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Sample records for greater perceived racial

  1. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  2. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  3. The effects of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and social identity threat on racial minorities' attitudes about police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.

  4. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.

  5. The Impact of African American Parents’ Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721

  6. Association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: findings from the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Patrícia Miranda; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna Miguez Nery; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Alexandre; Chor, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    "Pardos" and blacks in Brazil and blacks in the USA are at greater risk of developing arterial hypertension than whites, and the causes of this inequality are still little understood. Psychosocial and contextual factors, including racial discrimination, are indicated as conditions associated with this inequality. The aim of this study was to identify the association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension. The study evaluated 14,012 workers from the ELSA-Brazil baseline population. Perceived discrimination was measured by the Lifetime Major Events Scale, adapted to Portuguese. Classification by race/color followed the categories proposed by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Hypertension was defined by standard criteria. The association between the compound variable - race/racial discrimination - and hypertension was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance and stratified by the categories of body mass index (BMI) and sex. Choosing white women as the reference group, in the BMI 25kg/m2 and men in any BMI category, no effect of racial discrimination was identified. Despite the differences in point estimates of prevalence of hypertension between "pardo" women who reported and those who did not report discrimination, our results are insufficient to assert that an association exists between racial discrimination and hypertension.

  7. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Pham, Quyen T; Glover, Toni L; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. One-hundred and 30 (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic White) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group. These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli.

  8. Cardiovascular disease and perceived weight, racial, and gender discrimination in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    To date, most research on perceived discrimination and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has examined racial discrimination although other forms of discrimination may also impact physical and mental health. The current study investigated the relationship between three forms of discrimination (weight, race, and gender) and 3-year incidence of CVD in a large national sample of U.S. adults. 26,992 adults (55.5% women) who participated in the 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three forms of perceived discrimination (simultaneously included in equations after adjusting for relevant potential confounds) for predicting CVD incidence at Wave 2. Perceived weight and racial discrimination were associated with significantly greater likelihood of reporting myocardial infarction (OR=2.56 [95% CI=1.31-4.98], OR=1.84 [95% CI=1.19-2.84], respectively) and minor heart conditions (OR=1.48 [95% CI=1.11-1.98], OR=1.41 [95% CI=1.18-1.70], respectively). Perceived racial discrimination was also significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting arteriosclerosis (OR=1.61 [95% CI=1.11-2.34]). Odds ratios for diagnoses of arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and other minor heart disease were largest for individuals reporting multiple forms of discrimination. Adults who experience weight and racial discrimination, and especially multiple forms of discrimination, may be at heightened risk for CVD. Perceived discrimination may be important to consider during assessment of life stressors by health providers. Future research should address the mechanisms that link discrimination and CVD to assist public health and policy efforts to reduce discrimination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  10. Perceived Racial Discrimination in the Workplace and Body Weight among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race. For unemployed women, being black and obese significantly increases the likelihood of perceiving racial discrimination.

  11. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  12. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

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    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Role of Identity Integration on the Relationship between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment of Multiracial People

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    Jackson, Kelly F.; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Guevarra, Rudy, Jr.; Harrington, Blair A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between perceived racial discrimination, multiracial identity integration (i.e., racial distance and racial conflict), and psychological adjustment (i.e., distress symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect) of 263 multiracial adults, using an online cross-sectional survey design. As hypothesized, higher levels of…

  14. A longitudinal examination of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth: The roles of attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal relationship of perceived peer or adult discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of African American and Latino high school students (n = 155). African American and Latino youth who experienced increases in perceived peer discrimination also reported greater depressive symptoms over time, but positive ethnic/racial affect buffered the longitudinal association. Emotional reactivity also served as a significant moderator but only of the baseline association between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Thus, perceived ethnic/racial discrimination appears to play a significant role in the development of depressive symptoms for ethnic minority youth, especially those who start high school with lower levels of positive ethnic/racial affect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Geographic and racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits of mental health services.

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    Kim, Giyeon; Parton, Jason M; Ford, Katy-Lauren; Bryant, Ami N; Shim, Ruth S; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services vary by geographic region among U.S. adults. Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), selected samples consisted of 2,160 adults age 18 and older from diverse racial-ethnic groups (Asian, black, Hispanic/Latino, and white) who had used mental health services in the past 12 months. Generalized linear model analysis was conducted for the United States as a whole and separately by geographic region (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) after adjustment for covariates. In the national sample, no significant main effects of race-ethnicity and geographic region were found in either satisfaction with or perceived benefits from mental health services. In the stratified analyses for geographic regions, however, significant racial-ethnic differences were observed in the West; blacks in the West were significantly more likely to report higher satisfaction and perceived benefits, whereas Hispanics/Latinos in the West were significantly less likely to do so. The findings suggest that there are regional variations of racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services among U.S. adults and that addressing needs of Hispanics/Latinos in the West may help reduce racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  16. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

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    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  17. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  18. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  20. The Effects of Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination on Substance Use among Youths Living in the Cherokee Nation

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    Garrett, Brady A.; Livingston, Bethany J.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and the longitudinal relationship to substance use. The sample included (N = 1,421) American Indian, American Indian and White, and White adolescents. A high frequency of perceived racial discrimination was associated with an increased risk for heavy alcohol use, prescription drug…

  1. Perceived Health Status and Utilization of Specialty Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…

  2. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Perceived Need for Treatment and Engagement in Mental Health Services Among Community-Referred Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Lichvar, Emily; Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah

    2018-03-10

    This study examines clinical and family predictors of perceived need for treatment and engagement in mental health treatment services among community-referred racial/ethnic minority adolescents and their primary caregivers. Findings indicated that the majority of families perceived a need for treatment, but that perceived need was not associated with treatment engagement. Family factors (i.e., low cohesion and high conflict within the family) predicted perceived need for treatment among adolescents, whereas clinical factors (i.e., adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptomatology) predicted caregiver perceived need for adolescent treatment. Neither clinical nor family factors predicted treatment engagement.

  4. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use Over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

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    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for four years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, s...

  5. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, marketing, and substance use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Mayo, Ashley; Ganz, Ollie; Perreras, Lexie; D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy

    2018-02-09

    Perceived experiences of discrimination have been linked to negative health behaviors including tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use across various racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco and alcohol marketing exposure have also been linked with substance use. This study examined the independent and interacting effects of perceived experiences of discrimination and exposure to alcohol and tobacco marketing, and receptivity to marijuana marketing on substance use in an online survey of a multiethnic sample of young adults in 6 metropolitan areas (n = 505). African Americans (mean (M) = 1.96, 9% 5CI [1.84, 2.09]) and Hispanics (M = 1.98, 95% CI [1.87, 2.09]) reported higher levels of perceived discrimination than Whites (M = 1.52, 95% CI [1.40, 1.64]), p marketing; Hispanics reported higher levels of exposure to alcohol marketing and receptivity to marijuana promotion. Discrimination and marketing exposure were independently associated with higher odds of all 3 outcomes, controlling for covariates (AOR from 2.1 to 3.4 for discrimination; AOR from 1.4 to 13.8 for marketing). Models showed a significant interaction of discrimination and tobacco marketing on past 30-day cigarette use (F = 5.5; p = .02). Individuals with high levels of tobacco marketing exposure were likely to report high past 30-day cigarette use regardless of level of discrimination, while those with low exposure were only at increased risk of reporting cigarette use at higher levels of discrimination. Both perceived discrimination and marketing exposure play a role in substance use. Interventions should consider discrimination as a significant risk factor underlying vulnerability to substance use among young adults.

  7. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in perceived reasons for mental health treatment in US adolescents with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R; Case, Brady G; Ji, Xu; Chae, David H; Druss, Benjamin G

    2014-09-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the course of treatment for a major depressive episode (MDE) among adolescents may arise, in part, from variation in the perceived rationale for treatment. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the perceived reasons for receiving mental health (MH) treatment among adolescents with an MDE. A total of 2,789 adolescent participants who experienced an MDE and received MH treatment in the past year were drawn from the 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adolescents reported the settings in which they received care and reasons for their most recent visit to each setting. Distributions of specific depressive symptoms were compared across racial/ethnic groups. Racial/ethnic differences in endorsing each of 11 possible reasons for receiving treatment were examined using weighted probit regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health and mental health status, treatment setting, and survey year. Despite similar depressive symptom profiles, Hispanic adolescents were more likely than whites to endorse "breaking rules" or getting into physical fights as reasons for MH treatment. Black adolescents were more likely than white adolescents to endorse "problems at school" but less likely to endorse "felt very afraid or tense" or "eating problems" as reasons for treatment. Asian adolescents were more likely to endorse "problems with people other than friends or family" but less likely than whites to endorse "suicidal thoughts/attempt" and "felt depressed" as reasons for treatment. Racial/ethnic minority participants were more likely than white participants to endorse externalizing or interpersonal problems and less likely to endorse internalizing problems as reasons for MH treatment. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the patient's perceived treatment rationale can offer opportunities to enhance outcomes for depression among diverse populations. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  9. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Contrasts in the Relationships between Physical Disability, Perceived Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Quentin K; Taylor, John

    2018-02-13

    The systematic deprivation of equal access to valued opportunities has greatly harmed the disadvantaged. Discrimination, whether it is based on gender, race, sexual orientation, or physical health exacts a high toll. This is especially true with respect to the role of race and equality in the USA today. This paper attempts to evaluate the significance of perceived discrimination among a multiethnic sample of physically disabled and non-disabled study participants. We employ survey data from a community-based multiethnic sample of study participants to assess whether physical disability increases perceptions of discrimination across racial/ethnic groups. Additionally, we assess whether physical disability impacts the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms and whether this relationship is consistent across race/ethnicity. Descriptive and multivariate analyses indicate that disabled whites and Hispanics report higher levels of discrimination than their non-disabled counterparts. However, this pattern was not observed among black respondents who report high levels of discrimination regardless of their disability status. OLS models indicate that among Hispanics, physical disability moderates the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Among black and white study participants, physical disability does not moderate this relationship. Taken together, the results demonstrate the continuing significance of race as a source of discrimination and a health risk.

  12. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  13. Perceived racial, socioeconomic and gender discrimination and its impact on contraceptive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Secura, Gina M; Roehl, Kimberly A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. We analyzed the first 2,500 women aged 14-45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to obtaining long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination, and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 52%, pgender-, race- or SES-based discrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43, respectively]. After enrollment, 66% of women with a history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 35% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Discrimination negatively impacts a woman's use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  15. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  16. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-11-05

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  18. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  19. Racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health care and disparities in use of care among those with perceived need in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita

    2018-02-01

    This study examines whether there are racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health care among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003 in the US. Then among those with perceived need, we examine whether racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care existed in both time periods. Using data from the 1990-1992 National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and 2001-2003 National Comorbidity Survey - Replication (NCS-R), the study analyzes whether whites differed from blacks and Latinos in rates of perceived need among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003. Then among those with a disorder and perceived need, rates of mental health care use for whites are compared to black rates and Latino rates in within the 1990-1992 cohort and then within the 2001-2003 cohort. There were no statistical racial/ethnic differences in perceived need in both time periods. Among those with perceived need in 1990-1992, there were no statistical racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health care. However, in 2001-2003, disparities in mental health care use existed among those with perceived need. The emergence of racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care among those with a perceived need for care in 2001-2003 suggests that personal/cultural belief along with issues concerning access and quality of mental health care may create barriers to receiving perceived needed care. More research is needed to understand why these disparities emerged among those with perceived need in the latter time period and whether these disparities continue to exist in more recent years.

  20. Corrigendum: on the precipice of a "majority-minority" america: perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects white Americans' political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Craig, M. A., & Richeson, J. A. (2014). On the precipice of a "majority-minority" America: Perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects White Americans' political ideology. Psychological Science, 25, 1189-1197. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797614527113). © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p memory (p stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p's stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p = 0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women.

  3. Big and beautiful? Evidence of racial differences in the perceived attractiveness of obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Heiland, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between body weight, race, and attractiveness in appearance and personality among adolescents. We study a sample of 5947 (non-Hispanic) white and black girls age 12 to 18 who were interviewed by a group of 338 interviewers. We find that overweight and obese white female adolescents are, respectively, 23% and 40% less likely, on average, to be perceived as physically attractive compared to normal-weight white girls. The physical appearance penalties are significantly smaller for overweight and obese black girls compared to white girls. These findings suggest that being overweight or obese is costly due to its negative impact on inner and outer perceived beauty, providing an explanation for the observed stigmatization of overweight and obesity among women in labor and relationship markets. The smaller beauty penalties for black girls above the normal-weight range suggest that the range of body sizes considered attractive may be wider for black females. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Perceived racial discrimination in health care, completion of standard diabetes services, and diabetes control among a sample of American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kelly L; Lambert, William E; Fu, Rongwei; Jacob, Michelle; Harding, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine perceived experiences of racial discrimination (perceived discrimination) in health care and its associations with completing standards of care for diabetes management and diabetes control. This cross-sectional study included 200 adult American Indian (AI) women with type 2 diabetes from 4 health care facilities located on tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Participants completed a survey, and medical records were abstracted. Logistic regression was completed to assess associations. Sixty-seven percent of AI women reported discrimination during their lifetime of health care. After adjusting for patient characteristics, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with lower rates of dental exam; checks for blood pressure, creatinine, and total cholesterol; and pneumococcal vaccination. The association between perceived discrimination and total number of diabetes services completed was not statistically significant. Perceived discrimination was associated with having A1C values above target levels for diabetes control in unadjusted and adjusted models, but no association was observed for blood pressure or total cholesterol. In our sample of AI women with diabetes, two-thirds reported experiencing racial discrimination in their health care experience. Those reporting perceived discrimination completed fewer diabetes services and therefore may be at increased risk for comorbidities of diabetes. This finding supports the continued need for culturally responsive health care and programs of diabetes education to recognize perceived discrimination and its potential to impact success in self-management and services utilization. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. WIC mothers' depressive symptoms are associated with greater use of feeding to soothe, regardless of perceived child negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2017-04-01

    Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers. There is a cross-sectional sample of 60 mothers and their formula fed infants/toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Woman, Infants and Children Program. Measures included the Infant Behaviors Questionnaire, Baby's Basic Needs Questionnaire, the feeding problem assessment form and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms exceeded the clinical screening cut-off for 38% of women. Mothers with depressive symptoms perceived their child to be more negative and were more likely to use food to soothe, add cereal to the bottle and put baby to bed with bottle than mothers without depressive symptoms. Generalized linear models revealed that child negativity was associated with greater use of food to soothe but that this effect was moderated by maternal depression: negativity was positively associated with food to soothe among non-depressed but not depressed mothers. A high proportion of low-income mothers reported elevated depressive symptoms; depressive symptomatology was positively associated with perceived child negativity and greater reported use of controlling feeding practices. Screening for maternal depressive symptoms may help in providing more individually tailored counselling on responsive feeding. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. On the precipice of a "majority-minority" America: perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects White Americans' political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Maureen A; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that racial minority groups will make up a majority of the U.S. national population in 2042, effectively creating a so-called majority-minority nation. In four experiments, we explored how salience of such racial demographic shifts affects White Americans' political-party leanings and expressed political ideology. Study 1 revealed that making California's majority-minority shift salient led politically unaffiliated White Americans to lean more toward the Republican Party and express greater political conservatism. Studies 2, 3a, and 3b revealed that making the changing national racial demographics salient led White Americans (regardless of political affiliation) to endorse conservative policy positions more strongly. Moreover, the results implicate group-status threat as the mechanism underlying these effects. Taken together, this work suggests that the increasing diversity of the nation may engender a widening partisan divide. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  9. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup

  10. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  11. Examining the associations of perceived community racism with self-reported physical activity levels and health among older racial minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael; Cunningham, George

    2013-09-01

    Racial health disparities are more pronounced among older adults. Few studies have examined how racism influences health behaviors. This study's purpose was to examine how opportunities for physical activity (PA) and community racism are associated with older racial minorities' reported engagement in PA. We also investigated how PA levels influenced health. We analyzed survey data obtained from a health assessment conducted in 3360 households in Texas, USA, which included items pertaining to PA, community characteristics, and health. Our sample contained 195 women and 85 men (mean age 70.16), most of whom were African American. We found no direct relationship between opportunities and PA. Results suggested that perceived community racism moderated this association. When community racism was low, respondents found ways to be active whether they perceived opportunities or not. When community racism was high, perceived lack of opportunities significantly impeded PA engagement. We found the expected association between PA and health. Results suggested that negative effects of community racism were counteracted through increased opportunities for PA.

  12. The influence of cognitive development and perceived racial discrimination on the psychological well-being of African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure, youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The results indicate no significant differences in perceptions of individual, cultural or collective/institutional racism between pre-formal reasoning and formal reasoning adolescents. However, the results do suggest that perceptions of collective/institutional racism were more harmful for the self-esteem of pre-formal reasoning youth than the self-esteem of formal reasoning youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  13. Perceived Differences in Self-Reported Problems with Sexual Harassment, Racial Prejudice, and Drug Misuse Among USNA Varsity Athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamulevich, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    .... Results of regression analyses indicate that both gender and ethnicity were significant predictors of sexual harassment and racial prejudice but not drug misuse. Athletic status did not significantly influence perceptions. Implications of these findings are discussed for understanding midshipmen perceptions of these behaviors.

  14. African American women in the workplace: relationships between job conditions, racial bias at work, and perceived job quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Dodge, M A

    1997-10-01

    Although studies have described work processes among employed African American women, few have examined the influence of these processes on job outcomes. This study examined relationships between African American women's exposure to a range of occupational stressors, including two types of racial bias--institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice--and their evaluations of job quality. Findings indicated that institutional discrimination and interpersonal prejudice were more important predictors of job quality among these women than were other occupational stressors such as low task variety and decision authority, heavy workloads, and poor supervision. Racial bias in the workplace was most likely to be reported by workers in predominantly white work settings. In addition, Black women who worked in service, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations reported significantly more institutional discrimination, but not more interpersonal prejudice, than did women in professional, managerial, and technical occupations or those in sales and clerical occupations.

  15. Comparing Asian American Women's Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Risk of Heart Attack to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: The mPED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p Asian/Pacific Islander women had significantly lower total scores for knowledge of heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.

  16. Teaching about race/ethnicity and racism matters: an examination of how perceived ethnic racial socialization processes are associated with depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisa L; Lau, Anna S

    2013-10-01

    Ethnic racial socialization (ERS) processes include cultural socialization (enculturation), preparation for bias, and promotion of mistrust. Although often conflated, these processes may variably confer psychological risk or protection. Cultural socialization has often been found to be protective, whereas promotion of mistrust has at times been associated with risk. We hypothesized that the distinctive associations between ERS processes and depression might be explained by trait optimism and pessimism as potential mediators. Results from a sample of 670 African American, Latino, and Asian American young adults indicated that cultural socialization was negatively associated with depression, whereas preparation for bias and promotion of mistrust were positively associated with depression. Participants who reported that their families engaged in cultural socialization had a more optimistic and less pessimistic outlook, which in turn explained lower levels of depression symptoms. In contrast, reported familial preparation for bias and promotion of mistrust were linked to greater pessimism and less optimism, which in turn were associated with depression symptoms. Although there were racial/ethnic differences in mean levels of ERS processes, multigroup analyses revealed that the associations with depression symptoms were robust across groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic, racial and cultural identity and perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for breast cancer among at-risk women of African descent in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, K M; Edwards, T A; Thompson, H S; Jandorf, L; Kwate, N O; Forman, A; Brown, K; Kapil-Pair, N; Bovbjerg, D H; Schwartz, M D; Valdimarsdottir, H B

    2011-01-01

    Due to disparities in the use of genetic services, there has been growing interest in examining beliefs and attitudes related to genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk among women of African descent. However, to date, few studies have addressed critical cultural variations among this minority group and their influence on such beliefs and attitudes. We assessed ethnic, racial and cultural identity and examined their relationships with perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for cancer risk in a sample of 160 women of African descent (49% self-identified African American, 39% Black-West Indian/Caribbean, 12% Black-Other) who met genetic risk criteria and were participating in a larger longitudinal study including the opportunity for free genetic counseling and testing in New York City. All participants completed the following previously validated measures: (a) the multi-group ethnic identity measure (including ethnic search and affirmation subscales) and other-group orientation for ethnic identity, (b) centrality to assess racial identity, and (c) Africentrism to measure cultural identity. Perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing included: (1) pros/advantages (including family-related pros), (2) cons/disadvantages (including family-related cons, stigma and confidentiality concerns), and (3) concerns about abuses of genetic testing. In multivariate analyses, several ethnic identity elements showed significant, largely positive relationships to perceived benefits about genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, the exception being ethnic search, which was positively associated with cons/disadvantages, in general, and family-related cons/disadvantages. Racial identity (centrality) showed a significant association with confidentiality concerns. Cultural identity (Africentrism) was not related to perceived benefits and/or barriers. Ethnic and racial identity may influence perceived benefits and barriers

  18. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Systemic racism moderates effects of provider racial biases on adherence to hypertension treatment for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Brown, Porschia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine perceived exposure to systemic racism as a moderator of the effects of perceived exposure to provider racial biases on treatment adherence and mistrust of health care for a sample of African American hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that patients who endorsed high levels of systemic racism would exhibit poor adherence to hypertension treatment and increased mistrust in health care in relation to perceptions of exposure to provider racial biases. The sample consisted of 100 African American patients who ranged in age from 24 to 82 years. All were diagnosed with hypertension and were recruited from an outpatient clinic located in the Southeastern region of the United States. Moderated regression analyses were performed to test the study hypotheses. Findings revealed a positive, significant main effect for perceived provider racial biases in predicting mistrust of care. This finding suggested that an increase in mistrust of health care was associated with increased perceptions of provider biases. In predicting treatment adherence, a significant interaction revealed that patients who endorsed low and moderate degrees of exposure to systemic racism displayed poor adherence to treatment in relation to greater perceptions of provider racial biases. The overall findings suggest that patients who perceive themselves as infrequently exposed to systemic racism possess the greatest risk for nonadherence to hypertension treatment in relation to increased perceptions of provider racial biases. Implications of the findings are discussed. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  20. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  1. Racial differences in venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, N A; McClure, L A

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Solo status and self-construal: being distinctive influences racial self-construal and performance apprehension in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaquaptewa, Denise; Waldman, Andrew; Thompson, Mischa

    2007-10-01

    A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed. 2007 APA

  3. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion and oral self-perceptions in 14-15-year-old Asian and Caucasian children in greater Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; McCord, J F; Blinkhorn, A S; Worthington, H V; O'Brien, K D

    2000-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the effect of ethnicity, social deprivation, and normative orthodontic treatment need on orthodontic aesthetic self-perception, self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment, and oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion; (ii) the effect of ethnicity, social deprivation, and gender on perceived orthodontic treatment need and use of orthodontic services; (iii) the influence of perceived oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion on perceived need and wish for orthodontic treatment; and (iv) whether orthodontic treatment experience influences perceived oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion. A stratified, random sample of 434 14-15-year-old children from schools in Manchester, UK, was obtained. Information was collected on orthodontic aesthetic self-perception and orthodontic treatment experience using a questionnaire. The former data were combined to form an Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). Normative orthodontic treatment need was measured with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Children with higher clinical need for orthodontic treatment perceived themselves as worse off than their peers with lower need. More socially deprived children or those with high IOTN aesthetic component (AC) scores had a higher (i.e. more negative) aesthetic impact (OASIS) score. Asians and females had higher IOTN dental health component (DHC) scores, but a better aesthetic appearance than Caucasians and males. More deprived children were less likely to have received orthodontic treatment. Despite this, OASIS scores were similar between treated and untreated children. Untreated children who wished for orthodontic treatment had higher IOTN AC and OASIS scores.

  4. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  6. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  7. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  8. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  9. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  10. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  11. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  12. Racial bias in neural empathic responses to pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sebastian Contreras-Huerta

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to

  13. Racial Bias in Neural Empathic Responses to Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S.; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in

  14. The limits of racial prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  15. The unnatural racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2014-06-01

    In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Free at last? Social dominance, loss aversion, and White and Black Americans' differing assessments of racial progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Richard P; Keegan, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    White Americans tend to believe that there has been greater progress toward racial equality than do Black Americans. The authors explain this difference by combining insights from prospect theory and social dominance theory. According to prospect theory, changes seem greater when framed as losses rather than gains. Social dominance theory predicts that White Americans tend to view increases in equality as losses, whereas Black Americans view them as gains. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors experimentally tested whether groups judge the same change differently depending on whether it represents a loss or gain. In Studies 3-6, the authors used experimental methods to test whether White participants who frame equality-promoting changes as losses perceive greater progress toward racial equality. The authors discuss theoretical and political implications for progress toward a just society. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Biological conceptions of race and the motivation to cross racial boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2008-06-01

    The present studies demonstrate that conceiving of racial group membership as biologically determined increases acceptance of racial inequities (Studies 1 and 2) and cools interest in interacting with racial outgroup members (Studies 3-5). These effects were generally independent of racial prejudice. It is argued that when race is cast as a biological marker of individuals, people perceive racial outgroup members as unrelated to the self and therefore unworthy of attention and affiliation. Biological conceptions of race therefore provide justification for a racially inequitable status quo and for the continued social marginalization of historically disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. "Whose second life is this?" How avatar-based racial cues shape ethno-racial minorities' perception of virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Park, Sung Gwan

    2011-11-01

    Research on social identity contingencies suggests that situational cues, such as a numerical representation of social identities in a given social environment, can trigger identity-associated threat for individuals whose social identity is marginalized. Given that popular virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life [SL]) are often criticized for White-avatar dominance or White bias, we examined the psychological effects of the alleged White dominance in avatar-based virtual worlds by conducting two experiments in which participants read fictitious profiles of SL resident avatars. White and non-White participants were randomly assigned to view either a set of White-dominant avatar profiles or a set of racially diverse ones. After reading the profiles, participants had an opportunity to customize avatars using the SL interface. The findings of Experiment 1 (n=59) revealed that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles, when compared with those exposed to the racially diverse profiles, reported significantly lower levels of sense of belonging and intention to participate in SL. Experiment 2 (n=64) demonstrated that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles gave significantly higher estimation of the White user population within SL; the data also showed that exposure to the White-dominant avatar profiles resulted in a greater sense of limitation on skin customization among non-White participants than among White participants. The present research suggests that ethno-racial minorities, when exposed to avatar-based cues that signal White dominance, may perceive the virtual world as identity threatening, thereby feeling psychologically disconnected and detached from it. Implications regarding racial/ethnic diversity in virtual worlds are discussed.

  19. Closing the achievement gap: the association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.

  20. Looking the part (to me): effects of racial prototypicality on race perception vary by prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower r...

  1. Racial and ethnic minority college students' stigma associated with seeking psychological help: Examining psychocultural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking psychological help (Obasi & Leong, 2009; Vogel, Wade, & Haake, 2006). For racial and ethnic minorities, the hindering effects of self-stigma and perceived stigmatization by others on treatment seeking may further be compounded by their relationships with their own ethnic groups, with other ethnic groups, and with the dominant society. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a model that explored the effects of psychological distress and psychocultural variables (i.e., ethnic identity, other-group orientation, perceived discrimination) on perceived stigmatization by others and self-stigma for seeking psychological help, controlling for past use of counseling/psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 260 African American, 166 Asian American, and 183 Latino American students. SEM multigroup analyses indicated measurement invariance, but partial structural invariance, across racial/ethnic groups. Across all 3 groups, higher levels of psychological distress and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, respectively, predicted higher levels of perceived stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help, which, in turn, predicted greater self-stigma for seeking psychological help. Higher levels of other-group orientation predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help across groups. Higher levels of ethnic identity predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help only for African Americans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  3. Looking the part (to me): effects of racial prototypicality on race perception vary by prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization. However, prejudice predicted the extent of category competition between prototypically low vs high Black faces. Suggesting more response conflict toward less prototypic Black vs White faces, anterior cingulate cortex activity increased toward Black vs White faces as they decreased in racial prototypicality, with prejudice positively predicting this difference (Experiment 2). These findings extend the literature on racial prototypicality and categorization by showing that relative prejudice tempers the extent of category competition and response conflict engaged when initially perceiving faces. PMID:28077728

  4. Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A; Salvatore, Jessica; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that Blacks like White interaction partners who make an effort to appear unbiased more than those who do not. We tested the hypothesis that, ironically, Blacks perceive White interaction partners who are more racially biased more positively than less biased White partners, primarily because the former group must make more of an effort to control racial bias than the latter. White participants in this study completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of racial bias and then discussed race relations with either a White or a Black partner. Whites' IAT scores predicted how positively they were perceived by Black (but not White) interaction partners, and this relationship was mediated by Blacks' perceptions of how engaged the White participants were during the interaction. We discuss implications of the finding that Blacks may, ironically, prefer to interact with highly racially biased Whites, at least in short interactions.

  5. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  6. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  7. Social status correlates of reporting gender discrimination and racial discrimination among racially diverse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design.

  8. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two axes of subordination: A new model of racial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda X; Cheryan, Sapna

    2017-05-01

    Theories of race relations have been shaped by the concept of a racial hierarchy along which Whites are the most advantaged and African Americans the most disadvantaged. However, the recent precipitated growth of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States underscores the need for a framework that integrates more groups. The current work proposes that racial and ethnic minority groups are disadvantaged along 2 distinct dimensions of perceived inferiority and perceived cultural foreignness , such that the 4 largest groups in the United States are located in 4 discrete quadrants: Whites are perceived and treated as superior and American; African Americans as inferior and relatively American compared with Latinos and Asian Americans; Latinos as inferior and foreign; and Asian Americans as foreign and relatively superior compared to African Americans and Latinos. Support for this Racial Position Model is first obtained from targets' perspectives. Different groups experience distinct patterns of racial prejudice that are predicted by their 2-dimensional group positions (Studies 1 and 2). From perceivers' perspectives, these group positions are reflected in the content of racial stereotypes (Study 3), and are well-known and consensually recognized (Study 4). Implications of this new model for studying contemporary race relations (e.g., prejudice, threat, and interminority dynamics) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  11. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  12. Addressing Racialized Multicultural Discourses in an EAP Textbook: Working toward a Critical Pedagogies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Racialized multicultural discourses emerge in the TESOL classroom via textbook representations of immigrant success stories and perceived racial and cultural differences among students. Although liberal multicultural discourses may be well intentioned, these discourses warrant closer examination for the ways in which they can essentialize cultural…

  13. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  14. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. Objective The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade l...

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among African-American Youth: Differences by Age and Reason for Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) vary by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African-American youth. National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n = 657) between ages 18 and 25 years. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (four or more drinks for females, five or more drinks for males) and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), whereas perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20-21 years with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African-American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Chelsea Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…

  17. Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju

    2017-03-01

    Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Differential relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms by HIV status and racial/ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Timothy J; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P; Thames, April D

    2017-02-01

    Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). A community sample of men and women (N = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV status and racial/ethnic identity. A significant 3-way interaction between social adversity, HIV status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms compared with HIV- African Americans, but not compared with other groups. The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amid adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  20. Facing the Racial Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Whatever its causes, racial isolation is social dynamite. Problems and destiny of America and American education cannot be separated from fate of American cities, which daily grow poorer, more violent, less socially cohesive, and more isolated. Problems cannot be addressed without taking racism into account. Schools can help students understand…

  1. Family, school, and community factors and relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M

    2003-09-01

    This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.

  2. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity. Copyright 2008 APA

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Privilege in Health Care: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how perceived racial privilege and perceived racial discrimination in health care varied with race and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample consisted of white, black, and Native American respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2013) who had sought health care in the past 12 months. Multiple logistic regression models of perceived racial privilege and perceived discrimination were estimated. Analyses were performed in 2016. Perceptions of racial privilege were less common among blacks and Native Americans compared with whites, while perceptions of racial discrimination were more common among these minorities. In whites, higher income and education contributed to increased perceptions of privileged treatment and decreased perceptions of discrimination. The pattern was reversed in blacks, who reported more discrimination and less privilege at higher income and education levels. Across racial groups, respondents who reported foregone medical care due to cost had higher risk of perceived racial discrimination. Health insurance contributed to less perceived racial discrimination and more perceived privilege only among whites. SES is an important social determinant of perceived privilege and perceived discrimination in health care, but its role varies by indicator and racial group. Whites with low education or no health insurance, well-educated blacks, and individuals who face cost-related barriers to care are at increased risk of perceived discrimination. Policies and interventions to reduce these perceptions should target structural and systemic factors, including society-wide inequalities in income, education, and healthcare access, and should be tailored to account for racially specific healthcare experiences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Racial Microaggressions on People of Color in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William

    2017-10-01

    People of Color experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in Racial Battle Fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for People of Color, while many Whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered-racism, and Racial Battle Fatigue is a premier challenge of the 21st Century. The term "racial microaggressions" was introduced in the 1970's to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by People of Color. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative workplace experiences of women, people of color, and other marginalized groups in astronomy and planetary science (Clancy et al. 2017). This presentation will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in STEM work environments.

  6. An fMRI investigation of racial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michael I; Mason, Malia F; Vandello, Joseph A; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: "racial paralysis', the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices--such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite-between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations.

  7. See no evil: color blindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lynn R; Basford, Tessa E; Graebner, Raluca; Jaffer, Salman; De Graaf, Sumona Basu; Kaminsky, Samuel E

    2014-10-01

    Workplace discrimination has grown more ambiguous, with interracial interactions often perceived differently by different people. The present study adds to the literature by examining a key individual difference variable in the perception of discrimination at work, namely individual color-blind attitudes. We examined relationships between 3 dimensions of color-blind attitudes (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) and perceptions of racial microaggressions in the workplace as enacted by a White supervisor toward a Black employee (i.e., discriminatory actions ranging from subtle to overt). Findings showed that observer views on institutional discrimination fully mediated, and blatant racial issues partially mediated, the relationships between racial group membership and the perception of workplace microaggressions. Non-Hispanic Whites endorsed color blindness as institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues significantly more than members of racioethnic minority groups, and higher levels of color-blind worldviews were associated with lower likelihoods of perceiving microaggressions. Views on racial privilege did not differ significantly between members of different racial groups or affect microaggression perceptions. Implications for organizations concerned about promoting more inclusive workplaces are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. El prejuicio racial en Brasil: medidas comparativas O preconceito racial no Brasil: medidas comparativas Racial prejudice in Brazil: comparative measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires

    2010-04-01

    Brazilian population, using McConahay, Hardees and Batts's scales of modern racism (1981 and Datafolha (1995 and Ventury, G's (2003 scale of cordial racism. The questionnaires were applied to a total of 101 students of several universities in southern Brazil. The results demonstrate that both scales differ among themselves according to capturing prejudice expressions. The citizens had declared greater modern racism than cordial racism. Also, the variables related with the influence on racial prejudice, stated by the participants, were analyzed. The gender and orientation to social dominancy variables are variables that predict the modern racism in the sample studied. The participants indicated, in greater measure, the manifestation of racial prejudice in an uncovered form, being this manifestation in a more open way, when there was the possibility of a more personal and closer contact.

  9. Racially diverse classrooms: effects of classroom racial composition on interracial peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  10. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  11. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time.ObjectiveThe current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood.MethodsCurrent study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15 to 2012 (mean age 32. All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012. Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects.ResultsMultigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms.ConclusionWhile racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  12. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Racial minorities face a unique “race talk” dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9–12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children (n=108) completed a photo identification t...

  13. Differential relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms by HIV-status and racial/ethnic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Timothy J.; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P.; Thames, April D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). Method A community sample of men and women (n = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV-status and racial/ethnic identity. Results A significant three-way interaction between social adversity, HIV-status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms, as compared to HIV- African Americans but not as compared to other groups. Conclusions The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amidst adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. PMID:27929330

  14. The Minne-Loppet Motivation Study: An Intervention to Increase Motivation for Outdoor Winter Physical Activity in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Wolfson, Julian; Laska, Melissa N; Nelson, Toben F; Pereira, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. Natural experiment. Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (β = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (β = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (β = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (β = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.

  15. Discussions about Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families: Links with Family Engagement, Warmth, & Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Lee, Richard M

    Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea ( N = 111 families, 222 adolescents). Using data collected during mid-adolescence and again during late adolescence, higher levels of maternal control and positive adolescent engagement were independently associated with a greater likelihood that family members acknowledged the importance of racial and ethnic differences and constructed a multiracial and/or multiethnic family identity. Adolescent engagement was also related to a greater likelihood that family members disagreed about the importance of racial and ethnic differences, and did not build a cohesive identity about differences.

  16. Looking the part (to me): effects of racial prototypicality on race perception vary by prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Sprout, Gregory T; Freeman, Jonathan B; Krendl, Anne C

    2017-04-01

    Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization. However, prejudice predicted the extent of category competition between prototypically low vs high Black faces. Suggesting more response conflict toward less prototypic Black vs White faces, anterior cingulate cortex activity increased toward Black vs White faces as they decreased in racial prototypicality, with prejudice positively predicting this difference (Experiment 2). These findings extend the literature on racial prototypicality and categorization by showing that relative prejudice tempers the extent of category competition and response conflict engaged when initially perceiving faces. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Quem é negro, quem é branco: desempenho escolar e classificação racial de alunos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research undertaken with classes from the 1st to 4th grades of primary education in a public school in the municipality of São Paulo and discusses the differences between the racial classification of school children carried out by teachers and that made by the children themselves. The concept of race adopted is that of “social race”, that is, a social construct based on an erroneous biological idea but which has proved efficient for maintaining privileges. Concludes that the fact that the difference in school performance between white and black children in the school is greater when the teachers’ classification is employed in place of self-classification results as much from teachers ‘whitening’ children with good performance as from their evaluating children, chiefly boys, they perceive as Negroes with greater rigour. It further emphasises that it is not a case of accusing the teachers of deliberate racial discrimination but of investigating the ways in which racism, present in Brazilian society as a whole, also penetrates school relations.

  18. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  1. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  2. Biological and Sociocultural Differences in Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among 5th–7th Grade Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L.; Ling, Jiying; Voskuil, Vicki R.; Bakhoya, Marion; Wesolek, Stacey M.; Bourne, Kelly A.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Robbins, Lorraine B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate physical activity (PA) contributes to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescent girls. Barriers preventing adolescent girls from meeting PA guidelines have not been thoroughly examined. Objectives The threefold purpose of this study was to: (a) determine pubertal stage, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in ratings of interference of barriers to PA; (b) examine relationships between perceived barriers and age, body mass index (BMI), recreational screen time, sedentary activity, and PA; and (c) identify girls’ top-rated perceived barriers to PA. Methods Girls (N = 509) from eight Midwestern U.S. schools participated. Demographic, pubertal stage, perceived barriers, and recreational screen time data were collected via surveys. Height and weight were measured. Accelerometers measured sedentary activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and light plus MVPA. Results Girls of low SES reported greater interference of perceived barriers to PA than those who were not of low SES (1.16 vs. 0.97, p = .01). Girls in early/middle puberty had lower perceived barriers than those in late puberty (1.03 vs. 1.24, p barriers were negatively related to MVPA (r = −.10, p = .03) and light plus MVPA (r = −.11, p = .02). Girls’ top five perceived barriers included lack of skills, hating to sweat, difficulty finding programs, being tired, and having pain. Discussion Innovative interventions, particularly focusing on skill development, are needed to assist girls in overcoming their perceived barriers to PA. PMID:26325276

  3. Biological and Sociocultural Differences in Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Fifth- to Seventh-Grade Urban Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L; Ling, Jiying; Voskuil, Vicki R; Bakhoya, Marion; Wesolek, Stacey M; Bourne, Kelly A; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity (PA) contributes to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescent girls. Barriers preventing adolescent girls from meeting PA guidelines have not been thoroughly examined. The threefold purpose of this study was to (a) determine pubertal stage, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in ratings of interference of barriers to PA; (b) examine relationships between perceived barriers and age, body mass index, recreational screen time, sedentary activity, and PA; and (c) identify girls' top-rated perceived barriers to PA. Girls (N = 509) from eight Midwestern U.S. schools participated. Demographic, pubertal stage, perceived barriers, and recreational screen time data were collected via surveys. Height and weight were measured. Accelerometers measured sedentary activity, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and light plus MVPA. Girls of low SES reported greater interference of perceived barriers to PA than those who were not of low SES (1.16 vs. 0.97, p = .01). Girls in early/middle puberty had lower perceived barriers than those in late puberty (1.03 vs. 1.24, p barriers were negatively related to MVPA (r = -.10, p = .03) and light plus MVPA (r = -.11, p = .02). Girls' top five perceived barriers included lack of skills, hating to sweat, difficulty finding programs, being tired, and having pain. Innovative interventions, particularly focusing on skill development, are needed to assist girls in overcoming their perceived barriers to PA.

  4. Reconstituting racial histories and identities: the narratives of interracial couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, K D

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the process by which interracial spouses construct narratives about their racial histories, identities, and experiences in their relationship together. Ten black-white couples were interviewed individually and conjointly. The results reflected interracial spouses' experience of their life together, their perception of others' perceptions of them, and their unique processes of negotiating racial, gender, and class differences. Black spouses, compared with white spouses, demonstrated a greater awareness of and sensitivity to social resistance to interracial couples, and black spouses' familial and personal histories were sometimes relegated to silence in the couple relationship. I discuss recommendations for marriage and family therapists working with interracial spouses.

  5. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in HPV Vaccination Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M

    2017-12-20

    There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.

  6. Racial Differences in Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall-Miles, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    ..., and overall quality of Army life. Black soldiers also subscribe to more egalitarian attitudes concerning male/female work teams and performance but are more negative about racial discrimination and equal opportunity issues...

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Peer Victimization among African American and Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Cole, Daphne J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of racial discrimination constitute significant risks to the psychological adjustment of minority youth. The present study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and peer nominations of victimization among 173 (55% female) African American, European American and Latino youth. All respondents completed peer…

  8. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

    OpenAIRE

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...

  9. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....

  10. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  11. Racial and ethnic comparisons of nursing home residents at admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk

    2008-10-01

    To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.

  12. Effects of Perceived Discrimination and Trust on Breast Cancer Screening among Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye Chong; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Park, Chang; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Quinn, Lauretta; Collins, Eileen G

    Korean American (KA) women continue to have lower breast cancer screening rates than other racial groups. Perceived discrimination and trust have been associated with breast cancer screening adherence, but little is known about the associations in KA women. Surveys were completed by 196 KA women in the Chicago metropolitan area. Multiple and Firth logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors (perceived discrimination, trust, acculturation, cultural beliefs, health care access) influencing breast cancer screening adherence (mammogram). In addition, SPSS macro PROCESS was used to examine the mediating role of trust between perceived discrimination and breast cancer screening adherence. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed had health insurance and 54% reported having a mammogram in the past 2 years. Predictors of having a mammogram were knowing where to go for a mammogram, having a regular doctor or usual place for health care, greater trust in health care providers, and lower distrust in the health care system. Perceived discrimination had an indirect effect on breast cancer screening through trust. The breast cancer screening rate among KA women is low. Perceived discrimination in health care, trust in health care providers, and distrust in the health care system directly or indirectly influenced breast cancer screening adherence in KA women. Trust is a factor that can be strengthened with educational interventions. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  14. Perceived cancer risk: why is it lower among nonwhites than whites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Underwood, Willie; Ross, Levi; Shavers, Vickie L

    2010-03-01

    We explored racial/ethnic differences in perceived cancer risk and determinants of these differences in a nationally representative sample of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Multiple regression techniques, including mediational analyses, were used to identify determinants and quantify racial/ethnic differences in the perception of the risk of developing cancer among 5,581 adult respondents to the 2007 Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians reported lower perceived cancer risk than whites [Bs = -0.40, -0.34, and -0.69, respectively; (Ps risk were attenuated in older respondents because perceived cancer risk was negatively associated with age for whites but not for nonwhites. Nonwhites had lower perceptions of cancer risk than whites. Some of the racial/ethnic variability in perceived risk may be due to racial and ethnic differences in awareness of one's family history of cancer and its relevance for cancer risk, experiences with behavioral risk factors, and salience of cancer risk information.

  15. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem.

  16. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  17. Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.

  18. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  19. Use of Black English and Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Lundy, Garvey

    2001-01-01

    Compared male and female speakers of white middle class English, black accented English, and black English vernacular in their telephone contacts with rental agents who were advertising apartments for rent in Philadelphia. Results found clear, dramatic evidence of telephone-based racial discrimination. Callers perceived as lower class black…

  20. Using Students' Racial Memories to Teach about Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…

  1. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  2. Racialized Aggressions and Social Media on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Hottell, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, rooted in critical theory's desire to challenge systemic structures of inequality, we explored the impact of racialized hate encountered on social media by students of color at a predominately White institution. The encounters of racialized hostility manifested as anti-Black sentiments and produced racial battle…

  3. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  5. Factors Associated With Perceived Health Status of Multiracial/Ethnic Midlife Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and differences in the factors associated with perceived health status of midlife women in four broad racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A secondary analysis of Web-based survey data. Internet communities/groups among midlife women and Internet communities/groups of racial/ethnic minorities. Participants included 491 women 40 to 60 years of age who self-identified into four broad racial/ethnic categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic [N-H] Asian American, N-H African American, or N-H White). Data related to participants' sociodemographic, behavioral, situational, and individual health factors and their coping resources were selected based on the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and race/ethnicity-specific factors associated with perceived health status among midlife women. Perceived health status did not differ by race/ethnicity; however, factors that were associated with perceived health status did vary by race/ethnicity. Among N-H White women, educational level, level of family income, obesity, and menopausal symptoms were significantly associated with perceived not healthy status. In Hispanic women, perceived level of physical activity and obesity were significantly associated with not healthy status. Perceived level of physical activity was the only factor significantly associated with not healthy status in N-H Asian American women, and the level of family income was the only factor associated with not healthy status in N-H African American women. In future intervention development, researchers need to consider differences among racial/ethnic groups in the factors associated with women's perceived health status. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  7. Racial and ethnic health disparities: evidence of discrimination's effects across the SEP spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Ponce, Ninez A; Siegel, Judith M

    2010-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a psychosocial stressor that plays a role in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported physical and mental health. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to investigate the association between perceived discrimination in receiving healthcare and racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health status, physical, and emotional functional limitations among a diverse sample of California adults; (2) to assess whether discrimination effects vary by racial/ethnic group and gender; and (3) to evaluate how the effects of discrimination on health are manifest across the socioeconomic position (SEP) spectrum. Data were drawn from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey adult file (n=55,428). The analytic approach employed multivariate linear and logistic regressions. Discrimination is qualitatively identified into two types: (1) discrimination due to race/ethnicity, language, or accent, and (2) other discrimination. Findings show that both types of discrimination negatively influenced self-rated health, and were associated with a two to three-fold odds of limitations in physical and emotional health. Further, these effects varied by racial/ethnic group and gender, and the effects were mixed. Most notably, for emotional health, racial/ethnic discrimination penalized Latinas more than non-Latina Whites, but for physical health, other discrimination was less detrimental to Latinas than it was to non-Latina Whites. At higher levels of SEP, the effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on self-rated health and other discriminations' effects on physical health were attenuated. Higher SEP may serve as an important mitigator, particularly when comparing the medium to the low SEP categories. It is also possible that SEP effects cannot be extracted from the relationships of interest in that SEP is an expression of social discrimination. In fact, negative health effects associated with discrimination are evident across the SEP spectrum. This study

  8. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  9. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  10. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  11. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslims in Greater Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I.; Peek, Monica; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Hosseinian, Zahra; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and associations between religion-related factors and these rates among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of American Muslim women. Materials and Methods A community-based participatory research design was used in partnering with the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago to recruit Muslim women attending mosque and community events. These participants self-administered surveys incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, perceived discrimination, Islamic modesty, and a marker of Pap test use. Results A total of 254 survey respondents were collected with nearly equal numbers of Arabs, South Asians, and African American respondents. Of these respondents, 84% had obtained a Pap test in their lifetime, with individuals who interpret disease as a manifestation of God’s punishment having a lower odds of having had Pap testing after controlling for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77–1.0). In multivariate models, living in the United States for more than 20 years (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.4–16) and having a primary care physician (OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.5–23.4) were positive predictors of having had a Pap test. Ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, perceived discrimination, and modesty levels were not significantly associated with Pap testing rates. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess Pap testing behaviors among a diverse sample of American Muslim women and to observe that negative religious coping (e.g., viewing health problems as a punishment from God) is associated with a lower odds of obtaining a Pap test. The relationship between religious coping and cancer screening behaviors deserves further study so that religious values can be appropriately addressed through cancer screening programs. PMID:24914883

  12. Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Perceived Discrimination among African American Adolescents and Allostatic Load: A Longitudinal Analysis with Buffering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H.; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M.; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youth were 18 years, caregivers reported…

  14. Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in Effects of Racial Incidents on Satisfaction with Military Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, James

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...

  15. Variation Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in Effects of Racial Incidents on Satisfaction with Military Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, James

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...

  16. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C

    1999-06-01

    In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.

  17. The Importance of History in the Racial Inequality and Racial Inequity in Education: New Orleans as a Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea

    2014-01-01

    Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…

  18. Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Cathlena

    2008-01-01

    Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...

  19. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  20. Racial Identity and Reflected Appraisals as Influences on Asian Americans' Racial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.

    2001-01-01

    The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…

  1. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Racial minorities face a unique "race talk" dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9-12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children ( n =108) completed a photo identification task in which acknowledging racial difference is beneficial to performance. Results indicate minority children are just as likely to avoid race as White children, and such avoidance exacted a cost to performance and nonverbal comfort. Results suggest that teachers are particularly important social referents for instilling norms regarding race. Norms that equate colorblindness with socially appropriate behavior appear more broadly influential than previously thought, stifling talk of race even among those for whom it may be most meaningful.

  2. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  4. Reframing the Racialization of Disabilities in Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Catherine; Tefera, Adai

    2017-01-01

    Racial disproportionality in special education is a deep seated and complex educational inequity plaguing the United States educational system. In this article we outline how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, although a civil rights based legislation, cannot sufficiently address racially disproportionate outcomes in special…

  5. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  6. INTERRACIAL VIOLENCE AND RACIALIZED NARRATIVES: DISCOVERING THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D. Barnes, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article question the underlying assumptions and, therefore, potential effectiveness of Anthony Alfieri's recent essay, "Defending Racial Violence. Alfieri's proposal, in the form of an enforceable rule, would likely wind up on a collision course with principles underlying the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The article demonstrates the level of confusion that develops from rules that too easily or arbitrarily frustrate the legitimate interests of attorneys and clients in pursuing the best criminal defense. It also recommends providing carefully constructed, simulated exercises for classroom dialogue in ethics courses as a viable, alternative method for introducing a race - conscious ethic to young lawyers that does not run afoul of basic constitutional freedoms. The article disagrees with Alfieri's conclusion that "defense lawyers find scarce opportunity to contest the dominant narratives embedded in laws, institutional practices, and legal relations, even when those narratives inscribe negative racial stereotypes." The article concludes that the history and evolution of the entire system of criminal justice in this country dictates greater reliance upon mainstream prescriptions of neutrality rather than race-conscious rules and affirm that on questions concerning injury to black America's social identity, critics like Alfieri usually fail to consider just how broad the range of race-based assumptions are that ground representations of moral agency. Keywords: Racialized narratives. Criminal justice system. Race relations in the United States.

  7. Exploring racial differences in the obesity gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individualistic and Collectivistic Worldviews: Implications for Understanding Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Carla D.

    2008-01-01

    Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…

  9. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  10. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  11. The fallacy of racial pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.J. Pena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Personalized pharmacogenomics aims to use individual genotypes to direct medical treatment. Unfortunately, the loci relevant for the pharmacokinetics and especially the pharmacodynamics of most drugs are still unknown. Moreover, we still do not understand the role that individual genotypes play in modulating the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the susceptibility to drugs of human diseases which, although appearing homogeneous on the surface, may vary from patient to patient. To try to deal with this situation, it has been proposed to use interpopulational variability as a reference for drug development and prescription, leading to the development of "race-targeted drugs". Given the present limitations of genomic knowledge and of the tools needed to fully implement it today, some investigators have proposed to use racial criteria as a palliative measure until personalized pharmacogenomics is fully developed. This was the rationale for the FDA approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure in African Americans. I will evaluate the efficacy and safety of racial pharmacogenomics here and conclude that it fails on both counts. Next I shall review the perspectives and the predicted rate of development of clinical genomic studies. The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.

  12. The impacts of racial group membership on people's distributive justice: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Deng, Yuqin

    2014-04-16

    How individuals and societies distribute benefits has long been studied by psychologists and sociologists. Previous work has highlighted the importance of social identity on people's justice concerns. However, it is not entirely clear how racial in-group/out-group relationship affects the brain activity in distributive justice. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants made their decisions about donation allocation. Behavioral results showed that racial in-group factor affected participants' decisions on justice consideration. Participants were more likely to make relatively equity decisions when racial in-group factor was congruent with equity compared with the corresponding incongruent condition. Moreover, this incongruent condition took longer response times than congruent condition. Meanwhile, less equity decisions were made when efficiency was larger in the opposite side to equity than it was equal between the two options. Scalp event-related potential analyses revealed that greater P300 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited by the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the decision-making of distributive justice could be modulated by racial group membership, and greater attentional resources or cognitive efforts are required when racial in-group factor and equity conflict with each other.

  13. Disciplining Dalmar: A Demand to Uncover Racism and Racialization in Pursuit of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ann Mogush

    2016-01-01

    The need for multifaceted analyses of the relationships between how the United States acknowledges racism and how schooling can be structured to mitigate its negative impacts has never been greater, especially given rising attention to the racial "achievement gap." In suburban, elite Pioneer City, a series of initiatives I will refer to…

  14. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  15. Across Racial/Ethnic Boundaries: Investigating Intimate Violence within a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The number of interracial relationships in the United States continues to increase. The fact is, though, that race remains a significant influence in the lives of individuals and in their relationships. Although there is evidence that relationships that cross racial/ethnic boundaries may be at greater risk for conflict and dissolution, there have…

  16. Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Scarlett S; Phan, John C; Lin, Albert Y

    2002-03-01

    To examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. Data were obtained from the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We included breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. We also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or ethnic variations in surgery type. Vietnamese women were younger at diagnosis than other racial or ethnic subgroups (mean age, 51.0 years), with 49.6% of the diagnoses occurring in patients younger than 50. They were also significantly more likely to have received mastectomy for their in situ and localized tumors (61.1% having mastectomy) than women of other racial or ethnic groups. The increased likelihood of having mastectomy among Vietnamese women was not affected greatly by age, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic grade, or physician, but was partly attributable to the hospital of diagnosis. The effects of a lower mean age at diagnosis and the reasons for an unexpectedly higher percentage of mastectomies in this Asian subgroup should be further explored.

  17. Race and perceived racism, education, and hypertension among Brazilian civil servants: the Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Faerstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has the largest population of African descendants outside Africa. OBJECTIVE: Mindful of the imprint of slavery on their contemporary social position, we investigated the relationship of perceived racism to hypertension. METHODS: We analyzed data (1999 - 2001 from 3,056 civil servants (mean age 42 years; 56% females at university campuses in Rio participating in the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. RESULTS: Cases of prevalent hypertension had measured blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg or used antihypertensive medication. Self-administered questionnaires assessed participants' perceived history of lifetime discrimination (due to race, gender, socioeconomic position, and other attributes at work and school, neighborhood, public places, and in contact with the police. Participants used 41 terms as responses to an open-ended question on racial self-identification; for these analyses, 48% were classified as afrodescendants. Racial discrimination in at least one setting was reported by 14% of afrodescendants. Compared to whites, the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher for afrodescendants with history of self-perceived racism (prevalence ratio - PR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.5 - 3.0 than for those with no such history (PR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.8. Comparing the former to whites, the adjusted association with hypertension was stronger for those with elementary education (PR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.3 - 6.7 than for those with a college degree (PR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0 - 3.1. CONCLUSION: Racism may increase the risk of hypertension of afrodescendants in Brazil, and socioeconomic disadvantage - also influenced by societal racism - may further potentiate this increased risk.

  18. Race and perceived racism, education, and hypertension among Brazilian civil servants: the Pró-Saúde Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerstein, Eduardo; Chor, Dóra; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Kaplan, George

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has the largest population of African descendants outside Africa. Mindful of the imprint of slavery on their contemporary social position, we investigated the relationship of perceived racism to hypertension. We analyzed data (1999 - 2001) from 3,056 civil servants (mean age 42 years; 56% females) at university campuses in Rio participating in the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Cases of prevalent hypertension had measured blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg or used antihypertensive medication. Self-administered questionnaires assessed participants' perceived history of lifetime discrimination (due to race, gender, socioeconomic position, and other attributes) at work and school, neighborhood, public places, and in contact with the police. Participants used 41 terms as responses to an open-ended question on racial self-identification; for these analyses, 48% were classified as afrodescendants. Racial discrimination in at least one setting was reported by 14% of afrodescendants. Compared to whites, the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher for afrodescendants with history of self-perceived racism (prevalence ratio--PR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.5-3.0) than for those with no such history (PR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.2-1.8). Comparing the former to whites, the adjusted association with hypertension was stronger for those with elementary education (PR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.3-6.7) than for those with a college degree (PR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0-3.1). Racism may increase the risk of hypertension of afrodescendants in Brazil, and socioeconomic disadvantage--also influenced by societal racism--may further potentiate this increased risk.

  19. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  1. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…

  2. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  3. Medical students' perceptions of racial diversity and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, May; Coulehan, John L

    2006-07-01

    To assess attitudes of medical students toward issues of racial diversity and gender equality and to ascertain changes in these attitudes during the pre-clinical curriculum. Attitudes toward multiculturalism and gender equality were assessed using a 43-item questionnaire. The survey was completed by incoming Year 1 students in 2000 and 2001, and was completed again in 2002 by the students who had entered in 2000. Mean scores were analysed at baseline by gender, ethnic group and political affiliation using analysis of variance. The paired scores of the first and follow-up surveys of the 2000 entering class were compared using paired t-tests. Upon entry into medical school, women, minority group students and Democrats scored significantly higher on the cultural sensitivity scale than their comparison groups. No significant changes were seen overall in the matched data. However, minority groups showed a significant increase in scores, while Republicans and white men experienced a non-significant decline. In addition, incoming students judged cultural competency education to be important. The perceived need to increase the numbers of minority group doctors varied by gender, ethnic group and political affiliation. Among incoming medical students, perceptions of racial diversity and gender equality vary along ethnic, gender and political lines. Additionally, pre-clinical education was associated with increased cultural sensitivity by minority group students, but not by others. These findings demonstrate the continuing need for diversity in medical school and for medical students to recognise and address their personal and group biases.

  4. Racial Assumptions Color the Mental Representation of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ryan F; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the racial content of perceivers' mental images of different socioeconomic categories. We selected participants who were either high or low in prejudice toward the poor. These participants saw 400 pairs of visually noisy face images. Depending on condition, participants chose the face that looked like a poor person, a middle income person, or a rich person. We averaged the faces selected to create composite images of each social class. A second group of participants rated the stereotypical Blackness of these images. They also rated the face images on a variety of psychological traits. Participants high in economic prejudice produced strongly class-differentiated mental images. They imagined the poor to be Blacker than middle income and wealthy people. They also imagined them to have less positive psychological characteristics. Participants low in economic prejudice also possessed images of the wealthy that were relatively White, but they represented poor and middle class people in a less racially differentiated way. We discuss implications for understanding the intersections of race and class in social perception.

  5. The influence of Darwinism on racial concepts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Juárez-Barrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly pointed out that Vicente Riva Palacio and Andrés Molina Enríquez were influenced by Darwin’s ideas to develop their own racial concepts regarding the Mexican half-blood. However, after analysing said ideas both in their original biological context as in the social context they were transferred to, it is concluded that this affirmation can only be accepted sensu lato. Their thesis about the superiority of the half-blood is more strongly based on lineal conceptions of evolution and their own alterations than in the Darwinist model of natural selection. It is important to know the influence of Darwinism outside its original context as it helps to understand how the complex and unavoidable exchanges among science, society and politics occurred. Their appropriation of the Darwinist ideas may not be conceptually or methodologically accurate, but it contributed to the ideological construction of the half-blood as an advanced race in terms of evolution. This thesis contrasts with the most prevailing one in other Latin American countries, where the half-bloods were perceived as the personification of a racial degeneration.

  6. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outten, H Robert; Lee, Timothy; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Schmitt, Michael T; Vala, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the "majority" group), or fake projections for 2060-that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline). In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear) toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  8. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Robert Outten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979, we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the “majority” group, or fake projections for 2060—that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline. In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  9. Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Catherine Debs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012–2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori Method. While school-choice scholars are concerned that choice programs like Montessori lead to greater student segregation by race and social class, this study finds a variety of outcomes for public Montessori. Public Montessori as a sector has strengths in student racial and socioeconomic diversity, but it also has diversity challenges, particularly among Montessori charters. The study concludes with recommended strategies for public Montessori schools to enroll a racially and economically diverse student body.

  10. The influence of school demographic factors and perceived student discrimination on delinquency trajectory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of school demographic factors and youth's perception of discrimination on delinquency in adolescence and into young adulthood for African American, Asian, Hispanic, and white racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), models testing the effect of school-related variables on delinquency trajectories were evaluated for the four racial/ethnic groups using Mplus 5.21 statistical software. Results revealed that greater student ethnic diversity and perceived discrimination, but not teacher ethnic diversity, resulted in higher initial delinquency estimates at 13 years of age for all groups. However, except for African Americans, having a greater proportion of female teachers in the school decreased initial delinquency estimates. For African Americans and whites, a larger school size also increased the initial estimates. Additionally, lower social-economic status increased the initial estimates for whites, and being born in the United States increased the initial estimates for Asians and Hispanics. Finally, regardless of the initial delinquency estimate at age 13 and the effect of the school variables, all groups eventually converged to extremely low delinquency in young adulthood, at the age of 21 years. Educators and public policy makers seeking to prevent and reduce delinquency can modify individual risks by modifying characteristics of the school environment. Policies that promote respect for diversity and intolerance toward discrimination, as well as training to help teachers recognize the precursors and signs of aggression and/or violence, may also facilitate a positive school environment, resulting in lower delinquency. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In blind pursuit of racial equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-11-01

    Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.

  12. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  13. Racial Prejudice and Unfair Treatment: Interactive Effects With Poverty and Foreign Nativity on Problem Drinking*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Keithly, Sarah; Mulia, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although racial and ethnic minorities are often disadvantaged in multiple ways, little research has examined the interactive effects of multiple forms of disadvantage in these populations. The current study describes the independent and interactive effects of perceived prejudice, perceived unfair treatment, poverty, and foreign nativity on problem drinking outcomes among Black and Latino adults. Method: The data source was Black (n = 504) and Latino (n = 766) drinkers from the nationally representative, weighted 2005 National Alcohol Survey. Perceived prejudice was assessed using a composite measure of racial stigma consciousness; perceived unfair treatment was assessed using a single item. Respondents whose per capita household income was below the 2004 poverty guidelines were coded as “poor”; nativity status was assessed among Latinos. Outcomes included past-year drinking to drunkenness, any drinking-related consequences, and two or more dependence symptoms. Results: In bivariate tests, higher levels of unfair treatment were significantly associated with all three outcomes among Blacks (marginally so for drunkenness) and dependence symptoms among Latinos. Further, higher racial stigma was significantly associated with higher rates of any drinking consequences among Latinos. In multivariate logistic regressions, six significant or marginally significant interactions emerged. For each, the pattern of results suggested stronger associations between perceived prejudice/unfair treatment and problem drinking given either poverty or foreign nativity. Conclusions: Although findings were somewhat mixed, the pattern of results tentatively supports the hypothesis that associations between problem drinking and both prejudice and unfair treatment can be exacerbated given the presence of other stressors, particularly among Latinos. Results extend the literature on the health consequences of prejudice and discrimination, highlighting important effects of

  14. Conflict Management in Inter-racial Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti D, Andika; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principle of conformity, a person tends to prefer a partner who has in common with him. But as the times goes by along with the era which is increasingly open, we have encountered inter-racial relationships, including in Indonesia. When couples come from different cultural backgrounds, the values, rules, standpoints, habits, and methods that used in relationship must also be different. The characteristics differences are tend to be the cause of conflict on inter-racial relationsh...

  15. Racial discrimination: how not to do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  17. Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-03

    Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.

  18. Relations among Perceived Parental Control, Warmth, Indulgence, and Family Harmony of Chinese in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study of 925 educated Chinese who recalled child-rearing patterns of their parents indicated that greater perceived parental dominating control was related to less perceived parental warmth and that greater parental warmth and less parental control were related to greater perceived family harmony. (RH)

  19. The State of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in The Receipt of Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Jones, Dionne; Klein, William M. P.; Boyington, Josephine; Moten, Carmen; Rorie, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. PMID:22494002

  20. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  1. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Faculty self-reported experience with racial and ethnic discrimination in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-03-01

    Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.

  3. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  4. Modeling Racial Differences in the Effects of Racial Representation on 2-Year College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…

  5. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  6. The Racial Stress of Membership: Development of the Faculty Inventory of Racialized Experiences in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…

  7. Perceived epilepsy stigma mediates relationships between personality and social well-being in a diverse epilepsy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Seth A; Nakhutina, Luba; Schaffer, Sarah G; Grant, Arthur C; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-01

    Perceived epilepsy stigma and reduced social well-being are prevalent sources of distress in people with epilepsy (PWE). Yet, research on patient-level correlates of these difficulties is lacking, especially among underserved groups. Racially/ethnically diverse adults with intractable seizures (N=60, 62% female; 79% Black, 20% Hispanic/Latino, 8% White) completed validated measures of personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI-3), perceived epilepsy stigma (Epilepsy Stigma Scale, ESS), and quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy, QOLIE-89). Controlling for covariates, ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression evaluated the total, direct, and indirect effects of NEO-FFI-3 neuroticism and extraversion scores on epilepsy-related social well-being (i.e., combination of QOLIE-89 social isolation and work/driving/social function subscales, α=0.87), mediated through perceived stigma. In separate models, higher levels of neuroticism (N) and lower levels of extraversion (E) were significantly and independently associated with greater perceived stigma (N path a=0.71, p=0.005; E path a=-1.10, pStigma, in turn, was significantly and independently associated with poorer social well-being (N path b=0.23, psocial well-being through their respective associations with perceived stigma (N path ab=-0.16, 95% CIs [-0.347, -0.044]; E path ab=0.25, 95% CIs [0.076, 0.493]). Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion covaried with stigma beliefs, and these may be markers of poor social outcomes in PWE. Mediation models suggest that targeting epilepsy stigma beliefs may be a particularly useful component to incorporate when developing interventions aimed at promoting social well-being in diverse PWE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trust in physicians and racial disparities in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somnath; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Mistrust among African Americans is often considered a potential source of racial disparities in HIV care. We sought to determine whether greater trust in one's provider among African-American patients mitigates racial disparities. We analyzed data from 1,104 African-American and 201 white patients participating in a cohort study at an urban, academic HIV clinic between 2005 and 2008. African Americans expressed lower levels of trust in their providers than did white patients (8.9 vs. 9.4 on a 0-10 scale; p African Americans were also less likely than whites to be receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) when eligible (85% vs. 92%; p = 0.02), to report complete ART adherence over the prior 3 days (83% vs. 89%; p = 0.005), and to have a suppressed viral load (40% vs. 47%; p = 0.04). Trust in one's provider was not associated with receiving ART or with viral suppression but was significantly associated with adherence. African Americans who expressed less than complete trust in their providers (0-9 of 10) had lower ART adherence than did whites (adjusted OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66). For African Americans who expressed complete trust in their providers (10 of 10), the racial disparity in adherence was less prominent but still substantial (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95). Trust did not affect disparities in receipt of ART or viral suppression. Our findings suggest that enhancing trust in patient-provider relationships for African-American patients may help reduce disparities in ART adherence and the outcomes associated with improved adherence.

  9. Targeting and tailoring message-framing: the moderating effect of racial identity on receptivity to colorectal cancer screening among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Manning, Mark; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James

    2018-06-07

    This study demonstrates the potential of racial identity to moderate how gain and loss-framed messaging, as well as culturally-targeted messaging, can affect receptivity to preventive health screening. African-Americans (N = 132) who were noncompliant with recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening completed a measure of racial identity centrality-encompassing the extent to which racial identity is a core component of self-concept-and then participated in an online education module about CRC screening, during which either gain or loss-framed messaging was introduced. Half of African-Americans were also exposed to a culturally-targeted self-help message about preventing CRC. Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as outcomes. Results confirmed that effects of messaging on receptivity to CRC screening depended on racial identity. Among low racial identity African Americans, gain-framed messaging most effectively increased normative beliefs about obtaining CRC screening, whereas among high racial identity African Americans loss-framed messaging was most compelling. However, these effects most strongly emerged when culturally-targeted self-help messaging was included. We discuss implications for health disparities theory and research, including a potential to simultaneously deploy culturally-targeted and tailored messaging based on racial identity.

  10. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  11. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Racial/ethnic differences in perception of need for mental health treatment in a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Cefalu, Matthew; Wong, Eunice C; Burnam, M Audrey; Hunter, Gerald P; Florez, Karen R; Collins, Rebecca L

    2017-08-01

    To resolve contradictory evidence regarding racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health treatment in the USA using a large and diverse epidemiologic sample. Samples from 6 years of a repeated cross-sectional survey of the US civilian non-institutionalized population were combined (N = 232,723). Perceived need was compared across three non-Hispanic groups (whites, blacks and Asian-Americans) and two Hispanic groups (English interviewees and Spanish interviewees). Logistic regression models were used to test for variation across groups in the relationship between severity of mental illness and perceived need for treatment. Adjusting statistically for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and for severity of mental illness, perceived need was less common in all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to whites. The prevalence difference (relative to whites) was smallest among Hispanics interviewed in English, -5.8% (95% CI -6.5, -5.2%), and largest among Hispanics interviewed in Spanish, -11.2% (95% CI -12.4, -10.0%). Perceived need was significantly less common among all minority racial/ethnic groups at each level of severity. In particular, among those with serious mental illness, the largest prevalence differences (relative to whites) were among Asian-Americans, -23.3% (95% CI -34.9, -11.7%) and Hispanics interviewed in Spanish, 32.6% (95% CI -48.0, -17.2%). This study resolves the contradiction in empirical evidence regarding the existence of racial/ethnic differences in perception of need for mental health treatment; differences exist across the range of severity of mental illness and among those with no mental illness. These differences should be taken into account in an effort to reduce mental health-care disparities.

  13. Racial/ethnic differences in perception of need for mental health treatment in a US national sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Cefalu, Matthew; Wong, Eunice C.; Burnam, M. Audrey; Hunter, Gerald P.; Florez, Karen R.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To resolve contradictory evidence regarding racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health treatment in the USA using a large and diverse epidemiologic sample. Methods Samples from 6 years of a repeated cross-sectional survey of the US civilian non-institutionalized population were combined (N = 232,723). Perceived need was compared across three non-Hispanic groups (whites, blacks and Asian-Americans) and two Hispanic groups (English interviewees and Spanish interviewees). Logistic regression models were used to test for variation across groups in the relationship between severity of mental illness and perceived need for treatment. Results Adjusting statistically for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and for severity of mental illness, perceived need was less common in all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to whites. The prevalence difference (relative to whites) was smallest among Hispanics interviewed in English, −5.8% (95% CI −6.5, −5.2%), and largest among Hispanics interviewed in Spanish, - 11.2% (95% CI −12.4, −10.0%). Perceived need was significantly less common among all minority racial/ethnic groups at each level of severity. In particular, among those with serious mental illness, the largest prevalence differences (relative to whites) were among Asian-Americans, −23.3% (95% CI −34.9, −11.7%) and Hispanics interviewed in Spanish, 32.6% (95% CI −48.0, −17.2%). Conclusions This study resolves the contradiction in empirical evidence regarding the existence of racial/ethnic differences in perception of need for mental health treatment; differences exist across the range of severity of mental illness and among those with no mental illness. These differences should be taken into account in an effort to reduce mental health-care disparities. PMID:28550518

  14. Race and the Metropolitan Origins of Postsecondary Access to Four Year Colleges: The Case of Greater Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Smith, Suzanne M.; Coelen, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The inequities of residential segregation and their impact on educational opportunity are a national problem, but greater metropolitan Boston has a particularly problematic history in terms of the extent to which racial segregation has deeply divided the city into separate and unequal systems of opportunity. Despite decades of policy efforts to…

  15. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  16. Measuring racial microaggression in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Amanda Lee

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the already existing Racial Microaggression in Counseling Scale (RMCS) when the term 'therapist' was replaced with 'physician', thus constituting the modification as the Racial Microaggression in Medical Practice Scale (RMMPS). Racial microaggressions work at reinforcing inferior social status on a cognitive level. Unlike overt racism, messages behind microaggression are subtler and more every day. A lack of acceptance, respect, and regard emerges from interactions in medical contexts as there are layers of in-group and out-group statuses at play (e.g. physician-patient, Black-White, expert-lay, and Westernized-alternative). The layer focused on in this study was that of race or skin color. A sample of racial minorities in the Northeast (n = 91) was investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively to validate the modification and future use of a RMMPS. The scale was related to the racial incongruence between patient and provider. Qualitative findings support the original concepts and themes used when developing the 10-item measure in a counseling setting. Psychometric findings for the scale also supported its factorial structure using generalizability theory estimates. Future implications of this research relate to health behavior, trustworthiness, and health outcomes of minority patients. Its potential for use among various practitioners, educators, and researchers is also discussed.

  17. Setting the trajectory: racial disparities in newborn telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Esteves, Kyle; Hatch, Virginia; Woodbury, Margaret; Borne, Sophie; Adamski, Alys; Theall, Katherine P

    2015-05-01

    To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for TL analyses. Pregnant mothers were recruited from the Greater New Orleans area. TL was determined via monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on DNA extracted from infant blood spots. Demographic data and other covariates were obtained via maternal report before the infant's birth. Birth outcome data were obtained from medical records and maternal report. Black infants weighed significantly less than white infants at birth and had significantly longer TL than white infants (P=.0134), with the strongest effect observed in black female infants. No significant differences in gestational age were present. Significant racial differences in TL were present at birth in this sample, even after we controlled for a range of birth outcomes and demographic factors. Because longer initial TL is predictive of more rapid TL attrition across the life course, these findings provide evidence that, even at birth, biological vulnerability to early life stress may differ by race and sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial differences in employment outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Ketchum, Jessica M; Williams, Kelli; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Marquez de la Plata, Carlos D; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Wehman, Paul

    2008-05-01

    To examine racial differences in employment status and occupational status 1 year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective study. Longitudinal dataset of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems national database. Subjects with primarily moderate to severe TBI (3468 whites vs 1791 minorities) hospitalized between 1989 and 2005. Not applicable. Employment status (competitively employed or unemployed) and occupational status (professional/managerial, skilled, or manual labor) at 1 year postinjury. Race and/or ethnicity has a significant effect on employment status at 1 year postinjury (chi(1)(2)=58.23, Pstatus, sex, Disability Rating Scale at discharge, marital status, cause of injury, age, and education. The adjusted odds of being unemployed versus competitively employed are 2.17 times (95% confidence interval, 1.78-2.65) greater for minorities than for whites. Race and ethnicity does not have a significant effect on occupational status at 1 year postinjury. With this empirical evidence supporting racial differences in employment outcomes between minorities and whites at 1 year postinjury, priority should be given to tailoring interventions to maximize minority survivors' work-related productivity.

  19. Setting the Trajectory: Racial Disparities in Newborn Telomere Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Esteves, Kyle; Hatch, Virginia; Woodbury, Margaret; Borne, Sophie; Adamski, Alys; Theall, Katherine P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for telomere length analyses. Study design Pregnant mothers were recruited from the Greater New Orleans area. TL was determined using MMQ-PCR on DNA extracted from infant blood spots. Demographic data and other covariates were obtained via maternal report prior to infant birth. Birth outcome data were obtained from medical records and maternal report. Results Black infants weighed significantly less than white infants at birth, and had significantly longer TL than White infants (p=0.0134), with the strongest effect observed in Black female infants. No significant differences in gestational age were present. Conclusions Significant racial differences in TL were present at birth in this sample, even after controlling for a range of birth outcomes and demographic factors. As longer initial TL is predictive of more rapid TL attrition across the life course, these findings provide evidence that, even at birth, biological vulnerability to early life stress may differ by race and sex. PMID:25681203

  20. Towards Sensorial Approaches to Visual Research with Racially Diverse Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a collaborative ethnographic research project that highlights the artistic, literary contributions of racially diverse young men. It uses Critical Race Theory to question conventional, Eurocentric educational approaches that historically and currently continue to suppress various socially and culturally learned modes of communication. This article presents two research projects in urban and suburban formal and informal educational institutions to highlight multimodal literary approaches. The first project is an amalgamation of two critical, ethnographic case studies that explores how racially diverse young men express their literacy through rap and spoken word poetry. The second project uses ethnographic methods to observe racially diverse young men’s production of films and photographs in high school, community centers, and art gallery spaces. This study uses visual methods coupled with affect and sensory-laden approaches to collect data and conduct an analysis. The article reflects on conversations surrounding young men, particularly racialized young men, their relationship with literacy, and how these conversations are founded on their failure and deficit language about their literacy repertoires. We believe that such research is closely tied with other social justice themes and modes of inquiry. This article steers away from the ways racialized young men do not use literacy, and focuses instead on the ways that they do use literacy. Their literacy practices are predominantly visual in nature, frequently accompanied by other modes such as words and moving images. Fitting within the scope of the special issue on social justice and visual methods, we argue for a greater acknowledgement and analytical gaze on sensory and affective nuances within visual research. This approach adds texture and volume to interpreting racialized young men’s narratives. Interrogating their visuals and talking through their narratives that have agentive

  1. Racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and depressive symptoms among pregnant black and African American women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-12-01

    To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0-8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0-30 scale). Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2008-04-01

    Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.

  3. Racial Exclusion in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomi K. Thakore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.

  4. Introduction: Racial and Ethnic Conflict and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Crutchfield

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.

  5. Gatekeepers and Homeseekers: Institutional Factors in Racial Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Diana M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of segregation due to racial patterns in housing by examining the role of real estate agents, acting as a community of gatekeepers, in the perpetration of racial segregation. (Author/EB)

  6. Examining Post-Racial Ideology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."

  7. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: Contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Hu, Chao S.; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese faces, Caucasian faces, and racially ambiguous morphed face stimuli. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information of racial categories that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  9. Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes Changed During Black Lives Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup

    2018-01-01

    Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals’ implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Anti-racist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants fr...

  10. Managing and monitoring equality and diversity in UK sport: An evaluation of the sporting equals Racial Equality Standard and its impact on organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, K; Hylton, K; Long, J

    2006-01-01

    Despite greater attention to racial equality in sport in recent years, the progress of national sports organizations toward creating equality of outcomes has been limited in the United Kingdom. The collaboration of the national sports agencies, equity organizations and national sports organizations (including national governing bodies of sport) has focused on Equality Standards. The authors revisit an earlier impact study of the Racial Equality Standard in sport and supplement it with another...

  11. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads,...

  12. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  13. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  14. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  15. Contradictions of Identity: Education and the Problem of Racial Absolutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron

    1995-01-01

    Critiques tendencies toward dogmatism and essentialism in current educational theories of racial inequality. Argues that different gender, class, and ethnic interests intersect with racial coordination and affiliation, and that to reduce racial antagonism or ameliorate educational inequities educators must consider the powerful role of nuance,…

  16. School Politics and Conflict in Racially Isolated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Compares areas and levels of political conflict in racially isolated school districts by surveying six superintendents from racially isolated African-American schools and six superintendents from racially isolated white schools. Similar issues arise at every conflict level with small variations among issues between African-American and white…

  17. Seeing Race: Teaching Residential Segregation with the Racial Dot Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan

    2017-01-01

    Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…

  18. The Serious Games of Racial Accounting in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Martha Irene

    2011-01-01

    Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Backlash in College Peer Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews racial bias and racial intolerance among college students during the late 1980s. Asserts that campus bias-related indents are predictable outcomes of increasingly self-interested values and limited personal experience with racial and ethnic diversity. Discusses the need to create more opportunities for contact and interaction among…

  20. Managing racial integration in South African public schools: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explores what racial integration is. Furthermore, it scrutinises how racial integration is currently managed in South African Public schools. The main argument of the paper defends a deliberative conception of managing racial integration in South African public schools. In light of this, there is some form of hope to ...

  1. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  2. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  3. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  4. Economic, racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer in the US: towards a more comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard T; Li, Xue; Dolecek, Therese A; Barrett, Richard E; Weaver, Kathryn E; Warnecke, Richard B

    2009-09-01

    Using cancer registry data, we focus on racial and ethnic disparities in stage of breast cancer diagnosis in Cook County, IL. The county health system is the "last resort" health-care provider for low-income persons. Socioeconomic status is measured using empirical Bayes estimates of tract-level poverty, specific to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanics in one of three age groups. We use ordinal logistic regression with non-proportional odds to model stage. Blacks and Hispanics are at greater risk for regional and distant stage diagnosis, but the disparity declines with age. Women in high-poverty areas are at substantially greater risk for late-stage diagnosis. The effects of poverty do not differ by age or across racial and ethnic groups.

  5. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks’ diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks, policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States.

  6. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  9. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  10. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  11. Racial Microaggressions and School Psychology Students: Who Gets Targeted and How Intern Supervisors Can Facilitate Racial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…

  12. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  13. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  14. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  15. Racial targeting of sexual violence in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.

  16. Group Norms, Threat, and Children's Racial Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

    2005-01-01

    To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…

  17. On implicit racial prejudice against infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous

  18. The Campus Racial Climate: Contexts of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Sylvia

    1992-01-01

    An examination of data from several studies investigated white (n=1,825), African-American (n=328), and Chicano (n=340) college student perceptions of campus racial climate and institutional commitment to cultural diversity. Student demographic variables were considered. Results indicated common and distinct views concerning the environment types…

  19. Challenging Speculation about "Dewey's Racialized Visions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…

  20. To Imagine and Pursue Racial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these…

  1. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  2. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  3. The Racial School-Climate Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…

  4. Dealing with Racial Conflicts in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Ben

    1975-01-01

    The roots of racial conflict can be identified, and often predicted, says this author who directs the Community Relations Service of the Justice Department that has helped administrators in 2,000 cases. He lists 10 tension-breeding factors that, if found in your school, may mean you're flirting with a crisis. (Editor)

  5. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  6. Racial/Ethnic differences among smokers: revisited and expanded to help seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Baker, Elizabeth A; McNutt, Marcia D

    2014-05-01

    Most research on racial/ethnic differences among smokers is outdated and does not focus on help seekers. The purpose of this study was to revisit racial/ethnic differences in variables related to cessation in a sample of smokers enrolled in a randomized trial. Adult smokers (N = 417; n = 126 White; n = 123 Hispanic; n = 168 Black) completed measures of demographics, smoking history, alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and readiness to quit. We found significant differences in these factors across groups. Blacks were more likely to be older, less educated, single, low income, smoke menthol cigarettes, and report greater nicotine dependence. Hispanics were younger, reported fewer years smoking and cigarettes per day, lower nicotine dependence, preferred mentholated cigarettes, and reported greater alcohol use intensity. After controlling for demographics and smoking history, Blacks reported greater depressive symptoms and lower readiness to quit compared with Whites and Hispanics. Help-seeking Blacks may exhibit more risk factors for difficulty quitting compared with other groups. Hispanics may have some protective factors, such as lower dependence, but require attention to alcohol use and menthol smoking. Identifying preintervention racial/ethnic differences in characteristics related to cessation is important for developing evidence-based and culturally specific interventions and for reducing tobacco-related health disparities.

  7. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  8. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra

    2015-07-01

    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Is racial bias malleable? Whites' lay theories of racial bias predict divergent strategies for interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2012-07-01

    How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Perceived discrimination and chronic health in adults from nine ethnic subgroups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Shauna K

    2015-01-01

    This comparative analysis examines the association between chronic cardiovascular, respiratory and pain conditions, race, ethnicity, nativity, length of residency, and perceived discrimination among three racial and nine ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans (Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese), Latino-American (Cuban, Portuguese, and Mexican), and Afro-Caribbean American (Haitian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian) respondents. Analysis used weighted Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys-merged data from the National Latino and Asian American Study and the National Survey of American Life. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which groups within the model were more likely to report perceived discrimination effects. Afro-Caribbean subgroups were more likely to report perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino-American subgroups were. Logistic regression revealed a significant positive association with perceived discrimination and chronic pain only for Latino-American respondents. Significant differences in reports of perceived discrimination emerged by race and ethnicity. Caribbean respondents were more likely to report high levels of perceived discrimination; however, they showed fewer significant associations related to chronic health conditions compared to Asian Americans and Latino-Americans. Examination of perceived discrimination across ethnic subgroups reveals large variations in the relationship between chronic health and discrimination by race and ethnicity. Examining perceived discrimination by ethnicity may reveal more complex chronic health patterns masked by broader racial groupings.

  12. Cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination and hypertension in African-American men and women: the Pitt County Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Calpurnyia B; Vines, Anissa I; Kaufman, Jay S; James, Sherman A

    2008-03-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of the frequency of discrimination on hypertension risk. The authors assessed the cross-sectional associations between frequency of perceived racial and nonracial discrimination and hypertension among 1,110 middle-aged African-American men (n = 393) and women (n = 717) participating in the 2001 follow-up of the Pitt County Study (Pitt County, North Carolina). Odds ratios were estimated using gender-specific unconditional weighted logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders and the frequency of discrimination. More than half of the men (57%) and women (55%) were hypertensive. The prevalences of perceived racial discrimination, nonracial discrimination, and no discrimination were 57%, 29%, and 13%, respectively, in men and 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively, in women. Women recounting frequent nonracial discrimination versus those reporting no exposure to discrimination had the highest odds of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 5.02). A nonsignificant inverse odds ratio was evident in men who perceived frequent exposure to racial or nonracial discrimination in comparison with no exposure. A similar association was observed for women reporting perceived racial discrimination. These results indicate that the type and frequency of discrimination perceived by African-American men and women may differentially affect their risk of hypertension.

  13. The relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women: the structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women. This secondary analysis was conducted with the data from 980 midlife women that were collected from 2005 to 2013 using the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The model had the highest fit indices for Non-Hispanic (NH) White midlife women, and prominent racial/ethnic differences were observed in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms. In all racial/ethnic groups (except in Hispanic women), perceived health status was significantly associated positively with menopausal symptoms (β = -0.149 for NH African American; β = -0.207 for NH Asians; β = -0.162 for NH Whites). Body mass index was significantly positively associated with menopausal symptoms only in NH Asians (β = 0.118) and Hispanics (β = 0.210). The racial/ethnic differences in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms could have resulted from the different cultural contexts in which women undergo during their menopausal transitions. Further cultural studies on the associations of racial/ethnic-specific factors with menopausal symptoms would help in understanding possible causes for racial/ethnic differences in the factors significantly associated with menopausal symptoms.

  14. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.

  15. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2015-10-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  17. The Role of Chronic Psychosocial Stress in Explaining Racial Differences in Stress Reactivity and Pain Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer L; Johnson, Jacqueline; Nau, Samantha; Mechlin, Beth; Girdler, Susan S

    To examine the role of psychosocial factors in mediating the relationship between African American (AA) race and both increased pain sensitivity and blunted stress reactivity. Participants included 133 AA and non-Hispanic white (nHW) individuals (mean [SD] age, 37 [9]) matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent mental stress testing (Trier Social Stress Test) while cardiovascular, hemodynamic, and neuroendocrine reactivity were measured. Participants completed questionnaires assessing potential sources of psychosocial stress and were tested for pain responses to cold pain and the temporal summation of heat pulses. Mediation analyses were used to determine the extent to which exposure to psychosocial stress accounted for the observed racial differences in stress reactivity and pain. Chronic stress exposure and reactivity to mental stress was largely similar among AAs and nHWs; however, AAs exhibited heightened pain to both cold (p = .012) and heat (p = .004). Racial differences in the relationship between stress reactivity and pain were also observed: while greater stress reactivity was associated with decreased pain among nHWs, reactivity was either unrelated to or even positively associated with pain among AAs (e.g., r = -.21 among nHWs and r = .41 among AAs for stroke volume reactivity and cold pressor intensity). Adjusting for minor racial differences in chronic psychosocial stress did not change these findings. Accounting for psychosocial factors eliminated racial differences in stress reactivity but not racial differences in sensitivity to experimental pain tasks. Increased exposure to chronic stress may not explain AAs' increased pain sensitivity in laboratory settings.

  18. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. Changing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Heavy Drinking Trajectories Through Young Adulthood: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edwina; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Lui, Camillia K

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of racial/ethnic differences in the age at which young adults age out of heavy drinking. Some studies have found Black and Hispanic drinkers engage in more frequent heavy drinking than White people beyond adulthood. Yet, the alcohol-related disparities literature has produced contradictory findings on whether an age-crossover effect is evident among racial/ethnic groups; that is, whether racial/ethnic minorities' drinking levels or trajectories are lower than White people at young ages but later exceed (or crossover) those of White people. This study extends this scant literature by assessing whether racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking have changed over time (possibly accounting for mixed findings from prior research); and tests for an age-crossover effect in heavy drinking using longitudinal data from 2 cohorts born 20 years apart. Data are from the 1979 (n = 10,963) and 1997 (n = 8,852) cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Generalized estimating equations were used to model trajectories of heavy drinking frequency from ages 17 to 31. Racial/ethnic differences were determined using sex-stratified models and 3-way interactions of race/ethnicity with age, age-squared, and cohort. Racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories have changed over time in men and women. In the older NLSY cohort, Hispanic men and Black women surpassed White men's and women's heavy drinking frequency by age 31. This crossover was absent in the younger cohort, where trajectories of all racial-sex groups converged by age 31. Normative trajectories have changed in Hispanics and White people of both sexes, with a delay in age of peak frequency, and greater levels of heavy drinking in the younger cohort of women. Changes in heavy drinking trajectories over time suggest the need for targeted interventions during young adulthood. While disparities in young adult heavy drinking were no longer apparent in the more recent birth cohort

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Longitudinal Change in Kidney Function Among Urban Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Poggi-Burke, Angedith; Zonderman, Alan B; Rostant, Ola S; Evans, Michele K; Crews, Deidra C

    2017-09-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with psychosocial distress and adverse health outcomes. We examined associations of perceived discrimination measures with changes in kidney function in a prospective cohort study, the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span. Our study included 1620 participants with preserved baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m) (662 whites and 958 African Americans, aged 30-64 years). Self-reported perceived racial discrimination and perceived gender discrimination (PGD) and a general measure of experience of discrimination (EOD) ("medium versus low," "high versus low") were examined in relation to baseline, follow-up, and annual rate of change in eGFR using multiple mixed-effects regression (γbase, γrate) and ordinary least square models (γfollow). Perceived gender discrimination "high versus low PGD" was associated with a lower baseline eGFR in all models (γbase = -3.51 (1.34), p = .009 for total sample). Among white women, high EOD was associated with lower baseline eGFR, an effect that was strengthened in the full model (γbase = -5.86 [2.52], p = .020). Overall, "high versus low" PGD was associated with lower follow-up eGFR (γfollow = -3.03 [1.45], p = .036). Among African American women, both perceived racial discrimination and PGD were linked to lower follow-up kidney function, an effect that was attenuated with covariate adjustment, indicating mediation through health-related, psychosocial, and lifestyle factors. In contrast, EOD was not linked to follow-up eGFR in any of the sex by race groups. Perceived racial and gender discrimination are associated with lower kidney function assessed by glomerular filtration rate and the strength of associations differ by sex and race groups. Perceived discrimination deserves further investigation as a psychosocial risk factors for kidney disease.

  1. [Racial discrimination in the care environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labache, Lucette

    2018-05-01

    Based on interviews carried out with people from overseas working in Parisian hospitals and observations made of women from Central and North Africa working in care facilities for elderly or disabled people, this article discusses the issue of racial discrimination. We focus on the way discrimination develops, its manifestations in the care sector and the way in which it is handled. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived justice and recovery satisfaction: the moderating role of customer-perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Subhash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovery strategies are critical to service providers in their efforts to maintain satisfied and loyal customers. While the existing research shows that recovery satisfaction is a function of customer perception of distributive, procedural and interactional justice, the present study considers an important contextual factor - customer-perceived quality of the service provider in the evaluation of justice dimensions and satisfaction. To test the hypotheses proposed, a survey was carried out in the mobile services context. The findings reveal that customer-perceived quality affects the evaluation of justice dimensions and its outcomes. The findings reveal that while distributive justice enhances recovery satisfaction for low perceived quality services, the procedural justice resulted in greater satisfaction in high perceived quality services. Thus, by understanding the role of customer-perceived quality, service managers can deliver effective recovery strategies thereby enhancing satisfaction and loyalty.

  3. Ethno-Racial Variation in Recovery From Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2016-06-01

    Purpose-driven studies examining the relationship between ethnicity, culture, and recovery are absent from the empirical literature. As such, the overall aim of this study was to examine ethno-racial variations in recovery perspectives. Specific objectives consist of comparing and contrasting ethno-racial variations in 1) definitions of recovery, 2) barriers to recovery, and 3) facilitators of recovery. We recruited people with severe mental illness from 2 broad ethno-racial groups (Caribbean-Canadian and Euro-Canadian) to partake in a qualitative interview on recovery (n = 47). Participants were asked to give their own definitions of recovery, as well as self-perceived barriers and facilitators. Interview transcripts were then subjected to thematic analysis. We compared and contrasted the distribution and salience of emerging themes between the Euro-Canadian and Caribbean-Canadian participants. Recovery was consistently defined as a gradual process involving progress in key life domains including employment, social engagement, and community participation by both groups. This was underpinned by a growing future orientation. Stigma, financial strain, and psychiatric hospitalization were considered major barriers to recovery in both groups. Participants from both groups generally considered stated definitions of recovery to be simultaneous facilitators of recovery-employment and social engagement being the most frequently mentioned. God and religion were key facilitators for the Caribbean-Canadian group but not for Euro-Canadians. Definitions, barriers, and facilitators to recovery were generally shared among our sample, regardless of ethno-racial status, with the exception of God and religion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Being Asian American Is a Lot Different Here": Influences of Geography on Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…

  6. Perceived neighborhood characteristics predict severity and emotional response to daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B; Munoz, Elizabeth; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Smyth, Joshua M; Almeida, David M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2018-03-01

    Neighborhood characteristics may influence health and well-being outcomes through stressors in daily life. This study tested whether a varied set of perceived characteristics of neighborhood (i.e., social cohesion, safety, aesthetic quality, violence) predicted stressor frequency and severity as well as negative emotional responses to stressors. We predicted greater reported cohesion and safety and less violence would be associated with less frequent stressor exposure and severity and less intense negative affect following stressors; we conducted subsequent tests of neighborhood aesthetic quality as a predictor. Participants (n = 233, age 25-65 years) were residents in a socio-economically, racially, and ethnically diverse zip code in Bronx, New York, most who participated in the Effects of Stress on Cognitive Aging, Physiology and Emotion study between 2012 and 2013. They provided demographic information and neighborhood ratings, then participated in the EMA protocol in which they completed brief smartphone surveys of current negative affect and stressor exposure, severity, and recency, five times daily for 14 days. No coded neighborhood characteristic was related to the frequency of stressors. Individuals who reported greater neighborhood violence, however, rated their stressors as more severe. Individuals rating their neighborhood lower in safety or aesthetic quality, or higher in violence, had greater negative affect following stressors. Even among people living within the same zip code, individual differences in perceptions of neighborhood predict how stressful they appraised stressors in daily life to be and how much negative affect they reported following stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [In times of racialization: the case of the 'health of the black population' in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Monteiro, Simone

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes initiatives aimed at creating a field of reflection and political intervention called the 'health of the black population,' which occurred between 1996 and 2004, that is, under the administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and part of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's administration. During this period, the process of discussing and enacting affirmative action policies in Brazil gained greater visibility, especially following the UN-sponsored Third World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (Durban, South Africa, September, 2001). The article describes the emergence of a proposal of compensatory policy within the Brazilian public health system. It then addresses the contemporary debate on race and health, especially the U.S. biomedical literature, and explores how this discussion has been appropriated by agencies and agents concerned with drawing up a 'racial policy' for the public health sector in Brazil.

  8. Patient-perceived factors contributing to low tuberculosis cure rate at Greater Giyani healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandzumuni V. Maswanganyi

    2014-04-01

    Doelwitte: Die doel van die studie was om die faktore wat in die Groter Giyani Munisipaliteit tot lae genesingskoerse onder TB-pasiënte lei, te ondersoek en te beskryf, soos deur pasiënte gesien. Metode: Die studie is in die Groter Giyani Munisipaliteit in die Limpopo Provinsie gehou, waar die genesingskoers vir TB tussen 14% en 94% is. Die navorsing in hierdie studie was kwalitatief, verkennend, beskrywend en kontekstueel van aard. Die populasie het bestaan uit alle gediagnoseerde TB-pasiënte wat vir behandeling en sorg na primêre gesondheidsorgfasiliteite verwys is. Nie-waarskynlikheid, doelgerigte steekproefneming is gebruik om TB-pasiënte en gesondheidsfasiliteite te kies wat ’n laer genesingskoers as die nasionale doelwit van 85% het. Een pasiënt uit elke primêre gesondheidsorgfasiliteit is by die steekproef ingesluit. ‘n Diepgaande persoonlike onderhoud is gebruik om data met behulp van ‘n onderhoudgids in te samel. Resultate: Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste van die TB-pasiënte uit arm gesinne kom, wat dit vir hulle moeilik maak om finansiële en voedselsekerheid te hê. Die gesondheidsfasiliteite se voedselaanvullings en TB-medisyne raak dikwels op. Kulturele oortuigings oor TB lei ook daartoe dat TB-pasiënte by tradisionele gesondheidsorgpraktisyns en geloofsgebaseerde genesers hulp soek. Gevolgtrekking: Dit is nodig dat ‘n beleid oor toesig oor die behandeling van ontslaande TB-pasiënte wat tuis aansterk, opgestel word. Gesondheidsorgfasiliteite behoort ook seker te maak dat daar genoeg medisyne vir hierdie pasiënte is, aangesien ‘n gebrek aan medisyne daartoe kan lei dat die pasiënte ophou om hulle medikasie te gebruik.

  9. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  10. Perceived discrimination and its associations with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.

  11. Racialization, Othering, and Coping Among Adult International Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Maarit

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative interview study examined experiences of racialization and coping among 14 adult international adoptees in Finland. The results show that adoptees encounter a range of racializations by which they are made ‘other’ and excluded from Finnishness. Racialization mostly occurs indirectly and subtly, and often by significant others, and consequently is more difficult to cope with. The findings suggest that the Finnish adoption community and adoption research should pa...

  12. The Influence of Explicit Racial Cues on Candidate Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Joshua Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Since Barack Obama's presidential campaign of 2008, media outlets have changed how race is covered and framed during political campaigns. In the so-called "post-racial" era of American politics when race is supposed to matter less, we are still very much attuned to stories that are framed by racial conflict. When the media wraps a "racial mode of interpretation" around a conflict between two candidates, there are potential electoral penalties involved for either a white or black candidate who...

  13. Racial identity invalidation with multiracial individuals: An instrument development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2018-01-01

    Racial identity invalidation, others' denial of an individual's racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  15. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  16. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-05

    The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place) and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions) are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks), policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open

  17. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  18. The Racial Hauntings of One Black Male Professor and the Disturbance of the Self(ves): Self-Actualization and Racial Storytelling as Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lamar L.

    2017-01-01

    Through a series of racialized stories, I illustrate the familial knowledge, racial hauntings, and educational experiences that forge(d) the beginning and the continuing of my racial identity as a Black male. To examine these stories, I employ racial storytelling as a theoretical, methodological, curricular, and pedagogical tool to assist me in a…

  19. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  20. Patient-reported Communication Quality and Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2015-10-01

    High-quality communication and a positive patient-provider relationship are aspects of patient-centered care, a crucial component of quality. We assessed racial/ethnic disparities in patient-reported communication problems and perceived discrimination in maternity care among women nationally and measured racial/ethnic variation in the correlates of these outcomes. Data for this analysis came from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a national sample of women who gave birth to a singleton baby in a US hospital in 2011-2012. Outcomes were reluctance to ask questions and barriers to open discussion in prenatal care, and perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization, assessed using multinomial and logistic regression. We also estimated models stratified by race/ethnicity. Over 40% of women reported communication problems in prenatal care, and 24% perceived discrimination during their hospitalization for birth. Having hypertension or diabetes was associated with higher levels of reluctance to ask questions and higher odds of reporting each type of perceived discrimination. Black and Hispanic (vs. white) women had higher odds of perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with more reported communication problems among black women only. Although having diabetes was associated with perceptions of discrimination among all women, associations were stronger for black women. Race/ethnicity was associated with perceived racial discrimination, but diabetes and hypertension were consistent predictors of communication problems and perceptions of discrimination. Efforts to improve communication and reduce perceived discrimination are an important area of focus for improving patient-centered care in maternity services.

  1. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanuel Elias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Methods Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Results Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP over 2001–11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Conclusion Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD. This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Graduate Student Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael-Makri, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…

  3. Racial and geographic variation in coronary heart disease mortality trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard F

    2012-06-01

    urbanization strata (−5.1 than in small metro (−3.8, micropolitan/non-metro (−4.0, and non-core/non-metro (−3.3 urbanization strata. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2007, the level and rate of decline in CHD mortality displayed persistent disparities. Declines were greater in EA than AA racial groups. Rates were greater in the Ohio and Mississippi River than other geographic regions.

  4. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  5. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  6. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  7. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  8. Racialization, Schooling, and Becoming American: Asian American Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey J.; Park, Eujin; Wong, Jia-Hui Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Racial categories, inequalities, and hierarchies have shaped life in the United States since the formation of the country. For children and youth in the immigrant and second generations, schools are central sites of racialization. In this article, we focus on what the educational research suggests about the role of schooling in the racialization…

  9. Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)

  10. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  11. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  12. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  13. Implications of Racial Identity Theory for Vocational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.

    1994-01-01

    Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)

  14. Neural Basis of Disgust Perception in Racial Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.

  15. Multiracial Women Students and Racial Stereotypes on the College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…

  16. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  17. Racial Microaggressions and Daily Well-Being among Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…

  18. Racial differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in the mammography era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Neal A; He, Yulei; Keating, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    We assessed racial differences in breast cancer mortality by stage at diagnosis, since mammography became available. We calculated adjusted odds of distant (versus local or regional) tumors for 143,249 White and 13,571 Black women aged 50 to 69 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1982 and 2007 and living in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results region. We compared linear trends in stage at diagnosis before and after 1998. Distant-stage cancer was diagnosed in 5.8% of White and 10.2% of Black participants. The Black-White disparity in distant tumors narrowed until 1998 (1998 adjusted difference = 0.65%), before increasing. Between 1982 and 1997, the proportion of distant tumors decreased for Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]/y = 0.973; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.960, 0.987) and Whites (AOR/y = 0.978; 95% CI = 0.973, 0.983), with no racial differences (P = .47). From 1998 to 2007, the odds of distant versus local or regional tumors increased for Blacks (AOR/y = 1.036; 95% CI = 1.013, 1.060) and Whites (AOR/y = 1.011; 95% CI = 1.002, 1.021); the rate of increase was greater for Blacks than Whites (P = .04). In the mammography era, racial disparities remain in stage at diagnosis.

  19. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The challenge of racial difference: skills for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, E K; Davis, L E

    1994-05-01

    Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated.

  1. Media Exposure and Racialized Perceptions of Inequities in Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Wright

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.

  2. Racialism and Representation in the Rainbow Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fileve T. Palmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a commitment to non-racialism in the South African Constitution and anthropology’s steadfast position that race is a social construction, race is still a highly valued ideology with real-life implications for citizens. In South Africa, racialism particularly affects heterogeneous, multigenerational, multiethnic creole people known as “Coloureds.” The larger category of Coloured is often essentialized based on its intermediary status between Black and White and its relationship to South Africa’s “mother city” (Cape Town, where the majority of Coloured people live. Through research on Coloured identity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, I show how the nuances of personal and collective histories, spatial constraints, and education affect the identities of youth and elders differently from their Cape counterparts. By incorporating a photo-voice methodology, which I called Photo Ethnography Project (PEP, participants produced their own visual materials and challenged essentialized versions of themselves (specifically and South Africa (in general. Through three public displays of photography and narratives, youth in three communities answered the question of what it means to be Coloured in today’s rainbow nation.

  3. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  4. The Impact of Acculturation and Racialization on Self-Rated Health Status Among U.S. Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela; Sanchez, Gabriel R

    2018-01-27

    We investigate the Hispanic paradox by examining the relationship between acculturation and health status of Latinos to understand nuances among this growing heterogeneous population using a 2011 Latino Decisions survey. We find that acculturation remains an important determinant of Latino health; however, this varies based on whether the sample is restricted to immigrants or includes all Latino adults and on the measures of acculturation employed. We find Latino citizens reported better health than non-citizens; however, other acculturation measures, such as language use and time in the U.S. do not have a marked effect. Furthermore, skin color matters only for U.S.-born Latinos. Racialization is therefore important to consider within the context of the Hispanic paradox. Our findings suggest that some of the disadvantages stemming from minority status in the U.S. are more prominent among Latinos who have greater experience with the racial hierarchy of the U.S. and greater acculturation more broadly.

  5. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  6. Effect of Medicaid Managed Care on racial disparities in health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups

  7. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease

  8. Racial and Ethnic Diversity of U.S. Plastic Surgery Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p < 0.001) and 2-fold (4.6%-7.9%, p < 0.001), respectively. African American plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001) plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of perceived racism on psychological distress mediated by venting and disengagement coping in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Antonio, Mapuana C K; Ing, Claire K Townsend; Hermosura, Andrea; Hall, Kimberly E; Knight, Rebecca; Wills, Thomas A

    2017-01-12

    Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling. Perceived racism had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress, mediated through venting and behavioral disengagement coping strategies, with control for age, gender, educational level, and marital status. The findings suggest that certain coping strategies may exacerbate the deleterious effects of racism on a person's psychological well-being. Our study adds Native Hawaiians to the list of U.S. racial and ethnic minorities whose psychological well-being is adversely affected by racism.

  10. Targeting energy justice: Exploring spatial, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in urban residential heating energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reames, Tony Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty, the inability of households to afford adequate energy services, such as heating, is a major energy justice concern. Increasing residential energy efficiency is a strategic fuel poverty intervention. However, the absence of easily accessible household energy data impedes effective targeting of energy efficiency programs. This paper uses publicly available data, bottom-up modeling and small-area estimation techniques to predict the mean census block group residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy, in Kansas City, Missouri. Results mapped using geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis, show disparities in the relationship between heating EUI and spatial, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic block group characteristics. Block groups with lower median incomes, a greater percentage of households below poverty, a greater percentage of racial/ethnic minority headed-households, and a larger percentage of adults with less than a high school education were, on average, less energy efficient (higher EUIs). Results also imply that racial segregation, which continues to influence urban housing choices, exposes Black and Hispanic households to increased fuel poverty vulnerability. Lastly, the spatial concentration and demographics of vulnerable block groups suggest proactive, area- and community-based targeting of energy efficiency assistance programs may be more effective than existing self-referral approaches. - Highlights: • Develops statistical model to predict block group (BG) residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy. • Bivariate and multivariate analyses explore racial/ethnic and socioeconomic relationships with heating EUI. • BGs with more racial/ethnic minority households had higher heating EUI. • BGs with lower socioeconomics had higher heating EUI. • Mapping heating EUI can facilitate effective energy efficiency intervention targeting.

  11. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  12. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  13. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  14. Social Media Participation in an Activist Movement for Racial Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Choudhury, Munmun; Jhaver, Shagun; Sugar, Benjamin; Weber, Ingmar

    2016-05-01

    From the Arab Spring to the Occupy Movement, social media has been instrumental in driving and supporting socio-political movements throughout the world. In this paper, we present one of the first social media investigations of an activist movement around racial discrimination and police violence, known as "Black Lives Matter". Considering Twitter as a sensor for the broader community's perception of the events related to the movement, we study participation over time, the geographical differences in this participation, and its relationship to protests that unfolded on the ground. We find evidence for continued participation across four temporally separated events related to the movement, with notable changes in engagement and language over time. We also find that participants from regions of historically high rates of black victimization due to police violence tend to express greater negativity and make more references to loss of life. Finally, we observe that social media attributes of affect, behavior and language can predict future protest participation on the ground. We discuss the role of social media in enabling collective action around this unique movement and how social media platforms may help understand perceptions on a socially contested and sensitive issue like race.

  15. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  16. Racial differences in red cell cation transport and their relationship to essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K.L.; Beevers, D.G.; West, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Red cell cation transport has been studied in normotensive and essential hypertensive groups of white and black (West Indian) subjects. In vitro uptake of the potassium analogue 86Rb was measured during short-term incubation of erythrocytes in the presence and absence of ouabain. Sodium pump activity was significantly greater (p less than 0.0005) in white hypertensives than in white normotensives. No such difference was observed between black hypertensive and normotensives. 86Rb uptake was significantly lower in black than in white normotensive individuals; this racial differences was not due to a difference in sodium pump activity

  17. Racial and ethnic variations in one-year clinical and patient-reported outcomes following breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Qi, Ji; Hamill, Jennifer B; Kim, Hyungjin M; Pusic, Andrea L; Wilkins, Edwin G

    2017-08-01

    Existing studies evaluating racial and ethnic disparities focus on describing differences in procedure type and the proportion of women who undergo reconstruction following mastectomy. This study seeks to examine racial and ethnic variations in clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following breast reconstruction. The Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium is an 11 center, prospective cohort study collecting clinical and PROs following autologous and implant-based breast reconstruction. Mixed-effects regression models, weighted to adjust for non-response, were performed to evaluate outcomes at one-year postoperatively. The cohort included 2703 women who underwent breast reconstruction. In multivariable models, Hispanic or Latina patients were less likely to experience any complications and major complications. Black or African-American women reported greater improvements in psychosocial and sexual well-being. Despite differences in pertinent clinical and socioeconomic variables, racial and ethnic minorities experienced equivalent or better outcomes. These findings provide reassurance in the context of numerous racial and ethnic health disparities and build upon our understanding of the delivery of surgical care to women with or at risk for developing breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education as predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J

    2011-05-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.

  19. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  20. Super heroes and lucky duckies: Racialized stressors among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2017-04-01

    This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Visionary medicine: speculative fiction, racial justice and Octavia Butler's 'Bloodchild'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, John Carlo; Anderson, Camille; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2016-12-01

    Medical students across the USA have increasingly made the medical institution a place for speculating racially just futures. From die-ins in Fall 2014 to silent protests in response to racially motivated police brutality, medical schools have responded to the public health crisis that is racial injustice in the USA. Reading science fiction may benefit healthcare practitioners who are already invested in imagining a more just, healthier futurity. Fiction that rewrites the future in ways that undermine contemporary power regimes has been termed 'visionary fiction'. In this paper, the authors introduce 'visionary medicine' as a tool for teaching medical students to imagine and produce futures that preserve health and racial justice for all. This essay establishes the connections between racial justice, medicine and speculative fiction by examining medicine's racially unjust past practices, and the intersections of racial justice and traditional science and speculative fiction. It then examines speculative fiction author Octavia Butler's short story 'Bloodchild' as a text that can introduce students of the medical humanities to a liberatory imagining of health and embodiment, one that does not reify and reinscribe boundaries of difference, but reimagines the nature of Self and Other, power and collaboration, agency and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  4. The Adverse Impact of Racial Microaggressions on College Students' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…

  5. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  6. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  7. Racial disparities: disruptive genes in prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C

    2017-06-01

    Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.

  8. Interracial interactions at racially diverse university campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Gloria

    2005-02-01

    The present research was an observational study of casual interracial and intraracial public-group interactions among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White students at 6 southern California State University campuses. Results indicated (a) that at these racially diverse public-university campuses, there was no difference between the percentages of interracial and intraracial groups; (b) specifically, that at the campus with the second largest percentage of non-White students, there were more interracial than intraracial interactions; and (c) that for each of the 4 ethnic groups, at the campuses with the largest percentages of the specific group, interactions were more likely to be intraracial than they were at campuses that had smaller percentages of the specific group. Despite reports of self-segregation, these findings suggest that when Whites are not the majority of students, interracial interactions are common.

  9. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  10. Racial classification in the evolutionary sciences: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.

  11. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of

  12. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  13. Comparative Racialization and Unequal Justice in the Era of Black Lives Matter: The Dylan Yang Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Lee Vue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a close examination of the Dylan Yang-Isaiah Powell case in Wausau, Wisconsin, we argue that while Hmong experiences may have remained marginalized or invisible in the era of Black Lives Matter, this case and the mobilization efforts around it suggest both commonalities and disjunctures among boys of color, especially in relation to the US justice system. The Dylan Yang case, in which a Hmong teen was convicted of murder for the stabbing of another boy, perceived to be black Latino, in an altercation at his home, demands comparative racialization analytics to gain perspective on the implementation of unequal justice. Unpacking the effects of the gangster stereotype, especially for Southeast Asian youth, we suggest how, despite the Asian American model minority trope, Hmong American boys have been racialized as monstrous thugs comparable (but not identical to their black and Latino counterparts, and thus treated by law enforcement as suspects in need of “cataloging” as part of the school-to-prison pipeline. We also delve into the actual practices of young men in order to reveal their strategies in tense and conflictual multiracial contexts, then turn to issues such as long sentences and juvenile solitary confinement that imply the disposability of young lives of color. We conclude with a curation of links to articles, blogs and social media that we invite readers to explore using the critical lens we provide.

  14. Is facial skin tone sufficient to produce a cross-racial identification effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, T R; Schultheis, J A

    2001-06-01

    Research clearly supports the existence of an other race effect for human faces whereby own-race faces are more accurately perceived and recognized. Why this occurs remains unclear. A computerized program (Mac-a-Mug Pro) for face composition was used to create pairs of target and distractor faces that differed only in skin tone. The six target faces were rated on honesty and aggressiveness by 72 university students, with just one 'Black' and one 'White' face viewed by each student. One week later, they attempted to identify these faces in four lineups: two with target-present and two with target-absent. The order of presentation of targets, lineups, and faces within lineups was varied. Own-race identification was slightly better than cross-racial identification. There was no significant difference in the confidence of responses to own- versus other-race faces. These results indicate that neither morphological variation nor differential confidence is necessary for a cross-racial identification effect.

  15. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  16. Tuberculosis during pregnancy in the United States: Racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy complications and in-hospital death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Erika M; Hao, Yun; Tamambang, Mabella; Roshan, Tasha N; Gatlin, Knubian J; Bghigh, Hanane; Ogunyemi, Oladimeji T; Diallo, Fatoumata; Spooner, Kiara K; Salemi, Jason L; Olaleye, Omonike A; Khan, Kashif Z; Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2018-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to eliminate tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (US), TB still contributes to adverse ill health, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2016, about 87% of the TB cases reported in the US were among racial and ethnic minorities. The objective of this study is to explore the risks for pregnancy complications and in-hospital death among mothers diagnosed with TB across racial/ethnic groups in the US. This retrospective cohort study utilized National Inpatient Sample data for all inpatient hospital discharges in the US. We analyzed pregnancy-related hospitalizations and births in the US from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2014 (n = 57,393,459). Multivariable logistic regression was applied to generate odds ratios for the association between TB status and the primary study outcomes (i.e., pregnancy complications and in-hospital death) across racial/ethnic categories. The prevalence of TB was 7.1 per 100,000 pregnancy-related hospitalizations. The overall prevalence of pregnancy complications was 80% greater among TB-infected mothers than their uninfected counterparts. Severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, post-partum hemorrhage, sepsis and anemia occurred with greater frequency among mothers with a TB diagnosis than those without TB, irrespective of race/ethnicity. The rate of in-hospital death among TB patients was 37 times greater among TB-infected than in non-TB infected mothers (468.8 per 100,000 versus 12.6 per 100,000). A 3-fold increased risk of in-hospital death was observed among black TB-negative mothers compared to their white counterparts. No racial/ethnic disparities in maternal morbidity or in-hospital death were found among mothers with TB disease. TB continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women in the US. Resources to address TB disease should also target pregnant women, especially racial

  17. Trends in cannabis use disorders among racial/ethnic population groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-08-01

    Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Approximately 1.5% of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005-2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Established risk factors account for most of the racial differences in cardiovascular disease mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored. METHODS: We examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI and other heart disease (OHD among 139,406 African-American (AA, Native Hawaiian (NH, Japanese-American (JA, Latino and White men and women initially free from cardiovascular disease followed prospectively between 1993-1996 and 2003 in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC. During this period, 946 deaths from AMI and 2,323 deaths from OHD were observed. Relative risks of AMI and OHD mortality were calculated accounting for established CVD risk factors: body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, amount of vigorous physical activity, educational level, diet and, for women, type and age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT use. RESULTS: Established CVD risk factors explained much of the observed racial and ethnic differences in risk of AMI and OHD mortality. After adjustment, NH men and women had greater risks of OHD than Whites (69% excess, P<0.001 and 62% excess, P = 0.003, respectively, and AA women had greater risks of AMI (48% excess, P = 0.01 and OHD (35% excess, P = 0.007. JA men had lower risks of AMI (51% deficit, P<0.001 and OHD (27% deficit, P = 0.001, as did JA women (AMI, 37% deficit, P = 0.03; OHD, 40% deficit, P = 0.001. Latinos had underlying lower risk of AMI death (26% deficit in men and 35% in women, P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Known risk factors explain the majority of racial and ethnic differences in mortality due to AMI and OHD. The unexplained excess in NH and AA and the deficits in JA suggest the presence of unmeasured determinants for cardiovascular mortality that are distributed unequally across these populations.

  19. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Braveman

    adjustment for chronic worry (PR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.81; it appeared further attenuated after adding the covariates (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.85-1.63.Chronic worry about racial discrimination may play an important role in Black-White disparities in PTB and may help explain the puzzling and repeatedly observed greater PTB disparities among more socioeconomically-advantaged women. Although the single measure of experiences of racial discrimination used in this study precluded examination of the role of other experiences of racial discrimination, such as overt incidents, it is likely that our findings reflect an association between one or more experiences of racial discrimination and PTB. Further research should examine a range of experiences of racial discrimination, including not only chronic worry but other psychological and emotional states and both subtle and overt incidents as well. These dramatic results from a large statewide-representative study add to a growing-but not widely known-literature linking racism-related stress with physical health in general, and shed light on the links between racism-related stress and PTB specifically. Without being causally definitive, this study's findings should stimulate further research and heighten awareness of the potential role of unmeasured social variables, such as diverse experiences of racial discrimination, in racial disparities in health.

  1. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen S; Curtis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    chronic worry (PR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.81); it appeared further attenuated after adding the covariates (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.85-1.63). Chronic worry about racial discrimination may play an important role in Black-White disparities in PTB and may help explain the puzzling and repeatedly observed greater PTB disparities among more socioeconomically-advantaged women. Although the single measure of experiences of racial discrimination used in this study precluded examination of the role of other experiences of racial discrimination, such as overt incidents, it is likely that our findings reflect an association between one or more experiences of racial discrimination and PTB. Further research should examine a range of experiences of racial discrimination, including not only chronic worry but other psychological and emotional states and both subtle and overt incidents as well. These dramatic results from a large statewide-representative study add to a growing-but not widely known-literature linking racism-related stress with physical health in general, and shed light on the links between racism-related stress and PTB specifically. Without being causally definitive, this study's findings should stimulate further research and heighten awareness of the potential role of unmeasured social variables, such as diverse experiences of racial discrimination, in racial disparities in health.

  2. Racial Discrimination Towards the Hazaras as Reflected in Khaled Hosseini's the Kite Runner

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Fadlilah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Khaled Hosseini's novel entitled The Kite Runner is an American bestseller novel that represents racial conflict between the Pashtuns and Hazaras, two different races and ethnics in Afghanistan. The aims of this study are to find out the causes of racial discrimination, to analyze examples of racial discrimination, and to analyze the impacts of racial discrimination as depicted in The Kite Runner. Sociological approach and theories on racism and racial discrimination are used in this study. T...

  3. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  4. Black Adolescent Females’ Perceptions of Racial Discrimination When Accessing Reproductive and General Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents, like adults, frequently experience discrimination, which can be particularly salient in the context of reproductive health care. We examined urban Black adolescent females’ perceived experiences of racial discrimination during reproductive health care encounters. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with female African American patients, from age 13 through 20, who obtained reproductive health care services at a single site. Twenty-four participants were enrolled. All were in or graduated from high school, with a mean age of 16.8 years. These young Black women reported infrequent race-based discrimination in the health care setting; however, many reported commonly experiencing discrimination in other places. An awareness of the discrimination that minority young women experience in non–health care settings can help providers demonstrate cultural humility when addressing such concerns with their patients. With this information, providers can provide anticipatory guidance and the tools necessary to navigate complex social systems.

  5. Multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form: factor structure and test of a social cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Lent, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence on the factor structure and concurrent criterion validity of the multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form (MCSE-RD; Sheu & Lent, 2007). The MCSE-RD was designed to assess therapists' perceived capabilities in performing culturally relevant in-session behaviors in cross-racial counseling. Participants were 209 students in counseling-related graduate programs in the USA. Confirmatory factor analyses identified a bifactor structure in which responses to MCSE-RD items could be explained by one generic and three multicultural-specific counseling self-efficacy factors. Support was also found for a social cognitive model in which self-efficacy and interests in multicultural counseling mediated the effects of prior cross-racial client contacts and perceptions of multicultural training environments on intent to perform multicultural counseling in the future. Additionally, outcome expectations were predictive of multicultural counseling interests and choice goals. Implications for multicultural training and directions for future research are highlighted.

  6. Risk and resilience factors associated with posttraumatic stress in ethno-racially diverse National Guard members in Hawai׳i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealin, Julia M; Nelson, Dawna; Stotzer, Rebecca; Guerrero, Anthony; Carpenter, Megan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-06-30

    This study examinedrisk and resilience factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) in an ethno-racially diverse sample of Hawai׳i National Guard members comprised of Native Hawaiians, Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, and European Americans. In the full sample, identifying as Japanese American and higher scores on measures of perceived social support and psychological resilience were negatively associated with PTSS, while Army Guard (vs. Air Guard) status and stronger family norms against disclosing mental health problems were positively associated with PTSS. Exploratory analyses of ethno-racial subgroups identified different patterns of within and between-group correlates of PTSS. For example, when controlling for other factors, higher psychological resilience scores were negatively associated with PTSS only among Native Hawaiian and European Americans. Overall, results of this study suggest that some risk and resilience factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may extend to military populations with high numbers of Filipino American, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian Veterans. Results further suggest differences in risk and resilience factors unique to specific ethno-racial subgroups. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  8. Facilitating Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Health Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M

    2018-01-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.

  9. READING COLONIZATION IN CONRAD'S TRANS-RACIAL LOVE PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lilyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance

  10. The Carteret Story: The Peer Group Deals with Racial Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Moe; Robinson, James C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Human Relations Peer Group Leadership Training Program that has eliminated racial conflict in Carteret High School. The initial step was a four-day intensive training program that took place in a closed setting. (Author/IRT)

  11. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  12. Racial/ethnic differences in 30-year trajectories of heavy drinking in a nationally representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Witbrodt, Jane; Bond, Jason; Williams, Edwina; Zemore, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of alcohol-related problems in the U.S. It is unknown whether this reflects harmful patterns of lifecourse heavy drinking. Prior research shows little support for the latter but has been limited to young samples. We examine racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories from ages 21 to 51. Data on heavy drinking (6+ drinks/occasion) are from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=9468), collected between 1982 and 2012. Sex-stratified, generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model heavy drinking frequency trajectories as a function of age with a cubic curve, and interactions of race with age terms were tested to assess racial/ethnic differences. Models adjusted for time-varying socioeconomic status and marital and parenting status; predictors of trajectories were examined in race- and sex-specific models. White men and women had similarly steep declines in heavy drinking frequency throughout the 20s, contrasting with slower declines (and lower peaks) in Black and Hispanic men and women. During the 30s there was a Hispanic-White crossover in men's heavy drinking curves, and a Black-White female crossover among lifetime heavy drinkers; by age 51, racial/ethnic group trajectories converged in both sexes. Greater education was protective for all groups. Observed racial/ethnic crossovers in heavy drinking frequency following young adulthood might contribute to disparities in alcohol-related problems in middle adulthood, and suggest a need for targeted interventions during this period. Additionally, interventions that increase educational attainment may constitute an important strategy for reducing heavy drinking in all groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  14. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  15. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  16. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  17. Blinded by the White: A Comparative Analysis of Jury Challenges on Racial Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalia Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in Australia, the United States and Canada are significantly overrepresented as defendants in criminal trials and yet vastly underrepresented on juries in criminal trials. This means that all-white juries mostly determine the guilt of Indigenous defendants or white defendants responsible for harming Indigenous victims. In this article, we explore cases in which Indigenous defendants have perceived that an all-white jury’s prejudice against Indigenous people would prevent them receiving a fair trial. It focuses on Indigenous defendants (often facing charges in relation to protesting against white racism challenging the array of all-white juries. Across these cases, Australian courts rely on formal notions of fairness in jury selection to dismiss the Indigenous defendant’s perception of bias and foreclose an inquiry into the potential prejudices of white jurors. We compare the Australian judicial ‘colour-blindness’ towards all-white juries with that of the United States and Canada. We argue that the tendency for courts in the United States and Canada to question jurors on their biases provides useful lessons for Australian judiciaries, including in relation to the impending trials of Indigenous defendants in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, accused of committing crimes in response to white racist violence. Nonetheless, across all jurisdictions where there is a challenge to the array based on racial composition, courts consistently uphold all-white juries. We suggest that the judicial view of the racial neutrality of white jury selection misapprehends the substantive biases in jury selection and the injustice perceived by defendants in having a white jury adjudicate an alleged crime that is committed in circumstances involving protest against white prejudice.

  18. Is the attribution of cultural differences to minorities an expression of racial prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui

    2009-02-01

    The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.

  19. Cross-Gendering the Racial Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon B. Ross

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available When Ernest Gaines chooses a woman as the individual subject for collective memorialization and the ideal medium of racial memory in his 1971 novel, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, he participates in a significant but overlooked genre of black masculine discourse, the composition of black authorship as historical/national authority through the voice and viewpoint of a female protagonist. This cross-gendering of the racial imaginary, introjecting a male vision of racial collectivity and history through a female’s frame of reference, though not exactly a form of cross-dressing, can be usefully analyzed as such. Erecting a feminine monument to emblematize and materialize highly abstract notions like nationhood, justice, peace, warfare, virtue, democracy, pro/creativity, and truth has a long history in many cultures across the globe. It is a long-standing practice within many patriarchal cultures, in other words, to project highly abstract masculine visions of established power onto a female form, draped in feminine attire. Whether this occurs metaphorically, as in the case of gendering the nation-state as feminine (Britannia for the United Kingdom, Columbia for the United States, St. Joan for France, etc., or through more literal iconography, such as the Statue of Liberty, the feminine form serves to purify, emblematize, and collectivize—and thus to transcendentalize—concepts of rightful dis/empowerment that are otherwise fraught with cultural-historical strife. The static nature of such imagery distances us from the contentiousness of the act of cross-gendering that occurs ideologically in the enunciation or re-erection of patriarchal power through an objectified, if celebrated, feminine icon.We can find evidence of this conventionally patriarchal kind of feminine iconography in black cultural practice.  For instance, in black nationalist discourse of the 1960s and ’70s (whether in the Black Power movement in the United States or

  20. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2008-06-01

    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  1. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...

  2. Racial discrimination and relationship functioning among African American couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2018-05-21

    Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  4. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  5. "You Get Beautiful Teeth Down There": Racial/Ethnic Minority Older Adults' Perspectives on Care at Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Schenkel, Andrew B; Birenz, Shirley; Estrada, Ivette; Metcalf, Sara S; Wolff, Mark S

    2017-11-01

    To help eliminate reported racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in oral health care, listening to the perspectives of racial/ethnic minority older adults on their experiences with dental school clinics is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican older adults who attend senior centers in upper Manhattan, New York City, regarding the care received at dental school clinics. Focus groups were conducted from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority men and women aged 50 years and older living in upper Manhattan. All of the 24 focus group sessions were digitally audiorecorded and transcribed for analysis. Groups conducted in Spanish were transcribed first in Spanish and then translated into English. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. Seven subthemes were manifest in the data related to these adults' positive experiences with dental school clinics: excellent outcomes and dentists, painless and safe treatment, affordable care, honest and reputable, benefits of student training, accepting and helpful, and recommended by family and friends. Negative experiences centered around four subthemes: multiple visits required for treatment, loss of interpersonal communication due to use of technology, inconvenient location, and perceived stigma with Medicaid. This study provided novel evidence of the largely positive experiences with dental schools of racial/ethnic minority senior center attendees. Interventions targeted at the organization and provider level, including organizational motivation, resources, staff attributes, climate, and teamwork plus payment programs and services, insurance and affordability, and provider- and system-level supports, may improve health care processes and patient experiences of care.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Socialization as Moderators of Racial Discrimination and School Adjustment of Adopted and Non-adopted Korean American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418

  7. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  8. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  9. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  10. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  11. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  12. Perceived and Police-Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and body mass index (BMI). Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N = 2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. BMI was measured by research staff. Participants' mean age was 14.6 (standard deviation = 2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents' safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1990-01-01

    Despite controversy as to the biologic and/or social meaning of 'race' and 'sex', few public health studies have directly examined the impact of racial or gender discrimination on health. One plausible condition they might affect is hypertension, since stress and internalized anger may constitute important risk factors for this disease. The present investigation therefore sought to determine the feasibility of asking questions pertaining to race- and gender-biased treatment plus response to unfair treatment, and to assess their predictive value regarding self-reported high blood pressure. Using random-digit dialing, 51 black and 50 white women, ages 20-80, who resided in Alameda County, CA in 1987, were identified and interviewed by phone. Among black respondents, those who stated they usually accepted and kept quiet about unfair treatment were 4.4 times more likely to report hypertension than women who said they took action and talked to others (P = 0.01 for linear trend); no clear association existed among white respondents. The age-adjusted risk of high blood pressure among black respondents who recounted experiencing zero instances of race- and gender-biased treatment was 2.6 times greater than that of black women who reported one or more such instances (95% CI = 0.7, 10.5). Among white respondents, gender discrimination was not associated with hypertension. These results suggest that an internalized response to unfair treatment, plus non-reporting of race and gender discrimination, may constitute risk factors for high blood pressure among black women. They also bolster the view that subjective appraisal of stressors may be inversely associated with risk of hypertension.

  14. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Colorectal Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy, Fatalism and Risk Perception in a Safety-Net Clinic Population: Implications for Tailored Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Cy; Cupertino, P; Young, K; Daley, C; Yeh, Hw; Greiner, Ka

    2013-01-25

    Ethnic and racial minority groups in the U.S. receive fewer colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests and are less likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening than the population as a whole. Access, limited awareness of CRC and barriers may, in part, be responsible for inhibiting widespread adoption of CRC screening among racial and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-efficacy, fatalism and CRC risk perception across racial and ethnic groups in a diverse sample. This study was a cross-sectional analysis from baseline measures gathered on a group of patients recruited into a trial to track colorectal cancer screening in underserved adults over 50. Out of 470 Participants, 42% were non-Hispanic; 27% Hispanic and 28% non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have fatalistic beliefs about CRC than non-Hispanic Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks perceived higher risk of getting colon cancer. Self-efficacy for completing CRC screening was higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks than among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic differences in risk perceptions, fatalism and self-efficacy should be taken into consideration in future CRC interventions with marginalized and uninsured populations.

  16. Imposed Hispanicity: How the Imposition of Racialized and Gendered Identities in Texas Affects Mexican Women in Romantic Relationships with White Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Guillén

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Intimate, romantic spaces are important sites for the examination of self-identification and perceived identification, especially with regard to gender and racial power. In this article I examine how white men in romantic relationships or marriages with Mexican women and residing in Texas, impose “Hispanic” as a racial identity as a discursive tactic that reinforces the hegemonic power of being white and being a man in order to define the situation, impose ideals that distance Mexican partners from being “too ethnic” or “threatening” in order to achieve closer proximity to “honorary whiteness” and acceptability of racial others, and creates a romantic space that is coercive instead of loving and safe. This study thus finds that white men used their hegemony to not only employ imposed Hispanicity, which I define as an institutionally created but culturally and institutionally imposed label, and an action based on the use of direct and indirect coercion and force by others, in this case, white romantic partners, for the purpose of establishing power and determining the situation in which racial definitions are made. Therefore, “Hispanic” becomes an identity that is chosen by others and while participants of Mexican descent do employ agency, the socially imposed conditions and expectations associated with “Hispanic” serve to police the identities, bodies, lives, and actions of people of Latin American descent.

  17. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  18. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.

  19. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  20. Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Rathouz, Paul J; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Janssen, Imke; Kravitz, Howard M; Lewis, Tené T; Powell, Lynda H

    2014-02-01

    Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women. We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors. African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race. Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  2. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  3. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  4. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  5. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  6. Racial/ethnic variation in devices used to access patient portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eva; Blondon, Katherine; Lyles, Courtney R; Jordan, Luesa; Ralston, James D

    2018-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic variation in the devices used by patients to access medical records through an online patient portal. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Using data from 318,700 adults enrolled in an integrated delivery system between December 2012 and November 2013, we examined: 1) online patient portal use that directly engages the electronic health record and 2) portal use over desktops/laptops only, mobile devices only, or both device types. The primary covariate was race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian). Other covariates included age, sex, primary language, and neighborhood-level income and education. Portal use and devices used were assessed with multiple and multinomial logistic models, respectively. From December 2012 to November 2013, 56% of enrollees used the patient portal. Of these portal users, 62% used desktops/laptops only, 6% used mobile devices only, and 32% used both desktops/laptops and mobile devices. Black, Hispanic, and Asian enrollees had significantly lower odds of portal use than whites. Black and Hispanic portal users also were significantly more likely to use mobile devices only (relative risk ratio, 1.73 and 1.44, respectively) and both device types (1.21 and 1.07, respectively) than desktops/laptops only compared with whites. Although racial/ethnic minority enrollees were less likely to access the online patient portal overall, a greater proportion of black and Hispanic users accessed the patient portal with mobile devices than did non-Hispanic white users. The rapid spread of mobile devices among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce variation in online patient portal use. Mobile device use may represent an opportunity for healthcare organizations to further engage black and Hispanic enrollees in online patient portal use.

  7. Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination and Older Women’s Mental Health: Accumulation Across Domains, Attributions, and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Zhang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Experiencing discrimination is associated with poor mental health, but how cumulative experiences of perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time are associated with mental disorders is still unknown. Using data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (1996–2008), we applied latent class analysis and generalized linear models to estimate the association between cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination and older women’s mental health. We found 4 classes of perceived interpersonal discrimination, ranging from cumulative exposure to discrimination over attributes, domains, and time to none or minimal reports of discrimination. Women who experienced cumulative perceived interpersonal discrimination over time and across attributes and domains had the highest risk of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16) compared with women in all other classes. This was true for all women regardless of race/ethnicity, although the type and severity of perceived discrimination differed across racial/ethnic groups. Cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributes, domains, and time has an incremental negative long-term association with mental health. Studies that examine exposure to perceived discrimination due to a single attribute in 1 domain or at 1 point in time underestimate the magnitude and complexity of discrimination and its association with health. PMID:29036550

  8. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  9. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  10. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  11. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  12. Anxiety Mediates Perceived Discrimination and Health in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Simons, Ronald L; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-11-01

    We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = .03, SE = .01, p role of symptoms of anxiety in the process that occurs from an individual's perception of discrimination to reported chronic health outcomes. Future research expanding our understanding of the interconnection of psychosocial stressors, discrimination, and their biological sequelae is needed.

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in patient-provider communication, quality-of-care ratings, and patient activation among long-term cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nynikka R A; Kent, Erin E; Forsythe, Laura P; Arora, Neeraj K; Rowland, Julia H; Aziz, Noreen M; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hamilton, Ann S; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2014-12-20

    We examined racial and ethnic disparities in patient-provider communication (PPC), perceived care quality, and patient activation among long-term cancer survivors. In 2005 to 2006, survivors of breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, and endometrial cancers completed a mailed survey on cancer follow-up care. African American, Asian/Pacific Islander (Asian), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) survivors who had seen a physician for follow-up care in the past 2 years (n = 1,196) composed the analytic sample. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to identify racial and ethnic differences in PPC (overall communication and medical test communication), perceived care quality, and patient activation in clinical care (self-efficacy in medical decisions and perceived control). We further examined the potential contribution of PPC to racial and ethnic differences in perceived care quality and patient activation. Compared with white survivors (mean score, 85.16), Hispanic (mean score, 79.95) and Asian (mean score, 76.55) survivors reported poorer overall communication (P = .04 and P Asian survivors (mean score, 79.97) reported poorer medical test communication (P = .001). Asian survivors were less likely to report high care quality (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.72) and reported lower self-efficacy in medical decisions (mean score, 74.71; P Asian disparities remained significant. Asian survivors report poorer follow-up care communication and care quality. More research is needed to identify contributing factors beyond PPC, such as cultural influences and medical system factors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Canaã: o horizonte racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Paes

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se propõe analisar as idéias expressas pelos principais personagens de Canaã, de Graça Aranha, em torno dos vínculos entre raça e cultura, do processo de mestiçagem e do futuro embranquecimento da população brasileira numa utopia fraterno-solar. Essas idéias são correlacionadas, de um lado, às preocupações de Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha e Araripe Júnior com a adequação entre meio geográfico, raça e cultura, e, de outro lado, ao empenho do modernismo paulista em definir um caráter nacional brasileiro. Empenho discernível, no nível da representação simbólica, em Macunaíma e, no da teorização mais sistemática, em Retrato do Brasil, que chega a falar de eugenia ao discutir o futuro tipo étnico brasileiro.The article purports to examine the ideas which the main characters of Canaã, by Graça Aranha, express on the relations between race and culture, as well as on the racial melting process and the future whitening of the population of Brazil in a brotherly and solar Utopia. These ideas are correlated, on one side, to the concern of Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha and Araripe Jr. with the adequation between geography, race and culture; on the other side, to the concern of S. Paulo's Modernist movement to define a Brazilian national character. This concern can be seen, on the level of symbolical representation, in Macunaíma and, on the level of a more systematic theorizing, in Portrait of Brazil, which goes so far as to mention eugenics when discussing the future Brazilian ethnical type.

  15. Lifecourse approach to racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.

  16. Racial dialogues: challenges faculty of color face in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing; Rivera, David P; Watkins, Nicole L; Kim, Rachel H; Kim, Suah; Williams, Chantea D

    2011-07-01

    Research on the experiences of faculty of color in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) suggests that they often experience the campus climate as invalidating, alienating, and hostile. Few studies, however, have actually focused on the classroom experiences of faculty of color when difficult racial dialogues occur. Using Consensually Qualitative Research, eight faculty of color were interviewed about their experiences in the classroom when racially tinged topics arose. Three major findings emerged. First, difficult racial dialogues were frequently instigated by the presence of racial microaggressions delivered toward students of color or the professor. Dialogues on race were made more difficult when the classrooms were diverse, when heated emotions arose, when there was a strong fear of self-disclosure, and when racial perspectives differed. Second, all faculty experienced an internal struggle between balancing their own values and beliefs with an attempt to remain objective. This conflict was often described as exhausting and energy-depleting. Third, faculty of color described both successful and unsuccessful strategies in facilitating difficult dialogues on race that arose in the course of their teaching. These findings have major implications for how PWIs can develop new programs, policies, and practices that will aid and support colleagues of color.

  17. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice Dan Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputro, Daniel Krisno

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice dan Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice dan perceived value. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 100 orang konsumen di Informa Pakuwon City. Alat analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa regresi linear berganda.Hasil d...

  18. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, Dan Price Fairness Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap

    OpenAIRE

    Rifqi, Viola Amdya; Endratno, Hermin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness terhadap customer satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap. Dimana variabel independen dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness, sedangkan variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah customer satisfaction.Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji v...

  19. Perceptions of negative health-care experiences and self-reported health behavior change in three racial and ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Johnson, Timothy P; Matthews, Alicia K; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health-care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship; and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health-care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African-American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health-care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health-care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor's degree or above (OR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.01-8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.11-3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR: 3.58, 95%CI: 1.66-7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health-care experience. Of these people, 88% reported 'sometimes/always' changing at least one health-seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health-care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However, those who avoided care due to cost were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative experience more often. Our findings suggest that the

  20. Perceptions of Negative Health Care Experiences and Self-Reported Health Behavior Change in 3 Racial and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Timothy; Matthews, Alicia K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. Principal Findings More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor’s degree or above (OR; 2.95,95%CI:1.01–8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR:1.84,95%CI:1.11–3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR:3.58,95%CI:1.66–7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health care experience. Of these people, 88% reported “sometimes/always” changing at least one health seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Conclusions Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However those who avoided care due to cost, were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative

  1. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  2. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  3. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  4. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  5. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  6. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  7. Racial differences in the impact of social support on nocturnal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Nelesen, Richard A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether black and white adults benefit similarly from perceived social support in relation to blood pressure (BP) dipping during sleep. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, 12-item version), which measures the perceived availability of several types of functional social support, was examined for interactive effects with race on dipping of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The sample consisted of 156 young to middle-aged adults (61 blacks, 95 whites; mean age = 35.7 years). Mean ISEL scores did not differ between racial groups. Controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), resting BP, and socioeconomic status (SES), the interaction of social support by race yielded associations with nighttime dipping in MAP and DBP (p social support increased, white adults received cardiovascular benefits as suggested by enhanced nocturnal dipping of BP, but black adults accrued risks as evidenced by blunted declines in BP during sleep.

  8. Poverty, race, and CKD in a racially and socioeconomically diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C; Charles, Raquel F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Powe, Neil R

    2010-06-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are both independently associated with end-stage renal disease and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, despite their frequent co-occurrence, the effect of low SES independent of race has not been well studied in CKD. Cross-sectional study. 2,375 community-dwelling adults aged 30-64 years residing within 12 neighborhoods selected for both socioeconomic and racial diversity in Baltimore City, MD. Low SES (self-reported household income or =125% of guideline); white and African American race. CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate poverty and CKD, stratified by race. Of 2,375 participants, 955 were white (347 low SES and 608 higher SES) and 1,420 were African American (713 low SES and 707 higher SES). 146 (6.2%) participants had CKD. Overall, race was not associated with CKD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.57-1.96); however, African Americans had a much greater odds of advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate urban populations. Low SES has a profound relationship with CKD in African Americans, but not whites, in an urban population of adults, and its role in the racial disparities seen in CKD is worthy of further investigation. Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. national nurse workforce 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Brewer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the racial and ethnic diversity profile of the nurse workforce over time and by geographic region. We conducted survey analysis using the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses from 1988 to 2008, and further supplemented our trend analysis using published findings from the 2013 National Workforce Survey of Registered Nurses. The gap in racial/ethnic minority representation between the RN workforce and the population has been persistent and has widened over time. This diversity gap is primarily due to underrepresentation of Hispanics and Blacks in the RN workforce, which varied across states and regions, with the largest gaps occurring for Hispanics in the South and West and for Blacks in the South. Greater levels of sustained and targeted support to increase nurse workforce diversity are needed and should be geared not only to specific underrepresented groups but also to the regions and states with the greatest needs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Racial Representation in Physical Education Textbooks for Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Táboas-Pais

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the representation of race through images that are published in Spanish physical education textbooks for secondary schools and to offer an insight into students’ beliefs related to racial stereotypes in physical education. The sample was composed of 2,583 images and 87 secondary school pupils. The analysis was carried out through the elaboration of an ad hoc coding scheme. The results showed that people whose appearance is similar to the in-group predominate. The kind of physical activity, the field, space, and level of competence vary according to race. The textbooks analyzed in this study engender a stigmatized vision of racial diversity, and the images reproduce and reinforce racial prejudice.

  11. Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fuentes Morgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, “Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity,” argues that the successes and failures of 21st-century satire reveal the myth of post-raciality while simultaneously dismissing racial essentialism. I focus on three critical moments: the commercial success of Mat Johnson’s Loving Day, a text and forthcoming television show that examines the shifting self-identities of mixed-race individuals; the inability of a potential love interest on the television series, Louie, to accept a black woman as the ex-wife of the titular protagonist’s phenotypically white daughters; and Barack Obama’s self-designation as “black” on the census shortly after his election. I argue that the widespread reach of these instances, coupled with audience engagement and response, underscores the ways that the public realm frames a contemporary understanding of race as both meaningful and absurd.

  12. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  13. Out of sight, out of mind: racial retrieval cues increase the accessibility of social justice concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Phia S; Kelley, Nicholas J; Molina, Ludwin E; Thai, Luyen T

    2017-09-01

    Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants' gaze behaviour by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.

  14. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  15. Effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on paranoia in African-American men with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services.

  16. No Racial Difference in Rehabilitation Therapy Across All Post-Acute Care Settings in the Year Following a Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Feng, Chunyang; Burke, James F

    2017-12-01

    Black stroke survivors experience greater poststroke disability than whites. Differences in post-acute rehabilitation may contribute to this disparity. Therefore, we estimated racial differences in rehabilitation therapy utilization, intensity, and the number of post-acute care settings in the first year after a stroke. We used national Medicare data to study 186 168 elderly black and white patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of stroke in 2011. We tabulated the proportion of stroke survivors receiving physical, occupational, and speech and language therapy in each post-acute care setting (inpatient rehabilitation facility, skilled nursing facility, and home health agency), minutes of therapy, and number of transitions between settings. We then used generalized linear models to determine whether racial differences in minutes of physical therapy were influenced by demographics, comorbidities, thrombolysis, and markers of stroke severity. Black stroke patients were more likely to receive each type of therapy than white stroke patients. Compared with white stroke patients, black stroke patients received more minutes of physical therapy (897.8 versus 743.4; P rehabilitation therapy utilization or intensity after accounting for patient characteristics. It is unlikely that differences in rehabilitation utilization or intensity are important contributors to racial disparities in poststroke disability. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Effect of oxidative stress on racial differences in vascular function at rest and during hand grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Brown, Michael D; Phillips, Shane A; Haus, Jacob M; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-10-01

    African-Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with whites, possibly due to elevated oxidative stress and subsequent vascular dysfunction. It is unclear the contribution of aging on oxidative stress and vascular function in a racially diverse cohort. Ninety-three young and older African-American and white participants received antioxidant (AOX) or placebo supplementation in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Measures of endothelial function (reactive hyperemia, flow-mediated dilation), exercise blood flow, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and AOX activity were measured following supplementation. In young adults, there were racial differences in resistance vessel response to reactive hyperemia and no effects of race on macrovascular function following AOX supplementation. Following AOX supplementation, older white adults improved while African-Americans reduced resistance vessel function responses to reactive hyperemia, whereas macrovascular function improved in both races, with a greater increase in African-Americans. There were racial differences in blood flow normalized to lean mass during handgrip exercise at 20% maximal voluntary contraction in the young group and AOX supplementation led to increased forearm vascular conductance in older whites with a decrease in older African-Americans. There was a supplement effect in superoxide dismutase activity in younger adults only. The results of the current study show that there are differential effects of AOX supplementation on macrovascular and resistance vessel function, and this is impacted by both age and race.

  18. Racial and ethnic minority enrollment in randomized clinical trials of behavioural weight loss utilizing technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, D L; Piers, A D; Schumacher, L M; Kase, C A; Butryn, M L

    2017-07-01

    Many racial and ethnic minority groups (minorities) are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity; however, minorities are often under-represented in clinical trials of behavioural weight loss (BWL) treatment, potentially limiting the generalizability of these trials' conclusions. Interventions involving technology may be particularly well suited to overcoming the barriers to minority enrollment in BWL trials, such as demanding or unpredictable work schedules, caregiving responsibilities and travel burdens. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe minority enrollment in trials utilizing technology in interventions, as well as to identify which form(s) of technology yield the highest minority enrollment. Results indicated relatively low enrollment of minorities. Trials integrating smartphone use exhibited significantly greater racial minority enrollment than trials that did not; trials with both smartphone and in-person components exhibited the highest racial minority enrollment. This review is the first to explore how the inclusion of technology in BWL trials relates to minority enrollment and can help address the need to improve minority enrollment in weight loss research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Contribution of weight status to asthma prevalence racial disparities, 2-19 year olds, 1988-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Lara J; Rossen, Lauren M; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Simon, Alan E; Kit, Brian K

    2017-08-01

    Racial disparities in childhood asthma prevalence increased after the 1990s. Obesity, which also varies by race/ethnicity, is an asthma risk factor but its contribution to asthma prevalence disparities is unknown. We analyzed nationally representative National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey data for 2-19 year olds with logistic regression and decomposition analyses to assess the contributions of weight status to racial disparities in asthma prevalence, controlling for sex, age, and income status. From 1988-1994 to 2011-2014, asthma prevalence increased more among non-Hispanic black (NHB) (8.4% to 18.0%) than non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth (7.2% to 10.3%). Logistic regression showed that obesity was an asthma risk factor for all groups but that a three-way "weight status-race/ethnicity-time" interaction was not significant. That is, weight status did not modify the race/ethnicity association with asthma over time. In decomposition analyses, weight status had a small contribution to NHB/NHW asthma prevalence disparities but most of the disparity remained unexplained by weight status or other asthma risk factors (sex, age and income status). NHB youth had a greater asthma prevalence increase from 1988-1994 to 2011-2014 than NHW youth. Most of the racial disparity in asthma prevalence remained unexplained after considering weight status and other characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Racial Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vulnerability Following Hurricane Katrina Among a Sample of Adult Cigarette Smokers from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ali, Jeanelle; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Read, Mary; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-02-01

    Although blacks are more likely than whites to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a natural disaster, the reasons for this disparity are unclear. This study explores whether race is associated with PTSD after adjusting for differences in preexisting vulnerabilities, exposure to stressors, and loss of social support due to Hurricane Katrina using a representative sample of 279 black and white adult current and past smokers who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and identified it as the most traumatic event in their lifetime. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated whether differential vulnerability (pre-hurricane physical and mental health functioning, and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support deterioration reduced the association of race with PTSD. Blacks were more likely than whites to screen positive for PTSD (49 vs. 39 %, respectively, p = 0.030). Although blacks reported greater pre-hurricane vulnerability (worse mental health functioning and lower educational attainment) and hurricane-related stressor exposure and had less social support after the hurricane, only pre-hurricane mental health functioning attenuated the association of race with screening positive for PTSD. Thus, racial differences in pre-hurricane functioning, particularly poorer mental health, may partially explain racial disparities in PTSD after natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively using representative cohorts of black and whites and include measures of residential segregation and discrimination, which may further our understanding of racial disparities in PTSD after a natural disaster.

  1. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Population-Attributable Risk Percentages for Racialized Risk Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Haardörfer, Regine; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Research about relationships between place characteristics and racial/ethnic inequities in health has largely ignored conceptual advances about race and place within the discipline of geography. Research has also almost exclusively quantified these relationships using effect estimates (e.g., odds ratios), statistics that fail to adequately capture the full impact of place characteristics on inequities and thus undermine our ability to translate research into action. We draw on geography to further develop the concept of “racialized risk environments,” and we argue for the routine calculation of race/ethnicity-specific population-attributable risk percentages. PMID:27552263

  3. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  4. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…

  5. A meta-analysis of sex and race differences in perceived workplace mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mallory A; Joseph, Dana L; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; Beus, Jeremy M

    2018-02-01

    Despite the growing number of meta-analyses published on the subject of workplace mistreatment and the expectation that women and racial minorities are mistreated more frequently than men and Whites, the degree of subgroup differences in perceived workplace mistreatment is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, we meta-analyzed the magnitude of sex and race differences in perceptions of workplace mistreatment (e.g., harassment, discrimination, bullying, incivility). Results indicate that women perceive more sex-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's sex) in the workplace than men (δ = .46; k = 43), whereas women and men report comparable perceptions of all other forms of mistreatment (δ = .02; k = 300). Similarly, although racial minorities perceive more race-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's race) in the workplace than Whites (δ = .71; k = 18), results indicate smaller race differences in all other forms of workplace mistreatment (δ = .10; k = 61). Results also indicate that sex and race differences have mostly decreased over time, although for some forms of mistreatment, subgroup differences have increased over time. We conclude by offering explanations for the observed subgroup differences in workplace mistreatment and outline directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Racial Identity in Online Spaces: Social Media's Impact on Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason

    2017-01-01

    College students are frequent social media users. Heightened racial tensions across college campuses and the United States have increased the volume of racial discourse on social media, suggesting a need to understand social media's influence on how students make meaning of race. Using symbolic interactionism and racial identity theories, this…

  8. Analyzing Anti-Asian Prejudice from a Racial Identity and Color-Blind Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…

  9. Racial Attitudes among Asian and European American College Students: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti

    2007-01-01

    College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…

  10. From Subhuman to Human Kind: Implicit Bias, Racial Memory, and Black Males in Schools and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that implicit racial bias regarding black males is a manifestation of a long trajectory of Western racial memory and anti-blackness where black males have been considered subhuman or as human kinds. The author draws from theological, scientific, and social science literature to illustrate how racial discourses have historically…

  11. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  12. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  13. New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: A Theoretical and Practical Anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesinghe, Charmaine L., Ed.; Jackson, Bailey W., III, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on racial identity development in a variety of racial populations, focusing on the application of racial identity development theories and their expansion beyond their original borders. The 10 chapters are (1) "Black Identity Development: Further Analysis and Elaboration" (Bailey W. Jackson III);…

  14. Racial Identity, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement: Too Much Interpretation, Too Little Supporting Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Charles T.; Harrell, Jules P.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationship between racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement, this study administered the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a background questionnaire to African American students from a historically black college. Results showed that the unique effect of racial identity on academic…

  15. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  16. Self-perceived competence and social acceptance of young children who stutter: Initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsberg, Naomi; Zebrowski, Patricia M

    The goals of this study were to determine whether young children who stutter (CWS) perceive their own competence and social acceptance differently than young children who do not stutter (CWNS), and to identify the predictors of perceived competence and social acceptance in young speakers. We administered the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) to 13 CWS and 14 CWNS and examined group differences. We also collected information on the children's genders, temperaments, stuttering frequencies, language abilities, and phonological skills to identify which of these factors predicted PSPCSA scores. CWS, as a group, did not differ from CWNS in their perceived general competence or social acceptance. Gender predicted scores of perceived general competence, and stuttering frequency predicted perceived social acceptance. Temperament, language abilities, and phonological skills were not significant predictors of perceived competence or social acceptance in our sample. While CWS did not significantly differ from CWNS in terms of perceived competence and social acceptance, when both talker groups were considered together, girls self-reported greater perceived competence than boys. Further, lower stuttering frequency was associated with greater perceived social acceptance. These preliminary findings provide motivation for further empirical study of the psychosocial components of childhood stuttering. Readers will be able to describe the constructs of perceived competence and social acceptance in young children, and whether early stuttering plays a role in the development of these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Psychopathology in a Racial/Ethnic Minority Group: Are Cultural Risks Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  19. From Redistribution to Recognition: How School Principals Perceive Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Where there are people, there is social in/justice. Using Nancy Fraser's framework, this qualitative research examines how school principals perceive social justice in schools. Twenty-one elementary and secondary school principals were interviewed in the Greater Toronto Area. The study provides some empirical evidence on the ways social…

  20. The Relationships Among Socio-Demographics, Perceived Health, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Lord, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores explore the relationships among socio-demographics, perceived health, and happiness in a patient population of 221 adults recruited from 39 primary care practices in Alabama. We also explored whether the relationship between socio-demographics and happiness is mediated by perceived health. The dependent variable, happiness, was dichotomized as happy versus unhappy. Independent variables or correlates of happiness included race (Black or White), age (happiness and its correlates. Our findings suggest that adequate health literacy and better perceived health are associated with an increase in the likelihood of happiness. In addition, the relationship between perceived sufficient income and happiness is mediated by perceived health; whereas, individuals with sufficient income are more likely to have better perceived health, and as a result more likely to be happy. Other individual factors, such as gender, age, and race were not significantly associated with being happy or having higher perceived health in any of the models. Results suggest that policies aimed at increasing health literacy, promoting health, and reducing income disparities may be associated with greater happiness. PMID:28757904

  1. Perceived Social Isolation and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manemann, Sheila M; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Roger, Véronique L; Griffin, Joan M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Jensen, Daniel; Weston, Susan A; Fabbri, Matteo; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2018-05-23

    Perceived social isolation has been shown to have a negative impact on health outcomes, particularly among older adults. However, these relationships have not been fully examined among patients with heart failure. Residents from 11 southeast Minnesota counties with a first-ever International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision ( ICD-9 ) code 428 for heart failure between January 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015 (N=3867), were prospectively surveyed to measure perceived social isolation. A total of 2003 patients returned the survey (response rate, 52%); 1681 patients completed all questions and were retained for analysis. Among these patients (53% men; mean age, 73 years), ≈19% (n=312) had moderate perceived social isolation and 6% (n=108) had high perceived social isolation. After adjustment, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation did not have an increased risk of death, hospitalizations, or emergency department visits compared with patients reporting low perceived social isolation; however, patients reporting high perceived social isolation had >3.5 times increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-7.70), 68% increased risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.39), and 57% increased risk of emergency department visits (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.09-2.27). Compared with patients who self-reported low perceived social isolation, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation had a 16% increased risk of outpatient visits (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), whereas those reporting high perceived social isolation had a 26% increased risk (rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.53). In patients with heart failure, greater perceived social isolation is associated with an increased risk of death and healthcare use. Assessing perceived social isolation during the clinical encounter with a brief screening tool may help identify patients with heart failure at greater risk of poor outcomes.

  2. The heritability of perceived stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  3. Authoritarianism, conservatism, racial diversity threat, and the state distribution of hate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, the author hypothesized that there is an interaction between U.S. state conservatism-liberalism and state racial heterogeneity threat, such that greater diversity threat tends to be associated with more hate groups in more conservative states and fewer hate groups in more liberal states. State aggregates of the conservative-liberal ideological preferences of 141,798 participants from 122 CBS News/New York Times national telephone polls conducted between 1976 and 1988 (R. S. Erikson, G. C. Wright, & J. P. McIver, 1993) served as proxies for authoritarian-nonauthoritarian dispositions. For the 47 states with complete data, the hypothesized interaction was tested for 2000, 2005, and 2006 with hierarchical multiple regression strategies and supported. The author's hypothesis was also affirmed with SES and the interaction of SES and diversity threat controlled for. In contrast, SES entirely accounted for simple relationships between threat and hate group frequency.

  4. Tests of Racial Discrimination in a Simple Financial Market: Managers in Major League Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Paul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests for racial discrimination against minority managers in Major League Baseball using financial-market imbalances as it relates to the wagering marketplace for the sport. Using detailed betting data on the percentage bet on the favorite from Sports Insights, we test for prejudice against minority mangers using an ordinary least squares multiple regression model. The results reveal that bettors have a clear preference for the favored team as the percentage bet on the favorite increases with the odds on the favorite. In addition, they prefer road favorites by an even greater margin. In terms of minority managers, there is no evidence of discrimination against minorities. In fact, bettors prefer to wager on minority managers by a statistically significant margin when they are favorites. This finding suggests that either the participants in this financial marketplace are not prejudiced against minority managers or the financial incentives inherent in the market drive out discrimination against the minority managers.

  5. Racial Microaggressions: The Schooling Experiences of Black Middle-Class Males in Arizona’s Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaylan Allen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.

  6. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  7. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  8. Active school transport and fast food intake: Are there racial and ethnic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, E V; Bécares, L; Sallis, J F; Sánchez, B N

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether active school transport was associated with fast food consumption, and to examine differences across racial/ethnic groups. Adolescent data (n=3194) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed with logistic regression models to examine the association between active school transport (AST) and fast food intake across racial/ethnic groups. In the overall sample, AST during 1-2days in the past week was associated with greater likelihood of fast food intake (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.03-2.43), compared with zero days of AST, controlling for demographic and other factors. The association between AST and fast food intake differed significantly by race/ethnicity (pfast food intake (1-2days OR, 2.37, 95%CI: 1.05-5.35; 3-4days OR, 2.78, 95% CI: 1.04-7.43; 5days OR, 2.20, 95%CI: 1.23-3.93). Among White and Asian adolescents, there was a curvilinear pattern: relative to adolescents who reported zero days of AST, those who did AST 1-2days/week had greater likelihood of fast food intake, but AST of 3-4days and 5days/week was associated respectively, with higher and lower likelihood of fast food intake among both groups. AST appears to be a risk factor for fast food intake, and may expose some ethnic groups more than others to increased opportunity to purchase and consume fast food. Programs and policies to promote AST among adolescents should incorporate efforts to encourage healthy eating and discourage concentration of fast food outlets near schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining Racial Disparities in Child Asthma Readmission Using a Causal Inference Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew F; Huang, Bin; Auger, Katherine A; Ryan, Patrick H; Chen, Chen; Kahn, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Childhood asthma is characterized by disparities in the experience of morbidity, including the risk for readmission to the hospital after an initial hospitalization. African American children have been shown to have more than 2 times the hazard of readmission when compared with their white counterparts. To explain why African American children are at greater risk for asthma-related readmissions than white children. This study was completed as part of the Greater Cincinnati Asthma Risks Study, a population-based, prospective, observational cohort. From August 2010 to October 2011, it enrolled 695 children, aged 1 to 16 years, admitted for asthma or wheezing who identified as African American (n = 441) or white (n = 254) in an inpatient setting of an urban, tertiary care children's hospital. The main outcome was time to asthma-related readmission and race was the predictor. Biologic, environmental, disease management, access, and socioeconomic hardship variables were measured; their roles in understanding racial readmission disparities were conceptualized using a directed acyclic graphic. Inverse probability of treatment weighting balanced African American and white children with respect to key measured variables. Racial differences in readmission hazard were assessed using weighted Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier curves. The sample was 65% male (n = 450), and the median age was 5.4 years. African American children were 2.26 times more likely to be readmitted than white children (95% CI, 1.56-3.26). African American children significantly differed with respect to nearly every measured biologic, environmental, disease management, access, and socioeconomic hardship variable. Socioeconomic hardship variables explained 53% of the observed disparity (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05-2.05). The addition of biologic, environmental, disease management, and access variables resulted in 80% of the readmission disparity being explained. The

  10. Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes Changed During Black Lives Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup

    2018-07-01

    Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals' implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Antiracist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants from 2009 to 2016. After controlling for changes in participant demographics, overall implicit attitudes were less pro-White during BLM than pre-BLM, became increasingly less pro-White across BLM, and were less pro-White during most periods of high BLM struggle. Considering changes in implicit attitudes by participant race, Whites became less implicitly pro-White during BLM, whereas Blacks showed little change. Regarding explicit attitudes, Whites became less pro-White and Blacks became less pro-Black during BLM, each moving toward an egalitarian "no preference" position.

  11. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  12. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  13. The State of Racial Diversity in the Educator Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Diversity is inherently valuable. Research shows that diversity in schools, including racial diversity among teachers, can provide significant benefits to students. While students of color are expected to make up 56 percent of the student population by 2024, the elementary and secondary educator workforce is still overwhelmingly white. The most…

  14. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Social Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…

  15. The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; James, Carl E.; Kobayashi, Audrey; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    The university is often regarded as a bastion of liberal democracy where equity and diversity are promoted and racism does not exist. In reality, the university still excludes many people and is a site of racialization that is subtle, complex, and sophisticated. While some studies do point to the persistence of systemic barriers to equity and…

  16. Clashes within One Teacher's Racial Logic: Space of Possibles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2013-01-01

    This study is to empirically investigate both residual and emergent factors that undergird one teacher's understanding of race, racism, and racialization as he responds to two fictional stories and one film. Informed by an assemblage of Bourdieu's concept of habitus and his sociological theory of practice, Gee's concept of primary Discourses, and…

  17. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  18. Racial Microaggressions against Black Americans: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing; Nadal, Kevin L.; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Lin, Annie I.; Torino, Gina C.; Rivera, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Racial microaggression themes were identified using a focus-group analysis of self-identified Black participants. Six categories of demeaning and invalidating messages reflected beliefs of White supremacy that were unintentionally conveyed by perpetrators. Implications for counselors and the counseling process are discussed.

  19. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  20. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  1. One Struggle through Individualism: Toward an Antiracist White Racial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…

  2. The Obama Era: A Post-Racial Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    With Barack Obama ensconced as the nation's first Black president, plenty of voices in the national conversation are trumpeting America as a post-racial society--that race matters much less than it used to, that the boundaries of race have been overcome, that racism is no longer a big problem. In this article, longtime scholars whose life's work…

  3. Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps and the Urban Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2018-01-01

    Research is just beginning to describe with precision determinants of racial and ethnic achievement gaps. Work by Reardon, Kalogrides, and Shores found that factors such as parental income, parental education, and segregation are the strongest predictors of achievement gaps. In this study we expand this line of inquiry to examine the role of…

  4. Racial differences in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders among Caucasian and Asian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.

  5. Know Your Role: Black College Students, Racial Identity, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and validation.…

  6. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. School Personnel-Student Racial Congruence and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…

  8. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  9. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  10. Asian American Educational Goals: Racial Barriers and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…

  11. Racial Differences in Attitudes toward Aging, Aging Knowledge, and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Robert C.; Kurth, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults in a sample of 271 Non-Hispanic White and African-American undergraduates. Research examining racial differences in knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults has been sparse. Results for the current…

  12. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  13. The racial discourse and the Dutch Reformed Church: Looking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to give a descriptive-empirical description of the relationship between the DRC and race by using the Church Mirror surveys. An altered social distance scale is used to measure church acceptance. In the discourse on race, acceptance and unity in the DRC with regard to racial prejudice and attitudes ...

  14. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  15. Campus Racial Politics and a "Rhetoric of Injury"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Haivan V.

    2009-01-01

    If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…

  16. Racial Preferences in Online Dating across European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda

    Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we

  17. Sustained Dialogue: How Students Are Changing Their Own Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Priya Narayan

    2006-01-01

    Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…

  18. Is racial integration within Kwadukuza municipality leading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VishanthS

    relationship between income and racial segregation in certain areas. ... living spaces of the Black, Coloured and Indian race groups, apartheid policies ..... middle class and affluent) as determined in relation to the poverty line. .... areas will attract economic growth and developments due to their higher spending power.

  19. Racial Differences in Attitudes toward Direct Reference Political Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Surlin, Stuart H.

    Random telephone surveys in a northern and a southern city were initiated to determine attitudes toward "informative" and "direct reference" mass media political advertisements. Responses were organized in regional, social, and racial categories. The results quantified reactions to the two types of political messages of blacks…

  20. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.