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Sample records for greater phoenix jose

  1. Phoenix Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Phoenix is a commercial off-the-shelf, web-based financial management system configured for USAID. Phoenix provides information about commitments, obligations, and...

  2. Phoenix Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phoenix Traffic and Mobile Data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Baldauf , R., V. Isakov , P. Deshmukh, and A. Venkatram. Influence of...

  3. Jose Cabrera NPP; Central Nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, P.

    2004-07-01

    During 2003, the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant (JCNPP) operated without any incidents involving an undue risk to the population or environment. The year 2003 was the Plant's 35th year of operation, and during that time it has provided 33.209 million kilowatt-hours to the electric grid. The Plant set a record for continuous operation with 386 days of uninterrupted operation. The Plant had an outage for the 27th refueling and for equipment and systems maintenance, inspection and testing activities. The Plant reported nine events to the Administration that were classified as zero on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) and another event classified as level 1. AENOR performance the audit for renewing certificate UNE-EN ISO-9001, and for tracking environmental management systems as per UNE-EN ISO 14001, with satisfactory results. The dose around the Plant caused by plant operation has been insignificant. For the first time in the Spanish industry, the Plant has implemented an integrated safety system that encompasses all the plant's safety-related activities.

  4. Phoenix Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair. For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, P.

    2004-01-01

    During 2003, the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant (JCNPP) operated without any incidents involving an undue risk to the population or environment. The year 2003 was the Plant's 35th year of operation, and during that time it has provided 33.209 million kilowatt-hours to the electric grid. The Plant set a record for continuous operation with 386 days of uninterrupted operation. The Plant had an outage for the 27th refueling and for equipment and systems maintenance, inspection and testing activities. The Plant reported nine events to the Administration that were classified as zero on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) and another event classified as level 1. AENOR performance the audit for renewing certificate UNE-EN ISO-9001, and for tracking environmental management systems as per UNE-EN ISO 14001, with satisfactory results. The dose around the Plant caused by plant operation has been insignificant. For the first time in the Spanish industry, the Plant has implemented an integrated safety system that encompasses all the plant's safety-related activities

  6. Jose Vasconcelos, Philosopher-Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Paul Martin

    Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959), a major figure of modern Mexican education, also was instrumental in the development of the field of librarianship in Mexico. This research paper presents Vasconcelos' philosophy of librarianship through a detailed study of his writings and a review of major secondary sources. Relying solely on the subjective…

  7. GMAP Phoenix 2013 data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — mobile monitoring data from the 2013 Phoenix study. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Venkatram, A., V. Isakov , P. Deshmukh, and R....

  8. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  9. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  10. Phoenix's Workplace Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Phoenix's solar panels are seen in the foreground. The trench informally called 'Snow White' was dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.' Snow White, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 24 (June 18, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Jose Cabrera NPP severe accident management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.; Almeida, P.; Saiz, J.; Sastre, J.L.; Delgado, R.

    1998-01-01

    To prepare a common acting plan with respect to Severe Accident Management, in 1994 was founded the severe accident management ''ad-hoc'' working group from the Spanish Westinghouse PWR Nuclear Power Plant Owners Group. In this group actively collaborated the Jose Cabrera NPP Training Centre and the Department of Nuclear Engineering of UNION FENOSA. From this moment, Jose Cabrera NPP began the planning of its specific Severe Accident Management Program, which main point are Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). To elaborate this guidelines, the Spanish translation of Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) Severe Accident Management Guidelines were considered the reference documents. The implementation of this Guidelines to Jose Cabrera NPP started on January 1997. Once the specific guidelines have been implemented to the plant, training activities for the personnel involved in severe accident issues will be developed. To prepare the training exercises MAAP4 code will be used, and with this intention, a specific Jose Cabrera NPP MAAP-GRAAPH screen has been developed. Furthermore, a wide selection of MAAP input files for the simulation of different scenarios and accidental events is available. (Author)

  13. The PHOENIX Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Takahashi, H.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Slovik, G.C.; Horak, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed means of transmuting key long-lived radioactive isotopes, primarily the so-called minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), using a hybrid proton-accelerator-sub-critical lattice, is described. It is argued that by partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, that some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. If spent fuel partitioning and transmutation were fully implemented, the time required to reduce the waste stream toxicity below that of uranium ore would be reduced from more than 10,000 years to approximately 30 years. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and much of the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 29 figs

  14. Plant lifetime management at Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jorge; Garcia, Piedad

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the development and implementation of the Jose Cabrera NPP Lifetime Management Program according to the methodology applied in the Plant. The implementation of the Lifetime Management Program began in 1995 with the elaboration of the annual revision document 'Lifetime Management Plan', which describes the level of development of the Lifetime Management activities, the results that have been obtained during the implementation of the Program, and the schedule of the upcoming activities. The drawing up of a weighted list of 135 important components and the elaboration of 17 dossiers integrating the ageing mechanisms analysis and its corresponding evaluation, control and mitigation methods, were the result of the activities completed during 1996. A group of 62 component/degradation phenomena pairs with a high degradation risk classification has been considered within the scope of the activity 'Assessment of Maintenance Practices. Improvement Proposal', performed by the plant during 1997 and the first term of 1998 in parallel with other Lifetime Management related activities. The results obtained within this activity have revealed for the components included in the scope of the assessment that the associated degradation phenomena are practically covered by the current maintenance, inspection and testing practices. Recommendations and improvements of the maintenance practices have been particularly proposed from a technical, supporting, proceeding and documentary point of view, and currently an analysis is being made in relation to the feasibility of implementing them at the Jose Cabrera NPP. (author)

  15. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  16. Phoenix's Lay of the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Parts of Phoenix can be seen in the foreground. The first two trenches dug by the lander's Robotic Arm, called 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks,' were enlarged on the 19th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 18 (June 12, 2008), to form one trench, dubbed 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' Scoops of material taken from those trenches are informally called 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear.' Baby Bear was carried to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, instrument for analysis, while Mama Bear was delivered to Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA, for a closer look. The color inset picture of the Dodo-Goldilocks trench, also taken with Phoenix's SSI, reveals white material thought to be ice. More recently, on Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), Phoenix's Robotic Arm began digging a trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trench, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 25 (June 19, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.M.; Patterson, E.L.; Tisone, G.C.; Moreno, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF 6 -HI or SF 6 -C 2 H 6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H 2 and F 2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF 6 -HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H 2 -F 2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H 2 and F 2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 10 7 W/cm 2 , 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF 6 -C 2 H 6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature

  18. Martian Surface as Seen by Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 36, the 36th Martian day of the mission (July 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of a trench informally called 'Snow White' dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Phoenix's solar panel is seen in the bottom right corner of the image. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondaro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  20. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondaro, Manuel [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  1. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  3. Geologic mapping around Mahoma mining. San Jose mining company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.; Arrighetii, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study has as main objective carry out a geological mapping as well as the structural analysis , in 1.5.000 scale in the zone where the gold benefit plant of San Jose mining company is settled (Mahoma Mining). From this study has been marked many drillings.

  4. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Experimental study of the ultraviolet global radiation in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The ultraviolet global radiation and the global solar radiation at San Jose, Costa Rica (latitude: 9 0 56', longitude: 84 0 54', altitude: 1.172 m.) during the period October 1993 to January 1995 were analyzed with respect to their seasonal variations and their independence. The dependence between the ultraviolet radiation and the clearness index of the skies was also investigated. A poor correlation was found between the quotient of the ultraviolet radiation (Hv/Hg) and between the global solar radiation and the extraterrestrial solar radiation (Hg/Ho). The correlation coefficient found between Hv/Hg and Hg/Ho was not greater than 0.25 for four categories of clearness index, i.e., covered skies, clear skies, and two intermediate conditions. This demonstrates that the ultraviolet radiation is not only associated with other atmospheric transmission conditions. A regression analysis between the hourly values of the ultraviolet and global radiation yielded a linear relationship with a determination coefficient greater than 98%. Thus a simple linear regression is reliable for the estimation of the ultraviolet in San Jose from global solar radiation data. (author) [es

  6. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  7. Phoenix v. 1.0-SNAPSHOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-21

    Phoenix is a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) based library for performing mathematical and astrodynamics calculations. It consists of two primary sub-modules, phoenix-math and phoenix-astrodynamics. The mathematics package has a variety of mathematical classes for performing 3D transformations, geometric reasoning, and numerical analysis. The astrodynamics package has various classes and methods for computing locations, attitudes, accesses, and other values useful for general satellite modeling and simulation. Methods for computing celestial locations, such as the location of the Sun and Moon, are also included. Phoenix is meant to be used as a library within the context of a larger application. For example, it could be used for a web service, desktop client, or to compute simple values in a scripting environment.

  8. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  9. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias Perez, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger) [es

  10. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. The environmental thinking of Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurecir Guimarães de Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at emphasizing the strong presence of the renowned Patriarch of Independence Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva in discussions on environmental degradation that occurred in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The author registered his concern about deforestation in the Brazilian rainforests for farming and charcoal production, and warned about the depletion of water resources, as well as the disappearance of important trees – important raw-material for the shipbuilding industry. He proposed replanting seedlings, the rational use of natural resources, and recommended the adoption of agricultural practices only in valleys. These proposals show an aspect of Bonifacio that is unknown to Brazilian historiography.

  12. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Merrison, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data are hig...

  13. Discovery Learning: Zombie, Phoenix, or Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Discovery learning continues to be a topic of heated debate. It has been called a zombie, and this special issue raises the question whether it may be a phoenix arising from the ashes to which the topic was burnt. However, in this commentary I propose it is more like an elephant--a huge topic approached by many people who address different…

  14. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  15. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  16. La Biblioteca Latino Americana: User Survey (San Jose Public Library). Studies in Librarianship No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, James C.; And Others

    To assist a neighborhood committee in applying for federal funding of a bilingual/bicultural library with a distinct Latin American emphasis, a student research group from San Jose State University designed and administered a bilingual questionnaire to a stratified sample of 400 households in the Gardner District of San Jose, California. The…

  17. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  18. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning - the Jose Cabrera (Zorita) NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid Garcia, F.; Holgado, A.; Pomar, C.; Gammon, Th.; Bradbury, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Jose Cabrera (Zorita) NPP is located in the Guadalajara province of Spain approximately 66 km northeast of Madrid. It is a single loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design cooled by the waters of the River Tajo. The plant was synchronized to the grid in 1968 and was permanently shutdown on April 30, 2006. UNION FENOSA Generacion has been the owner and operator of the plant and will hand over decommissioning activities to Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) in approximately two years. During the fall and winter of 2006, Westinghouse Electric Company performed a Full System Decontamination (FSD) in preparation for decommissioning activities. The FSD was performed on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) including the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) and the Chemical Volume and Control System (CVCS). The FSD was performed to facilitate decommissioning activities by reducing general area dose rates and lowering contamination levels to reduce disposal costs. (authors)

  20. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.' The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing. The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols. The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches). The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. 'Dodo-Goldilocks' Trench Dug by Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 19th day of the mission, or Sol 19 (June 13, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows one trench informally called 'Dodo-Goldilocks' after two digs (dug on Sol 18, or June 12, 2008) by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench is 22 centimeters (8.7 inches) wide and 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) long. At its deepest point, the trench is 7 to 8 centimeters (2.7 to 3 inches) deep. White material, possibly ice, is located only at the upper portion of the trench, indicating that it is not continuous throughout the excavated site. According to scientists, the trench might be exposing a ledge, or only a portion of a slab, of the white material. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. The short half-life descendents from radon measured in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, and its correlation with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Marinho, E.V. de.

    1985-09-01

    The correlations between the activity of the short half-life radon decay products in the low atmosphere and the meterological parameters, measuring the atmospheric polonium 214 are studied. The aerosols were collected on membrane filters and analysed by alpha spectrometry. Measurements have been made in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, in Brazil. At S. Jose dos Campos the influence of the pluviometry on the concentration of atmospheric Po 214 has been analysed, showing that high activity correspond to low pluviometry and inversely, low activities correspond to high pluviometry. At Cachoeira Paulista, the variation in the atmospheric Po 214 activity in corresation with the air stability, measured, showing the accumulation of radioactive aerosols during the greater stability in the the lower atmospheric layers, was studied. (author) [pt

  3. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R.; Blanco, J.; POMAR, C.

    2010-01-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles were

  4. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R. [Product Engineering, Enusa Industrias Avanzadas S.A., Santiago Rusinol 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, J.; POMAR, C. [Direction of Nuclear Generation, Gas Natural SDG, Avda. San Luis 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles

  5. Comparison of some Phoenix and gusev soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter..[], Goetz; Hviid, S.F.; Madsen, Morten Bo

    2010-01-01

    The comparison of soil particles at the Phoenix landing site and in Gusev Crater provides clues on their origin and global distribution. Some unusual Phoenix particles are possibly of (more) local origin, as they appear to be absent in Gusev dunes....

  6. Läänemere strateegia arvestab kodanike ettepanekutega / Jose Palma Andres ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palma Andres, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni regionaalpoliitika peadirektoraadi direktor Jose Palma Andres vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad avalikku debatti Läänemere strateegia üle ning Venemaa partnerlust Läänemere strateegias. Lisa: [Läänemere strateegia

  7. 75 FR 71106 - San Jose Water Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... consumptive domestic use. The hydraulic capacity of each turbine will be 9.5 cubic feet per second and the...-kilowatt turbine/ generator units in parallel with a pressure reduction valve at the San Jose Water Company...

  8. Tsenõ rastut, poka ljudi pokupajut / Marje Josing ; interv. Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Josing, Marje, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    Konjunktuuriinstituudi direktor Marje Josing selgitab inflatsiooni ja tarbijahinnaindeksi mõistete erinevusi, palgatõusu ja inflatsiooni kasvu põhjusi, Eesti majanduse üldisi arenguid ja annab lähiaastate prognoosi

  9. Geological prospecting in La Primera area (Caballo Torcido) Fotoplano M-25 Mal Abrigo San Jose town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Techera, J.; Pias, J.; Ramos, E.; De Souza, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the prospection results in La Primera (Caballo Torcido) area in San Jose town. In this zone has been extracted metallic minerals, sediments and multielement soil samples to detect geochemical anomalies.

  10. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  11. Kepentingan Pemerintah Uruguay Melegalisasi Ganja Pada Masa Pemerintahan Jose Alberto Mujica Cordano Tahun 2010-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Pebrianto; Yelta, Den

    2015-01-01

    This study explain about Uruguay government interests to legalization marijuana in the reign of Jose Alberto Mujica Cordano in 2013. Uruguay is a first country who legalize cultivation, distribution, and consumtion of marijuana in the world. Marijuana is plant which producing a fiber, but better known as narcotic substance in the seeds that can make the user feeling pleasure without cause. This regulation was first proposed by Jose Alberto Mujica Cordano and approved by parlament and senate. ...

  12. El Filibusterismo and Jose Rizal as “Science Fictionist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Paolo P. Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose Rizal’s El Filibusterismo famously depicts the diff iculties faced by adherents of scientif ic thought in the Philippines during the late nineteenth century. It also contains descriptions of various implements that were uncommon for the time, from a “time bomb” within a lamp to a “specter summoner” that apparently projects hologram-like images—the products of reasonable extrapolations from the known science of the age. These features are common among the forerunners of the modern Anglo-American genre of science fiction, from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein to a number of works by Edgar Allan Poe. It is far from the objective of this paper to push for Rizal’s canonization as the Father of Filipino Science Fiction, however. Instead, this paper seeks to surface the particular ways Rizal chose to depict the conflicts between knowledge borne of materialist investigation and knowledge from the earthly emissaries of the divine. It argues that in El Filibusterismo, these conflicts are somewhat helpful but at the same time dismissible as irrelevant in the context of a campaign against injustice—helpful in intimidating enemy oppressors, irrelevant among advocates of the downtrodden. In this way, Rizal’s novel implicitly contemplates a way to craft “science fiction” that strays from the imperialistic “science conquers” formula predominant in the West.

  13. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  14. Geologic mapping around Mahoma mining. San Jose mining company;Carta geologica de los alrededores de Mina Mahoma, Compania Minera San Jose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techera, J; Arrighetii, R

    1993-07-01

    This study has as main objective carry out a geological mapping as well as the structural analysis , in 1.5.000 scale in the zone where the gold benefit plant of San Jose mining company is settled (Mahoma Mining). From this study has been marked many drillings.

  15. Groundwater arsenic content in Raigon Aquifer System (San Jose, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manay, N.; Piston, M.; Goso, C.; Fernnandez, T.; Rejas, M.; Garcia Valles, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a Medical Geology research issue, an environmental arsenic risk assessment study in the most important sedimentary aquifer in southern Uruguay is presented. The Raigon Aquifer System is the most exploited in Uruguay. It has a surface extent of about 1,800 square kilometres and 10,000 inhabitants in San Jose Department, where it was studied. Agriculture and cattle breeding are the main economic activities and this aquifer is the basic support. The groundwater sampling was done on 37 water samples of PRENADER (Natural Resources Management and Irrigation Development Program) wells. Outcropping sediments of Raigon Formation and the overlying Libertad Formation were also sampled in the Kiyu region. The analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed 80% samples with arsenic levels exceeding the 10 μg/l of WHO as limit for waters, and 11% exceeds the 20 μg/l limit of uruguayan regulation. The median, maximum and minimum water arsenic concentrations determined have been 14.24, 24.19 and 1.44 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, nine sediment samples of Raigon and Libertad Formations in Kiyu region were analysed and yielded median, maximum and minimum arsenic concentrations of 5.03, 9.82 and 1.18 ppm, respectively. This issue leads to the supposition that the population, as well as industrial and agricultural activities, are consuming water with arsenic concentrations over the national and international maximum recommended limit.

  16. Power lines Phoenix and the making of the modern southwest

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 1940, Phoenix was a small, agricultural city of sixty-five thousand, and the Navajo Reservation was an open landscape of scattered sheepherders. Forty years later, Phoenix had blossomed into a metropolis of 1.5 million people and the territory of the Navajo Nation was home to two of the largest strip mines in the world. Five coal-burning power plants surrounded the reservation, generating electricity for export to Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other cities. Exploring the postwar developments of these two very different landscapes, Power Lines tells the story of the far-reaching environmental a

  17. Project Phoenix and beyond. Pesek Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, J

    1997-01-01

    Although there are no federally funded projects at this time, SETI (the search for extraterrestrial intelligence) is a vigorous exploratory science. There are currently eight observational programs on telescopes around the world, of which the Phoenix Project is the most comprehensive. Most of these projects are rooted in the conclusions of the pioneering studies of the early 1970's that are summarized in the Cyclops Report. Technology has experienced an exponential growth over the past two and a half decades. It is reasonable to reassess the Cyclops conclusions as SETI enters the next century. Listening for radio signals is still the preferred method of searching, however new technologies are making searches at other wavelengths possible and are modifying the ways in which the radio searches can and should be conducted. It may be economically feasible to undertake the construction of very large telescopes that can simultaneously provide multiple beams on the sky for use by SETI and the radioastronomy community.

  18. Pesek lecture project Phoenix and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    Although there are no federally funded projects at this time, SETI (the search for extraterrestrial intelligence) is a vigorous exploratory science. There are currently eight observational programs on telescopes around the world, of which the Phoenix Project is the most comprehensive. Most of these projects are rooted in the conclusions of the pioneering studies of the early 1970's that are summarized in the Cyclops Report1. Technology has experienced an exponential growth over the past two and a half decades. It is reasonable to reassess the Cyclops conclusions as SETI enters the next century. Listening for radio signals is still the preferred method of searching, however new technologies are making searches at other wavelengths possible and are modifying the ways in which the radio searches can and should be conducted. It may be economically feasible to undertake the construction of very large telescopes that can simultaneously provide multiple beams on the sky for use by SETI and the radioastronomy community.

  19. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Phoenix Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Baker in the Phoenix...

  20. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  1. Commissioning of Theratron phoenix telecobalt machine and its performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, M.; Reddy, K.D.; Reddy, R.M.; Reddy, J.M.; Reddy, B.V.N.; Kumar, K.; Gopi, S.; Rajan, Dharani; Janardhanan

    2002-01-01

    Teletherapy machines like cobalt-60 unit and linear accelerator are extensively used for radiotherapy. Theratron phoenix machines have been installed. A brief report on the performance of this machine is presented

  2. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 2,434 block groups in Phoenix, Arizona. Carbon attributes, pollution removal and value, and...

  3. Dismantling and decommissioning of Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    With the start of the dismantling works at the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant now in sight, this is an appropriate moment to look back and consider recent history. The first time that the issue of nuclear power plant dismantling was dealt with was in 1975, at a conference in Paris entitled Nuclear Energy Maturity. Up until then the entire question had been one of design, construction and operation, but since that moment and it has been quite a while since that conference dismantling has begun to be seen as just another activity in the nuclear cycle, a final activity that will sooner or later affect all the facilities, an activity different from its predecessors and with the ultimate objective of restoring the sites for whatever use might be determined. During the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of nuclear power plants was widespread across the entire world. It was the baby boom of nuclear energy and now, forty or fifty years later, we are seeing the arrival of the end of the service lifetime of these plants and are faced with the corresponding general process of dismantling these installations. The dismantling of nuclear power plants has ceased to be an emerging issue and is now consolidated as a regular activity in the nuclear industry, albeit an activity that lacks adequate financing or specific regulation in certain countries. Fortunately this is not the case in Spain, since economic provisions have been planned and the regulatory framework developed. In view of the above, the dismantling of the nuclear power plants is an industrial activity involving specific technologies that implies new professional and business opportunities that should be absorbed and seized by society. In Spain the path followed in this direction has been a long one, as is underlined by the experiences of dismantling the Argos (Barcelona, 1998- 2004) and Arbi (Bilbao, 2002-2005) research reactors, the Andujar Uranium Mill (Jaen, 1991-1995), the Vandellos I nuclear power plant

  4. Manufacturing and Design Engineering Students St. Mary's Hospital, Phoenix Park.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Poster with details of project to improve ease of movement for Kirton Stirling chairs in St. Mary's Hospital, Phoenix Park, Dublin. Third year students in the B Eng (Honours) Manufacturing and Design Engineering course at Bolton St. completed a project in conjunction with St. Mary‟s Hospital, Phoenix Park. The staff in St Mary‟s were experiencing difficulty in moving the Kirton Stirling chairs (pictured above). These chairs are used to transport elderly patients from one location to another. ...

  5. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 36-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment Manufacturing); Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of San Jose, grantee of...

  6. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  7. Troubles continue for the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission, JCAHO, an independent organization that reviews hospitals, the Phoenix VA does not comply with U.S. standards for safety, patient care and management (1. The hospital was at the epicenter of the national scandal over the quality of care being afforded to the nation's veterans where the now notorious practice of double-booking patient appointments was first exposed. The hospital's indifferent management provoked congressional investigations that uncovered still more system-wide abuses leading to the removal of the hospital director and the resignation of then VA secretary, Eric Shinseki. The hospital maintains its accreditation but with a follow-up survey in 1-6 months where it must show that it has successfully addressed the 13 identified problems (1. Inspectors who conducted the review in July found that VA employees were unable to report concerns "without retaliatory action from the hospital." Other alarming ...

  8. Ovate pontics: Phoenixing the gingival contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Vivek Bhuskute

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's busy world, most patients do not have time for long, drawn-out dental treatment. The time span between extraction and healing after loss of tooth in the anterior esthetic zone can be esthetically and psychologically devastating on the part of the patient. Especially, when a maxillary anterior tooth must be extracted and replaced, immediate tooth replacement with an ovate pontic on a provisional bridge is a good alternative. Ovate pontic helps in preservation of the interdental papilla, which in turn preserves the natural gingival contour that would have otherwise been lost after extraction. An immediate tooth replacement using ovate pontic not only eliminates the psychologically disturbing partially edentulous phase but also results in a much more esthetically pleasing replacement of tooth that is both hygienic and natural in appearance. Another added advantage of the use of ovate pontic is that it rules out the dissatisfaction resulting from an unesthetic ridge lap pontic placed directly over edentulous ridge. Just like the long-lived bird “Phoenix,” arising out of its own ashes, the ovate pontic creates an illusion that the pontic is emerging from the gingiva, even after tooth loss. This case report discusses how an integrated approach of fabricating heat cure provisional bridge with ovate pontics before extractions, benefitted a young patient in whom fractured anterior teeth were proposed for extraction.

  9. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  10. 75 FR 17692 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000-acre activation limit for a general-purpose zone project... terminal at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix; Site 2 (18 acres) CC&F South Valley..., 4747 West Buckeye Road, Phoenix; Site 4 (18 acres) - Santa Fe Business Park, 47th Avenue and Campbell...

  11. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope. The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  13. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  14. A biometeorology study of climate and heat-related morbidity in Phoenix from 2001 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jay S.; Hartz, Donna; Brazel, Anthony; Luber, George; Phelan, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Heat waves kill more people in the United States than hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods combined. Recently, international attention focused on the linkages and impacts of human health vulnerability to urban climate when Western Europe experienced over 30,000 excess deaths during the heat waves of the summer of 2003—surpassing the 1995 heat wave in Chicago, Illinois, that killed 739. While Europe dealt with heat waves, in the United States, Phoenix, Arizona, established a new all-time high minimum temperature for the region on July 15, 2003. The low temperature of 35.5°C (96°F) was recorded, breaking the previous all-time high minimum temperature record of 33.8°C (93°F). While an extensive literature on heat-related mortality exists, greater understanding of influences of heat-related morbidity is required due to climate change and rapid urbanization influences. We undertook an analysis of 6 years (2001 2006) of heat-related dispatches through the Phoenix Fire Department regional dispatch center to examine temporal, climatic and other non-spatial influences contributing to high-heat-related medical dispatch events. The findings identified that there were no significant variations in day-of-week dispatch events. The greatest incidence of heat-related medical dispatches occurred between the times of peak solar irradiance and maximum diurnal temperature, and during times of elevated human comfort indices (combined temperature and relative humidity).

  15. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  16. Thermophysical Properties of the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Study Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Golombek, M. P.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of Phoenix Mars study regions places 4 of 5 in a previously-identified duricrust-dominated thermophysical unit which also contains the Viking and Spirit landing sites. Extrapolation of lander-observed properties to the study regions may be complicated by surface heterogeneity.

  17. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masini, A.; Comastri, A.; Puccetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (also known as UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods. The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 yr. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in the context of previously ...

  18. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity for some Iraqi date palms ( Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity between 18 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties (11 females and 7 males) collected from the center of Iraq. Six primer pairs were applied to detect polymorphism between varieties. A total of 83 polymorphic AFLP fragments ...

  20. Gender Roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix | Akani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines gender roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix (2007). In examining these gender roles, the paper focuses on the roles of both female and male genders in the novel in order to tease out issues that border on the marriage institution and gender complementarity in a multicultural setting. As we have ...

  1. Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Honstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Telltale wind indicator is a mechanical anemometer designed to operate on the Martian surface as part of the meteorological package on the NASA Phoenix lander. It consists of a lightweight cylinder suspended by Kevlar fibers and is deflected under the action of wind. Imaging of the Telltale...

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of Phoenix dactylifera L. Pollen used for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm) is known for its traditional medicinal properties across the history of native population in Algerian Sahara. There is a large trend of consumption of date palm pollen preparations in many human infertility cases in our country. However, the validity has not been scientifically ...

  3. Reactivity follow of the two first loadings of the Jose Cabrera Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the first two cores together with the in-core measurements taken during the operation of the Nuclear Power Station Jose Cabrera are described. The results of this measurements have been processed with the INCORE and FOLLOW codes. The peaking factors and the boron concentration versus burn-up are displayed. The final burn-up of the fuel elements in these two loading are given, too. (Author)

  4. Micro paleontology of Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations in San Jose department in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations of Miocene to Pleistocene age, are rich in microfossils as showed by recent studies of samples coming from cliffs at San Jose department, at Rio de la Plata shore and from Borehole N 1394/4 (DINAMIGE) which was made near to Kiyu resort. The microfossils are integrated by foraminiferids, diatoms, ostracods, silicophitoliths and uniaxial sponge spicles. By means of paleontologic analysis we can reach to a much clear definition of the geological evolution of the area

  5. Management system information of characterization of the dismantling project of Jose Cabrera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno Blesa, M. E.; Martin Palomo, N.; Gomez Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the proposed dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP is designed and implemented a database of physical and radiological inventory, which provides a powerful tool to optimize the storage, monitoring and control of the characterization data. The database is a useful and reliable management system characterization information that facilitates access and information processing, and ensures their integrity and traceability along of the dismantling project.

  6. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing. The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site. These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Patient deaths blamed on long waits at the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. This morning the lead article in the Arizona Republic was a report blaming as many as 40 deaths at the Phoenix VA on long waits (1. Yesterday, Rep. Jeff Miller, the chairman of the House Committee on Veterans Affairs, held a hearing titled “A Continued Assessment of Delays in VA Medical Care and Preventable Veteran Deaths.” “It appears as though there could be as many as 40 veterans whose deaths could be related to delays in care,” Miller announced to a stunned audience. The committee has spent months investigating patient-care scandals and allegations at VA facilities in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Miami and other cities. said that dozens of VA hospital patients in Phoenix may have died while awaiting medical care. He went on to say that staff investigators have evidence that the Phoenix VA Health Care System keeps two sets of records to conceal prolonged waits that patients must endure for ...

  8. Metallothionein and heavy metals in daphnia pulex from Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Perez, P.; Zarazua Ortega, G.; Barcelo Quintal, D.; Rosas, I.; Diazdelgado, C.

    2001-01-01

    Water and specimens of the freshwater cladoceran Dhapnia pulex were collected at 4 different sites located in an area influenced by industrial, agricultural and urban activities in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir in two different seasons. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico. There are about 2,500 industrial discharges between the river source and the Alzate Reservoir which makes the Lerma river and the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. The Monitoring National Network recognises these waters as highly contaminated, especially in the zone located between the Mexico-Toluca highway and the Alzate Reservoir. Water samples and freshwater cladoceran were analysed for Cu and Zn by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and for Hg and Cd by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). As a general feature, the heavy metal concentrations of the water were found to decrease in the sequence: Cu > Zn > Hg > Cd. Metallothioneins (MT) were determined by silver saturation method. Tissue concentrations of MT in Dhapnia pulex varied between 5.69 and 8.96 (mg MT/ g wet wt) in rain season and between 48.87 and 74.00 (mg MT/ g wet wt) in dry season. Metallothioneins levels in Dhapnia pulex were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with tissue Hg concentrations. In contrast, correlations between MT and tissue levels of Cu and Zn were weak. These observations suggest that Hg2+ activity is the key environmental factor to which metallothionein levels in Daphnia pulex are responding in the studied reservoir

  9. PHOENIX MARS MECA NON-IMAGING EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) experiment on the Mars Phoenix Lander consists of four instrument components plus command...

  10. PHOENIX MARS MECA OPTICAL MICROSCOPE 3 RADIOMETRIC SCI V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) experiment on the Mars Phoenix Lander consists of four instrument components plus command...

  11. PHOENIX MARS MECA OPTICAL MICROSCOPE 2 EDR VERSION 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) experiment on the Mars Phoenix Lander consists of four instrument components plus command...

  12. Photometric Properties of Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Preliminary Analysis from CRISM EPF Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Using data from CRISM's Emission Phase Function observations, we attempt to constrain Phoenix soil scattering properties, including soil grain size, single-scattering albedo, and surface phase function.

  13. Neutron spectrometry in the temporary storage of waste of the Jose Cabrera (Zorita)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, C.; Amgarou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation controls the temporary storage of waste must ensure that the exterior of the same area is classified as open access. Gamma radiation monitors commonly used ensure that this is the case for this type of radiation. The presence of the neutron field associated with the fission of the fuel and the inherent complexity of the neutron dosimetry, in which information is required to assess spectrometric corresponding dosimetric quantities, has led to this season, first in Spain, measures in containers of waste and spent nuclear fuel in the ATT of the Jose Cabrera.

  14. Jose de la Vega: a naval doctor who authored the first Spanish book on radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, A. J.; Rozua, L.; Garzon, M.; Ramirez, J. M.; Escatllar, T.

    1999-01-01

    Jose de la Vega Elorduy was a doctor in the Spanish Naval Medical Corps who wrote the book entitled Los Rayos X. Memoria sobre Radioscopia y Radiografia in 1899. We have learned that this book, published in Cartagena in 1900, was the first text about Radiology to be published in Spain, rather than that written by Major J. Mitjavila of the Army Medical Corps, as was previously thought. We review the book, stressing its pioneering outlook which provides brief view of the advent of Radiology in the Spanish Navy. (Author) 11 refs

  15. Dating considerations about Mahoma Guaycuru complex (San Jose province-Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work has been achieved the training in the radimetric determination of age of rocks for those methods of K/Ar and Rb/Sr; the knowledge of this methodology and the different technical steps that it demands, will allow to achieve a better understanding of the geologic evolution have suffered the rocks of the Crystaline oldland in our country. The rocks selected for the work come from the San Jose province, of 4th Judicial section, well-known place as Sierra Mahoma and Guaycuru.

  16. I and C upgrades resulting from the systematic evaluation program carried out at the Central Nuclear Jose Cabrera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Central Nuclear Jose Cabrera, also known as Zorita, is a 160 MWe nuclear power plant owned and operated by UNION ELECTRICA-FENOSA, S.A. The plant was supplied by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and commissioned in 1968. It features a unique one loop Pressurized Water Reactor design. The Spanish Licensing Authorities requested C.N. Jose Cabrera to carry out a review of their plant. The main objectives were to reassess the safety adequacy of the operating systems, provide a documented comparison of the plant design versus present day criteria and establish a rationale for departures. Another important objective was to provide prompt identification of any significant deficiency. The review known as phase 1 of the C.N. Jose Cabrera Systematic Evaluation Program, was completed and documented by April 1980

  17. Petrographic characterization, geochemistry and age of the nepheline syenite of San Jose del Guaviare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Mejia, Maria Isabel; Zapata Garcia, Gilberto; Martens, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The San Jose del Guaviare Nepheline Syenite includes two rock bodies that crop out 20 km SW of the town with the same name. The first of these bodies, which had already been reported by Vesga and Castillo (1972), is exposed in the La Pizarra area. The second body, which had not been previously reported, occurs in the Las Delicias area.Petrographic characterization shows that rocks correspond to nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, and feldspar + nepheline granofels. The main minerals in the rocks are microcline + nepheline + plagioclase + -- biotite + - arfvedsonite, and accessory phases include fluorite, sphene, apatite, garnet, zircon, epidote and calcite. Structures and textures are chiefly igneous in the la Pizarra body and mainly metamorphic (restitic) in the Las Delicias body. The geochemical character of the rocks is alkaline, and they correspond to within- the field of rocks formed in intraplate environment. The above features suggest that the San Jose del Guaviare syenite was formed by anatexis in a continental environment.U/Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar (HS) dating of biotite indicates age 577.8+ -/0 6.3 - 9 Ma (Ediacaran) crystallization and 494+ - 5 Ma (late Cambrian) cooling.

  18. Measurements of Po214 at Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista: correlation with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, E.V.A.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1985-01-01

    PO 214 , a short life daughter product of RN 222 , was measured by alpha-ray spectrometry of a atmospheric particles sampled on Millipore filters (0.8 μm pore) at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 12'S, 45 0 51'W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W). The infleunce of rainfall on the atmospheric Po 214 was studied at Sao Jose dos Campos. The mean activity was 98 pCi/m 3 for dry days (without rain during the preceding two days). On the contrary a low mean activity of 35 pCi/m 3 was observed for high pluviometry days from 08/30 to 10/26 for which total rainfall was 365.5 mm. At Cachoeria Paulista the Po 214 activity was correlated with the stability of the air (measured by the Richardson number), showing an accumaltion of natural radioactive aerosols during periods of higher stability of the lower atmosphere. (author) [pt

  19. An intensive two-week study of an urban CO2 dome in Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idso, C.D.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were measured prior to dawn and in the middle of the afternoon at a height of 2m above the ground along four transects through the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Arizona on 14 consecutive days in January 2000. The data revealed the existence of a strong but variable urban CO 2 dome, which at one time exhibited a peak CO 2 concentration at the center of the city that was 75% greater than that of the surrounding rural area. Mean city-center peak enhancements, however, were considerably lower, averaging 43% on weekdays and 38% on weekends; and averaged over the entire commercial sector of the city, they were lower still, registering 30% on weekdays and 23% on weekends. Over the surrounding residential areas, on the other hand, there are no weekday-weekend differences in boundary-layer CO 2 concentration. Furthermore, because of enhanced vertical mixing during the day, near-surface CO 2 concentrations in the afternoon are typically reduced from what they are prior to sunrise. This situation is additionally perturbed by the prevailing southwest-to-northeast flow of air at that time of day, which lowers afternoon CO 2 concentrations on the southern and western edges of the city still more, as a consequence of the importation of pristine rural air. The southwest-to-northeast flow of air also sometimes totally compensates for the afternoon vertical-mixing-induced loss of CO 2 from areas on the northern and eastern sides of the city, as a consequence of the northeastward advection of CO 2 emanating from the central, southern and western sectors of the city. Hence, although complex, the nature of the urban CO 2 dome of Phoenix, Arizona, is readily understandable in terms of basic meteorological phenomena and their interaction with human activities occurring at the land/air interface. (Author)

  20. A Statistical Approach for Gain Bandwidth Prediction of Phoenix-Cell Based Reflect arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new statistical approach to predict the gain bandwidth of Phoenix-cell based reflectarrays is proposed. It combines the effects of both main factors that limit the bandwidth of reflectarrays: spatial phase delays and intrinsic bandwidth of radiating cells. As an illustration, the proposed approach is successfully applied to two reflectarrays based on new Phoenix cells.

  1. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERKOWITZ, C.M.; SPRINGSTON, S.R.; DORAN, J.C.; FAST, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy

  2. Neutron radiography at the University of Michigan's Phoenix Memorial Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.T.; Elam, S.; Koblish, T.; Lee, P.; McAuliffe, D.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography (RTNR) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for nondestructive testing and basic research with a wide variety of applications. The Phoenix Memorial Laboratory (PML) at the University of Michigan has developed an RTNR facility and has been using this facility to study several phenomena of interest to researchers in many areas. These phenomena include imaging of the internal fluid flow in gas turbine engine nozzles and coking and debris deposition in several gas turbine nozzles. This paper presents a summary of the technique and facilities involved in these applications

  3. Phoenix type concepts for transmutation of LWR waste minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of variations on the original Phoenix theme were studied. The basic rationale of the Phoenix incinerator is making oxide fuel of the LWR waste minor actinides, loading it in an FFTF-like subcritical core, then bombarding the core with the high current beam accelerated protons to generate considerable energy through spallation and fission reactions. As originally assessed, if the machine is fed with 1600 MeV protons in a 102 mA current, then 8 core modules are driven to transmute the yearly minor actinides waste of 75 1000 MW LWRs into Pu 238 and fission products; in a 2 years cycle the energy extracted is 100000 MW d/T. This performance cannot be substantiated in a rigorous analysis. A calculational consistent methodology, based on a combined execution of the Hermes, NCNP, and Korigen codes, shows, nonetheless that changes in the original Phoenix parameters can upgrade its performance.The original Phoenix contains 26 tons minor actinides in 8 core modules; 1.15 m 3 module is shaped for 40% neutron leakage; with a beam of 102 mA the 8 modules are driven to 100000 MW/T in 10.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinide waste of 15 LWRs; the operation must be assisted by grid electricity. If the 1.15 m 3 module is shaped to allow only 28% leakage, then a beam of 102 mA will drive the 8 modules to 100000 MW/T in 3.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 45 LWRs. Some net grid electricity will be generated. If 25 tons minor actinides are loaded into 5 modules, each 1.72 m 3 in volume and of 24% leakage, then a 97 mA beam will drive the module to 100000 MW/T in 2.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 70 LWRs. A considerable amount of net grid electricity will be generated. If the lattice is made of metal fuel, and 26 tons minor actinides are loaded into 32 small modules, 0.17 m 3 each, then a 102 mA beam will drive the modules to 100000 MW/T in 2 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 72 LWRs. A considerable

  4. Jose Vasconcelos--A Man for All the Americas. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hubert J.

    Due to his dissatisfaction with the Diaz government, Jose Vasconcelos joined the revolutionary leader Francisco Madero, who along with other rebel leaders, brought an end to the Diaz regime in 1911. Vasconcelos shared the successes and misfortunes that followed Diaz's overthrow. When the Madero government came to an abrupt end in 1913, Vasconcelos…

  5. Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) and the Formation of the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) was an applied chemist and a prominent member of the Roman Catholic organization, Opus Dei, who played a crucial role in organizing the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC), the new scientific institution created by the Franco regime in 1939. The paper analyses first the formative years in…

  6. 78 FR 37791 - In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes-Martinez, Inmate Number #85993-279, CI Adams County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22... 750.8 of the Regulations states that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services...

  7. 78 FR 37793 - In the Matter of: Jose Arturo Ramon-Herrada, Inmate Number #90903-279, CI Willacy County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Jose Arturo Ramon-Herrada... Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days from the date of....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...

  8. Stock of immobilized metals in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam mud sediment samples in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.A.; Avila-Perez, P.

    1997-01-01

    'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam mud sediment samples were collected from six sampling sites. The samples were analyzed by combining multielemental studies with structural details, including heating to very high temperatures. Characterization of mud sediment samples have been shown to have low concentrations of metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb). No systematic trend was observed as a function of the sampling points. (author)

  9. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Algert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health, vegetable intake and the benefits of gardening. The gardeners surveyed were generally low income and came from a variety of ethnic and educational backgrounds. Participants in this study reported doubling their vegetable intake to a level that met the number of daily servings recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Growing food in community and home gardens can contribute to food security by helping provide access to fresh vegetables and increasing consumption of vegetables by gardeners and their families.

  10. Extraction of resins from WD-22 tank in Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Resin Tank (WD-22) is located in the Auxiliary Building of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Plant (PWR 150 Mwe). This tank has a nominal capacity of 4 m 3 and is almost full of spent resins that has been stored from the late sixties to early eighties. As the lines are completely plugged with resins and due to the difficulties in the pipe lay-out, it has not been possible to transfer the resins to the cementation plant since that date. The plant decided, by an open bid quotation, to select the most suitable process to transfer the resins to the cementation plant avoiding the high doses existing in the tank cubicle and in a reasonable time schedule. The solution given in this paper contemplates that sometimes there is an imaginative answer to a problem that seems to be difficult to solve. (authors)

  11. Physics Simulations of fluids - a brief overview of Phoenix FD

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Nikolov, Svetlin

    2014-01-01

    The presentation will briefly describe the simulation and rendering of fluids with Phoenix FD, and then proceed into implementation details. We will present our methods of parallelizing the core simulation algorithms and our utilization of the GPU. We will also show how we take advantage of computational fluid dynamics specifics in order to speed up the preview and final rendering, thus achieving a quick pipeline for the creation of various visual effects. About the speakers Ivaylo Iliev is a Senior Software developer at Chaos Group and is the creator of the Phoenix FD simulator for fluid effects. He has a strong interest in physics and has worked on military simulators before focusing on visual effects. He has a Master?s degree from the Varna Technical University. Svetlin Nikolov is a Senior Software developer at Chaos Group with keen interest in physics and artificial intelligence and 7 years of experience in the software industry. He comes from a game development background with a focu...

  12. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  14. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  16. Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm Creams on Healthy Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Meer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose, vitamins (A, C, and B complex, fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4% was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.

  17. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Results of the Phoenix Relative Humidity Sensor Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.

    2017-12-01

    We show results of the recalibration of the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) relative humidity (RH) sensor of the Phoenix Mars lander [Zent et al., 2009]. Due to uncertainties in its pre-flight calibration, which partially overlapped the environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site [Tamppari et al., 2010], only the raw, unprocessed output of the TECP RH sensor is available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). The sensor's calibration was revised in 2016 to correct for inaccuracies at the lowest temperatures [Zent et al., 2016], but the new processed RH values were not posted in the PDS. We have been using a spare engineering unit of the TECP to recalibrate the sensor in the full range of Phoenix landing site conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC) [Fischer et al., 2016]. We compare raw output data of the engineering unit in the MMEC with that of the flight unit from the preflight calibration. We observed that the engineering unit's RH sensor output was shifted to higher values compared to the flight unit's output at the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Based on this shift, we use a translation function that fits the in-situ measurements of the flight unit into the engineering unit output space. To improve the accuracy of this function, we use additional observations corresponding to saturated conditions when near-surface fog was observed [Whiteway et al., 2009], as well as observations around noon when the RH is expected to be below 5%. The entire range of conditions observed on the Martian surface is covered in our recalibration. The raw output of the sensor is used to obtain a new calibration function. This allows us to obtain high-level RH data at Martian polar conditions. The recalibrated data will be posted in the PDS. REFERENCES: Fischer, E., et al. (2016), Astrobiology, 16, 12, doi: 10.1089/ast.2016.1525. Tamppari, L. K., et al. (2010), J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E17, doi:10.1029/2009JE003415

  19. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  20. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  1. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  2. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  3. Management system information of characterization of the dismantling project of Jose Cabrera; Sistema de Gestion de la informacion de caracterizacion del proyecto de desmantelamiento de la CN Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno Blesa, M. E.; Martin Palomo, N.; Gomez Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    In the proposed dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP is designed and implemented a database of physical and radiological inventory, which provides a powerful tool to optimize the storage, monitoring and control of the characterization data. The database is a useful and reliable management system characterization information that facilitates access and information processing, and ensures their integrity and traceability along of the dismantling project.

  4. Reactivity follow of the two first loadings of the Jose Cabrera Reactor; Seguimiento de la ractividad durante las dos primeras cargas del Reactor de la Central Nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bru, A

    1975-07-01

    In this paper the first two cores together with the in-core measurements taken during the operation of the Nuclear Power Station Jose Cabrera are described. The results of this measurements have been processed with the INCORE and FOLLOW codes. The peaking factors and the boron concentration versus burn-up are displayed. The final burn-up of the fuel elements in these two loading are given, too. (Author)

  5. Evolution of the east-central San Jose del Cabo basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, M. S.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Cortes Martinez, M.

    2006-12-01

    The San Jose del Cabo basin at the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula records the early tectonic evolution of the west side of the Gulf of California. This study focused on the east central margin of the basin. The basal La Calera Formation unconformably overlies Cretaceous granite and consists of conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate, and sandstone deposited in alluvial fans and fan-deltas. Deposition of the La Calera Formation was from ca. 9-14 Ma. The lower member of the Trinidad Formation was deposited beginning ca. 9-13 Ma and consists of sandstone, mudstone, and shelly mudstone deposited in nearshore and estuarine environments. These age estimates are based on sedimentation rates and foraminifera and coccoliths from the NN 11A nannozone (7.4 8.6 Ma, GTS 2004). The middle member of the Trinidad Formation consists of deeper water mudstones deposited by turbidity currents and suspension settling in a shelf to slope and conglomerates deposited by submarine debris flows on the shelf. The basin began earlier than previously thought. The oldest marine rocks are ca.9-13 Ma, while sedimentation on the east side began at ca. 9-14 Ma, synchronous with estimates of initiation of offset on the San Jose del Cabo fault. The Zapote fault is a down-to-the-east normal and sinistral-oblique fault that exposes a wedge of granite and older strata in the footwall to the west. The fault was active during sedimentation in the late Miocene and possibly later. The fault divides the study area into an eastern hanging wall subbasin and western footwall subbasin. The eastern subbasin formed an embayment in the eastern margin of the Cabo basin. A regional flooding surface (ca. 8 Ma) can be correlated across the fault that marks a major marine incursion. Depositional systems evolved rapidly from coarse-grained terrestrial systems to fine-grained marine and estuarine systems. The Cabo basin provides an excellent analogue for comparison with offshore basins, which are

  6. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 2,434 block groups in Phoenix, AZ. The US EPA's...

  7. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland, Phoenix...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Phoenix, AZ Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red,...

  9. How Neoliberal Imperialism is Expressed by Programming Strategies of Phoenix TV: A Critical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This project is a case study of Phoenix Television, which is a Hong Kong-based satellite TV network broadcasting to the global Chinese-speaking community, primarily to the mainland of China. In the theoretical framework of media imperialism and neoliberal imperialism, this study focuses on the programming strategies of Phoenix TV and examines how the global trend of neoliberalism, the Chinese government’s tight control of the media, and the sophisticated ownership of Phoenix TV intertwined to influence on its programming. The analysis of the format, content, naming, and scheduling reveals that US-inspired neoliberalism is expressed in the network’s programming strategies. This expression, in fact, is the balance that Phoenix found between the tension of global and Chinese interests, the tension between revenue making and public service, and the tension between Party-control and profit seeking.

  10. Phoenix light - Heating and cooling with phase-change materials; Phoenix light: Heizen und Kuehlen mit PCM - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haechler, E. [Suiselectra Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schneider, B. [Hochschule Esslingen, University of Applied Sciences, Esslingen (Germany)

    2002-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the use of phase-change materials (PCM) in buildings in order to help provide cooling in summer and heating in winter. General information on PCM and its use in the automotive industry, clothing, heating systems and office materials as well as in the electronics industry is provided. The physical and chemical basics are discussed and examples of PCM use in practice are provided. Also, work done in research institutes is mentioned. PCM systems from various manufacturers are noted. The 'phoenix light' system concept is discussed. The 'comfort cooler' concept is introduced and laboratory measurements made at the University of Applied Sciences in Esslingen, Germany, are discussed. Further, measurements made at an installation in an existing building are presented and discussed. Knowledge gained and the optimisation of the system are discussed. Finally, proposals for further work to be done are noted.

  11. Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre: a new and attractive location for interdisciplinary teaching, research and training in the field of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacovsky, J.; Vasicek, R.

    2010-10-01

    The Jose f Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic (not far from the capital, Prague), was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Jose f Underground Educational Facility (Jose f UEF), which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre (Jose f URC) which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research centre is to provide practical -in situ- instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA has recently added the Jose f URC to its prestigious list of international training centres involved in the Training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies in underground research facilities - A network of centres of excellence project. In addition to teaching and training, the Jose f URC is heavily involved in a wide range of research and development activities. The Jose f URC underground facilities are currently being used for research purposes as part of several European Union International experimental projects addressing various issues related to deep repository radioactive waste disposal (TIMODAZ - FP6, Forge - FP7, PETRUS II - FP7) as well as for hosting domestic projects supported by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Czech Science Foundation. The Jose f URC is also working in close cooperation with the private construction sector providing practical training in underground construction

  12. Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre: a new and attractive location for interdisciplinary teaching, research and training in the field of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacovsky, J.; Vasicek, R., E-mail: Pacovsky@fsv.cvut.c [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Centre of Experimental Geotechnics, Thakurova 7, 166-29 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-15

    The Jose f Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic (not far from the capital, Prague), was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Jose f Underground Educational Facility (Jose f UEF), which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre (Jose f URC) which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research centre is to provide practical -in situ- instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA has recently added the Jose f URC to its prestigious list of international training centres involved in the Training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies in underground research facilities - A network of centres of excellence project. In addition to teaching and training, the Jose f URC is heavily involved in a wide range of research and development activities. The Jose f URC underground facilities are currently being used for research purposes as part of several European Union International experimental projects addressing various issues related to deep repository radioactive waste disposal (TIMODAZ - FP6, Forge - FP7, PETRUS II - FP7) as well as for hosting domestic projects supported by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Czech Science Foundation. The Jose f URC is also working in close cooperation with the private construction sector providing practical training in underground construction

  13. Lithofacies characterization related to the Raigon Formation located in the southern area of the San Jose Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Morales, E.; Cazaux, S.; Aubet, N.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the different lithofacies characterization related to the Raigon Formation, located in the southern area of the San Jose Department, is exposed supported by surface and subsurface data. Six stratigraphical sections were constructed considering lithological borehole descriptions to the aim of making a contribution on the spatial distribution, thickness, disposition, lithofaciological variations of this Formation and its stratigraphical relationships with other units [es

  14. Significant aspects of the external event analysis methodology of the Jose Cabrera NPP PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquin Duena, A.; Martin Martinez, A.R.; Boneham, P.S.; Ortega Prieto, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the following advances in the methodology for Analysis of External Events in the PSA of the Jose Cabrera NPP: In the Fire Analysis, a version of the COMPBRN3 CODE, modified by Empresarios Agrupados according to the guidelines of Appendix D of the NUREG/CR-5088, has been used. Generic cases were modelled and general conclusions obtained, applicable to fire propagation in closed areas. The damage times obtained were appreciably lower than those obtained with the previous version of the code. The Flood Analysis methodology is based on the construction of event trees to represent flood propagation dependent on the condition of the communication paths between areas, and trees showing propagation stages as a function of affected areas and damaged mitigation equipment. To determine temporary evolution of the flood area level, the CAINZO-EA code has been developed, adapted to specific plant characteristics. In both the Fire and Flood Analyses a quantification methodology has been adopted, which consists of analysing the damages caused at each stage of growth or propagation and identifying, in the Internal Events models, the gates, basic events or headers to which safe failure (probability 1) due to damages is assigned. (Author)

  15. The meaning of nervios: a sociocultural analysis of symptom presentation in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, S M

    1981-03-01

    The foundation of the symbolic tradition in medical anthropology is the examination of a patient's experience of a category of illness. The interpretation of folk explanations of etiology and nosology provides insight into the cultural definition of what constitutes an illness, how and why an illness is labeled, and how the afflicted individual should be treated. Further, the analysis of sociocultural meaning emerges as a critical theoretical contribution to our understanding of health and culture. Allen Young in his article "Some Implications of Medical Beliefs and Practices for Social Anthropology" suggests " that if we want to learn the social meaning of sickness, we must understand that 'signs,' whatever their genesis, become 'symptoms' because they are expressed, elicited, and perceived in socially acquired ways" (1976: 14). He further states that some categories of sickness are particularly interesting in that they enable people to organize the illness event into an episode that has form and meaning (1976: 19-20). Nervios is an example of a symptom that has acquired a special sociocultural pattern of expression, elicitation and perception in San Jose, Costa Rica. The empirical study of symptom presentation in general medicine and psychiatric outpatient clinics describes the patients who present the symptom and their associated attributes and explanations of the symptom's occurrence. The meaning of nervios is then discussed within a social interactional and symbolic framework.

  16. The Sao Jose do Rio Pardo mangeritic-granitic suite, south eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Neto, M.C.; Figueiredo, M.C.H.; Janasi, V.A.; Basei, M.A.S.; Fryer, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Sao Jose do Rio Pardo region, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States, occur some intrusive, folded tabular bodies of mangerites associated with hornblende granitoids. The country rocks correspond to a complex association of gneisses and migmatites, locally with granulite facies assemblages. Both the magnerites and hornblende granitoids present a tectonic foliation with mineral flattening and stretching. Petrographically the mangeritic rocks are mainly dark green quartz mangerites with mesoperthite, plagioclase, quartz, hypersthene, clinopyroxene and variable amounts of hornblende, with zircon as conspicuous acessory. The pink hornblende granitoids are mainly granite s.s. exhibiting higher quartz and amphibole contents and lacking pyroxenes. Hololeucocratic alkali feldspar granites are locally associated to the hornblende granites. The textures of the mangerites and granites almost always show an important metamorphic overprinting, with relictic mesoperthite and pyroxene crystal into a granoblastic matrix. The magneritic-granitic suite is characterized by relatively high Fe/(Fe + Mg), K and HFS elements and low Ca contents, being comparable to typical anorogenic magneritic-granitic suites from Svcandinavia and North America. The Rb/Sr data indicate a Late Proterozoic metamorphic isotopic rehomogenization (930 Ma, Ro = 0.706). Geological evidence suggest that the intrusive age could be Middle Proterozoic, wich is reinforced by another Rb-Sr value of about 1300 Ma. (author) [pt

  17. Petrography and geochronology of the Sao Jose dos Quatro Marcos granitoids, southwestern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, M.A.; Ulbrich, H.H.G.J.; Kawashita, K.

    1989-01-01

    An area of about 400Km 2 was mapped in the region of Sao Jose dos Quatro Marcos, southwestern State of Mato Grosso, western Brazil. Various granitoid rocks were recognized, intrusive into basement gneisses, and mapped as two distinct units, one of massive late granitoids (mostly 3a and 3b granites) and one of foliated granitoids, with oriented mafic minerals, consisting mainly of tonalites and, to a lesser degree, of granodiorites. The sequence of intrusion is from tonalites to granodiorites to late granites. Magmatic textures are usually preserved in the rocks, with the exception of some clearly recrystallized samples. Field aspects, as well as petrography and mineralogy, suggest a genetic relationship between the various granitoid types, showing overall features commonly cited as typical of 'I' lineages. A Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron obtained from 3b granites (six points) shows an age of 1,472 +- 19 Ma, and Sr 87 86 initial ratio of 0.7037 +- 0.0004; a nine point isochron (adding two tonalites and one granodiorite) yelds similar results (age of 1,505 +- 20 Ma, initial ratio of 0.7029+- 0.0003). The obtained ages confirm the existence of a thermal-magmatic event at about 1,500 Ma at the southern border of the Amazon Craton. (author) [pt

  18. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkala, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The San Anselmo School is a one-story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175-gallon tank for heat storage, a solar-supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas-fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed. (LEW)

  19. Solar-energy system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, July 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkala, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The San Anselmo School is a one-story, brick elementary school building located in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the heating load and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3.740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, 2175-gallon tank for storage, four auxiliary gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters, and a solar-supplied absorption chiller. The measured heating and cooling solar fractions were 9% and 19%, respectively, for an overall solar fraction of 16%, the lowered performance being attributed to severe system control problems. Performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Performance data are presented for the overall system and for each subsystem. System operation and solar energy utilization data are included. Also included are a description of the system, performance evaluation techniques, sensor technology, and typical performance data for a month. Weather data are also tabulated. (LEW)

  20. Measurement of dose to skin using TLD of several radiodiagnostic studies in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is quantified the radiation doses on skin for several radiodiagnostic studies in patients of the Calderon Guardia Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica at the period October 1997-September 1998 using thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 100. The crystals receive the decoction standard procedures and they are arranged at the middle of the irradiation field. For a total of 973 radiodiagnostic studies it was found that the dose on skin in mGy are: 2.09 for thorax AP/AP, 5.33 for thorax LAT, 5.35 for skull AP/PA, 2.98 for skull LAT, 10.74 for abdomen, hips and pelvis, 6.20 for spines AP, 9.35 for spines LAT, 11.48 for lumbar columns AP, 29.99 for lumbar columns LAT and 6.87 for intravenous skin diagrams (first plate ap). It is produced thus the first reference bank for the national hospitals, which is compared with the orientation levels of doses for IAEA. Recommendations to diminish the collective doses through quality control programs are discussed, taking as goal to have got radiographs of excellent diagnostic quality, but with the less possible doses. (Author)

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL CLUSTERING IN SÃO JOSE DOS CAMPOS: TRAJECTORIES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship among entrepreneurship, innovation and growth path regarding the technological cluster in São Jose dos Campos, state of São Paulo. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, supported by documental research and questionnaires applied in a non-probabilistic sample. The results show a relevant social reorganization since CTA/ITA were implemented, in the early Fifties’, which coincides with the arrival of international companies, attracted by the Geographic aspects, high qualified manpower availability and tax benefits. Since then, the municipality has experienced an intense migratory flow of professionals, professors, civil and military students. CTA and ITA generate a considerable level of technological knowledge spillover. Due to it, a number of new companies have started-up operations locally in fields such as Aeronautics, Airspace, Automobile and Petrochemical, which promoted a remarkable social and economic development. Nevertheless, the small and medium technology-based enterprises seem to show high dependence of the core companies in the region that leads to initial stages of internationalization.

  2. Human factors inspection of current control room panel in Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2002-01-01

    Within the process of renewal of Exploitation Permit of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant, UNION FENOSA GENERACIO, S. A. (UFG) has carried out an analysis and evaluation project regarding human factors implications of current control room panel arrangement. The project has been developed in two phases. In the first phase, leaded by EPRI and carried out by experts from SAIC, an independent review from a double viewpoint of human reliability and human factors was developed. In the second phase, a multidisciplinary team (composed by human factors, risk analysis, operation, engineering, training and instrumentation and controls experts) has developed a study on human factors implications of current panel arrangement, following the methodology pointed out in NUREG-0711. The project has been developed under the direction of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), organisation that has authored the aforementioned methodology, with the participation of UFG and SOLUZIONA Ingenieria. For the development of the second study the following steps were taken: Firstly, the potential effects of panel arrangement on crew performance were identified its real evidence was analysed and the goals for the improvement of control room operation were established; following NUREG-0711. After this, several design alternatives that addressed these goals were identified and were analysed along three dimensions: human factors, risk analysis and economic costs. Finally the results of these evaluations were combined using a multi-attribute decision method to arrive at a recommended alternative as he best proposal to incorporate human factors criteria and good practices in the design of control room panels. (Author)

  3. Gamma dosimetry of the uranium deposit in Sao Jose de Espinharas, Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alberto Antonio da; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Cunha, Andre Felippe Vieira da; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Oliveira, Iane Andrade de; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Silva, Flavio Ferreira da

    2013-01-01

    Radioecology studies contribute to the monitoring of both anthropic and natural radionuclides, as well as their correlation with the ecosystem and the population. Terrestrial sources, which mainly include the primary radionuclides of the 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K series, contribute to a higher effective dose received by humanity, with 84% from terrestrial radionuclides and another 16% derived from cosmogenic nuclides. Areas with high levels of natural radiation, above the acceptable limits, are of great relevance for the development of dosimetry studies, whose core aims include the preservation of the environment and the control of the population's exposure to radiation. The town of Sao Jose de Espinharas, Paraiba, Brazil, has a uranium oxide mine with an average grade of 1,200 mg/kg. In the present study, non-destructive, in situ assays were performed along the entire radiometrically anomalous area. The results obtained in terms of effective doses varied from 3.79 to 93.80 mSv.y -1 , with an average of 19.47 mSv.y -1 thus leading to the conclusion that all of the monitored points presented environmental doses of above the reference value of 2.4 mSv.y -1 , suggesting that both qualitative and quantitative analyses concerning the environmental matrixes in question need to be performed. (author)

  4. The Phoenix TECP Relative Humidity Sensor: Revised Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP), has been revised to correct the erroneously-published original calibration equation, to demonstrate the value of this unique data set, and to improve characterization of H2O exchange between the martian regolith and atmosphere. TECP returned two data streams, the temperature of the electronics analog board (Tb) and the digital 12-bit output of the RH sensor (DN), both of which are required to uniquely specify the H2O abundance. Because the original flight instrument calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. The choice of functional form for the calibration function is minimally constrained. A series of profiles across the calibration data cloud at constant DN and Tb does not reveal any evidence of a complex functional form. Therefore, a series of polynomials in both DN and Tb was investigated, along with several non-linear functions of DN and Tb.

  5. Knox named Phoenix associate dean of faculty affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix has announced the appointment of nationally recognized physician-scientist Kenneth S. Knox, MD, as the associate dean of faculty affairs. Dr. Knox who has been at the University of Arizona-Tucson since 2008, will oversee the Faculty Affairs Office whose charge is to promote an engaged, diverse community of faculty and scholars that sustain a culture of engagement, professionalism and inclusion. He also will serve as director of research at the Banner Lung Institute. Dr. Knox is a pulmonologist known for his research in sarcoidosis, fungal diagnostics and immunologic lung disease. His work includes developing treatments for HIV, AIDS and valley fever. The division chief of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine in Tucson, Knox was responsible for dramatic growth. His accomplishments include increasing the number of clinical and basic science faculty from five to 30 and fellowship trainings from six to 20, rekindling …

  6. Anther development and microsporogenesis in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazinizadeh, E.; Majd, A.; Pourpak, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Microsporogenesis and pollen morphology of Phoenix dactylifera L. was studied in this study. Anther, in different developmental stages, was removed, fixed in Formalin-glacial acetic acid-alcohol (FAA), stored in 70% ethanol, embedded in paraffin and then sliced at 8-10mu m by rotary microtome. Staining was carried out with Hematoxylin-Eozin. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the mature pollen grains. The pollen protein extracts of date palm were obtained from pollen by phosphate buffer saline (PBS). They were separated by 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The anther wall is constituted of five cellular strata: epidermis, monostratified endothecium, middle layer formed by two cellular strata and the secretory tapetum. The microspore mother cells begin meiosis and form tetrads of tetragonal microspores. The mature anther wall consists of an epidermis and an endothecium. Mature pollen grains are two-celled and monosulcate, semitectate -reticulate. SDS- PAGE analysis of mature pollen grains showed protein bands of 10-110 kDa regions. (author)

  7. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  8. Performances and considerations of the study of environmental impact of the individualized temporary storage. Jose Cabrera NPP; Actuaciones y consideraciones del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental del Almacen Temporal Individualizado (ATI). CN Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, N.; Hernandez Bravo, B.

    2013-09-01

    The dismantling phase of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant required a system able to manage the spent nuclear fuel produced during its activity: The individualized temporary storage. This project, which is pioneer in Spain, apart from being technically and securely friendly with the standards, should agree with sustainability standards. That is the reason why, while the technical project was being developed, Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering worked up an environmental impact assessment. This study, made by a multidisciplinary team, analyzed all the interactions between the project and its environment, and allowed the inclusion of environmental measures that were required to reduce the negative effects and guarantee the environmental viability of the project. (Author)

  9. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the R(sub H) sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical R(sub H) values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (T(sub f)), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high R(sub H) in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T is greater than 203K. However, sensor response during the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. T(sub f) remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P is greater than 0.75 Pa). R(sub H), conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to approximately 50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to T(sub f), water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O

  10. 77 FR 74457 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ..., Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under Alternative Site Framework An application has...) adopted by the Board (15 CFR 400.2(c)) to include a new magnet site in Phoenix, Arizona. The application... zone project includes the following magnet sites: Site 1 (338 acres)--within the 550-acre Phoenix Sky...

  11. Performances and considerations of the study of environmental impact of the individualized temporary storage. Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, N.; Hernandez Bravo, B.

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling phase of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant required a system able to manage the spent nuclear fuel produced during its activity: The individualized temporary storage. This project, which is pioneer in Spain, apart from being technically and securely friendly with the standards, should agree with sustainability standards. That is the reason why, while the technical project was being developed, Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering worked up an environmental impact assessment. This study, made by a multidisiciplimary team, analyzed all the interactions between the project and its environment, and allowed the inclusion of environmental measures that were required to reduce the negative effects and guarantee the environmental viability of the project. (Author)

  12. Closing the sky. The total dismantling of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant demonstrates maturity in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to put the situation of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the world into perspective as an already consolidated activity and with an important future of industrial activity. The decommissioning project that Enresa is currently performing in the old Jose Cabrera plant is being explained in detail, by providing data of the newest and most relevant technical aspects as well as the lessons learned to be reusable in other decommissioning projects. The previous background, the project planning, the activities performed and those still to be done as well as their timing are being explained in detail. (Author)

  13. Learning from eponyms: Jose Verocay and Verocay bodies, Antoni A and B areas, Nils Antoni and Schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms composed almost entirely of Schwann cells and are diagnosed histopathologically by the presence of singular architectural patterns called Antoni A and Antoni B areas. These were described first in 1920 by the Swedish neurologist Nils Antoni. The Antoni A tissue is highly cellular and made up of palisades of Schwann cell nuclei, a pattern first described in 1910 by the Uruguayan neuro-pathologist Jose Verocay and are known as Verocay bodies. This article describes the structure and appearance of Verocay bodies and Antoni A and B areas with a brief biographical introduction of the men who described these patterns.

  14. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San Jose State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; Silber, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    A Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society has been held at San Jose State University for the past 20 years. The intent of the program is to introduce outstanding college students to the field of nuclear and radiochemistry with the goal that some of these students will consider careers on nuclear science. The program features radiochemistry experiments along with radiation safety training, guest lectures by well known nuclear scientists and field trips to nuclear chemistry facilities in the San Francisco area. (author)

  15. Evaluation of authenticity and green tea antimicrobial activity of different commercial brands that are sold in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Campos, Jeyson

    2014-01-01

    Various brands of green tea are compared with the leaves of camellia sinensis to verify the antimicrobial effect, authenticity and quality. The main components with antibacterial effect commercially presented are compared to the components present in green tea leaf to determine the quality and authenticity, by thin layer chromatography. The brands marketed studied green tea in the metropolitan area of San Jose, Costa Rica has been really green tea good quality, this can be ensured by the findings in the analysis and comparison of the different profiles of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and amino acids. The antimicrobial activity has been without to confirmed in the bands of catechins analyzed [es

  16. Update of PHOENIX-P 42 group library from CENDL-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baocheng

    1998-01-01

    PHOENIX-P is a lattice physics code system, developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC), which was transplanted and used at Dayabay Nuclear Power Plant (DNPJVC). The associated multi-group (42-group) library was derived from the evaluated nuclear data of ENDF/B-5. Since the original library is from the old evaluated nuclear data, it can not meet all the requirements of reactor physics calculations of the nuclear power plant. So it is necessary to update the library with the latest version of evaluated nuclear data. To do so, based on the investigation of the old library and the information about the library, some programs were developed at China Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) to produce PHOENIX-P format data sets mainly from CENDL-2 and the new data were used to supersede the old ones of the PHOENIX-P library

  17. ALPHA/PHOENIX-P/ANC system validation for Angra-1 neutronic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzoni Filho, Pedro; Sato, Sadakatu; Santos, Teresinha Ipojuca Cardoso; Fernandes, Vanderlei Borba; Fetterman, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The ALPHA/PHOENIX-P/ANC (APA) code package is an advanced neutronic calculation system for pressurized water reactor (PWR). PHOENIX-P generates the required cross sections for the fuel, burnable absorbers, control rods and baffle/reflector region. The ALPHA code is used to automate the generation of these cross-sections as well as process the PHOENIX-P results to generate the ANC model input. ANC is a three dimensional advanced nodal code used for the modeling of the, depletion of the fuel in the core, and for the calculation of power distributions, rod worths and other reactivity parameters. This paper provides brief overview of the APA methodology for reload core design of Angra Unit 1 Cycles 1 and 2. Results included are predicted power distributions, control rod worths and other reactivity parameters compared to plant measurements. These results demonstrate that the APA system can be used for the reload core design. (author). 7 refs, 9 figs

  18. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-01-01

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented

  19. ALPHA/PHOENIX-P/ANC system validation for Angra-1 neutronic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni Filho, Pedro; Sato, Sadakatu; Santos, Teresinha Ipojuca Cardoso; Fernandes, Vanderlei Borba [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fetterman, R.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The ALPHA/PHOENIX-P/ANC (APA) code package is an advanced neutronic calculation system for pressurized water reactor (PWR). PHOENIX-P generates the required cross sections for the fuel, burnable absorbers, control rods and baffle/reflector region. The ALPHA code is used to automate the generation of these cross-sections as well as process the PHOENIX-P results to generate the ANC model input. ANC is a three dimensional advanced nodal code used for the modeling of the, depletion of the fuel in the core, and for the calculation of power distributions, rod worths and other reactivity parameters. This paper provides brief overview of the APA methodology for reload core design of Angra Unit 1 Cycles 1 and 2. Results included are predicted power distributions, control rod worths and other reactivity parameters compared to plant measurements. These results demonstrate that the APA system can be used for the reload core design. (author). 7 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Dismantling large components at the Jose-Cabrera NPP (CNJC) in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Located in central Spain, near Madrid, the Jose-Cabrera NPP (also known as Zorita) is the first PWR to be dismantled in Spain. The unit is a one-loop Westinghouse PWR, with a capacity of 150 MW. The plant was shut down in 1996 and ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos) has decided its prompt decommissioning, starting in 2010. In preparation for decommissioning, a full system decontamination (FSD) of the whole reactor cooling system (including the reactor vessel in the flow path) was carried out in 2006-7. The large components to be dismantled include: the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the internals; the vessel head; the SG; the pressurizer and the surge line; the reactor coolant pump, and the primary loop piping The objective of the project is not only to ensure the safe and efficient dismantling of those large components, but also to gain experience and to learn lessons to be applied during the future decommissioning and dismantling of the remaining six operating PWRs in Spain, whose operational lives are currently planned to end between 2021 and 2028. ENRESA has defined a waste-management policy for decommissioning activities, which includes Waste-management routes and optimisation. A case study describes the results obtained by ENRESA in the specific case of CNJC large components (including the RPV) dismantling project: Removal and conditioning of large components as a single piece is not considered a viable option. Segmentation therefore is required and 2 options have been analysed: large pieces for disposal in a large container and small pieces for disposal in approved concrete packages (CE-2a and the smaller CE-2b). The use of the CE-2b package is a feasible option and is easy to implement as a logical extension from the CE-2a. The use of the CE-2b package results in an important reduction in the total volume of final waste packages and does not require, in itself, any changes in the current waste handling and kinematics. The large size

  1. Observations of basin ground motions from a dense seismic array in San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Bice, T.; Sell, R.; Hanson, S.

    2001-01-01

    We installed a dense array of 41 digital seismographs in San Jose, California, to evaluate in detail the effects of a deep sedimentary basin and shallow sedimentary deposits on earthquake ground motions. This urban array is located near the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley and spans the Evergreen sedimentary basin identified by gravity data. Average station spacing is 1 km, with three stations initially spaced 110 m apart. Despite the high-noise urban environment, the stations of the array successfully triggered on and recorded small local earthquakes (M 2.5-2.8 at 10-25 km distance) and larger regional events such as the M 5.0 Bolinas earthquake (90 km distance), M 4.6-5.6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes (270 km distance), M 4.9-5.6 events in western Nevada (420 km distance) and the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake (590 km distance). Maps of spectral ratios across the array show that the highest amplitudes in all frequency bands studied (0.125-8 Hz) are generally observed at stations farther from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Larger spectral amplitudes are often observed above the western edge of the Evergreen Basin. Snapshots of the recorded wavefield crossing the array for regional events to the east reveal that large, low-frequency (0.125-0.5 Hz) arrivals after the S-wave travel from south to north across the array. A moving-window, cross-correlation analysis finds that these later arrivals are surface waves traveling from the south. The timing and propagation direction of these arrivals indicates that they were likely produced by scattering of incident S waves at the border of the Santa Clara Valley to the south of the array. It is remarkable that the largest low-frequency phases at many of the valley sites for regional events to the east are basin surface waves coming from a direction about 70 degrees different from that of the epicenters. Basin surface waves emanating from the eastern edge of the valley are also identified by the cross

  2. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance.

  3. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Phoenix Tree Residues as a Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermogravimetric analyser under argon atmosphere, the pyrolysis process and the kinetic model of phoenix tree residues (the little stem, middle stem, and leaf at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate and the phoenix tree mix at three different heating rates (10 °C min−1, 30 °C min−1, and 50 °C min−1 were examined. The catalyst and the co-pyrolysis samples were at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate. The catalysts were Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and CaO in a mass fraction of 5 %. The experimental results revealed that the phoenix tree residues pyrolysis process consisted of three stages: dehydration stage, main pyrolysis stage, and the slow decomposition of residues. As the heating rate increased, the pyrolysis characteristic temperature of the phoenix tree grew, there was a backward-shift of the pyrolysis rate curve, and the mass loss rate gradually increased. The phoenix tree residues’ activation energy changed throughout the whole pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis temperature ranges of the three main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin existed in overlapping phenomenon. As compared to the little stem, middle stem, and leaf, the phoenix tree mix was more likely to be pyrolysed under the same heating rate. Different catalysts had a different impact on the pyrolysis: ZnCl2 moved the start point of the reaction to the lower temperatures, but did not speed up the reaction; Na2CO3 speeded up the reaction without changing the start point of the reaction; CaO speeded up the reaction, moved the start point of the reaction to higher temperatures.

  4. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The chloroplast DNA locus psbZ-trnfM as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ballardini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG(GCC-trnfM(CAU spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM(CAU genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis, were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the “date palm complex” sensu Pintaud et al. 2013. For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM(CAU region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids.

  6. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  8. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  9. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  10. Industrial Design: A Phoenix Reborn from the Ashes of Technology Education--A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin; Feigler, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Like the "phoenix," technology education (TE) can, under the right circumstances, give life to new programs--curricula with different emphases and directions from technology education, yet sharing a common heritage: the belief that applied technology will continue to shape the world. How that shaping process takes place--and the problems that it…

  11. Tuhast tõusnud Phoenix jõudis Marsile elu võimalikkust uurima / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. mai, lk. 8. Marsile jõudnud NASA automaatjaam Phoenix maandus naaberplaneedi põhjapoolusele lähemale kui ükski inimese leiutatud masin kunagi varem. Lisa: Marsi uurimiste ajalugu

  12. 78 FR 24158 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-33-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix... benefits on such items. Public comment is invited from interested parties. Submissions shall be addressed... Executive Secretary, Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room 21013, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution...

  13. Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) into the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    America’s date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) groves can be found from 36o N Lat. (USA) to 21o S Lat. (Chile) and from 63o W Long. (Venezuela) to 117o W Long. (USA), at elevations from sea level 2000 m (Colombia). However, successful production of ripe dates is possible only in the arid regions of Pe...

  14. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of 61 Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of 61 Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given

  15. Behavior of the ionosphere total electronic content in Sao Jose dos Campos during magnetic storms in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, E.R. de; Abdu, M.A.; Kantor, I.J.

    1983-07-01

    Faraday rotation data from 1980, obtained with a polarimeter at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 S, 46 0 W), were analyzed during periods occurring magnetic storms. In order to select these periods, the magnetic index Dst was used. It was observed that during magnetic storms preceeded by a few calm days, an increase in the Total Electron Content (TEC) is observed during the storm main phase, relative to the mean of the magnetic calm days (positive phase). Afterwards, during the storms recovery phase, a decrease was registered relative to the average (negative phase). This TEC behaviour, observed at low latitudes storms, is typical of the behaviour over medium latitudes. But, when several storms occur with few intervening days between them, the positive phase seems to prevail. This indicates an inibition of the source of the negative phase. This work discusses the possible origins of the positive and negative phases. (Author) [pt

  16. Report on the mineral exploration in the San Jose and Arroyo Grande area Oriental Republic of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This survey is based on the scope of work signed between the Japanese government and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay on 24 November 2000. The purpose of this is to clarify both the geologic appearance and the occurrence of the ore fields of mineral deposits in the San Jose and Arroyo Grande area in this country, with the aim of discovering new ore deposits. In addition, another purpose is to transfer the technology to the involved organizations of the object country. The survey is conceived as a three year project initiated in 2000, and this fiscal year falls on the first phase.This survey consist of this existing data analysis, the geological interpretation of satellite image data, the geological survey and geochemical prospecting

  17. Report on the mineral exploration in the San Jose and Arroyo Grande area Oriental Republic of Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This survey is based on the scope of work signed between the Japanese government and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay on 24 November 2000. The purpose of this is to clarify both the geologic appearance and the occurrence of the ore fields of mineral deposits in the San Jose and Arroyo Grande area in this country, with the aim of discovering new ore deposits. In addition, another purpose is to transfer the technology to the involved organizations of the object country. The survey is conceived as a three year project initiated in 2000, and this fiscal year falls on the first phase.This survey consist of this existing data analysis, the geological interpretation of satellite image data, the geological survey and geochemical prospecting

  18. Lead-lead isotope method. Application to migmatites and associaded rocks of the region of Sao Jose dos Campos, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of chemical and analytical procedures, preparation and purification of reagents and the mounting of a clean laboratory (class 100) for the Pb-Pb isotope dating of whole rock and mineral samples are discussed in this work. Two different methods of dissolution of rock samples and chemical separation of lead using anionic resin were tried in a conventional chemical laboratory using analytical grade reagents. The samples analysed were paleossome and neossome of migmatites from Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, and from the results obtained the analytical method to be employed was chosen. The results obtained by this method agree well with those of the Geochronology Laboratory at Oxford, for the same samples. Applying the established analytical procedure, migmatites and associated gneisses from the region of Sao Jose dos Campos were dated by Pb/Pb method. Some of the samples were also dated by Rb-Sr method. The lead-lead isochron age of 2355 +- 85 M.a. (μ 1 = 8.33) for the paleossome may be interpreted as the age of the metamorphism for these rocks, which were formed probably during the Archean. The age data for the phacoidal gneisses show a similar geological evolution, whereas the 2414 +- 800 M.A. Pb-Pb isochron age for the protomylonitic gneisses indicates a disturbed Pb-Pb isotope system. The neossome samples define a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1388 +- 290 M.A. (μ1 = 8.15), which may be interpreted as the age of migmatization. The calculated Pb-Pb ages for two alkali feldspars from the migmatites are devoid of any geological significance. The age values obtained by the Rb-Sr isotope system for the neossome and paleossome of the migmatites agree with the Pb/Pb data within experimental errors. However, the study shows that results of the Rb-Sr data alone cannot be interpreted unambiguously with out comparison with data from other isotope systems. (author) [pt

  19. Martian Multimedia: The Agony and Ecstasy of Communicating Real-Time, Authentic Science During the Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, C.; Buxner, S. R.

    2009-03-01

    The Phoenix Mars Mission faced robust communication challenges requiring real-time solutions. Managing the message from Mars and ensuring the highest quality of science data and news releases were our top priorities during mission surface operations.

  20. Destruction of the Phoenix/Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities at Richards Bay, Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the Phoenix!Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities described by Venter in 1972 on the southern shores of Richards Bay is reported. The cause was the artificial openingof a new mouth about 5,5 km south of the original mouth, which increased tidal range and salinity. These swamp communities occupied a narrow band about 6 ha in area behind the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Community. An estimated 95 % of the communities was affected and only on the landward border were some isolated remnants of species such as Acrostichum aureum, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Phoenix reclinata detected .Young stands of  Phragmites australis, seedlings of  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Avicennia marina and epipelic algae are recoIonizing the affected area.

  1. Implementation of a quality management system at the PHOENIX facility (CryoMaK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, Elisabeth; Bagrets, Nadezda; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Within a variety of mechanical tests in the Cryogenic Material Test Facility Karlsruhe (CryoMaK) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) the PHOENIX facility was prepared for multiple standard tensile tests in liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and at room temperature. With the multiple specimens holder 10 specimens can be tested within one cool down one after another. A quality management system is needed for ensuring reproducible preconditions. For the guarantee of the competence of the laboratory and the measurement equipment, a quality management system was implemented and prepared for accreditation according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO 17025). The implementation of a quality management system allows high precision test results included the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This paper gives an overview of the management and technical requirements for the accreditation of the PHOENIX testing facility

  2. Implementation of a quality management system at the PHOENIX facility (CryoMaK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.urbach@kit.edu; Bagrets, Nadezda; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-10-15

    Within a variety of mechanical tests in the Cryogenic Material Test Facility Karlsruhe (CryoMaK) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) the PHOENIX facility was prepared for multiple standard tensile tests in liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and at room temperature. With the multiple specimens holder 10 specimens can be tested within one cool down one after another. A quality management system is needed for ensuring reproducible preconditions. For the guarantee of the competence of the laboratory and the measurement equipment, a quality management system was implemented and prepared for accreditation according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO 17025). The implementation of a quality management system allows high precision test results included the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This paper gives an overview of the management and technical requirements for the accreditation of the PHOENIX testing facility.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi ‎; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2018-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan; Ali ‎ Hmood Al-Saadi; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2017-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  5. Phoenix Miracles in Emerging Markets: Recovering without Credit from Systemic Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Calvo; Alejandro Izquierdo; Ernesto Talvi

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of emerging markets that are integrated into global bond markets, we analyze the collapse and recovery phase of output collapses that coincide with systemic sudden stops, defined as periods of skyrocketing aggregate bond spreads and large capital flow reversals. Our findings indicate the presence of a very similar pattern across different episodes: output recovers with virtually no recovery in either domestic or foreign credit, a phenomenon that we call Phoenix Miracle, where o...

  6. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)dispersal to the Americas: Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...

  7. The ecological importance of mixed-severity fires: Nature's phoenix [Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg

    2016-01-01

    The stated goal of a recent book, The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires: Nature’s Phoenix, edited by Dominick A. DellaSala and Chad T. Hansen, is to provide a global reference on the benefits of mixed- and high-severity fires. Note that the goal is not to provide an objective reference on the ecological aspects of mixed- and high-severity fires. Rather, the...

  8. Visual Analytics for the Food-Water-Energy Nexus in the Phoenix Active Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.; Ruddell, B. L.; Aggarwal, R.; Sarjoughian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) is an administrative region of 14,500 km2 identified by the Arizona Department of Water Resources with the aim of reaching and maintaining the safe yield (i.e. balance between annual amount of groundwater withdrawn and recharged) by 2025. The AMA includes the Phoenix metropolitan area, which has experienced a dramatic population growth over the last decades with a progressive conversion of agricultural land into residential land. As a result of these changes, the water and energy demand as well as the food production in the region have significantly evolved over the last 30 years. Given the arid climate, a crucial role to support this growth has been the creation of a complex water supply system based on renewable and non-renewable resources, including the energy-intensive Central Arizona Project. In this talk, we present a preliminary characterization of the evolution in time of the feedbacks between food, water, and energy in the Phoenix AMA by analyzing secondary data (available from water and energy providers, irrigation districts, and municipalities), as well as satellite imagery and primary data collected by the authors. A preliminary visual analytics framework is also discussed describing current design practices and ideas for exploring networked components and cascading impacts within the FEW Nexus. This analysis and framework represent the first steps towards the development of an integrated modeling, visualization, and decision support infrastructure for comprehensive FEW systems decision making at decision-relevant temporal and spatial scales.

  9. In aftermath of financial investigation Phoenix VA employee demoted after her testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A previous Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Journal editorial commented on fiscal mismanagement at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center in Phoenix (1. Now Paula Pedene, the former Phoenix VA public affairs officer, claims she was demoted for testimony she gave to the VA Inspector General’s Office (OIG regarding that investigation (2. In 2011, the OIG investigated the Phoenix VA for excess spending on private care of patients (3. The report blamed systemic failures for controls so weak that $56 million in medical fees were paid during 2010 without adequate review. The report particularly focused on one clinician assigned by the Chief of Staff to review hundreds of requests per week and the intensive care unit physicians for transferring patients to chronic ventilator units (1,3. After the investigation, the director and one of the associate directors left the VA and the chief of staff was promoted …

  10. Benchmarking of the PHOENIX-P/ANC [Advanced Nodal Code] advanced nuclear design system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Liu, Y.S.; Durston, C.; Casadei, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    At Westinghouse, an advanced neutronic methods program was designed to improve the quality of the predictions, enhance flexibility in designing advanced fuel and related products, and improve design lead time. Extensive benchmarking data is presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the Advanced Nodal Code (ANC) and the PHOENIX-P advanced lattice code. Qualification data to demonstrate the accuracy of ANC include comparison of key physics parameters against a fine-mesh diffusion theory code, TORTISE. Benchmarking data to demonstrate the validity of the PHOENIX-P methodologies include comparison of physics predictions against critical experiments, isotopics measurements and measured power distributions from spatial criticals. The accuracy of the PHOENIX-P/ANC Advanced Design System is demonstrated by comparing predictions of hot zero power physics parameters and hot full power core follow against measured data from operating reactors. The excellent performance of this system for a broad range of comparisons establishes the basis for implementation of these tools for core design, licensing and operational follow of PWR [pressurized water reactor] cores at Westinghouse

  11. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  12. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  13. Effects of the Phoenix Lander descent thruster plume on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, D. H.; Mehta, M.; Clark, B. C.; Kounaves, S. P.; Peach, L. L.; Renno, N. O.; Tamppari, L.; Young, S. M. M.

    2008-08-01

    The exhaust plume of Phoenix's hydrazine monopropellant pulsed descent thrusters will impact the surface of Mars during its descent and landing phase in the northern polar region. Experimental and computational studies have been performed to characterize the chemical compounds in the thruster exhausts. No undecomposed hydrazine is observed above the instrument detection limit of 0.2%. Forty-five percent ammonia is measured in the exhaust at steady state. Water vapor is observed at a level of 0.25%, consistent with fuel purity analysis results. Moreover, the dynamic interactions of the thruster plumes with the ground have been studied. Large pressure overshoots are produced at the ground during the ramp-up and ramp-down phases of the duty cycle of Phoenix's pulsed engines. These pressure overshoots are superimposed on the 10 Hz quasi-steady ground pressure perturbations with amplitude of about 5 kPa (at touchdown altitude) and have a maximum amplitude of about 20-40 kPa. A theoretical explanation for the physics that causes these pressure perturbations is briefly described in this article. The potential for soil erosion and uplifting at the landing site is also discussed. The objectives of the research described in this article are to provide empirical and theoretical data for the Phoenix Science Team to mitigate any potential problem. The data will also be used to ensure proper interpretation of the results from on-board scientific instrumentation when Martian soil samples are analyzed.

  14. Measurement of dose to skin using TLD of several radiodiagnostic studies in San Jose, Costa Rica; Medicion de dosis a piel utilizando TLD de varios estudios radiodiagnosticos en San Jose, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, P. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1998-12-31

    It is quantified the radiation doses on skin for several radiodiagnostic studies in patients of the Calderon Guardia Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica at the period October 1997-September 1998 using thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 100. The crystals receive the decoction standard procedures and they are arranged at the middle of the irradiation field. For a total of 973 radiodiagnostic studies it was found that the dose on skin in mGy are: 2.09 for thorax AP/AP, 5.33 for thorax LAT, 5.35 for skull AP/PA, 2.98 for skull LAT, 10.74 for abdomen, hips and pelvis, 6.20 for spines AP, 9.35 for spines LAT, 11.48 for lumbar columns AP, 29.99 for lumbar columns LAT and 6.87 for intravenous skin diagrams (first plate ap). It is produced thus the first reference bank for the national hospitals, which is compared with the orientation levels of doses for IAEA. Recommendations to diminish the collective doses through quality control programs are discussed, taking as goal to have got radiographs of excellent diagnostic quality, but with the less possible doses. (Author)

  15. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  16. Xylem anatomy of the Caesalpiniaceae registered in wood collection of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Rodriguez, Esperanza N; Mateus, Durley; Lozano D, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical study of the xylem of 21 species of Caesalpiniaceae registered in the wood collection Jos Anatolio Lastra Rivera (JALR), of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, included the macroscopic, microscopic and biometric characterization of the cellular elements that constitute the xylematic tissue. These analyses were developed following parameters defined by the International Association Wood Anatomist Committee (IAWA Committee 1989) and methods established by the Wood Technology Laboratory of Universidad Distrital. Measurements and descriptions were used to prepare identification keys and similarity analysis. The wood of Caesalpiniaceae family illustrated common characteristics in growth rings differentiation, porosity, vessel arrangement, deposits, diameter and length, plates perforation type, alternate and vestured intervessel pits; fibers wall thickness and length; paratracheal axial vasicentric parenchyma, aliform and banded parenchyma and presence of prismatic crystals. Also, variations in anatomical features such us longitudinal channels were found as diagnostic for some genera like Copaifera. The variation and analysis of anatomical characteristics of the xylem tissue allowed to verify some taxonomic relations of the family Caesalpiniaceae, like the observed with the species Mora megistosperma, Mora oleofera, Peltogyne pubescens, Peltogyne paniculata, Sclerolobium odoratissimum and Tachigali polyphylla .

  17. Current situation of sexual and reproductive health of men deprived of liberty in the Institutional Care Center of San Jose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorita Rivas Fonseca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the current status of the issue of sexual and reproductive health ofthe prisoners Institutional Care Center (CAI of San Jose. It is a descriptive study. Through a strategic samplingdetermined the participation of 102 men. The information was obtained by applying a self-administeredquestionnaire with closed and open questions. As a result relevant to your socio-demographic profile, it appearsthat deprived of their liberty is a very heterogeneous group. As regards sexual and reproductive health, the firstconcept they relate to the prevention of disease and the second reproductive aspects, this shows limitations inknowledge on the topics, something that affects the daily life activities and self-care. It is concluded that researchby nurses Gyneco-obstetric in the deprived of liberty is almost null not only in the country but in the world,especially if it comes with the male population. In the case of CAI Prison, health care is not enough for thenumber of inmates who inhabit (overpopulation of almost 50%, this implies a deterioration in health and physicalcondition of these people, as well as sexual and reproductive health

  18. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  19. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Technical proposal on the treatment of the influent of the Jose Antonio Alzate dam using aerobic pond system; Propuesta tecnica sobre el tratamiento del influente de la presa Jose Antonio Alzate a traves un sistema lagunar aerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas de Alba, S.G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: sergio.rosas01@cfe.gob.mx; Barcelo Quintal, I.D.; Bussy Beaurain, A.L.; lopez Galvan, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]. E-mail: idbq@correo.azc.uam.mx; leemp@correo.azc.uam.mx; loge@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2010-01-15

    In Mexico, discharge of waste water not treated is a common problem; this is the case of the Lerma river, where the original clean water contribution of the Almoloya-Lerma-San Bartolo timber-roof system, located in the valley of Toluca, State of Mexico, was replaced by the wastewater of the valley. The attempts to clean the water before their spill have been unfruitful and this has caused the present anaerobic conditions of the river in its entire route including the first receiving stage that is the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam (PJAA), becoming a potential source of diseases and a useless water body. In this work we evaluate the treatment efficiency of experimental waste water pond system. The treatment system was constructed with 5 screens which formed 6 internal channels and it had an operation in continuous form by 26 weeks, providing it with continuously polluted water of the Lerma river. We found that the efficiency of reduction of the organic matter reported as BOD, was 83% and it is carried out in the first channel after 7 days of hydraulic retention verifying that the channels do not work like lagoons in series. With the collected data we calculated, through the application of design equations, the factor of decay of organic matter k and the number of dispersion d, specific for the type of treatment and environmental conditions of the site. The required surface of treatment calculated to reach the efficiency of reduction of the DOD5 obtained experimentally. Thus, a surface of: 1 281.6 hectares distributed in 13 lagoons that can deal with a volume 8646.70 m{sup 3}/h was determined. Since this was a bigger surface than that of the dam, the available area was evaluated to make a proposal closer to reallity. [Spanish] La descarga de aguas residuales a los sistemas acuaticos, sin previo tratamiento, es un problema generalizado en Mexico; como es el caso del rio Lerma en donde se sustituyo el aporte de agua limpia proveniente del sistema lagunar Almoloya

  1. Microscopy analysis of soils at the Phoenix landing site, Mars : Classification of soil particles and description of their optical and magnetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetz, W.; Pike, W.T.; Hviid, S.F.; Madsen, M.B.; Morris, R.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Staufer, U.; Leer, K.; Sykulska, H.; Hemmig, E.; Marshall, J.; Morookian, J.M.; Parrat, D.; Vijendran, S.; Bos, B.J.; El Maarry, M.R.; Keller, H.U.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Drube, L.; Blaney, D.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F.; Reynolds, R.; Smith, P.H.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Tanner, R.

    2010-01-01

    The optical microscope onboard the Phoenix spacecraft has returned color images (4 ?m pixel?1) of soils that were delivered to and held on various substrates. A preliminary taxonomy of Phoenix soil particles, based on color, size, and shape, identifies the following particle types [generic names in

  2. Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; O'Neal, Peter R; Wong, Valerie M; Noah, Donald L

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188). PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ 2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate. RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

  3. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. The applicability of ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC nuclear design code system on Korean standard PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kookjong; Choi, Kie-Yong; Lee, Hae-Chan; Roh, Eun-Rae

    1996-01-01

    For the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) designed based on Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80, the Westinghouse nuclear design code system ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC was applied to the follow-up design of initial and reload core of KSNPP. The follow-up design results of Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, 2 and Yonggwang Unit 4 Cycle 1 have shown good agreements with the measured data. The assemblywise power distributions have shown less than 2% average differences and critical boron concentrations have shown less than 20 ppm differences. All the low power physics test parameters are in good agreement. Consequently, APA design code system can be applied to KNSPP cores. (author)

  5. Debris flows from small catchments of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2010-08-01

    Debris flows debauch from tiny but steep mountain catchments throughout metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Urban growth in the past half-decade has led to home construction directly underneath hundreds of debris-flow channels, but debris flows are not recognized as a potential hazard at present. One of the first steps in a hazard assessment is to determine occurrence rates. The north flank of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, just 10 km from downtown Phoenix, was selected to determine the feasibility of using the varnish microlaminations (VML) method to date every debris-flow levee from 127 catchment areas. Only 152 of the 780 debris-flow levees yielded VML ages in a first round of sampling; this high failure rate is due to erosion of VML by microcolonial fungi. The temporal pattern of preserved debris-flow levees indicates anomalously high production of debris flows at about 8.1 ka and about 2.8 ka, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere climatic anomalies. Because many prior debris flows are obliterated by newer events, the minimum overall occurrence rates of 1.3 debris flows per century for the last 60 ka, 2.2 flows/century for the latest Pleistocene, and 5 flows/century for the last 8.1 ka has little meaning in assessment of a contemporary hazard. This is because newer debris flows have obliterated an unknown number of past deposits. More meaningful to a hazards analysis is the estimate that 56 flows have occurred in the last 100 years on the north side of the range, an estimate that is consistent with direct observations of three small debris flows resulting events from a January 18-22, 2010 storm producing 70 mm of precipitation in the Ma Ha Tuak Range, and a 500 m long debris flow in a northern metropolitan Phoenix location that received over 150 mm of precipitation in this same storm. These findings support the need for a more extensive hazard assessment of debris flows in metropolitan Phoenix.

  6. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  7. An Account of the Accessioned Specimens in the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium, University of the Philippines Diliman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Yap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The University of the Philippines Herbarium was established in 1908 and originally located in Ermita, Manila. The majority of its pre-war collections were destroyed during World War II, and no formal records of its specimens were preserved. Since then, multiple efforts to restore and improve the Herbarium have been proposed and implemented, most notably its move to the UP Diliman campus. In 1999, the Herbarium was off icially renamed as the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium after the noted grass expert, who initiated rehabilitation work in the Herbarium after the war. The Herbarium is registered with the international code PUH in the Index Herbariorum, a global directory of public herbaria managed by the New York Botanical Garden. To assess the accessioned (uniquely numbered and recorded collection of the Herbarium, an electronic database of its accessions was created.The Herbarium currently contains 14,648 accessions, 12,681 (86.6% of which were collected in the Philippines. This is comprised of 309 families, 1903 genera, and 4485 distinct species. Thirty-nine type specimens form part of the collection, only one of which is a holotype. On the basis of major plant groups, angiosperms make up 71% of the collection. Unsurprisingly, Family Poaceae has the largest number of specimens at 2,759 accessions. The earliest dated Philippine specimen was collected by E.D. Merrill in 1902, and roughly half of the total accessioned specimens were collected in the 1950s and 1970s. The two most prolif ic collectors were Santos and Leonardo L. Co, with 2,320 and 2,147 specimens, respectively. Luzon is the most well-represented island group with 2,752 specimens collected in Metro Manila alone. At present, PUH Curator James V. LaFrankie is working on the expansion of the collection and upgrading of the herbarium to encourage future educational and research activities.

  8. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero

    2015-01-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra eq ), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra eq in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material. (author)

  9. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  10. Framing the Tenth Anniversary of 9/11:  A Comparison of CNN and Phoenix TV commemorative websites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yuxi

    2013-01-01

    It has been more than ten years since the 9/11 attacks in 2001, but the events related to the attacks are still a focus for the whole world. This study examined the news coverage of the 9/11 tenth anniversary from Phoenix TV and CNN, which are among the most influential news media in China and the U.S., respectively. A systematic content analysis was performed using latest news, opinion articles, photographs, and videos as classified by CNN and Phoenix TV on their commemorative 9/11 tenth ann...

  11. Enzymatic production of sterculic acid from the novel Phoenix tree seed oil: Optimization and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Sun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [es

  12. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  13. Ice Lens Formation and Frost Heave at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A. P.; Sizemore, H. G.; Remple, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the volume of shallow ground ice in the martian high latitudes exceeds the pore volume of the host regolith. Boynton et al. found an optimal fit to the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data at the Phoenix landing site by modeling a buried layer of 50-75% ice by mass (up to 90% ice by volume). Thermal and optical observations of recent impact craters in the northern hemisphere have revealed nearly pure ice. Ice deposits containing only 1-2% soil by volume were excavated by Phoenix. The leading hypothesis for the origin of this excess ice is that it developed in situ by a mechanism analogous to the formation of terrestrial ice lenses and needle ice. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycling and the movement of bulk water, neither of which are expected to have occurred in the geologically recent past on Mars. If however ice lens formation is possible at temperatures less than 273 K, there are possible implications for the habitability of Mars permafrost, since the same thin films of unfrozen water that lead to ice segregation are used by terrestrial psychrophiles to metabolize and grow down to temperatures of at least 258 K.

  14. Phoenix flagships: Conservation values and guanaco reintroduction in an anthropogenic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, Adrien; Root-Bernstein, Meredith

    2015-09-01

    Multiple forms of valuation contribute to public acceptance of conservation projects. Here, we consider how esthetic, intrinsic, and utilitarian values contribute to public attitudes toward a proposed reintroduction of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in a silvopastoral system of central Chile. The nexus among landscape perceptions and valuations, support for reintroductions, and management of anthropogenic habitats is of increasing interest due to the proliferation of conservation approaches combining some or all of these elements, including rewilding and reconciliation ecology, for example. We assessed attitudes and values through an online questionnaire for residents of Santiago, Chile, using multiple methods including photo-montages and Likert scale assessments of value-based statements. We also combined the questionnaire approach with key informant interviews. We find strong support for the reintroduction of guanacos into the Chilean silvopastoral system ('espinal') in terms of esthetic and intrinsic values but less in terms of utilitarian values. Respondents preferred a scenario of espinal with guanacos and expressed interest in visiting it, as well as support for the reintroduction project on the basis that guanacos are native to central Chile. We suggest that reintroduced guanacos could serve as a 'phoenix flagship species' for espinal conservation, that is, a flagship species that has gone regionally extinct and is known but not associated with the region in the cultural memory. We consider how the lack of local cultural identity can both help and weaken phoenix flagships, which we expect to become more common.

  15. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  16. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Bioaccumulation of chemical elements by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam samples in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.A.; Avila-Perez, P.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine experimentally the uptake of pollutants into of the different parts of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam in the State of Mexico, Mexico. There is evidence for efficient and significant root accumulation of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Ba; but in the upper parts concentrations was consistently determined by the degree of watering. However, a significant input could be derived from a common generic source, such as the atmospheric deposition. The experimental study would, therefore, indicate that water hyacinth species can be highly effective in providing a control and treatment buffer for toxic discharges to the dam. (author)

  18. Magnetic and optical properties of airborne dust and settling rates of dust at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drube...[], Line; Leer, Kristoffer; Madsen, Morten Bo

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Properties Experiment (referred to as iSweep or Caltarget) onboard the Phoenix lander was executed in the arctic region of Mars during the mission's 152 sols lifetime. The iSweep experiment involved periodic multispectral imaging of a series of permanent ring magnets. It was designed...

  19. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  20. Chemical characterization of the material particulado (PM-10) gathered of the ambient air of San Jose City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Murillo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A study about the concentration levels of some of the main pollutants present in the particule suspended material, with a aerodynamic diameter similar or smaller than 10 μm, was carried out in the air of San Jose's City. For this purpose, a sampling campaign was performed in two points of the capital city: in the buildings of The National Museo de Costa Rica and Ministerio de Seguridad Publica; three times per week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) during the months of August to December of the year 2002 (rainy season). The in particule material was gathered by two muestreadores of high volume air with a controller of volumetrico flow, on filters of glass fiber (20,3 x 25,4 cm), with an average flow of 1,13 m3/min during 24 hours and the composition of the in particule collected material was determined. The concentration of major anions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, oxalato ) was obtained by a chromatography of ionic exchange with suppressive of ionization, and the main metals by a spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electrothermic atomization. The study established that the main anions present in the in particule material are the nitrate and the sulfate, constituting approximately the 2,5% of the weight of the total particulado material. The concentration of such components in both monitoring places overcame the typical values reported by the Agency of Environmental Protection of the United States in some months, probably caused by the high vehicular flow that characterizes to the selected sampling points. t is important to mention that the increment in the precipitation levels during the months of October and November caused a descent in the levels of concentration of in particles material; therefore, in the anions present in the same one. During the quantification of the anions in the particles, the presence of a sign belonging to the oxalato ion was determined; although it was not cuantificable ; it ended to be an interesting discovery. The presence of anions

  1. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  2. 125I Monotherapy Using D90 Implant Doses of 180 Gy or Greater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Johnny; Stone, Nelson N.; Lavaf, Amir; Dumane, Vishruta; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stock, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the oncologic results and toxicity profile of patients treated with 125 I implants using the dose delivered to 90% of the gland from the dose-volume histogram (D90) of greater than 144 Gy. Methods and Materials: From June 1995 to Feb 2005, a total of 643 patients were treated with 125 I monotherapy for T1-T2 prostate cancer with a D90 of 180 Gy or greater (median, 197 Gy; range, 180-267 Gy). Implantations were performed using a real-time ultrasound-guided seed-placement method and intraoperative dosimetry to optimize target coverage and homogeneity by using modified peripheral loading. We analyzed biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) of 435 patients who had a minimum 2-year prostate-specific antigen follow-up (median follow-up, 6.7 years; range, 2.0-11.1 years). Results: Five-year bDFS rates for the entire cohort using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions were 96.9% and 96.5%, respectively. Using the Phoenix definition, 5-year bDFS rates were 97.3% for low-risk patients and 92.8% for intermediate/high-risk patients. The positive biopsy rate was 4.1%. The freedom rate from Grade 2 or higher rectal bleeding at 5 years was 88.5%. Acute urinary retention occurred in 10.7%, more commonly in patients with high pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scores (p < 0.01). In patients who were potent before treatment, 73.4% remained potent at 5 years after implantation. Conclusions: Patients with a minimum D90 of 180 Gy had outstanding local control based on prostate-specific antigen control and biopsy data. Toxicity profiles, particularly for long-term urinary and sexual function, were excellent and showed that D90 doses of 180 Gy or greater performed using the technique described were feasible and tolerable

  3. Involvement of Union Fenosa skills in the thermohydraulic area of the Jose Cabrera NPP PSA. Applications of the RELAPS5/MOD2 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Saenz Tejada, P.

    1993-01-01

    When performing a level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) on a standard power plant, in order to model plant response to the potential occurrence of the various initiating events postulated in a PSA, reference documentation applicable to the type of plant in question is frequently consulted. Because of the specific design characteristics of the Jose Cabrera NPP, most of the reference documentation for the W-PWR-type power plants is not applicable to this plant. To fill in these gaps in the documentation and to construct the most realistic model of plant behaviour possible, assistance was sought from Union Fenosa by way of infrastructure, capabilities and thermohydraulic experience of the Nuclear Engineering and Fuel Group, and especially the use of calculations performed with the RELAP5/ MOD2 code. This paper will provide an overview of the general assistance rendered to the PSA by the technical experts in thermohydraulics, the calculations performed with RELAP5/MOD2 and the influence all of this has had on the development, quality and results of the Jose Cabrera NPP level 1 PSA Project. (author)

  4. Confirmation of Soluble Sulfate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Implications for Martian Geochemistry and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Kapit, J.; Quinn, R. C.; Catling, D. C.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gospodinova, K.; Hredzak, P.; McElhoney, K.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, elemental sulfur in martian soils and rocks has been detected by a number of missions using X-ray spectroscopy [1-3]. Optical spectroscopy has also provided evidence for widespread sulfates on Mars [4,5]. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur in soils has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy [6]. However, direct confirmation as to the identity and solubility of the sulfur species in martian soil has never been obtained. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [7] on board the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander [8] was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. The WCL received three primary samples. Each sample was added to 25 mL of leaching solution and analysed for solvated ionic species, pH, and conductivity [9,10]. The analysis also showed a discrepancy between charge balance, ionic strength, and conductivity, suggesting unidentified anionic species.

  5. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  6. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  7. ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Roderick J

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors' experiences and turning away from survivors' narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers' theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  8. Autopsy on a dead spreading center: The Phoenix Ridge, Drake Passage, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Roy; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Maldonado, Andrés; Martínez, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Galindo Zaldívar, Jesús; Jabaloy, Antonio; Barnolas, Antonio; Somoza, Luis; Hernández-Molina, Javier; Suriñach, Emma; Viseras, César

    2000-07-01

    New bathymetric and magnetic anomaly data from the Phoenix Ridge, Antarctica, show that extinction of all three remaining segments occurred at the time of magnetic chron C2A (3.3 ± 0.2 Ma), synchronous with a ridge-trench collision south of the Hero Fracture Zone. This implies that the ultimate cause of extinction was a change in plate boundary forces occasioned by this collision. Spreading rates slowed abruptly at the time of chron C4 (7.8 ± 0.3 Ma), probably as a result of extinction of the West Scotia Ridge, which would have led to an increase in slip rate and transpressional stress across the Shackleton Fracture Zone. Spectacular, high-relief ridges flanking the extinct spreading center, mapped for the first time using multibeam swath bathymetry, are interpreted as a consequence of a reduction in spreading rate, involving a temporary magma oversupply immediately prior to extinction.

  9. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.

    2014-03-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  10. Reconciling the Differences between the Measurements of CO2 Isotopes by the Phoenix and MSL Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Trainer, M.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. There have been several different measurements by landers and Earth based systems performed in recent years that have not been in agreement. In particular, measurements of the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are in stark disagreement. This work attempts to use measurements of mass 45 and mass 46 of martian atmospheric CO2 by the SAM and TEGA instruments to search for agreement as a first step towards reaching a consensus measurement that might be supported by data from both instruments.

  11. The Phoenix Physician: defining a pathway toward leadership in patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Robert G; Bulger, John B; Hasty, Robert T; Hubbard, Kevin P; Schwartz, Elliott R; Sutton, John R; Troutman, Monte E; Nelinson, Donald S

    2012-08-01

    Health care delivery has evolved in reaction to scientific and technological discoveries, emergent patient needs, and market forces. A current focus on patient-centered care has pointed to the need for the reallocation of resources to improve access to and delivery of efficient, cost-effective, quality care. In response to this need, primary care physicians will find themselves in a new role as team leader. The American College of Osteopathic Internists has developed the Phoenix Physician, a training program that will prepare primary care residents and practicing physicians for the changes in health care delivery and provide them with skills such as understanding the contributions of all team members (including an empowered and educated patient), evaluating and treating patients, and applying performance metrics and information technology to measure and improve patient care and satisfaction. Through the program, physicians will also develop personal leadership and communication skills.

  12. Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six Saudi Arabian Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imeddedine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Rashid, Umer; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein. This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  14. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  15. Parallel implementation of the PHOENIX generalized stellar atmosphere program. II. Wavelength parallelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is, distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition, task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000 - 300,000) and hence parallelization over wavelength can lead both to considerable speedup in calculation time and the ability to make use of the aggregate memory available on massively parallel supercomputers. Here, we describe an implementation of a pipelined design for the wavelength parallelization of PHOENIX, where the necessary data from the processor working on a previous wavelength point is sent to the processor working on the succeeding wavelength point as soon as it is known. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of standard message passing interface (MPI) library calls and is fully portable between serial and parallel computers. copyright 1998 The American Astronomical Society

  16. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  17. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  18. Phoenix – A model-based Human Reliability Analysis methodology: Qualitative Analysis Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekanem, Nsimah J.; Mosleh, Ali; Shen, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix method is an attempt to address various issues in the field of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Built on a cognitive human response model, Phoenix incorporates strong elements of current HRA good practices, leverages lessons learned from empirical studies, and takes advantage of the best features of existing and emerging HRA methods. Its original framework was introduced in previous publications. This paper reports on the completed methodology, summarizing the steps and techniques of its qualitative analysis phase. The methodology introduces the “Crew Response Tree” which provides a structure for capturing the context associated with Human Failure Events (HFEs), including errors of omission and commission. It also uses a team-centered version of the Information, Decision and Action cognitive model and “macro-cognitive” abstractions of crew behavior, as well as relevant findings from cognitive psychology literature and operating experience, to identify potential causes of failures and influencing factors during procedure-driven and knowledge-supported crew-plant interactions. The result is the set of identified HFEs and likely scenarios leading to each. The methodology itself is generic in the sense that it is compatible with various quantification methods, and can be adapted for use across different environments including nuclear, oil and gas, aerospace, aviation, and healthcare. - Highlights: • Produces a detailed, consistent, traceable, reproducible and properly documented HRA. • Uses “Crew Response Tree” to capture context associated with Human Failure Events. • Models dependencies between Human Failure Events and influencing factors. • Provides a human performance model for relating context to performance. • Provides a framework for relating Crew Failure Modes to its influencing factors.

  19. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the morphology and Thermophysical properties of the pollen wall of Phoenix dactylifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ghazaly, Gamal; Kassem, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pollen grains of Phoenix dactylifera were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (250,500,1000 rad and 1 M rad). To access the effect of radiation on the external morphology of the pollen grains, they were examined with SEM after each treatment. In addition the differential thermal analysis technique was used to elucidate the stability of the chemical composition of the pollen wall to gamma radiation. A portion of the treated pollen was- used to pollinate different inflorescences of tw...

  1. Grupo escolar de Alfarnate (Málaga: colegio y casas para maestros de José María Santos Rein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Romero Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia y destaca el valor arquitectónico del grupo escolar de Alfarnate (un colegio y once viviendas para maestros, por su singularidad constructiva de claro tinte racionalista y por desarrollar un funcionalismo propio del Movimiento Moderno. Su atrevida modernidad, para un lugar alejado del núcleo urbano de Málaga, trascendió la arquitectura popular y tradicional para establecer su prevalencia como solución a los problemas de escolarización y de habitabilidad en la zona rural en los años sesenta del siglo XX. Documentamos y analizamos las vicisitudes que el arquitecto José María Santos Rein consiguió superar para realizar la obra y aportamos un estudio formal para dejar constancia de su existencia tras la inevitable demolición de las once casas en el año 2011.

  2. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  3. Isotopic investigation of ground water resources in the Ojo Alamo sandstone, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, F.M.; Peeters, L.A.; Tansey, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The San Juan Basin, in northwest New Mexico, has vast reserves of strippable, low-sulfur coal. Development of the resource will require large quantities of water, from an area where water resources are not abundant. Since surface-water supplies are fully allocated, increased future water demands will have to be met through ground-water development. The study concentrates on the Ojo Alamo, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, the aquifers directly above the principal coal unit. Carbon-14 and tritium methods were used to date the ground water in these units. Initial radiocarbon activities were calculated using the models of Vogel, Tamers, Pearson, Mook and Fontes. The observation lends support to the hypothesis of isotopically lighter Pleistocene precipitation. Such lighter recharge was most likely due to a colder mean annual temperature and perhaps increased winter precipitation. A similar change is obtained from noble-gas paleothermometry

  4. Start-up physics test predictions for Indian Point 3, cycle 7, utilized PHOENIX-P/ANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.A.; Buechel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Westinghouse Advanced In-Core Fuel Management System (PHOENIX-P/ANC) was utilized to predict start-up physics test parameters for Indian Point 3 (IP3) cycle 7. This core utilizes a low-leakage loading pattern implementing VANTAGE-5 fuel, which incorporates axial blankets and integral fuel burnable absorbers. Discrete part-length wet annular burnable absorbers (WABAs) are used in some feed assemblies as well. As a measure to reduce vessel fluence, certain peripheral twice-burned assemblies also contain fresh full-length WABAs. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) is using the Westinghouse code system since the methodology was licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and because of the user support supplied by Westinghouse. The IP3 cycle 7 PHOENIX-P/ANC model was developed as a joint effort by NYPA and Westinghouse as part of a technology transfer agreement. The PHOENIX-P/ANC model performed very well in start-up physics test predictions and is expected to agree well through cycle depletion. These results have given NYPA further incentive to use the Westinghouse methodology for core follow, loading pattern design determination, and in the safety analysis area

  5. Reactive Sequencing for Autonomous Navigation Evolving from Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Christopher A.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is an award-winning advanced procedural sequencing language in use on NASA deep-space missions since 1997, and was used for the successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of the Phoenix spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Phoenix EDL utilized a state-oriented operations architecture which executed within the constraints of the existing VML 2.0 flight capability, compatible with the linear "land or die" nature of the mission. The intricacies of Phoenix EDL included the planned discarding of portions of the vehicle, the complex communications management for relay through on-orbit assets, the presence of temporally indeterminate physical events, and the need to rapidly catch up four days of sequencing should a reboot of the spacecraft flight computer occur shortly before atmospheric entry. These formidable operational challenges led to new techniques for packaging and coordinating reusable sequences called blocks using one-way synchronization via VML sequencing global variable events. The coordinated blocks acted as an ensemble to land the spacecraft, while individually managing various elements in as simple a fashion as possible. This paper outlines prototype VML 2.1 flight capabilities that have evolved from the one-way synchronization techniques in order to implement even more ambitious autonomous mission capabilities. Target missions for these new capabilities include autonomous touch-and-go sampling of cometary and asteroidal bodies, lunar landing of robotic missions, and ultimately landing of crewed lunar vehicles. Close proximity guidance, navigation, and control operations, on-orbit rendezvous, and descent and landing events featured in these missions require elaborate abort capability, manifesting highly non-linear scenarios that are so complex as to overtax traditional sequencing, or even the sort of one-way coordinated sequencing used during EDL. Foreseeing advanced command and control needs for small body and lunar landing

  6. Regional-scale impact of storm surges on groundwaters of Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico after 2017 hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose, Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, W. H.; Dürr, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes and related storm surges have devastating effects on near-shore infrastructure and above-ground installations. They also heavily impact groundwater resources, with potentially millions of people dependant on these resources as a freshwater source. Destructions of casings and direct incursions of saline and/or polluted waters have been widely observed. It is uncertain how extensive the effects are on underground water systems, especially in limestone karst areas such as Florida and Puerto Rico. Here, we report regional-scale water level changes in groundwater systems of Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico for the 2017 Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose and Maria. We collected regional scale data from the USGS Waterdata portal. Puerto Rico shows the strongest increase in groundwater levels in wells during Hurricane Maria, with less reaction for the preceding storms Irma and Jose. Increases in water levels range from 0.5 to 11m, with maximum storm surges in Puerto Rico around 3m. These wells are located throughout Puerto Rico, on the coast and inland. In Florida, most wells that show a response during Hurricane Irma are located in the Miami region. Wells located on the west coast show smaller responses with the exception of one well located directly on Hurricane Irma's track. These wells show an increase of 0.2 to 1.7m. In Texas, wells located in proximity to Hurricane Harvey's track show an increase in water level. The effect of groundwater level increases is not limited to the Texas coast, but inland as well. An increase between 0.03 and 2.9m is seen. Storm surges for both Florida and Texas have ranged from 1.8-3.7m maximum. We discuss the findings in the context of local and regional geology and hydrogeology (presence of connected aquifer systems, faulting, presence of carbonate/karst systems etc.).

  7. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  8. Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Harlan, Sharon L; Stefanov, William L; Martin, Chris A

    2011-10-01

    Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To better understand patterns of urban vegetated cooling, the potential water requirements to supply these services, and differential access to these services between residential neighborhoods, we evaluated three decades (1970-2000) of land surface characteristics and residential segregation by income in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. We developed an ecosystem service trade-offs approach to assess the urban heat riskscape, defined as the spatial variation in risk exposure and potential human vulnerability to extreme heat. In this region, vegetation provided nearly a 25 degrees C surface cooling compared to bare soil on low-humidity summer days; the magnitude of this service was strongly coupled to air temperature and vapor pressure deficits. To estimate the water loss associated with land-surface cooling, we applied a surface energy balance model. Our initial estimates suggest 2.7 mm/d of water may be used in supplying cooling ecosystem services in the Phoenix region on a summer day. The availability and corresponding resource use requirements of these ecosystem services had a strongly positive relationship with neighborhood income in the year 2000. However, economic stratification in access to services is a recent development: no vegetation-income relationship was observed in 1970, and a clear trend of increasing correlation was evident through 2000. To alleviate neighborhood inequality in risks from extreme heat through increased vegetation and evaporative cooling, large increases in regional water use would be required. Together, these results suggest the need for a systems evaluation of the

  9. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L. by using RAPD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592 bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2, primer efficiency was 0.1, and discriminatory value was (%0.09, which revealed a high percentage similarity about %67 to %100 between cultivars belong to the same variety. There are relationships with twenty four genotypes, divided in to two clusters, clusterΙ ranged distance from 0.74 to 1.30 represented(Maddany, Ashrasi, Greatli, Smeasmi and sukkary and clusterII ranged distance from 0.25 to 0.60 which divided into three sub group, there are sub group I represented (Sultana, Khestawi, Breem, Sabb Drrah, Hamrawi, Brban, and Khadrawi, sub groupiesII represented (Zahdi, Tebarzal, Maktom, brahi, Chipchab and Fom Alrman, sub groupies III represented (Usta Umran, Nersi, Najdi, Guntar, Shwethi and Ghanami Ahmer.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L. by using RAPD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592 bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2, primer efficiency was 0.1, and discriminatory value was (%0.09, which revealed a high percentage similarity about %67 to %100 between cultivars belong to the same variety. There are relationships with twenty four genotypes, divided in to two clusters, clusterΙ ranged distance from 0.74 to 1.30 represented(Maddany, Ashrasi, Greatli, Smeasmi and sukkary and clusterII ranged distance from 0.25 to 0.60 which divided into three sub group, there are sub group I represented (Sultana, Khestawi, Breem, Sabb Drrah, Hamrawi, Brban, and Khadrawi, sub groupiesII represented (Zahdi, Tebarzal, Maktom, brahi, Chipchab and Fom Alrman, sub groupies III represented (Usta Umran, Nersi, Najdi, Guntar, Shwethi and Ghanami Ahmer.  

  12. Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by fallen phoenix tree's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Runping; Zou Weihua; Yu Weihong; Cheng Shujian; Wang Yuanfeng; Shi Jie

    2007-01-01

    A new adsorbent, the fallen phoenix tree's leaf, has been investigated in order to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Variables of the system, including contact time, leaf dose, solution pH, salt concentration and initial MB concentration, were adopted to study their effects on MB biosorption. The results showed that as the dose of leaf increased, the percentage of MB sorption increased accordingly. There was no significant difference about the quantity of MB adsorbed onto leaf as the pH was within the range 4.5-10.0. The salt concentration has negative effect on MB removal. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The results of non-linear regressive analysis are that the Langmuir isotherm is better fit than the Freundlich isotherm at different temperature according to the values of determined coefficients (R 2 ) and χ 2 -statistic (SS). The Langmuir monolayer saturation capacities of MB adsorbed onto leaf are 80.9, 83.8, 89.7 mg g -1 at 295, 309 and 323 K, respectively. Using the equilibrium concentration contents obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o , have been calculated. The thermodynamics parameters of MB/leaf system indicate spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature be advantage to adsorb MB onto leaf

  13. VA office of inspector general releases scathing report of Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The long-awaited Office of Inspector General’s (OIG report on the Phoenix VA Health Care System (PVAHCS was released on August 27, 2014 (1. The report was scathing in its evaluation of VA practices and leadership. Five questions were investigated: 1.Were there clinically significant delays in care? 2. Did PVAHCS omit the names of veterans waiting for care from its Electronic Wait List (EWL? 3. Were PVAHCS personnel not following established scheduling procedures? 4. Did the PVAHCS culture emphasize goals at the expense of patient care? 5. Are scheduling deficiencies systemic throughout the VA? In each case, the OIG found that the allegations were true. Despite initial denials, the OIG report showed that former PVAHCS director Sharon Helman, associate director Lance Robinson, hospital administration director Brad Curry, chief of staff Darren Deering and other senior executives were aware of delays in care and unofficial wait lists. Perhaps most disturbing is ...

  14. The Phoenix Project: Shifting to a solar hydrogen economy by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.

    2008-01-01

    The most serious energy, economic and environmental problems are related to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels, which are rapidly diminishing and highly polluting, and many distinguished atmospheric chemists, including Dr. James Hanson at NASA, Dr. Steven Chu, the director of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Professor Ralph Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences have documented that climate changes are now occurring much faster than predicted just a few years ago. The methane hydrates in the oceans and the permafrost in vast areas of the Arctic regions of Siberia, Alaska and Canada are now starting to rapidly melt, and given this could release 50 to 100 times more carbon into the atmosphere than is now generated from the burning of fossil fuels, humanity is rapidly approaching an exponential 'tipping point' of no return. Given this sense of urgency, Hanson and others have warned that fossil fuels need to be phased-out by 2020 if irreversible damage to the earth's climate and food production systems is to be avoided. The Phoenix Project plan seeks to do exactly that by mass-producing wind-powered hydrogen production systems and simply modifying all the existing vehicles and power plants to use the hydrogen made from the sun, wind and water

  15. US Geological Survey National Computer Technology Meeting; Proceedings, Phoenix, Arizona, November 14-18, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthrop, Barbara H.; Terry, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Computer Technology Meetings (NCTM) are sponsored by the Water Resources Division and provide a forum for the presentation of technical papers and the sharing of ideas or experiences related to computer technology. This report serves as a proceedings of the meeting held in November, 1988 at the Crescent Hotel in Phoenix, Arizona. The meeting was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial people representing all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey.Scientists in every Division of the U.S. Geological Survey rely heavily upon state-of-the-art computer technology (both hardware and sofnuare). Today the goals of each Division are pursued in an environment where high speed computers, distributed communications, distributed data bases, high technology input/output devices, and very sophisticated simulation tools are used regularly. Therefore, information transfer and the sharing of advances in technology are very important issues that must be addressed regularly.This report contains complete papers and abstracts of papers that were presented at the 1988 NCTM. The report is divided into topical sections that reflect common areas of interest and application. In each section, papers are presented first followed by abstracts. For these proceedings, the publication of a complete paper or only an abstract was at the discretion of the author, although complete papers were encouraged.Some papers presented at the 1988 NCTM are not published in these proceedings.

  16. THE PHOENIX PROJECT: SHIFTING TO A SOLAR HYDROGEN ECONOMY BY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARRY BRAUN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The most serious energy, economic and environmental problems are related to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels, which are rapidly diminishing and highly polluting, and many distinguished atmospheric chemists, including Dr. James Hanson at NASA, Dr. Steven Chu, the director of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Professor Ralph Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences have documented that climate changes are now occurring much faster than predicted just a few years ago. The methane hydrates in the oceans and the permafrost in vast areas of the Artic regions of Siberia, Alaska and Canada are now starting to rapidly melt, and given this could release 50 to 100 times more carbon into the atmosphere than is now generated from the burning of fossil fuels, humanity is rapidly approaching an exponential “tipping point” of no return. Given this sense of urgency, Hanson and others have warned that fossil fuels need to be phased-out by 2020 if irreversible damage to the earth’s climate and food production systems is to be avoided. The Phoenix Project plan seeks to do exactly that by mass-producing wind-powered hydrogen production systems and simply modifying all the existing vehicles and power plants to use the hydrogen made from the sun, wind and water.

  17. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  18. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late nineteenth century, landscape protection in the deserts of the Southwest, United States of America, like many places worldwide, has been driven by the conservation of landscape icons, such as unusual geological features in wilderness areas. Yet, in the past two decades, leading conservation scholars worldwide have called for a shift in this paradigm to one that emphasises landscape systems, which is based on holistic landscape ecology. The shift in emphas is to landscape systems opens new opportunities to protect desert landscape systems at the regional scale rather than just remnant patches at the local scale. In this paper, the authors present, for public consideration, a typology of the five major desert landscapes that can be used as the bas is for protecting regional landscape systems in the deserts of the Southwest. As a case study, several representative examples of recent regional open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area are analysed and compared with the typology in order to understand how successfully the projects have addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert.

  19. Crucible of Creativity: Testing Public Outreach Activities at the Phoenix Comicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Phoenix Comicon (PCC) is a growing four-day pop culture event that features guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. The 2014 and 2015 shows (which drew 75,000+ unique attendees each) featured a science programming track coordinated and organized by Horodyskyj. The track consisted of discussion panels, mixers, shows, interactive displays, and signature events (over 30 hours of programming each year). Topics ranged from planetary sciences to biotechnology to artificial intelligence and event staff were recruited from all levels of experience in academia, industry, and STEM outreach. The PCC science programming track for both 2014 and 2015 received very positive feedback from the audience, PCC management, and even scientists who participated in the event. Panelists and staff received frequent unsolicited praise about the content and events, and surveys showed requests for more science content in future years. Demand for good science programming, especially the kind that links the audience to local scientists, is high. The unique organizational structure of PCC, which draws heavily on the fan community rather than industry professionals, provides a rich test bed for public outreach activities generated by scientists themselves. In 2014, we tested science-based game shows, such as the bloody Exoplanet Survivor. In 2015, we ran a science interactivity booth and an interactive stage show about forensics based on the BBC series Sherlock. I will detail some of the successes and failures of these various events and what we're planning for 2016.

  20. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for central Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2012-03-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  1. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Statistical Properties of Rainfall in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, G.

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of the rainfall statistical properties at multiple spatiotemporal scales is a necessary preliminary step to support modeling of urban hydrology, including flood prediction and simulation of impacts of land use changes. In this contribution, the rainfall statistical properties are analyzed in the Phoenix Metropolitan area and its surroundings ( 29600 km2) in Arizona using observations from 310 gauges of the Flood Control District of the Maricopa County network. Different techniques are applied to investigate the rainfall properties at temporal scales from 1 min to years and to quantify the associated spatial variability. Results reveal the following. The rainfall regime is characterized by high interannual variability, which is partially explained by teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation, and marked seasonality, with two maxima in the monsoon season from July to September and in winter from November to March. Elevation has a significant control on seasonal rainfall accumulation, strength of thermal convective activity during the monsoon, and peak occurrence of the rainfall diurnal cycle present in summer. The spatial correlation of wintertime rainfall is high even at short aggregation times (cells).

  2. Quantifying Water and Energy Fluxes Over Different Urban Land Covers in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Nicole P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of urbanization on water and energy fluxes varies according to the characteristics of the urban patch type. Nevertheless, urban flux observations are limited, particularly in arid climates, given the wide variety of land cover present in cities. To help address this need, a mobile eddy covariance tower was deployed at three locations in Phoenix, Arizona, to sample the surface energy balance at a parking lot, a xeric landscaping (irrigated trees with gravel) and a mesic landscaping (irrigated turf grass). These deployments were compared to a stationary eddy covariance tower in a suburban neighborhood. A comparison of the observations revealed key differences between the mobile and reference sites tied to the urban land cover within the measurement footprints. For instance, the net radiation varied substantially among the sites in manners consistent with albedo and shallow soil temperature differences. The partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes was modulated strongly by the presence of outdoor water use, with the irrigated turf grass exhibiting the highest evaporative fraction. At this site, we identified a lack of sensitivity of turbulent flux partitioning to precipitation events, which suggests that frequent outdoor water use removes water limitations in an arid climate, thus leading to mesic conditions. Other urban land covers with less irrigation, however, exhibited sensitivity to the occurrence of precipitation, as expected for an arid climate. As a result, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of outdoor water use is critical for understanding evapotranspiration losses in arid urban areas.

  3. Learning to live on a Mars day: fatigue countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K; Sullivan, Jason P; Vincent, Andrea S; Fiedler, Edna R; McKenna, Laurence M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Gilliland, Kirby; Sipes, Walter E; Smith, Peter H; Brainard, George C; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-10-01

    To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue. Operational field study. PML Science Operations Center. Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission. Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions.

  4. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the lens of holistic landscape ecology, the authors present for public consideration a desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria. As a case study, historical trends in open space planning and two contrasting examples of recent open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area were analysed and compared to the typology in order to understand how successfully the open space planning efforts had addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert. We also developed an approach for the analysis of the landscape ecological component of plans that was based on Baer's general plan assessment criteria (1997. Our results indicate the desert landscape typology is a valuable step as part of a plan assessment of two regional, open space plans, but more importantly, the assessment criteria presented in this paper could be used as the foundation for a more thorough assessment method of the landscape ecological component of plans. The desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria presented in this paper can be used to increase understanding about how the decision making of planners and designers has influenced the temporal and spatial dimensions of landscape legacies, trajectories and transformations, such as connectivity and fragmentation of open space.

  5. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  6. Fine frequency tuning of the PHOENIX charge breeder used as a probe for ECRIS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Melanie, M.J.; Medard, J.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Galata, A.; Koivisto, Hannu; Tarvainen, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of ECR ion sources is a main issue to optimize the production of multiply charged ion beams. The PHOENIX charge breeder operation has been tested in the range 13.75 - 14.5 GHz with an HF power of about 400 W. The effect of this tuning is analyzed by measuring the multi-ionization efficiency obtained for various characterized injected 1+ ion beams (produced by the 2.45 GHz COMIC source). The 1+/n+ method includes the capture and the multi ionization processes of the 1+ beam and may be considered as a plasma probe. The n+ spectra obtained could be considered, in first approach, as an image of the plasma of the charge breeder. However, in certain conditions it has been observed that the injection of a few hundreds of nA of 1+ ions (i.e.: Xe+) in the plasma of the charge breeder, is able to destroy the charge state distribution of the support gas (i.e.: up to 40 % of O 6+ and O 7+ disappears). The study of this phenomenon will be presented along with plasma potential measurements for various charge states. This study may help to understand the creation (or destruction) of highly charged ions inside an ECRIS. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  7. Involvement of Union Fenosa skills in the thermohydraulic area of the Jose Cabrera NPP PSA. Applications of the RELAPS5/MOD2 Code; Implicacion de las capacidades de union fenosa dentro del area de termohidraulica en el APS de la C.N. Jose Cabrera. Aplicaciones del codigo RELAP5/MOD2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L; Saenz Tejada, P [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    When performing a level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) on a standard power plant, in order to model plant response to the potential occurrence of the various initiating events postulated in a PSA, reference documentation applicable to the type of plant in question is frequently consulted. Because of the specific design characteristics of the Jose Cabrera NPP, most of the reference documentation for the W-PWR-type power plants is not applicable to this plant. To fill in these gaps in the documentation and to construct the most realistic model of plant behaviour possible, assistance was sought from Union Fenosa by way of infrastructure, capabilities and thermohydraulic experience of the Nuclear Engineering and Fuel Group, and especially the use of calculations performed with the RELAP5/ MOD2 code. This paper will provide an overview of the general assistance rendered to the PSA by the technical experts in thermohydraulics, the calculations performed with RELAP5/MOD2 and the influence all of this has had on the development, quality and results of the Jose Cabrera NPP level 1 PSA Project. (author)

  8. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  9. Application of GIS and Visualization Technology in the Regional-Scale Ground-Water Modeling of the Twentynine Palms and San Jose Areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.

    2003-12-01

    Application of GIS and visualization technology significantly contributes to the efficiency and success of developing ground-water models in the Twentynine Palms and San Jose areas, California. Visualizations from GIS and other tools can help to formulate the conceptual model by quickly revealing the basinwide geohydrologic characteristics and changes of a ground-water flow system, and by identifying the most influential components of system dynamics. In addition, 3-D visualizations and animations can help validate the conceptual formulation and the numerical calibration of the model by checking for model-input data errors, revealing cause and effect relationships, and identifying hidden design flaws in model layering and other critical flow components. Two case studies will be presented: The first is a desert basin (near the town of Twentynine Palms) characterized by a fault-controlled ground-water flow system. The second is a coastal basin (Santa Clara Valley including the city of San Jose) characterized by complex, temporally variable flow components ­¦ including artificial recharge through a large system of ponds and stream channels, dynamically changing inter-layer flow from hundreds of multi-aquifer wells, pumping-driven subsidence and recovery, and climatically variable natural recharge. For the Twentynine Palms area, more than 10,000 historical ground-water level and water-quality measurements were retrieved from the USGS databases. The combined use of GIS and visualization tools allowed these data to be swiftly organized and interpreted, and depicted by water-level and water-quality maps with a variety of themes for different uses. Overlaying and cross-correlating these maps with other hydrological, geological, geophysical, and geochemical data not only helped to quickly identify the major geohydrologic characteristics controlling the natural variation of hydraulic head in space, such as faults, basin-bottom altitude, and aquifer stratigraphies, but also

  10. Identification and characterization of gene-based SSR markers in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is an important tree in the Middle East and North Africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. Molecular Breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding. Results In this study, we analyzed 28,889 EST sequences from the date palm genome database to identify simple-sequence repeats (SSRs and to develop gene-based markers, i.e. expressed sequence tag-SSRs (EST-SSRs. We identified 4,609 ESTs as containing SSRs, among which, trinucleotide motifs (69.7% were the most common, followed by tetranucleotide (10.4% and dinucleotide motifs (9.6%. The motif AG (85.7% was most abundant in dinucleotides, while motifs AGG (26.8%, AAG (19.3%, and AGC (16.1% were most common among trinucleotides. A total of 4,967 primer pairs were designed for EST-SSR markers from the computational data. In a follow up laboratory study, we tested a sample of 20 random selected primer pairs for amplification and polymorphism detection using genomic DNA from date palm cultivars. Nearly one-third of these primer pairs detected DNA polymorphism to differentiate the twelve date palm cultivars used. Functional categorization of EST sequences containing SSRs revealed that 3,108 (67.4% of such ESTs had homology with known proteins. Conclusion Date palm EST sequences exhibits a good resource for developing gene-based markers. These genic markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in date palm, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, and molecular breeding.

  11. Environmental determinants of unscheduled residential outages in the electrical power distribution of Phoenix, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliszewski, Paul J.; Larson, Elisabeth K.; Perrings, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of power infrastructures depends on their reliability. One test of the reliability of an infrastructure is its ability to function reliably in extreme environmental conditions. Effective planning for reliable electrical systems requires knowledge of unscheduled outage sources, including environmental and social factors. Despite many studies on the vulnerability of infrastructure systems, the effect of interacting environmental and infrastructural conditions on the reliability of urban residential power distribution remains an understudied problem. We model electric interruptions using outage data between the years of 2002 and 2005 across Phoenix, Arizona. Consistent with perceptions of increased exposure, overhead power lines positively correlate with unscheduled outages indicating underground cables are more resistant to failure. In the presence of overhead lines, the interaction between birds and vegetation as well as proximity to nearest desert areas and lakes are positive driving factors explaining much of the variation in unscheduled outages. Closeness to the nearest arterial road and the interaction between housing square footage and temperature are also significantly positive. A spatial error model was found to provide the best fit to the data. Resultant findings are useful for understanding and improving electrical infrastructure reliability. - Highlights: ► Unscheduled outages were related to interacting environmental and infrastructural conditions. ► Underground feeders are more resistant to failure. ► In the presence of overhead lines, birds, vegetation, and proximity to desert areas are positive driving factors. ► Proximity to arterial roads and a proxy for energy demand were significantly positive. ► Outages were most spatially dependent up to around 350 m.

  12. Urban adaptation to mega-drought: Anticipatory water modeling, policy, and planning in Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.; Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Chow, W.

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using the results of water models for long-term planning and policy analysis. Achieving this goal requires more effective integration of human dimensions into water modeling and a paradigm shift in the way models are developed and used. A user-defined focus argues in favor of models that are designed to foster public debate and engagement about the difficult trade-offs that are inevitable in managing complex water systems. These models also emphasize decision making under uncertainty and anticipatory planning, and are developed through a collaborative and iterative process. This paper demonstrates the use of anticipatory modeling for long-term drought planning in Phoenix, one of the largest and fastest growing urban areas in the southwestern USA. WaterSim 5, an anticipatory water policy and planning model, was used to explore groundwater sustainability outcomes for mega-drought conditions across a range of policies, including population growth management, water conservation, water banking, direct reuse of RO reclaimed water, and water augmentation. Results revealed that business-as-usual population growth, per capita use trends, and management strategies may not be sustainable over the long term, even without mega-drought conditions as years of available groundwater supply decline over the simulation period from 2000 to 2060. Adding mega-drought increases the decline in aquifer levels and increases the variability in flows and uncertainty about future groundwater supplies. Simulations that combine drought management policies can return the region to sustainable. Results demonstrate the value of long-term planning and policy analysis for anticipating and adapting to environmental change.

  13. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Field observations of regional and urban impacts on NO2, ozone, UVB, and nitrate radical production rates in the Phoenix air basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Drayton, P.J.; Doskey, P.V.; Kotamarthi, V.R.; Cunningham, M.M.; Baird, J.C.; Dintaman, J.; Hart, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    In the May and June of 1998, field measurements were taken at a site near the Usery Pass Recreation Area, ∼27 miles from the downtown Phoenix area, overlooking Phoenix and Mesa, Arizona. This site was selected to examine the impacts of the Phoenix urban plume on the Usery Pass Recreation Area and surrounding regions. Data were obtained for ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), ozone (O 3 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). Nocturnal plumes of NO 2 (in tens of ppb), observed near midnight, were correlated with CO and anti-correlated with O 3 . This behavior was consistent with the titration of locally generated NO by boundary layer O 3 to form the nighttime NO 2 plumes that were subsequently transported into the Usery Pass Recreation area. Nitrate radical (NO 3 ) production rates were calculated to be very high on the edges of these nocturnal plumes. Examination of O 3 and PAN data also indicates that Phoenix is being affected by long-range transport of pollutants from the Los Angeles to San Diego areas. A regional smoke episode was observed in May, accompanied by a decrease in UVB of factor of two and a decrease in O 3 and an increase in methyl chloride. Low level back trajectories and chemical evidence confirm that the smoke event originated in northern Mexico and that the reduced O 3 levels observed at Usery Pass could be partially due to reduced photolysis rates caused by carbonaceous soot aerosols transported in the smoke plume. The results are discussed with regard to potential effects of local pollution transport from the Phoenix air basin as well as an assessment of the contributions from long-range transport of pollutants to the background levels in the Phoenix-Usery Pass area. (author)

  15. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  16. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  17. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  18. Migración y desigualdad laboral y salarial por género y estatus migratorio de las sinaloenses en Phoenix, Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Montoya Zavala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para analizar la participación de las sinaloenses emigrantes en el mercado laboral en las comunidades de destino, las implicaciones de género y estatus migratorio en el tipo de empleo y sus salarios se estudiaron las características de mujeres y hombres emigrantes de Sinaloa, y se contrastaron con las de las sonorenses radicadas en Phoenix. Esta investigación se basó en la encuesta a hogares mexicanos en Phoenix, de 2007.

  19. VASCULAR EPIPHYTE COMPONENT OCCURING IN URBAN TREES IN THE SQUARE PROFESSOR JOSE INACIO IN PIRATININGA COUNTY, SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are plants cropped in other plants to damage them. The main characteristics of this group of plants is unknown in this part of Brazil, making it important to study this subject. The aim of this work was to characterize the structural and the floristic composition of vascular epiphytes on urban trees; to classify ecological categories species, according to hoist and to calculate community diversity. The studied area (Professor Jose Inacio Square, standed at the municipal district of Piratininga, Sao Paulo State. The climate is Cwa according to Köeppen classification and sandy phase dark red oxisol (latosol. It had been identified 10 species encompassing 6 gender and 6 families, being with best improvement the Bromeliaceae, representing 30 % of data. Tillandsia, with 3 species, was the most abundant gender and featured holoepiphytes were represented, with 70% species. About epiphyte community structure: Tillandsia recurvata and Tillandsia tricholepis were the most important (with bigger VIe in the studies community. Diversity was 2.371 nats/individual to specie and 2.04 nats/individual per family. The small number of species and low diversity index should be due to local conditions, urban area, with different features from that founded at normal eco-systems.

  20. Measuring and building resilience after big storms: Lessons learned from Super-Storm Sandy for the Harvey, Irma, Jose, and Maria coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.; Penn, K. M.; Taylor, S. M.; Subramanian, B.; Bennett, R.

    2017-12-01

    As we recover from recent large storms, we need information to support increased environmental and socio-economic resilience of the Nation's coasts. Defining baseline conditions, tracking effects of mitigation actions, and measuring the uncertainty of resilience to future disturbance are essential so that the best management practices can be determined. The US Dept. of the Interior invested over $787 million dollars in 2013 to understand and mitigate coastal storm vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of the Northeast coast following Super-Storm Sandy. Several lessons-learned from that investment have direct application to mitigation and restoration needs following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose and Maria. New models of inundation, overwash, and erosion, developed during the Sandy projects have already been applied to coastlines before and after these recent storms. Results from wetland, beach, back-bay, estuary, and built-environment projects improved models of inundation and erosion from surge and waves. Tests of nature-based infrastructure for mitigating coastal disturbance yielded new concepts for best-practices. Ecological and socio-economic measurements established for detecting disturbance and tracking recovery provide baseline data critical to early detection of vulnerabilities. The Sandy lessons and preliminary applications on the recent storms could help define best-resilience practices before more costly mitigation or restoration efforts are required.

  1. Content of heavy metals in the sediments of the rivers and adjacent gullies to Relleno de Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica it is not had studies that have documented heavy the fluvial sediment metal concentrations, caused by point sources of polluting agents, as they are the sites of I deposit of been accustomed to remainders. The potential source of heavy metal concentrations in the study area, it is an active sanitary filling, known like Sanitary Landing Azul River, which is located to the Southeastern of the city of San Jose, in the District of Azul River, Corner of the Union. The site where this made up of a sequence of materials of volcanic origin is located to the filling of Azul River, which could be affected by local fault, this fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of underground waters of the region, then the geological faults constitute very permeable means, able to put in contact the polluting agents of the water-bearing filling with some. The mass of metals deposited in the site, from 1978 to date, metric ton has calculated between 70000 to 100000, which turns it an environmental preoccupation of first order. The results of x-rays fluorescence show the presence of elements like vanadium, chromium, manganese, it receives, zinc rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a tendency to present/display high concentrations but in the fine fraction (d [es

  2. Heavy metal contents in sediments of rivers and adjacent streams to the filling of Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, Raul Alberto

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica there are no studies that have documented the concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments, caused by point sources of pollutants, such as the deposits sites of solid waste. The potential source of heavy metals concentrations in the study area, is an active landfill, known as Relleno Sanitario de Rio Azul, which is located southeast of the city of San Jose, in Distrito de Rio Azul de La Union. The site where the landfill Rio Azul is located is composed by a sequence of volcanic materials, which could have been affected by local faulting. This fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of groundwater in the region, geological faults are therefore a highly permeable, able to get in touch the fill pollutants with some aquifer. The mass of metal deposited on the site, from 1978 to date, has been estimated between 70000-100000 tm, which it becomes environmental concern in a first order. The results of X-ray fluorescence show the presence of elements such as vanadium, chromium, magnesium, copper, zinc, rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a trend towards more high Concentrates in the fine fraction (d [es

  3. Evaluation of the levels of particles PM10 and nitrogen dioxide at the city of San Jose, Costa Rica: 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Murillo, Jorge; Rodriguez Roman, Susana

    2009-01-01

    The levels of particulate matter PM 10 were determined at two sites of San Jose City (Catedral Metropolitana and Junta de Educacion), during a year (September 2005-September 2006), obtaining as annual average 36 ± 8 μg/m 3 and 25 ± 7 μg/m 3 , respectively. Also, the levels of sulfates, nitrates and chlorides were measured for both sites. The annual averages have resulted not to be significantly different for both sites, with a level of significance of 5%. Three of the fourteen sites of measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the city, have presented higher values to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, monitoring for one month. The principal component analysis that were applied to the data of this gas, has showed that the variations in the levels are due to large-scale phenomena (meteorological). However, the concentration of sulfate present in the particulate matter has reached higher values to those recorded in cities like Rio de Janeiro and Mexico D.F., product probably of the high sulfur content present in the fuels that are used by the vehicle fleet at Costa Rica. The principal component analysis indicates that has existed a strong correlation between the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate present in the particles PM 10 , pointing the contribution of anthropogenic sources. In the case of chloride, has highlighted the strong existing relationship with the meteorological parameters that were registered during the sampling period. (author) [es

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam; Evaluacion de metales pesados Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb y Hg en agua, sedimento y lirio acuatico (Eichhornia crassipes) de la Presa Jose Antonio Alzate, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila P, P

    1996-12-31

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences ({alpha} < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author).

  5. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  6. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  7. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  8. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  9. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-04-05

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, April 5th, at the downtown Phoenix Hyatt. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy) and facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). Approximately thirty-eight people attended the meeting, including representatives of ten different tribes, as well as representatives of the Colorado Indian Tribes, the All Indian Pueblo Council and the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Interested state, federal, university, NGO and industry representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. DOE representatives were Tracey LeBeau, Directory of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, and David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  10. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  11. Enhancement of Palm residues (Phoenix canariensis for a potential use in ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sperandio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of biological residues from numerous fellings of palms (Phoenix canariensis infested by red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in central Italy and around the Mediterranean basin, has created an important disposal problem. This issue could provide a further use by introducing it as a food in diet of ruminants, beyond that represented by the use as fuel in biomass power plants for heating or electrical energy. The shredded material of palm can be employed to animal nutrition, resulting in interest for the feed industry and livestock sector. Analysis, carried out on samples of shredded palm, made using a chipper machine modified to obtain a product of small size (according to the phytosanitary measures of Lazio Region: n. 390, June 5, 2007, showed an high water content (79% and therefore a not easy conservation. A conservation technique could be dehydration, in order to make product as flour, pellets, to introduce in unifeed together with the other compounds of the diet (forage, concentrates, etc.. Given the high water content, the dehydration process causes a very high production cost. About nutritional value, analysis showed 0.65 UF/ kg on dry matter basis, higher than the straw and hay of stable grass in an advanced stage of maturation (0.20 to 0.30 UF/kg. These values are similar to a good hay obtained from mixed grass. As consequence it is possible to use shredded palm as part of energy of the ruminants diet. Is still not clear which component allows the achievement of this value, probably derives in small part by the lipid component and largely by the fibrous component. Moreover data showed that the presence of fatty acid precursors of CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, is much higher than the values of Italian pastures. Utilization of these fatty acids in animal diets improves quality of the final products (milk, cheese, meat. The possibility of introducing shredded palm in ruminants

  12. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  13. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  14. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  15. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  16. One Day Every 216 Years, Three Days Each Decan. Rebirth Cycle of Pythagoras, Phoenix, Hazon Gabriel, and Christian Dogma of Resurrection Can Be Explained by the Metonic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwangl, S.

    2009-08-01

    This article explains how the Metonic cycle is at the base of the period of 216 years Pythagoras believed in being reborn after that period. It shows how this period calendrically is related to other mythological worldviews such as the Phoenix myth, the Hebrean Hazon Gabriel, and the Christian dogma of resurrection on the third day.

  17. Study of the temporal and spatial variation of climate and solar radiation in th metropolitan Phoenix area. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrenberger, R.W.

    1978-09-29

    The research performed was designed to identify spatial or temporal variation of any atmospheric parameters that might affect the operation of devices utilizing solar energy in the metropolitan Phoenix area. The first part of the research involved the analysis of all available solar and climatic data to determine their validity and comparability. For the standard climatic parameters, few difficulties were encountered, but the task of determining comparability of solar radiation data involved many pitfalls. It was concluded that most of the solar data acquired before January 1977 could not be used for purposes of identifying spatial variability. And, a year and a half of data does not represent a long enough period of time upon which to base sound conclusions about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix region. The data currently available to us do not indicate any great variation of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area. However, any meaningful statements about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area must await the acquisition of additional data from well-calibrated equipment.

  18. Salvage radiotherapy for patients with P.S.A. relapse after radical prostatectomy: comparisons among Astro and Phoenix biochemical failure definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, L.; Hennequin, V.; Maylin, C.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Mongiat-Artus, P.; Desgrandchamps, F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Study about the efficacy of salvage radiotherapy (R.T.), in terms of biochemical disease free survival (b.D.F.S.), according to Astro and Phoenix (nadir + 2) definitions, for persistent or rising P.S.A. after radical prostatectomy. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of 59 patients who underwent R.T. between 1990 and 2003 for P.S.A. recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Patients received a median of 66 Gy to the prostate bed with 3D or 2D R.T.. The main end point was b.D.F.S. according to Astro and Phoenix (nadir + 2) definitions. Different criterion sets were analysed to calculate b.D.F.S. and pretreatment factors that might predict biochemical relapse were sought for each. Results After a 38-month median follow-up, the 3-year b.D.F.S. rates were: 60 and 72% for Astro and Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/ml) definitions respectively. According to univariate analysis, pre-R.T. P.S.A. = 1 ng/ml and seminal vesicle involvement were associated with biochemical relapse. Multivariate analysis retained only pre-R.T. P.S.A. = 1 ng/ml as an independent predictor of biochemical relapse for the two definitions. Conclusion Salvage R.T. is an effective treatment after radical prostatectomy according to Astro or Phoenix definitions. Only pre-R.T. P.S.A. = 1 ng/ml predicted relapse. (authors)

  19. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  20. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  1. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  2. Theater and the Discourse on Power: Jose Rizal’s Participation in Philippine Theater in the Last Decades of the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio B. Chua

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on Jose Rizal’s participation in Philippine Theater during the last decades of the nineteenth century. It starts with a careful inventory of attitudes towards existing theater forms and a description of the culture of theater as conceived and imagined in Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere (1887 and El Filibusterismo (1891. In Chapter 20: “The Town Council’s Meeting” in Noli Me Tangere, the study zooms in on the debate on what would be the best and most appropriate theatre piece for the town fiesta. Here, Rizal delineates theater enmeshed in issues of power and Spanish colonialism. He notes as significant the ilustrados’ claim to theatre space and ideology, thereby interrogating Spanish hegemony. The debate becomes the central imagery and situation for Rizal’s analysis and construction of the history of Philippine theater in the novel. Conservative and radical elements duel. The conflict becomes sharper as Rizal continues his critique by putting into his fictional world the very historical actors known at that time; namely, Nemesio Ratia, Jose Carvajal and Praxedes Julia Fernandez (also known as “Yeyeng”. They were part of the comedia troupe hired by the town for the fiesta. In Rizal’s second novel, El Filibusterismo, we encounter the events surrounding the presentation by a French opera troupe in Teatro de Variedades, which Rizal considers as the Manila theater model. The features of this model include a particular ticket system, various kinds of audiences, imported dramatic texts which were largely incomprehensible, actors behaving as actors both on-stage and off-stage, and the Teatro de Variedades space as stage for seizure or possession of power. When the students in the audience stage a walk-out in the theatre of the city and when in provincial San Diego, a stampede cuts short a comedia performance, the interrelationships between society and a discourse of power are revealed.Rizal’s annotations of Philippine

  3. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Rauda Lucia; Martins Jorge, Maria Paulete; Pereira, Sergio Silva; Melione, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Ma, Te Hsiu; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  4. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  6. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  7. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  8. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  9. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1973: ERTS as an aid in a nationwide program for mapping general land use. [Phoenix Quadrangle, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in land use between 1970 and 1973 in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a standard land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Types of changes detected have been: (1) new residential development of former cropland and rangeland; (2) new cropland from the desert; and (3) new reservoir fill-up. The seasonal changing of vegetation patterns in ERTS has complemented air photos in delimiting the boundaries of some land use types. ERTS images, in combination with other sources of information, can assist in mapping the generalized land use of the fifty states by the standard 1:250,000 quadrangles. Several states are already working cooperatively in this type of mapping.

  10. [Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of social phobia in French psychiatry (Phoenix study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissolo, A; Huron, C; Fanget, F; Servant, D; Stiti, S; Richard-Berthe, C; Boyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Only few clinical epidemiologic studies have been conducted on social phobia in France to date. It is however a frequent disorder, with often severe alteration of social adaptation and quality of life, and for which effective treatments exist. Thus, it seems really important to further explore how these patients are nowadays identified and treated in psychiatry. It was the objective of the Phoenix study. In this observational multi-center study, 952 psychiatric in- or out-patients, with a primary diagnosis of social phobia according to DSM IV criteria, were included. Numerous diagnostic and psychometric evaluations were carried out, in order to evaluate the comorbidity (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), the intensity of social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and various aspects of the functional and emotional impact (Various Impact of Social Anxiety scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, SF-36, Positive and Negative Emotionality scale). The patients were in majority females (57.6%), with a mean age 37.5 years, and with a mean duration of social anxiety disorder 12.5 years. The mean scores of social anxiety on Liebowitz scale was 40.3 +/- 12.6 for the fear factor, and 38.3 +/- 13.6 for the avoidance factor. The generalized social anxiety subtype (anxiety in most social situations) was present in 67.8% of the patients. A major depressive disorder was found in 47.7% of the sample, and the prevalence of agoraphobia was even higher (49.2%). As known in clinical practice and in other studies, the prevalence rates of current alcohol dependence and substances abuse were also important in this population (respectively 10.6% and 12.7%). Mean scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) sub-scales were 13.9 +/-3.8 for anxiety and 9.1 +/-4.5 for depression. About 15% of the patients had a history of suicide attempt, and a suicidal risk was present in nearly 40% of the sample. The psychosocial impact and the

  11. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Age and isotopic systematics of Cretaceous borehole and surface samples from the greater Los Angeles Basin region: Implications for the types of crust that might underlie Los Angeles and their distribution along late Cenozoic fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Nine U-Pb zircon ages were determined on plutonic rocks sampled from surface outcrops and rock chips of drill core from boreholes within the greater Los Angeles Basin region. In addition, lead-strontium-neodymium (Pb-Sr-Nd) whole-rock isotopic data were obtained for eight of these samples. These results help to characterize the crystalline basement rocks hidden in the subsurface and provide information that bears on the tectonic history of the myriad of fault systems that have dissected the Los Angeles region over the past 15 m.y. Seven of the nine samples have U-Pb ages ranging from 115 to 103 Ma and whole-rock Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics that indicate the crystalline basement underneath the greater Los Angeles Basin region is mostly part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith. Furthermore, these data are interpreted as evidence for (1) the juxtaposition of mid-Cretaceous, northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges in the San Fernando Valley, probably along the Verdugo fault; (2) the juxtaposition of older northwestern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks against younger northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks in the northern Puente Hills, implying transposition of northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks to the west along unrecognized faults beneath the Chino Basin; and (3) juxtaposition of northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges along the San Jose fault in the northern San Jose Hills at Ganesha Park. These mainly left-lateral strike-slip faults of the eastern part of the greater Los Angeles Basin region could be the result of block rotation within the adjacent orthogonal, right-lateral, Elsinore-Whittier fault zone to the west and the subparallel San Jacinto fault zone to the east. The San Andreas fault system is the larger, subparallel, driving force further to the east.

  13. Abundância de oxigênio no aglomerado do bojo NGC 6553, com dados Gemini-Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Bica, E.; Zoccali, M.; Ortolani, S.; Renzini, A.; Hill, V.

    2003-08-01

    Excesso de elementos-alfa com relação ao ferro dá indicação de enriquecimento por supernovas de tipo II. Foram observadas 5 estrelas gigantes do aglomerado globular do bojo NGC 6553, com o espectrógrafo Phoenix no Gemini-Sul. Foram obtidos espectros na banda H, na região centrada em 1.555 mm, com Dl = 75 Å, a uma resolução R = 50 000. A análise detalhada consistiu em determinar temperaturas efetivas e gravidades usando fotometria VIJK, e as linhas de FeI para determinar velocidades de microturbulência e metalicidade [Fe/H]. Linhas de CO e OH foram sintetizadas e comparadas aos espectros observados. A análise resulta em [Fe/H] = -0.2, [O/Fe] = +0.2, mostrando portanto excesso do elemento-a oxigênio.

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Nineteenth Avenue Landfill, Phoenix, AZ. (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 213-acre Nineteenth Avenue Landfill is in an industrial area of Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona. State permitted landfill operations were conducted from 1957 to 1979 during which time approximately nine million cubic yards of municipal refuse, solid and liquid industrial wastes, and some medical wastes and materials containing low levels of radioactivity were deposited in the landfill. The State ordered the landfill closed in 1979 due to the periodic inundation of the landfill by flood waters from the Salt River Channel. Subsequently, the city covered the site with fill, stockpiled soil for final capping, installed ground water monitoring wells, built berms around the landfill, and installed a methane gas collection system. The remedial action is designed to mitigate threats resulting from flooding of the landfill, which has occurred intermittently since 1965. The primary contaminants of concern in the soil/refuse include VOCs such as toluene and xylenes

  15. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  16. Alkohol ja majandus / Marje Josing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Josing, Marje, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 30. juuli lk. 8. Alkoholi tootmisest, tarbimisest, müügist Eestis. IMD riikide uuringust, kus ettevõtjad annavad hinnangu, kuivõrd alkoholiprobleemid segavad ettevõttes tööd. Diagrammid. Tabelid

  17. Mt Pamola, the Electromagnetic Field, EMF, Thunderbird, Mothman and Environmental Monitoring Signals Via the Southern Constellation Phoenix As Detectable In Potato Cave, Acton, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea S.; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Just below the peak of Mt Pamola in ME, at the juncture with the Knife Edge, downwardly arcing segments of Earths EMF, are manifested by a faint lotus-blossom-blue, neon-like glow at 3 pm some sunny afternoons. Similarly hued glows, and horizontal but variable-arced segmented trajectories, are somewhat periodically detectable under certain conditions in chambers at Acton, MA. These phenomena curiously have the filled-in profile that precisely matches the outline of the southern constellation Phoenix, which is never visible above the nighttime horizon locally. The stick-figure representation of the constellation Canis Major can also be detected in a chamber at Americas Stonehenge, two hours before it has arisen, at certain times. The sequence of phenomena visible at Acton correctly correlates with eclipses and other alignments of our solar system. Phoenix, a.k.a. Thunderbird and Mothman, is detectable elsewhere in MA.

  18. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  19. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  1. Effect of evaporation and freezing on the salt paragenesis and habitability of brines at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, Amira; Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-07-01

    The WCL (Wet Chemistry Lab) instrument on board the Phoenix Lander identified the soluble ionic composition of the soil at the landing site. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the parent salts of these soluble ions. Here we studied the possible salt assemblages at the Phoenix landing site using two different thermodynamic models: FREZCHEM and Geochemist's Workbench (GWB). Two precipitation pathways were used: evaporation (T > 0 °C using both FREZCHEM and GWB) and freezing (T chlorate/perchlorate dominated), we calculated the resulting precipitated minerals. The results-through both freezing and evaporation-showed some common minerals that precipitated regardless of the ionic initial concentration. These ubiquitous minerals are magnesium chlorate hexahydrate Mg(ClO3)2ṡ6H2O, potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O). Other minerals evidence specific precipitation pathway. Precipitation of highly hydrated salts such as meridianiite (MgSO4ṡ11H2O) and MgCl2ṡ12H2O indicate freezing pathway, while precipitation of the low hydrated salts (anhydrite, kieserite and epsomite) indicate evaporation. The present hydration states of the precipitated hydrated minerals probably reflect the ongoing thermal processing and recent seasonally varying humidity conditions at the landing site, but these hydration states might not reflect the original depositional conditions. The simulations also showed the absence of Ca-perchlorate in all models, mainly because of the formation of two main salts: KClO4 and gypsum which are major sinks for ClO-4 and Ca2+ respectively. Finally, in consideration to the Martian life, it might survive at the very low temperatures and low water activities of the liquids formed. However, besides the big and widely recognized challenges to life posed by those extreme environmental parameters (especially low water activity), another main challenge for any form of life in such an environment is to maintain contact with the

  2. Cost implications of intraprocedural thrombotic events and bleeding in percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the CHAMPION PHOENIX ECONOMICS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Hector; Généreux, Philip; Yeh, Robert W; Amin, Amit P; Fan, Weihong; White, Harvey D; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Gibson, C Michael; Harrington, Robert A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Pinto, Duane S

    2018-05-04

    Despite improvements in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) and bleeding complications occur and are prognostically important. These have not been included in prior economic studies. PHOENIX ECONOMICS was a substudy of the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, evaluating cangrelor during PCI. Hospital bills were reviewed from 1,171 patients enrolled at 22 of 63 US sites. Costs were estimated using standard methods including resource-based accounting, hospital billing data, and the Medicare fee schedule. Bleeding and IPTE, defined as abrupt vessel closure (transient or sustained), new/suspected thrombus, new clot on wire/catheter, no reflow, side-branch occlusion, procedural stent thrombosis or urgent need for CABG were identified. Costs were calculated according to whether a complication occurred and type of event. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate the incremental costs of IPTE and postprocedural events. IPTE occurred in 4.3% and were associated with higher catheterization laboratory and overall index hospitalization costs by $2,734 (95%CI $1,117, $4,351; P = 0.001) and $6,354 (95% CI $4,122, $8,586; P < 0.001), respectively. IPTE were associated with MI (35.4% vs. 3.6%; P < 0.001), out-of-laboratory stent thrombosis (4.2% vs. 0.1%; 0 = 0.005), ischemia driven revascularization (12.5% vs. 0.3%; P < 0.001), but not mortality (2.1% vs. 0.2%; P = 0.12) vs. no procedural thrombotic complication. By comparison, ACUITY minor bleeding increased hospitalization cost by $1,416 (95%CI = 312, $2,519; P = 0.012). ACUITY major bleeding increased cost of hospitalization by $7,894 (95%CI $4,154, $11,635; P < 0.001). IPTE and bleeding complications, though infrequent, are associated with substantial increased cost. These complications should be collected in economic assessments of PCI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of the levels of particles PM{sub 10} and nitrogen dioxide at the city of San Jose, Costa Rica: 2005-2006; Evaluacion de los niveles de particulas PM{sub 10} y dioxido de nitrogeno en la ciudad de San Jose, Costa Rica: 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Murillo, Jorge [Univ. Nacional, Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Lab. de Analisis Ambiental, Campus Omar Dengo, apartado 86-3000 Heredia (Costa Rica). Tel: 506-277-3292; Rodriguez Roman, Susana, E-mail: rr.susana@gmail.com, E-mail: susanar@cariari.ucr.ac.cr [Univ. de Costa Rica, Escuela de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San Pedro de Montes de Oca (Costa Rica). Tel: 506-2207-5376

    2009-07-15

    The levels of particulate matter PM{sub 10} were determined at two sites of San Jose City (Catedral Metropolitana and Junta de Educacion), during a year (September 2005-September 2006), obtaining as annual average 36 {+-} 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 25 {+-} 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. Also, the levels of sulfates, nitrates and chlorides were measured for both sites. The annual averages have resulted not to be significantly different for both sites, with a level of significance of 5%. Three of the fourteen sites of measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the city, have presented higher values to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, monitoring for one month. The principal component analysis that were applied to the data of this gas, has showed that the variations in the levels are due to large-scale phenomena (meteorological). However, the concentration of sulfate present in the particulate matter has reached higher values to those recorded in cities like Rio de Janeiro and Mexico D.F., product probably of the high sulfur content present in the fuels that are used by the vehicle fleet at Costa Rica. The principal component analysis indicates that has existed a strong correlation between the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate present in the particles PM{sub 10}, pointing the contribution of anthropogenic sources. In the case of chloride, has highlighted the strong existing relationship with the meteorological parameters that were registered during the sampling period. (author) [Spanish] Los niveles de material particulado PM{sub 10} fueron determinados en dos sitios de la ciudad de San Jose (Catedral Metropolitana y Junta de Educacion), durante un ano (setiembre 2005-setiembre 2006), obteniendo como promedio anual 36 {+-} 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} y 25 {+-} 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectivamente. Ademas, los niveles de sulfatos, nitratos y cloruros fueron medidos para ambos sitios. Las medias anuales han resultado no ser significativamente diferentes

  4. Fumigation characteristics of ozone in postharvest treatment of Kabkab dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) against selected insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakousari, Mehrdad; Erjaee, Zahra; Javadian, Shahram

    2010-04-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation, the most accepted quarantine treatment for dates and many other dried commodities, will be phased out by 2015 worldwide. As a result, there is a critical need to develop durable alternatives for methyl bromide as postharvest treatments of agricultural commodities. This article presents a new method for postharvest treatment of Kabkab dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by application of gaseous ozone to reduce or eliminate all life stages (adults, larvae, and eggs) of Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and sawtooth grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis). The effect of the ozonation process on the sugar content of dates was also evaluated. Infested dates were exposed to ozone concentrations of 600, 1,200, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm for 1 and 2 h. As insect eggs are known to be most tolerant to many chemical or physical treatments, they were additionally exposed to an atmosphere of pure carbon dioxide prior to ozonation. Exposing samples to ozone concentrations of >2,000 ppm for 2 h resulted in complete mortality of larvae and adults. Exposure to 4,000 ppm of ozone for 2 h resulted in 80% mortality of eggs, and exposure to CO(2) prior to ozonation did not improve the effect of ozonation on eggs. Ozone did not have any influence on the sugar content of Kabkab dates.

  5. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution in arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali, E-mail: omarkhashman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box (20), Ma' an-Jordan (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Ala' a H.; Ibrahim, Khalid A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box (20), Ma' an-Jordan (Jordan)

    2011-06-15

    The leaves of date palms were evaluated as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal contamination in Ma'an city, Jordan. Concentrations of (Fe), (Pb), (Zn), (Cu), (Ni), and (Cr) were determined in washed and unwashed leaves and soil samples collected from different sites with different degrees of metal contamination (urban, suburban, industrial, highway and rural sites); separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial sites were found to have high concentrations of all metals except those of Cu, Ni and Pb, which were found at high levels in the highway site samples which is associated with the road traffic. The difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that metal pollutants exist as contaminants, particularly Pb, Zn and Ni, which varied in concentration, depending on the source of the metal. - Highlights: > High metal concentration in plant samples and roadside soil was due to the heavy traffic. > The mean concentrations (C) were in the order: C{sub Fe} > C{sub Pb} > C{sub Zn} > C{sub Ni} > C{sub Cu} > C{sub Cr}. > Difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that pollutants exist as contaminants. - Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves can be used as an inexpensive biomonitor of the deposition, accumulation and distribution of heavy metal contamination in arid environments.

  6. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution in arid and semi-arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Ibrahim, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of date palms were evaluated as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal contamination in Ma'an city, Jordan. Concentrations of (Fe), (Pb), (Zn), (Cu), (Ni), and (Cr) were determined in washed and unwashed leaves and soil samples collected from different sites with different degrees of metal contamination (urban, suburban, industrial, highway and rural sites); separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial sites were found to have high concentrations of all metals except those of Cu, Ni and Pb, which were found at high levels in the highway site samples which is associated with the road traffic. The difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that metal pollutants exist as contaminants, particularly Pb, Zn and Ni, which varied in concentration, depending on the source of the metal. - Highlights: → High metal concentration in plant samples and roadside soil was due to the heavy traffic. → The mean concentrations (C) were in the order: C Fe > C Pb > C Zn > C Ni > C Cu > C Cr . → Difference between unwashed and washed samples showed that pollutants exist as contaminants. - Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves can be used as an inexpensive biomonitor of the deposition, accumulation and distribution of heavy metal contamination in arid environments.

  7. Recent Progress for the Utilization of Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum and Phoenix dactylifera Seeds against Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, T; Sarfraz, M; Ashraf, M A

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. Even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. The intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes. By using various electronic search databases, a comprehensive English literature search was conducted. Different search terms were used by combining all the search fields in titles, abstracts and keywords. Curcuma longa, a spice, is commonly known as turmeric and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Piper nigrum is also a spice, commonly called black pepper, and belongs to the family Piperaceae. Phoenix dactylifera , commonly known as date fruit, belongs to the family Arecaceae. From ancient times, they have been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Among various activities, regulation of hyperglycaemia is considered one of their important effects. One of the aetiological factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals. Antioxidant properties of antidiabetic compounds would be more beneficial. Extracts of these plants have shown hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects by the involvement of several mechanisms. In the future, further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms involved in their hypoglycaemic potential and their active constituents as synthetic analogues. This review focusses on some medicinal plants that have antidiabetic effect, thus contributing to the reduction of risk factors associated with diabetes, and related beneficial effects are compiled.

  8. Short and long-term efficacy and phytotoxicity of phosphine against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in live Phoenix canariensis palms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembilio, O.; Jaques, J.A.

    2015-07-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a palm borer native to South Asia which has spread mainly due to the unintended movement of infested planting material. As a result, this species has become the most destructive palm pest in the world. The difficulty of detecting the early stages of infestation due to its cryptic life cycle has led many countries to implement, strict pre- and post-entry quarantine regulations to prevent further spread. However, there are no quarantine protocols to ensure that palm material for planting is free of R. ferrugineus. The aim of this study has been to determine the efficacy of aluminium phosphide as a safe quarantine treatment against different stages of R. ferrugineus and the possible phytotoxic effects on live Phoenix canariensis palms. Our results confirm that a dose of 1.14 g/m3 for 2 days is enough to kill all stages of R. ferrugineus in live palms with no phytotoxic effects on treated palms for up to one year after the treatment. This procedure, which could be easily applied in sealed containers used for palm trade, could drastically reduce risks associated to palm movement worldwide. (Author)

  9. Short communication: Short and long-term efficacy and phytotoxicity of phosphine against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in live Phoenix canariensis palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Dembilio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a palm borer native to South Asia which has spread mainly due to the unintended movement of infested planting material. As a result, this species has become the most destructive palm pest in the world. The difficulty of detecting the early stages of infestation due to its cryptic life cycle has led many countries to implement, strict pre- and post-entry quarantine regulations to prevent further spread. However, there are no quarantine protocols to ensure that palm material for planting is free of R. ferrugineus. The aim of this study has been to determine the efficacy of aluminium phosphide as a safe quarantine treatment against different stages of R. ferrugineus and the possible phytotoxic effects on live Phoenix canariensis palms. Our results confirm that a dose of 1.14 g/m3 for 2 days is enough to kill all stages of R. ferrugineus in live palms with no phytotoxic effects on treated palms for up to one year after the treatment. This procedure, which could be easily applied in sealed containers used for palm trade, could drastically reduce risks associated to palm movement worldwide.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg -1 soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg -1 soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO 2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efeito da maturação e temperatura na germinação de sementes de Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud - Arecaceae Effect of maturation stage and temperature on germination of Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud (Arecaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares Pimenta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud, originária das Ilhas Canárias, é uma palmeira que apresenta grande valor ornamental. A propagação das palmeiras, de modo geral, é considerada lenta, desuniforme e influenciada por vários fatores, como estádio de maturação e temperatura. Devido à sua importância e à falta de informações na literatura sobre a propagação da espécie, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito do estádio de maturação e da temperatura na germinação de sementes de P. canariensis. Realizou-se um experimento cujo delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 (2 para maturação e 5 para temperatura, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Frutos de colorações alaranjada (intermediário e marrom (maduro foram despolpados e os diásporos, colocados em caixas plásticas (tipo gerbox contendo vermiculita como substrato, nas temperaturas de 25, 30, 35, 20-30 e 25-35 ºC, com fotoperíodo de 16 h de luz e 8 h de escuro, utilizando-se câmaras incubadoras tipo BOD com controle de temperatura e fotoperíodo. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que a condição que permitiu maior porcentagem de germinação das sementes de P. canariensis foi a partir de frutos maduros (de coloração marrom, na temperatura alternada de 20-30 ºC, atingindo 98% de germinação.Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud is a palm tree of great ornamental value native to the Canary Islands. Its commercial propagation is done by sexual means and there are only few studies on seed germination under the influence of various factors such as maturation stage and temperature. We tried to evaluate the seed germination of P. canariensis using fruits at different maturarion stages under different temperatures. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (two maturation stages and five temperature conditions, with four samples containing 25 seeds each. Brownish and orangish

  12. Climate-induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon: Organized oral session at the Ecological Society of America/Society of Ecological Restoration Joint Meeting; San Jose, California, 5-10 August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    2007-01-01

    An organized oral session at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America in San Jose, Calif., posed this question: Is climate-induced drought stress triggering increasing rates and unusual patterns of forest die-off at a global scale? Twenty-nine researchers representing five continents reported on patterns, mechanisms, and projections of forest mortality.Observations include widespread forest dieback or reductions in tree cover and biodiversity in response to drought and warmer temperatures in the African Sahel (Patrick Gonzalez, The Nature Conservancy), Mediterranean and alpine Europe (Jorge Castro, Universidad de Granada), and Argentinean Patagonia (Thomas Kitzberger, Universidad Nacional del Comahue). In contrast, although much Eucalyptus mortality has resulted from recent droughts in Australia, warming trends have been less pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere and it is unclear if contemporary climate-induced tree mortality differs from previous historical drought impacts (Rod Fensham, Queensland Herbarium).

  13. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P extinction in PHX during 25 generations. Under such scenarios, maximum genetic diversities were achieved in the first generations before the effects of genetic drift became predominant. Although captive populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  14. Multielement statistical evidence for uraniferous hydrothermal activity in sandstones overlying the Phoenix uranium deposit, Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shishi; Hattori, Keiko; Grunsky, Eric C.

    2018-04-01

    The Phoenix U deposit, with indicated resources of 70.2 M lb U3O8, occurs along the unconformity between the Proterozoic Athabasca Group sandstones and the crystalline basement rocks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the compositions of sandstones overlying the deposit. Among PCs, PC1 accounts for the largest variability of U and shows a positive association of U with rare earth elements (REEs) + Y + Cu + B + Na + Mg + Ni + Be. The evidence suggests that U was dispersed into sandstones together with these elements during the uraniferous hydrothermal activity. Uranium shows an inverse association with Zr, Hf, Th, Fe, and Ti. Since they are common in detrital heavy minerals, such heavy minerals are not the major host of U. The elements positively associated with U are high in concentrations above the deposit, forming a "chimney-like" or "hump-like" distribution in a vertical section. Their enrichment patterns are explained by the ascent of basement fluids through faults to sandstones and the circulation of basinal fluids around the deposit. The Pb isotope compositions of whole rocks are similar to expected values calculated from the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb except for sandstones close to the deposit. The data suggest that in situ decay of U and Th is responsible for the Pb isotope compositions of most sandstones and that highly radiogenic Pb dispersed from the deposit to the proximal sandstones long after the mineralization. This secondary dispersion is captured in PC8, which has low eigenvalue. The data suggests that the secondary dispersion has minor effect on the overall lithogeochemistry of sandstones.

  15. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  16. Nutritional assessment and antioxidant analysis of 22 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) varieties growing in Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmad; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Javid; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Al-Broumi, Mohammed; Ali, Liaqat

    2014-09-01

    To assess the nutritional values and antioxidant analysis of 22 varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit collected from various regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Nutritional parameters including moisture, fats, fiber, proteins, carbohydrates, and energy value were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The antioxidant activity was screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical. The results of the date fruits (dried/tamar stage) revealed significantly higher moisture (15%-21%), dry matter (78%-86%), ash content (1.0%-2.0%), fiber (1.0%-2.5%), fat (0.1%-0.7%), protein (1.8%-3.8%), nitrogen (0.25%-0.55%), carbohydrates (74.5%-82.4%), and energy values (307-345.5 kcal/100 g). The antioxidant activity ranged between 40% and 86% depending upon the type of date and location. Overall, Khalas, Fardh and Khasab have significantly higher nutritional attributes; however, other varieties such as Barshi, Qush LuLu, Handal, and Khunaizi also have comparable nutritional values. The cluster analysis further evidenced the correlation of proximate parameters in different locations. Moreover, the nutritional and antioxidant attributes of similar date varieties collected from different locations were slightly varied. The present finding helps in understanding the nutritional significance of different date varieties in Oman while the lesser known varieties can be improved through sustainable horticultural practices as a valuable product. The study further reveals that the consumption of these dates' fruits would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C).

  18. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  19. Sky View Factors from Synthetic Fisheye Photos for Thermal Comfort Routing—A Case Study in Phoenix, Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Middel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sky View Factor (SVF is a dimension-reduced representation of urban form and one of the major variables in radiation models that estimate outdoor thermal comfort. Common ways of retrieving SVFs in urban environments include capturing fisheye photographs or creating a digital 3D city or elevation model of the environment. Such techniques have previously been limited due to a lack of imagery or lack of full scale detailed models of urban areas. We developed a web based tool that automatically generates synthetic hemispherical fisheye views from Google Earth at arbitrary spatial resolution and calculates the corresponding SVFs through equiangular projection. SVF results were validated using Google Maps Street View and compared to results from other SVF calculation tools. We generated 5-meter resolution SVF maps for two neighborhoods in Phoenix, Arizona to illustrate fine-scale variations of intra-urban horizon limitations due to urban form and vegetation. To demonstrate the utility of our synthetic fisheye approach for heat stress applications, we automated a radiation model to generate outdoor thermal comfort maps for Arizona State University’s Tempe campus for a hot summer day using synthetic fisheye photos and on-site meteorological data. Model output was tested against mobile transect measurements of the six-directional radiant flux density. Based on the thermal comfort maps, we implemented a pedestrian routing algorithm that is optimized for distance and thermal comfort preferences. Our synthetic fisheye approach can help planners assess urban design and tree planting strategies to maximize thermal comfort outcomes and can support heat hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  20. Time series evaluation of landscape dynamics using annual Landsat imagery and spatial statistical modeling: Evidence from the Phoenix metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Rey, Sergio J.; Li, Wenwen

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization is a natural and social process involving simultaneous changes to the Earth's land systems, energy flow, demographics, and the economy. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization is increasingly important for policy formulation, decision making, and natural resource management. A combination of satellite remote sensing and patch-based models has been widely adopted to characterize landscape changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the validity of this type of framework in identifying long-term changes, especially subtle or gradual land modifications is seriously challenged. In this paper, we integrate annual image time series, continuous spatial indices, and non-parametric trend analysis into a spatiotemporal study of landscape dynamics over the Phoenix metropolitan area from 1991 to 2010. We harness local indicators of spatial dependence and modified Mann-Kendall test to describe the monotonic trends in the quantity and spatial arrangement of two important land use land cover types: vegetation and built-up areas. Results suggest that declines in vegetation and increases in built-up areas are the two prevalent types of changes across the region. Vegetation increases mostly occur at the outskirts where new residential areas are developed from natural desert. A sizable proportion of vegetation declines and built-up increases are seen in the central and southeast part. Extensive land conversion from agricultural fields into urban land use is one important driver of vegetation declines. The xeriscaping practice also contributes to part of vegetation loss and an increasingly heterogeneous landscape. The quantitative framework proposed in this study provides a pathway to effective landscape mapping and change monitoring from a spatial statistical perspective.

  1. Evaluating the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure after (125)I prostate brachytherapy: Can PSA kinetics distinguish PSA failures from PSA bounces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Palma, David; Moravan, Veronika; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W James

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent (125)I prostate brachytherapy (PB). The study included 1,006 consecutive low and "low tier" intermediate-risk patients treated with (125)I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL(-1)) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL(-1)without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure After 125I Prostate Brachytherapy: Can PSA Kinetics Distinguish PSA Failures From PSA Bounces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy (PB). Methods and Materials: The study included 1,006 consecutive low and 'low tier' intermediate-risk patients treated with 125 I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL -1 ) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL -1 without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Results: Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. Conclusions: With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions.

  3. Do the mitochondria of malaria parasites behave like the phoenix after return in the mosquito? Regeneration of degenerated mitochondria is required for successful Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaerts, Ger

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are energy generators in eukaryotic organisms like man and the pathogenic malaria parasites, the Plasmodium spp. From the moment a mosquito-mediated malaria infection occurs in man the parasite multiplies profusely, but eventually the oxygen supply becomes the limiting factor in this process. Consequently, the parasite will increasingly generate energy (and lactic acid) from sugar fermentation. Simultaneously, the cristate structure of Plasmodium mitochondria degenerates and becomes acristate. The degenerated acristate mitochondria of mammalian Plasmodium parasites seem to be able to revitalise by transforming to cristate mitochondria inside the oxygen-rich mosquito, like the rebirth of the old phoenix. In this way the infectivity of the parasite is revitalised.

  4. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  5. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  6. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  7. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  8. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  9. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  10. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  11. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  12. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  13. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  14. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  15. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  16. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  17. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  18. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  19. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  20. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  1. Museo Histórico de Enfermería Fundación José Llopis: Un museo on line Historical Museum of Nursing Jose Llopis Foundation: An online museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Arredondo-González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El Museo Histórico de Enfermería Fundación José Llopis es un Museo On line. Su principal objetivo es difundir el patrimonio histórico de la enfermería de forma virtual, para que sea cada vez más accesible y conocido alrededor del mundo. Es un museo sin limitaciones físicas ni geográficas, un museo abierto y útil para la profesión, la formación y la investigación. En el museo, el conocimiento de distintos elementos patrimoniales, localizados en cualquier lugar y exhibidos de forma digital fortalece la identidad profesional y ayuda al desarrollo disciplinar.The Historical Nursing Museum of Jose Llopis foundation is anon line museum. It aims at disseminating the nursing historical heritage by virtual means so to make it more accessible and better known in the world. It is a museum with no physical or geographical limitations, open all the time and useful to the nursing profession and for nursing education and research. In this museum, the knowledge of the different heritage objects, being localized from many places and virtually exhibited, strengthens professional identity and contributes to the disciplinary development.

  2. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  3. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phoenix dactylifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... their use for flavoring foods, beverages and medication. (Vayalil, 2002). Minerals are .... Potassium is vital to cellular integrity and fluid balance as it plays an important role in .... mechanical pulp for bio-bleaching. Food Chem.

  5. Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths

  6. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  7. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1972: Successful use of proposed land use classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Changes in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. The period of change investigated was from November 1970 to late summer or early fall, 1972. Seasonal changes also were studied using successive ERTS images. Types of equipment used to aid interpretation included a color additive viewer, a twenty-power magnifier, a density slicer, and a diazo copy machine for making ERTS color composites in hard copy. Types of changes detected have been: (1) cropland or rangeland developed for new residential areas; (2) rangeland converted to new cropland; and (3) possibly new areas of industrial or commercial development. A map of land use previously compiled from air photos was updated in this manner.

  8. From Mars to Media: The Phoenix Mars Mission and the Challenges of Real-Time, Multimedia Science Communication and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Bitter, C.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Odyssey Missions set the standard for science communication and public education about Mars, the Phoenix Mission was presented with robust new communication challenges and opportunities. The new frontier includes Web 2.0, international forums, internal and external blogs, social networking sites, as well as the traditional media and education outlets for communicating science and information. We will explore the highlights and difficulties of managing the 'message from Mars' in our current multimedia saturated world while balancing authentic science discoveries, public expectations, and communication demands. Our goal is to create a more science savvy public and a more communication oriented science community for the future. The key issues are helping the public and our scientists distinguish between information and knowledge and managing the content that connects the two.

  9. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  10. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  11. Deriving Prostate Alpha-Beta Ratio Using Carefully Matched Groups, Long Follow-Up and the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Richard; Pickles, Tom; Lee, Richard; Moiseenko, Vitali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies have derived low values of alpha-beta ratio (a/ss) for prostate cancer of approximately 1-2 Gy. These studies used poorly matched groups, differing definitions of biochemical failure, and insufficient follow-up. Methods and Materials: National Comprehensive Cancer Network low- or low-intermediate risk prostate cancer patients, treated with external beam radiotherapy or permanent prostate brachytherapy, were matched for prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, T-stage, percentage of positive cores, androgen deprivation therapy, and era, yielding 118 patient pairs. The Phoenix definition of biochemical failure was used. The best-fitting value for a/ss was found for up to 90-month follow-up using maximum likelihood analysis, and the 95% confidence interval using the profile likelihood method. Linear quadratic formalism was applied with the radiobiological parameters of relative biological effectiveness = 1.0, potential doubling time = 45 days, and repair half-time = 1 hour. Bootstrap analysis was performed to estimate uncertainties in outcomes, and hence in a/ss. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the values of the radiobiological parameters to extreme values. Results: The value of a/ss best fitting the outcomes data was >30 Gy, with lower 95% confidence limit of 5.2 Gy. This was confirmed on bootstrap analysis. Varying parameters to extreme values still yielded best-fit a/ss of >30 Gy, although the lower 95% confidence interval limit was reduced to 0.6 Gy. Conclusions: Using carefully matched groups, long follow-up, the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure, and well-established statistical methods, the best estimate of a/ss for low and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer is likely to be higher than that of normal tissues, although a low value cannot be excluded.

  12. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  13. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  14. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  15. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  16. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  17. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  18. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  19. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  1. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  2. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  3. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  4. Evaluation of the treatment planning system of three-dimensional conformal external radiotherapy in Hospital Mexico of San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Rojas, Deybith

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation and analysis are realized of dosimetry of the treatment planning system (TPS) of three-dimensional conformal external radiotherapy in the Servicio de Radioterapia of the Hospital Mexico of Costa Rica. An evaluation procedure is proposed based on IAEA-TECDOC-1540 document, and may continue to be applied periodically in this or other radiotherapy services. Tests realized have checked the representation of distances and electronics densities transferred to the TPS, match with those of real objects. The 16 tests applied have represented situations of real treatments with different configurations and beam modifiers in the equipment used daily. The tests have measured the absorbed dose to water in different significant points at different depths, using photon beams of 6 MeV and 18 MeV. The physical parameters of the tests were simulated. The absorbed dose has been calculated at specified points. The XiO and Eclipse TPS have been used with the calculation algorithms: Superposition, Convolution and AAA. The results of the calculations are evaluated with statistical methods and comparing them with the measurements of absorbed dose. A generalized tendency has been detected toward negative relative errors, implying an underestimation of the dose by the TPS; due to a difference found in the accelerator output factor respect to its commissioning. The AAA algorithm has determined a better performance, although with greater difficulties of calculus in the region of build-up. Convolution and Superposition algorithms have had similar performances and both have presented problems in high depths and out of edges of the fields. The result of the dosimetric evaluation has been satisfactory in real conditions of equipment; but several particularities have been found that should be reviewed and adjusted. The precision of the TPS has been adequate in the majority of situations important for treatment planning. [author] [es

  5. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  6. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  7. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  8. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  10. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  11. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  12. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  13. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  14. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  17. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  18. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  19. Maps of the Martian Landing Sites and Rover Traverses: Viking 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix Landers, and the Mars Exploration Rovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J., III; Deen, R. G.; Gengl, H.

    2016-12-01

    The traverse maps produced tactically for the MER and MSL rover missions are the first step in placing the observations made by each vehicle into a local and regional geologic context. For the MER, Phoenix and MSL missions, 25cm/pixel HiRISE data is available for accurately localizing the vehicles. Viking and Mars Pathfinder, however, relied on Viking Orbiter images of several tens of m/pixel to triangulate to horizon features visible both from the ground and from orbit. After Pathfinder, MGS MOC images became available for these landing sites, enabling much better correlations to horizon features and localization predictions to be made, that were then corroborated with HiRISE images beginning 9 years ago. By combining topography data from MGS, Mars Express, and stereo processing of MRO CTX and HiRISE images into orthomosaics (ORRs) and digital elevation models (DEMs), it is possible to localize all the landers and rover positions to an accuracy of a few tens of meters with respect to the Mars global control net, and to better than half a meter with respect to other features within a HiRISE orthomosaic. JPL's MIPL produces point clouds of the MER Navcam stereo images that can be processed into 1cm/pixel ORR/DEMs that are then georeferenced to a HiRISE/CTX base map and DEM. This allows compilation of seamless mosaics of the lander and rover camera-based ORR/DEMs with the HiRISE ORR/DEM that can be viewed in 3 dimensions with GIS programs with that capability. We are re-processing the Viking Lander, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix lander data to allow similar ORR/DEM products to be made for those missions. For the fixed landers and Spirit, we will compile merged surface/CTX/HiRISE ORR/DEMs, that will enable accurate local and regional mapping of these landing sites, and allow comparisons of the results from these missions to be made with current and future surface missions.

  20. Control of San Jose Scale Nymphs, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, on Almond and Apple Orchards with Pyriproxyfen, Phenoxycarb, Chlorpyrifos, and Mineral Oil Control de Ninfas de la Escama de San José, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en Almendros y Manzanos con Piriproxifen, Fenoxicarb, Clorpirifos y Aceite Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sazo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyriproxyfen, phenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos, and mineral oil in the control of first generation nymphs of the San Jose scale (SJC, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, in almond, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, and apple, Malusdomestica Borkh. orchards was studied in the 2001-2002 season in central Chile. One and two sprays of pyriproxyfen 0.07% and phenoxycarb 0.05% were applied, the first at the beginning of the appearance of nymphs in early spring (biofix, and the other 15 days later, and were compared with one spray of chlorpyrifos 0.08% applied at the biofix. Also, one and two sprays of mineral oil 1% were evaluated, the first applied 7 days after the biofix, and the second 15 days after the first spray. Evaluations were done in the laboratory at the end of the dispersion of first generation nymphs, on December 27 and 28 for almonds and apples, respectively, counting the number of nymphs fixed per lineal meter of new twigs collected at infested sectors, percentage of infested apples, and the number of scales fixed per fruit. Results were subjected to ANOVA and Duncan multiple range tests. At low level infestation, one application of pyriproxyfen 0.07%, phenoxycarb 0.05%, or mineral oil 1% in spring reduced significantly (P≤0.05 the number of nymphs fixed per twig, at a level similar to that of a traditional treatment of chlorpyrifos 0.08%. However, at greater infestations, one spray of pyriproxyfen or mineral oil in spring was insufficient to control ESJ.En la temporada 2001-2002 se estudió el efecto de piriproxifen, fenoxicarb, clorpyrifos y aceite mineral en el control de las ninfas de la primera generación de la Escama de San José (ESJ, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en almendros, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, y manzanos, Malusdomestica Borkh., en Chile central. Se hicieron una y dos aplicaciones de piriproxifen 0,07% y fenoxicarb 0,05%, la primera en el inicio del nacimiento de ninfas de primavera (biofix y la segunda

  1. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  2. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  3. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  4. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  5. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  6. Greater Confinement Disposal Program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for improved LLW disposal at the Savannah River Plant include Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) for the higher activity fractions of this waste. GCD practices will include waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and stabilizing the emplacement with cement. Statistical review of SRP burial records showed that about 95% of the radioactivity is associated with only 5% of the waste volume. Trigger values determined in this study were compared with actual burials in 1982 to determine what GCD facilities would be needed for a demonstration to begin in Fall 1983. Facilities selected include 8-feet-diameter x 30-feet-deep boreholes to contain reactor scrap, tritiated waste, and selected wastes from offsite

  7. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  8. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  9. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  10. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  11. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  12. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  13. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  14. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  15. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  16. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Liver Pâtés with Annatto Extract (Bixa orellana L. and Date Palm Co-Products (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martín-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two novel ingredients were incorporated into spreadable liver pâtés to study their effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics and their possible use in the meat industry. Fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera, cv. Confitera co-products, as a paste (0, 2.5 and 7.5%, and annatto (Bixa orellana extract (0 and 128 mg/kg, as a colourant, and their combinations were incorporated into liver pâtés to study their effect on the final quality. The six formulations were analysed for chemical composition, physicochemical characteristics (pH, aw, colour, emulsion stability, and texture, and sensory properties. Pâtés tolerated suitable incorporation of date paste, providing emulsifying activity and being able to counteract to some extent the emulsion destabilisation caused by the annatto. All formulations showed an acceptable sensory quality, particularly pâtés with annatto and 7.5% date paste, which was softer, juicier, and presented redness values similar to the control as well as better emulsion stability. The combined use of these novel ingredients could be used as natural ingredients.

  17. Compositional and structural changes in Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica with pretreatment: Effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, Benard Anayo; Erkurt, Emrah Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Two different plants namely Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica were used as substrate for reducing sugar generation and ethanol production. Dilute acid, alkaline and steam explosion were used as pretreatment methods in order to depolymerize lignin and/or hemicellulose and recover cellulose. By using alkaline pretreatment with 2.5% NaOH 71.08% for P. canariensis and 74.61% for O. ficus-indica lignin removal and 81.84% for P. canariensis and 72.66% for O. ficus-indica cellulose recovery yields were obtained. Pretreated materials were hydrolyzed by cellulase with high efficiency (87.0% and 84.5% cellulose conversion yields for P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica) and used as substrate for fermentation. Maximum ethanol production of 15.75g/L and 14.71g/L were achieved from P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica respectively. Structural differences were observed by XRD, FTIR and SEM for untreated, pretreated, hydrolyzed and fermented samples and were highly correlated with compositional analysis results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of torrefaction and low-temperature carbonization on the properties of biomass wastes from Arundo donax L. and Phoenix canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Margarida; Nobre, Catarina; Mendes, Benilde

    2017-01-01

    The impact of torrefaction and low-temperature carbonization on the properties of biomass wastes from Arundo donax L. and Phoenix canariensis was studied. Thermal treatments were performed at temperatures from 200°C to 350°C during 15 to 90min and temperature was the parameter that more influenced mass and energy yields as well as biochar composition. Torrefaction reduced moisture, volatile matter, O/C and H/C ratios of the biomass, while increasing heating value, ash content and fixed carbon. For torrefaction at 250°C or higher temperatures grindability of the biochars was significantly improved. The low volatile matter contents and high ash contents of these biochars restricts their use as solid fuels but they can be valorized otherwise. Raw biomasses and the biochars torrefied at 200°C could remove methylene blue from an aqueous solution, in fast adsorption test with a contact time of only 3s, with efficiencies higher than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Somatic embryogenesis, scanning electron microscopy, histology and biochemical analysis at different developing stages of embryogenesis in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Junaid; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Pershad; Srivastava, Prem Shanker

    2011-10-01

    An efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhee, Zardai, Khalasah, Muzati, Shishi and Zart). Somatic embryogenesis (SE) was growth regulators and cultivars dependent. Friable embryogenic callus was induced from excised shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with various auxins particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1.5 mg 1(-l)). Suspension culture increased embryogenesis potentiality. Only a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg 1(-1)) produced somatic embryos in culture. Somatic embryos germinated and converted into plantlets in N(6)-benzyladenine (BAP, 0.75 mg 1(-l)) added medium following a treatment with thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 mg 1(-l)) for maturation. Scanning electron microscopy showed early stages of somatic embryo particularly, globular types, and was in masses. Different developing stages of embryogenesis (heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were observed under histological preparation of embryogenic callus. Biochemical screening at various stages of somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, matured, germinated embryos and converted plantlets) of date palm cultivars has been conducted and discussed in detail. The result discussed in this paper indicates that somatic embryos were produced in numbers and converted plantlets can be used as a good source of alternative propagation. Genetic modification to the embryo precursor cell may improve the fruit quality and yield further.

  20. Modeling nexus of urban heat island mitigation strategies with electricity/power usage and consumer costs: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Humberto; Fillpot, Baron S.

    2018-01-01

    A reduction in both power and electricity usage was determined using a previously validated zero-dimensional energy balance model that implements mitigation strategies used to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The established model has been applied to show the change in urban characteristic temperature when executing four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. Separately, a correlation analysis was performed involving meteorological data and total daily energy (TDE) consumption where the 24-h average temperature was shown to have the greatest correlation to electricity service data in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan region. A methodology was then developed for using the model to predict TDE consumption reduction and corresponding cost-saving analysis when implementing the four mitigation strategies. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to the largest percent reduction in annual energy usage, where increasing the thermal conductivity is the single most effective mitigation strategy. The single least effective mitigation strategy, increasing the emissivity by 5% from the baseline value, resulted in an average calculated reduction of about 1570 GWh in yearly energy usage with a corresponding 157 million dollar cost savings. When the four parameters were increased in unison by 20% from baseline values, an average calculated reduction of about 2050 GWh in yearly energy usage was predicted with a corresponding 205 million dollar cost savings.

  1. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.638cm 3 /g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  4. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct).

  5. Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kamal, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

  6. Molecular characterization and evolution studies of a SERK like gene transcriptionally induced during somatic embryogenesis in Phoenix Dactylifera L v Deglet Nour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekik Imen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase like (SERKL cDNA, designated PhSERKL, was isolated from date palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L using RACE PCR. PhSERKL protein shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, a transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. Phylogenetic analyses using PHYLIP and Notung 2.7 programs suggest that the SERK proteins of some plant species resulted from relatively ancient duplication events. We predict an ancestor protein of monocots and dicots SERK using FASTML program. Somatic embryogenic cultures of date palm were established following transfer of callus cultures to medium containing 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The role of PhSERKL gene during establishment of somatic embryogenesis in culture was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. PhSERKL gene was highly expressed during embryogenic competence acquisition and globular embryo formation in culture. Overall, levels of expression of PhSERKL gene were lower in nonembryogenic tissues and organs than in embryogenic callus.

  7. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  8. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  9. Päev muusikas / Jose Gonzalez

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gonzalez, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Küsimustele vastab rootsi indi-muusika-scene'i helilooja ja laulja José Gonzales (esineb koos teda soojendava USA neo-folk-ansambliga Death Vessel 27. aprillil Tallinnas klubis Hollywood "Jazz'n'Motioni" ja "Jazzkaare" ühisel sündmusel)

  10. Inessa Josing jälle fookuses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kunstiajakiri "Flash Art" illustreerib 1999. a. suvenumbris (nr. 207) uudist Euroopa noorte kunstnike biennaali Manifesta 3 toimumisest 2000. a. suvel Ljubljanas fotoga Inessa Josingu aknakujundusest (jõuluaken Tallinnas Viru t. teksasepoele)

  11. 77 FR 20641 - Jose Concepcion: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... investigate, log, and archive questionable, aberrant, and unacceptable laboratory results so that Able could... maintaining false, fraudulent, and inaccurate data and records to obtain FDA approval to market new product...

  12. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  13. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  14. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  15. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  16. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  17. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  18. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  19. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  20. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  1. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  2. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  3. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  4. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  5. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  6. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  8. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  9. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  10. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  12. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  13. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  14. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  15. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  16. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. The outcome of endoscopy for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, James; Fary, Camdon; Tran, Phong

    2016-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), previously referred as trochanteric bursitis, is a debilitating condition characterised by chronic lateral hip pain. The syndrome is thought to relate to gluteal tendinopathy, with most cases responding to non-operative treatment. A number of open and endoscopic surgical techniques targeting the iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa and gluteal tendons have, however, been described for severe recalcitrant cases. We report the outcomes of one such endoscopic approach here. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients (57 operations) who had undergone endoscopic longitudinal vertical iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy. Inclusion criteria included diagnosed GTPS with a minimum of six months of non-operative treatment. Exclusion criteria included concomitant intra- or extra-articular hip pathology and previous hip surgery including total hip arthroplasty. Outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, Oxford hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). The series included 42 females and 7 males with a mean age of 65.0 years (26.7-88.6). Mean follow-up time was 20.7 months (5.3-41.2). Eight patients had full thickness gluteal tendon tears, of which 7 were repaired. Adjuvant PRP was injected intraoperatively in 38 of 57 operations (67.2 %). At follow-up, overall mean Visual Analogue Scale values had decreased from 7.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.001), Oxford hip Scores had increased from 20.4 to 37.3 (p < 0.001) and iHOT-33 scores had increased from 23.8 to 70.2 (p < 0.001). Of the 57 operations performed, patients reported feeling very satisfied with the surgical outcome in 28 operations (49.1 %), satisfied in 17 operations (29.8 %) and less than satisfied in 12 operations (21.1 %). While the majority of patients with GTPS will improve with non-operative management, endoscopic iliotibial band release, trochanteric bursectomy and gluteal tendon repair is a safe and effective treatment for severe

  18. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  19. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  20. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word "blind" is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report.It is important to

  1. Modelo integrado de información gravimétrica, geológica y de terrenos para los perfiles: Turbo - San Jose del Guaviare y Quibdó - Puerto Berrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Campos Ramiro León

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The structural model of the studied zone, was generated from the integration of the gravimetric, regional geology and area teetono-stratigraphics. Two profiles AA' (Turbo - San Jose del Guaviare and BB' (Quibdo - Puerto Berrio, analyzed corroborate the existence of two zones, one with oceanic crustal (West of Romeral and other with continental crustal (to the East; among both profiles there is a point of inflexion in the direction of the attitude of Romeral fault, from which they present important changes in the accretion components and efforts, giving origin to important variations in the model of subduction. To the North of the point of inflexion two zones of subduction appear, the current one associated with the Sinu fault and a fossil were area associated to the with Romeral's fault. Besides, locally they find evidences so much in surface geology as gravimetry of a obduction zone. To the south of this point theree subduction zones were determined, the current one associated to the Pacific grave and two fossilized associated to the sutures or Romeral's faults and of the Atrato river fault's. In the profile AA', in the zone of continental crust are observed the sectors of Cordillera Central, Cordillera Oriental and Llanos Orientales. In the profile BB ' is appreciated until the Valle Medio del Magdalena. The differences among these areas they reside in the type of rock of the basement and the deformation style.

    EI modelo estructural de la zona de estudio se genera a partir de la integración de la información gravimétrica, la geología regional y terrenos tectono-estratigráficos, Se analizan dos perfiles AA' (Turbo - San José del Guaviare y BB' (Quibdó – Puerto

  2. DEEP CHANDRA, HST-COS, AND MEGACAM OBSERVATIONS OF THE PHOENIX CLUSTER: EXTREME STAR FORMATION AND AGN FEEDBACK ON HUNDRED KILOPARSEC SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Miller, Eric D.; ZuHone, John A.; McNamara, Brian R.; Weeren, Reinout J. van; Bayliss, Matthew; Jones-Forman, Christine; Applegate, Douglas E.; Benson, Bradford A.; Carlstrom, John E.; Mantz, Adam B.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Edge, Alastair C.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Stalder, Brian; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ∼50–100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 × 10 9 M ⊙ ), young (∼4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 M ⊙ yr −1 . We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 M ⊙ yr −1 ) from the cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ∼10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2–7 × 10 45 erg s −1 . We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from “quasar-mode” to “radio-mode,” and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ∼100 kpc, with extended “ghost” cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ∼200 kpc (0.15R 500 ), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments

  3. Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: Recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Hanks, Gerald; Thames, Howard; Schellhammer, Paul; Shipley, William U.; Sokol, Gerald H.; Sandler, Howard

    2006-01-01

    In 1996 the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) sponsored a Consensus Conference to establish a definition of biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The ASTRO definition defined prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure as occurring after three consecutive PSA rises after a nadir with the date of failure as the point halfway between the nadir date and the first rise or any rise great enough to provoke initiation of therapy. This definition was not linked to clinical progression or survival; it performed poorly in patients undergoing hormonal therapy (HT), and backdating biased the Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival. A second Consensus Conference was sponsored by ASTRO and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group in Phoenix, Arizona, on January 21, 2005, to revise the ASTRO definition. The panel recommended: (1) a rise by 2 ng/mL or more above the nadir PSA be considered the standard definition for biochemical failure after EBRT with or without HT; (2) the date of failure be determined 'at call' (not backdated). They recommended that investigators be allowed to use the ASTRO Consensus Definition after EBRT alone (no hormonal therapy) with strict adherence to guidelines as to 'adequate follow-up.' To avoid the artifacts resulting from short follow-up, the reported date of control should be listed as 2 years short of the median follow-up. For example, if the median follow-up is 5 years, control rates at 3 years should be cited. Retaining a strict version of the ASTRO definition would allow comparisons with a large existing body of literature

  4. Safety and effectiveness of the Phoenix Atherectomy System in lower extremity arteries: Early and midterm outcomes from the prospective multicenter EASE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas; Ramaiah, Venkatesh; Niazi, Khusrow; Martin Gissler, Hans; Crabtree, Tami

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the novel Phoenix Atherectomy System as percutaneous treatment of de novo and restenotic infrainguinal arterial lesions. Methods This prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized investigational device exemption trial was conducted across 16 US and German centers between August 2010 and April 2013. Intention-to-treat enrollment was 128 patients (mean age: 71.8 years, 59% male) with 149 lesions (mean length: 34 mm, mean diameter stenosis: 89.5%), and the primary analysis per-protocol population consisted of 105 patients with 123 lesions. The primary efficacy endpoint, technical success, was the achievement of acute debulking with a post-atherectomy residual diameter stenosis ≤50% (before adjunctive therapy). The primary safety endpoint was the major adverse event (MAE) rate through 30 days. Results For the primary analysis per-protocol population, the rate of lesion technical success was 95.1% (117/123), with the lower limit of the 95% CI 90.6%, meeting the prospectively established target performance goal of ≥86%. After post-atherectomy adjunctive therapy, residual stenosis was ≤30% for 99.2% (122/123) of lesions (mean final diameter stenosis 10.5%). Improvement of ≥1 Rutherford class occurred for 74.5% of patients through 30 days and for 80% through six months. MAEs were experienced by 5.7% (6/105) of patients through 30 days (with the upper limit of the 95% CI 11.0%, meeting the target performance goal of Atherectomy System is safe and effective for the debulking of lower-extremity arterial lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01541774.

  5. Updated results of high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for locally and locally advanced prostate cancer using the RTOG-ASTRO phoenix definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Pellizzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic factors for patients with local or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR according to the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 209 patients treated between 1997 and 2005 with localized RT and HDR as a boost at the Department of Radiation Oncology, AC Camargo Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil were reviewed. Clinical and treatment parameters i.e.: patient's age, Gleason score, clinical stage, initial PSA (iPSA, risk group (RG for biochemical failure, doses of RT and HDR were evaluated. Median age and median follow-up time were 68 and 5.3 years, respectively. Median RT and HDR doses were 45 Gy and 20 Gy. RESULTS: Disease specific survival (DSS at 3.3 year was 94.2%. Regarding RG, for the LR (low risk, IR (intermediate risk and HR (high risk, the DSS rates at 3.3 years were 91.5%, 90.2% and 88.5%, respectively. On univariate analysis prognostic factors related to DSS were RG (p = 0.040, Gleason score ≤ 6 ng/mL (p = 0.002, total dose of HDR ≥ 20 Gy (p < 0.001 On multivariate analysis the only statistical significant predictive factor for biochemical control (bNED was the RG, p < 0.001 (CI - 1.147-3.561. CONCLUSIONS: Although the radiation dose administered to the prostate is an important factor related to bNED, this could not be established with statistical significance in this group of patients. To date , in our own experience, HDR associated to RT could be considered a successful approach in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. Ajwa Date (Phoenix dactylifera L. Extract Inhibits Human Breast Adenocarcinoma (MCF7 Cells In Vitro by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Khan

    Full Text Available Phoenix dactylifera L (Date palm is a native plant of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and other Middle Eastern countries. Ajwa date has been described in the traditional and alternative medicine to provide several health benefits including anticholesteremic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects, but most remains to be scientifically validated. Herein, we evaluated the anticancer effects of the Methanolic Extract of Ajwa Date (MEAD on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cells in vitro.MCF7 cells were treated with various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/ml of MEAD for 24, 48 and 72 h and changes in cell morphology, cell cycle, apoptosis related protein and gene expression were studied.Phase contrast microscopy showed various morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, vacuolation, blebbing and fragmentation. MTT (2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent inhibitions of MCF7 cell proliferation from 35% to 95%. Annexin V-FITC and TUNEL assays showed positive staining for apoptosis of MCF7 cells treated with MEAD (15 mg and 25 mg for 48 h. Flow cytometric analyses of MCF7 cells with MEAD (15 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml for 24 h demonstrated cell cycle arrest at 'S' phase; increased p53, Bax protein expression; caspase 3activation and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of p53, Bax, Fas, and FasL and down-regulation of Bcl-2.MEAD inhibited MCF7 cells in vitro by the inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our results indicate the anticancer effects of Ajwa dates, which therefore may be used as an adjunct therapy with conventional chemotherapeutics to achieve a synergistic effect against breast cancer.

  7. Phase I study evaluating the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer with carbon ion radiotherapy: the PHOENIX-01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen; Habermehl, Daniel; Kieser, Meinhard; Dreher, Constantin; Werner, Jens; Haselmann, Renate; Jäkel, Oliver; Jäger, Dirk; Büchler, Markus W

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer include surgery, chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. In many cases, surgical resection is not possible, and therefore treatment alternatives have to be performed. Chemoradiation has been established as a convincing treatment alternative for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 1.16 and 2.46 depending on the pancreatic cancer cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with pancreatic cancer. The present PHOENIX-01 trial evaluates carbon ion radiotherapy using the active rasterscanning technique in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with weekly gemcitabine and adjuvant gemcitabine. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival and response. The physical and biological properties of the carbon ion beam promise to improve the therapeutic ratio in patients with pancreatic cancer: Due to the inverted dose profile dose deposition in the entry channel of the beam leads to sparing of normal tissue; the Bragg peak can be directed into the defined target volume, and the sharp dose fall-off thereafter again spares normal tissue behind the target volume. The higher RBE of carbon ions, which has been shown also for pancreatic cancer cell lines in the preclinical setting, is likely to contribute to an increase in local control, and perhaps in OS. Early data from Japanese centers have shown promising results. In conclusion, this is the first trial to evaluate actively delivered carbon

  8. Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2012-08-01

    Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative

  9. Thermal volatilization (TV) of different hyperarid Mars like-soils from the Atacama Desert: Implications for the analysis of the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Silva, J. E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    The Phoenix spacecraft will search for organics in the soil and ice in the Martian north polar regions using thermal volatilization (TV) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). This experiment is a combination of a high-temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that will be use to analyze samples delivered to instrument via a robotic arm. The samples will be heated from ambient to 1000ºC while evolved gases, including organic molecules and fragments, if they are present, will be simultaneously measured by a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (1). Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolizer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TV data. The Atacama Desert, on northern Chile and southern Peru, has been considered the most arid region over the world (2) and an excellent Mars-like soil analogous (3). These soils contain very low levels to organic matter (10-40 ppm of organic C), and exotic mineralogical composition including iron oxides, which are common characteristics expected on Mars. A previous paper that examined the release of organics from samples soils by flash TV (pyrolisis) coupled to GC-MS (4). This work showed low efficiency of flash TV in soils with low organics or high contents of iron minerals. In addition, other study of agricultural soils showed low correlation between organics concentration and TV response, when levels of total organic matter were below 50000 ppm C or high presence of iron oxides (5). However, the efficiency of gradual heating by TV analysis from hyperarid soils has not been investigated. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of six types of soils from the two hyperarid core regions from the Atacama Desert: Yungay (northern Chile) and Pampas de La Joya (southern Peru), in order to investigate the effect of soil matrix and low organics contents over TV response. Between 20 to 40 mg of soil was loaded in a capillary quartz tube and it was mounted

  10. Consistent Reduction in Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction With Cangrelor as Assessed by Multiple Definitions: Findings From CHAMPION PHOENIX (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Matthew A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2016-09-06

    Cangrelor is an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor approved to reduce periprocedural ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention not pretreated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. A total of 11 145 patients were randomized to cangrelor or clopidogrel in the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition). We explored the effects of cangrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) using different definitions and performed sensitivity analyses on the primary end point of the trial. A total of 462 patients (4.2%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention had an MI as defined by the second universal definition. The majority of these MIs (n=433, 93.7%) were type 4a. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the incidence of MI at 48 hours (3.8% versus 4.7%; odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97; P=0.02). When the Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition of periprocedural MI was applied to potential ischemic events, there were fewer total MIs (n=134); however, the effects of cangrelor on MI remained significant (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P=0.01). Similar effects were seen in the evaluation of the effects of cangrelor on MIs with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and those with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal, ischemic symptoms, or ECG changes (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). MIs defined by any of these definitions were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the composite end point of death, MI (Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition), ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis (1.4% versus 2.1%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92). MI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, regardless of definition, remains associated with increased risk of death

  11. The Effect of increasing levels of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid profile of Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Bashtani, M; Naserian, A A; Farhangfar, H

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets. Adding DPS to the diet increased linearly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in milk and blood (p content in milk and blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood, ruminal pH, NH 3 -N, ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, isovalerate and valeric acid concentration had no significant effect among the diets. The propionate acid concentration decreased linearly as DPS was added to the diet, and DPS18 had minimum propionate acid concentration (p < 0.05). The inclusion of DPS18 to diets increased linearly the proportion of C18:0 (compared to control) as well as cis-18:1, trans-18:1 (compared to control and DPS6) and decreased C14:1 (compared to control) in milk fat (p < 0.05). The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in DPS18 was higher than other diets (p = 0.04). The results of this study implied that replacing DPS with a part of dairy goats' ration had no negative effects on the performance of the animals and could also improve the antioxidant activity and increase the concentration of CLA in their milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Greater Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  13. Greater Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P

    1986-03-01

    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%.

  14. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  15. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10 43 erg s –1 , making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s –1 ), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M H 2 = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10 10 M ☉ , which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ∼30 Myr if

  16. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  17. Effects of Cow Manure, Ammonium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate on Physico-Chemical Indices of Fruit and Leaf of Mazafati Date (Phoenix Dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aryakia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the most important fruit species grown in Iran. This plant is mainly grown in the south of the country, where pH of soil is high, resulting in poor nutrient uptake. Furthermore, because of high yield and annual pruning of date palm, large amounts of macro and micronutrients are removed from soil. So, annual fertilizing should be applied for good performance. Research shows that use of manure alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers improves physico-chemical indices of fruits and leaves of palm trees. Regarding to high nutrition dependency of date palm, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of different fertilizers on physico-chemical indices of its leaf and fruit. The main objectives of this study were thus to evaluate the effect of cow manure, ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate on physico-chemical indices in fruit and leaf of Mazafati date. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in bam zone, Kerman, Iran, in 2011- 2012. The area was located at 28°53′40′′N latitude, 58°37′18′′E longitude and 1050 m above sea level. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was performed during month of March. Factors included ammonium sulfate (0, 500 and 1000 g/tree, potassium sulfate (0, 750 and 1500 g/tree accompanied by cow manure (5 kg/tree. For leaf and fruit analysis, sampling was performed during month of June. Physico-chemical indices including nitrogen, potassium, iron, chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoid, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, TSS and TSS/TA were evaluated. Chlorophyll was measured by using the method of Lichtenthaler (1987. Total soluble solid (TSS was measured by using refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and the treatment means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results and Discussion: Results showed that because of supplying nitrogen, sulfur and potassium and their

  18. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  19. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  20. Hierarchical population structure in greater sage-grouse provides insight into management boundary delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd B. Cross; David E. Naugle; John C. Carlson; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population structure is important for guiding ongoing conservation and restoration efforts. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a species of concern distributed across 1.2 million km2 of western North America. We genotyped 1499 greater sagegrouse from 297 leks across Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota using a 15 locus...

  1. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  2. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  3. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  4. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  5. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  6. Use of locking plates for fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with hip replacement

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    Allison K. Tetreault, BA

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Locking plate technology is a successful method of fixation of the greater trochanter in patients with THA. Postoperative trochanteric pain and reoperation for hardware-related issues remain a challenge.

  7. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

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    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  8. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, A; Basso, L; Di Giacomo, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Basile, U; De Toma, G

    2003-12-01

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.

  9. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  10. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  11. On Graceful Spider Graphs with at Most Four Legs of Lengths Greater than One

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    A. Panpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graceful labeling of a tree T with n edges is a bijection f:V(T→{0,1,2,…,n} such that {|f(u-f(v|:uv∈E(T} equal to {1,2,…,n}. A spider graph is a tree with at most one vertex of degree greater than 2. We show that all spider graphs with at most four legs of lengths greater than one admit graceful labeling.

  12. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

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    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  13. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

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    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  14. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  15. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  16. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  17. Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K.; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity

  18. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  19. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  20. Algunas claves estéticas de la poesía de José María Parreño: antología y didáctica / Some aesthetic keys of Jose Maria Parreño´s poetry: anthology and didactics

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    Ramón Pérez Parejo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo pretende situar la obra poética de José María Parreño en las coordenadas generacionales y estéticas del último cuarto del siglo XX. Este poeta ha sido ubicado por la crítica en la Poesía de la Experiencia, corriente dominante en las dos últimas décadas del siglo. Sin contrariar esa idea general que a grandes rasgos compartimos, conviene señalar qué le une y qué le separa de esta corriente a fin de situar su singularidad dentro de esa estética y dentro de los poetas que conforman su generación. Finalmente añadimos una breve antología de su obra poética que puede resultar significativa.Summary: This article tries to place Jose Maria Parreño's poetical work in the generational and aesthetic coordinates of the last years of the 20th century. Critics have linked this poet with the Poetry of Experience, mainstream in the last two decades of the century. Without contradicting this general idea that we share in its outlines, we want to indicate what joins and what separates him from these aesthetics in order to place his singularity within these aesthetics and among the poets who are part of this generation. Finally we add an anthology work that can be significant of his poetical work.