calcification, 3) at month 3, there was a decrease in both light and dark calcification rates, the appearance of the first oxidative damage in the zooxanthellae, the disruption of symbiosis, 4) and finally the death of corals at month 6.

  7. Leveraging knowledge from physiological data: on-body heat stress risk prediction with sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Elena; Kemp, John; Brusey, James

    2013-12-01

    The paper demonstrates that wearable sensor systems, coupled with real-time on-body processing and actuation, can enhance safety for wearers of heavy protective equipment who are subjected to harsh thermal environments by reducing risk of Uncompensable Heat Stress (UHS). The work focuses on Explosive Ordnance Disposal operatives and shows that predictions of UHS risk can be performed in real-time with sufficient accuracy for real-world use. Furthermore, it is shown that the required sensory input for such algorithms can be obtained with wearable, non-intrusive sensors. Two algorithms, one based on Bayesian nets and another on decision trees, are presented for determining the heat stress risk, considering the mean skin temperature prediction as a proxy. The algorithms are trained on empirical data and have accuracies of 92.1±2.9% and 94.4±2.1%, respectively when tested using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In applications such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal operative monitoring, such prediction algorithms can enable autonomous actuation of cooling systems and haptic alerts to minimize casualties.

  8. Sympathetic, Metabolic Adaptations, and Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Far From Physiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Messina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a complex and multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome with no specific cause still identified, despite the worldwide increasing (prevalence for 1,000 children from 6.7 to 14.6, between 2000 and 2012. Many biological and instrumental markers have been suggested as potential predictive factors for the precocious diagnosis during infancy and/or pediatric age. Many studies reported structural and functional abnormalities in the autonomic system in subjects with ASD. Sleep problems in ASD are a prominent feature, having an impact on the social interaction of the patient. Considering the role of orexins (A and B in wake-sleep circadian rhythm, we could speculate that ASD subjects may present a dysregulation in orexinergic neurotransmission. Conversely, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Nonetheless, little is known about the linkage between oxidative stress and the occurrence or the progress of autism and autonomic functioning; some markers, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, body temperature, and galvanic skin response (GSR, may be altered in the patient with this so complex disorder. In the present paper, we analyzed an autism case report, focusing on the rule of the sympathetic activity with the aim to suggest that it may be considered an important tool in ASD evaluation. The results of this case confirm our hypothesis even if further studies needed.

  9. Enamel hypoplasias and physiological stress in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, E; Rozzi, F Ramirez; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Wasterlain, S N; Sarmiento, S

    2004-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and plane-form defects (PFD) in the hominine dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site in Atapuerca (Spain). The SH sample comprises 475 teeth, 467 permanent and 8 deciduous, belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals. The method for recording PFD and LEH is discussed, as well as the definition of LEH. The prevalence of LEH and PFD in SH permanent dentition (unilateral total count) is 4.6% (13/280). Only one deciduous tooth (lower dc) showed an enamel disruption. Prevalence by individual ranges from 18.7-30%. The most likely explanation for the relatively low LEH and PFD prevalence in the SH sample suggests that the SH population exhibited a low level of developmental stress. The age at occurrence of LEH and PFD was determined by counting the number of perikymata between each lesion and the cervix of the tooth. Assuming a periodicity of nine days for the incremental lines, the majority of LEH in the SH sample occurred during the third year of life and may be related to the metabolic stress associated with weaning.

  10. EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDRONIE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research monitored the response of some welfare indicators in sport horses during transport by assessing the intensity of stress during travel time, changes in heart rate, cortisol, lactic acid and creatinine levels. The horses included in the study were separated into 2 groups: horses that were transported for the first time (A n: 12 and horses that had been previously transported (B n: 10. The values of the indicators varied between the two groups regardless of the fact that travel length and transport conditions were almost identical. The heart rate and cortisol levels were elevated in horses from group A as compared to the ones in group B while the latter showed increased levels of these indicators upon repeating the loading and unloading (100-130 nmol/l. The recorded value of lactic acid was higher for the first group (2,2 mmol/l, only until the moment when the horses adapted to the effort, after which it decreased (1,8 mmol/l. Transport of horses under certain conditions related to their adjusting to manhandling during loading and unloading operations, as well as the animals’ temper, may be considered a stress factor with significant depreciating effect on horse welfare.

  11. Pulsatility Index as a Diagnostic Parameter of Reciprocating Wall Shear Stress Parameters in Physiological Pulsating Waveforms.

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    Idit Avrahami

    Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.

  12. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  13. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wixted

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  14. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, Fiona; O'Riordan, Cliona; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators' job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO₂ were evaluated. The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO₂ on upper trapezius muscle activity. Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  15. THE EFFECT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SURGICAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to study the effect of muscular relaxation technique and counseling on physiological parameters on subjects undergoing surgery. The study was conducted in 32 individuals between ages of 20 – 70 at Civil hospital, GMERS, Valsad and was compared with a control group (N=32 of the same age. The parameters recorded were arterial pulse, arterial blood pressure. The results show the significant differences in the recorded parameters in control ( n=34 and study group (n=33. Pulse rat e ( 75.54 to 80.17 , systolic ( 121.49 to 126.29 and diastolic blood pressure ( 80.4 to 84.23 values increased in preoperative period than on admission in the control group while study group showed decrease in the preoperative value compared to that on admi ssion Pulse rate ( 77.94 to 74.80, systolic ( 124.50 to 122.19 and diastolic blood pressure ( 82.88 to 81. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance. The results obtained were statistically significant

  16. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

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    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previous