WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater open-field activity

  1. Effects of nutmeg consumption on the open field locomotor activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was a steady significant difference (p < 0.05) in the behaviours of line crossing and walling. There was no much significant changes (P<0.05) in the behaviours of hinding, grooming and defeacation between the Treatments and Control groups of animals. Keywords: Nutmeg, Wistar rats, Open field, Locomotor activities ...

  2. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Jeffrey B; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  3. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Eells

    Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  4. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-09-29

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial.

  5. Behavioral and Locomotor Measurements Using an Open Field Activity Monitoring System for Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem, Kathleen S.; Quinn, James L.; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body sy...

  6. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2010-06-30

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object interaction were assessed using a multivariate approach. Additionally, symptom correlates of over-activity were assessed. Patients admitted to an acute care psychiatric hospital for either BD with mania or SCZ (paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes) as well as non-patient comparison (NC) participants were assessed in an open field setting referred to as the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM). Activity and interactions with novel and engaging objects were recorded for 15min via a concealed video camera and rated for exploratory behavior. Both BD and SCZ patients spent more time near the objects and exhibited more overall walking compared to NC. In contrast, BD patients exhibited greater physical contact with objects (number of object interactions and time spent with objects) relative to SCZ patients or NC participants, as well as more perseverative and socially disinhibited behaviors, indicating a unique pattern of over-activity and goal-directed behavior. Further analyses revealed a distinction between SCZ patients according to their subtype. The current study extends our methodology for quantifying exploration and over-activity in a controlled laboratory setting and aids in assessing the overlap and distinguishing characteristics of BD and SCZ.

  7. Open field locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adeline A; Crawley, Allison C; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2008-08-05

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIA, or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe and progressive neuropathology. Following an asymptomatic period, patients may present with sleep disturbances, cognitive decline, aggressive tendencies and hyperactivity. A naturally-occurring mouse model of MPS IIIA also exhibits many of these behavioral features and has been recently back-crossed onto a C57BL/6 genetic background. To more thoroughly characterize the behavioral phenotype of congenic MPS IIIA mice, we assessed exploratory activity and unconditioned anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field locomotor activity. Although MPS IIIA male mice were less active in the EPM at 18 and 20 weeks of age, they were more likely to explore the open arms than their normal counter-parts suggesting reduced anxiety. Repeated EPM testing reduced exploration of the open arms in MPS IIIA mice. In the open field test, significant reductions in activity were evident in naïve-tested male MPS IIIA mice from 10 weeks of age. Female normal and MPS IIIA mice displayed similar exploratory activity in the open field test. These differences in anxiety and locomotor activity will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic regimes for MPS IIIA as a forerunner to developing safe and effective therapies for Sanfilippo patients.

  8. Gender-related response in open-field activity following developmental nicotine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roland D; Chen, Wei-Jung A

    2004-08-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may lead to low birthweight and behavioral alterations in the offspring. In this study, the effects of developmental nicotine exposure on the somatic growth of the offspring and the behavioral performance in the open-field test were examined. Sprague-Dawley female rats were implanted with nicotine (35 mg for 21-day time release; NIC 35) or placebo pellets on gestational day (GD) 8 (postblastocyst implantation). A normal control group with no pellet implant was also included. There was a significantly higher maternal weight gain in the placebo group possibly due to a larger litter size. However, there were no significant differences in body weights among all three treatment groups for male and female offspring. The amount of activity, measured by the total number of crossings in the open-field test, indicated a gender difference in baseline level and pattern of ambulatory activity, with less activity (lower number of crossings) in male offspring and an increase in the activity of the female offspring as a function of testing day. The increase in the ambulatory activity of the female offspring was observed in the placebo and normal, but not the NIC 35 group suggesting that developmental nicotine exposure interferes with open-field activity, and this behavioral alteration is gender related. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Evidence for extreme divergence of open field lines from solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulk, G.A.; Suzuki, S.; Melrose, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the structure of the open magnetic field lines that emerge from solar active regions into interplanetary space. The evidence comes mainly from the measured sizes, positions and polarization of Type III and Type V bursts, and from electron streams observed from space. It is found that the observations are best interpreted in terms of a strongly-diverging field topology, with the open field lines filling a cone of angle approx. 60 0

  10. Acute food deprivation separates motor-activating from anxiolytic effects of caffeine in a rat open field test model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela

    2018-03-14

    Similar doses of caffeine have been shown to produce either anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in rats. The reasons for these conflicting results are not known. We hypothesized that food deprivation stress interacts with the stimulant effects of caffeine to increase anxiety-like behavior. We tested 32 female Sprague Dawley rats in a dim open field for 10 min. Half of the animals were food deprived for 24 h and injected (intraperitoneal) with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=7) or deionized water (n=8) 20 min before the open field test. The other half was nondeprived and injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=8) or deionized water (n=9). Results showed that nondeprived rats injected with caffeine moved longer distances and at a greater speed in the periphery and moved longer distances and spent more time in the center than rats treated with vehicle, indicative of motor-activating and/or anxiolytic effects of caffeine. Rats that were food deprived and injected with caffeine moved longer distances in the center and tended to spend more time there, indicative of anxiolysis. We conclude that caffeine had two effects on behavior, motor activation and a reduction of anxiety, and that food deprivation separated these effects.

  11. Ontogeny of open field activity in rats after neonatal lesioning of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; de Bruin, J. P.; Matthijssen, M. A.; Uylings, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of neonatal depletion of the dopaminergic mesocortical projection on the development of a prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviour the ontogeny of open field behaviour was studied after neonatal depletion of cortical dopamine. Cortical dopamine was depleted by neonatal

  12. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  13. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eells, Jeffrey B.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X.; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M.; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open fie...

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Wakoto; Ehara, Ayuka; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ueda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mediates recovery from sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and emotional abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the effects of EE on locomotor activity and neuronal activity in the amygdala in control and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats after challenge in a novel open field. Control rats housed in EE (CR) showed reduced locomotor activity compared to rats housed in a conventional cage (CC), whereas hyperactivity was seen in MAM rats housed in a conventional cage (MC) and in MAM rats housed in EE (MR). Novel open field exposure in both CC and MC resulted in a marked increase in Fos expression in the anterior and posterior parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, basomedial nucleus, and medial nucleus, whereas these increases in expression were not observed in CR. The effect of EE on Fos expression in the amygdala was different in MR exposed to a novel open field compared to CR. Furthermore, we observed a quite different pattern of Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala between control and MAM rats. The present results suggest that neuronal activity in the amygdala that responds to anxiety is altered in MAM rats, especially when the rats are reared in EE. These alterations may cause behavioral differences between control and MAM rats. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Function of the centromedial amygdala in reward devaluation and open-field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K; Glueck, A C; Annicchiarico, I; Papini, M R

    2015-09-10

    The present research aimed at determining the role played by the amygdala in reward devaluation using transient inactivation induced by lidocaine microinfusions into the centromedial region. Two situations involving reward devaluation were tested in rats: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC). In cSNC, rats exposed to a downshift from 32% to 4% sucrose consume less 4% sucrose than rats always exposed to 4% sucrose. Extensive evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the cSNC situation is accompanied by negative emotion. In ANC, rats consume less 4% sucrose when each session is closely followed by access to 32% sucrose rather than by 4% sucrose. Evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the ANC situation does not involve negative emotions; rather, ANC appears to involve Pavlovian anticipation of the higher value solution. To test the effects of lidocaine microinfusions in a situation known to induce negative emotion, but unrelated to reward devaluation, animals were also exposed to a lighted open field. Centromedial amygdala inactivation reduced the cSNC effect and increased exploratory behavior in the open field, both effects consistent with a reduction in negative emotional state. However, no detectable effects of amygdala inactivation were observed in the ANC situation. These results suggest that, first, the function of the amygdala is not unique to reward devaluation and, second, it is concerned with tagging the devaluation experience with aversive valence. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and early experience on home-cage and open-field activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, H K; Opitz, B; Werner, R; Clausing, P

    1996-01-01

    -C57BL/6 mice were intubated from gestational day 14-18 twice daily with 1.58 g/kg ethanol, 4.2 g/kg sucrose, or remained untreated. Offspring of ethanol treated or lab chow control groups were raised either by group-housed dams and weaned on postnatal day (PND) 28 or by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Offspring of the sucrose control group were raised by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Groups did not differ in pup weight or litter size. Offspring were assessed for home-cage activity (PND 36-38) and open-field behavior (PND 40-42). Mice prenatally exposed to ethanol showed increased activity in their home cages, whereas open-field behavior was generally not different from that of control groups. Conversely, different preweaning rearing conditions had affected open-field behavior, but not home-cage activity. In conclusion, home-cage behavior was a sensitive paradigm for detecting hyperactivity subsequent to a relatively low dose of prenatal ethanol in mice, and communal nesting/late weaning vs. individual nesting/ standard weaning may be a useful preweaning environmental manipulation to study possible modifications of prenatal neurobehavioral effects.

  17. Effects of acute and repeated oral exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on open-field activity in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badrany, Y M A; Mohammad, F K

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on 5min open-field activity were examined in a 7-15 days old chick model. Chlorpyrifos was acutely administered taking into account cholinesterase inhibition and determination of the acute (24h) median lethal dose (LD50). The oral LD50 value of chlorpyrifos in chicks was 18.14mg/kg, with cholinergic toxicosis observed on intoxicated chicks. Chlorpyrifos at the dose rates of 5,10 and 20mg/kg orally produced within 2h signs of cholinergic toxicosis in the chicks and significantly inhibited plasma (40-70%), whole brain (43-69%) and liver (31-46%) cholinesterase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Chlorpyrifos at 2 and 4mg/kg, orally did not produce overt signs of cholinergic toxicosis, but decreased (30, 60 and 90min after dosing) the general locomotor activity of the chicks as seen by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square of the open-field arena, decreases in the numbers of lines crossed and vocalization score. Repeated daily chlorpyrifos treatments (2 and 4mg/kg, orally) for seven consecutive days also caused hypoactivity in chicks in the open-field behavioral paradigm. Only the high dose of chlorpyrifos (4mg/kg, orally) given repeatedly for 7 days caused significant cholinesterase inhibition in the whole brain (37%) and the liver (22%). In conclusion, chlorpyrifos at single or short-term repeated doses-induced behavioral changes in 7-15 days old chicks, in a model that could be used for further neurobehavioral studies involving subtle effects of organophosphates on chicks.

  18. Effects of chronic restraint stress and estradiol on open field activity, spatial memory, and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R E; Ferguson, D; Luine, V N

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one days of chronic restraint stress impairs male rat performance on the radial arm maze [Luine et al. (1994) Brain Res. 639, 167-170], but enhances female rat performance [Bowman et al. (2001) Brain Res. 904, 279-289]. To assess possible ovarian hormone mechanisms underlying this sexually dimorphic response to stress, we examined chronic stress effects in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats received Silastic capsule implants containing cholesterol or estradiol and were assigned to a daily restraint stress (21 days, 6 h/day) or non-stress group. Following the stress period, subjects were tested for open field activity and radial arm maze performance. Stress and estradiol treatment affected open field activity. All stressed animals, with or without estradiol treatment, made fewer total outer sector crossings. In contrast, estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, made more inner sector visits, an indication that estradiol decreased anxious behavior on the open field across time. As measured by the total number of visits required to complete the task, stress did not affect radial arm maze performance in ovariectomized rats, but estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, performed better than non-treated animals on the radial arm maze. Stressed subjects receiving estradiol showed the best radial arm maze performance. Following killing, tissue samples were obtained from various brain regions known to contribute to learning and memory, and monoamine and metabolite levels were measured. Several changes were observed in response to both stress and estradiol. Most noteworthy, stress treatment decreased homovanillic acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, an effect not previously observed in stressed intact females. Estradiol treatment increased norepinephrine levels in CA3 region of the hippocampus, mitigating stress-dependent changes. Both stress and estradiol decreased dentate gyrus levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. In summary, the current

  19. Connexin30-deficient mice show increased emotionality and decreased rearing activity in the open-field along with neurochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, E; De Souza-Silva, M A; Frisch, C; Teubner, B; Söhl, G; Willecke, K; Huston, J P

    2003-08-01

    Gap-junction channels in the brain, formed by connexin (Cx) proteins with a distinct regional/cell-type distribution, allow intercellular electrical and metabolic communication. In astrocytes, mainly the connexins 43, 26 and 30 are expressed. In addition, connexin30 is expressed in ependymal and leptomeningeal cells, as well as in skin and cochlea. The functional implications of the astrocytic gap-junctional network are not well understood and evidence regarding their behavioural relevance is lacking. Thus, we have tested groups of Cx30-/-, Cx30+/-, and Cx30+/+ mice in the open-field, an object exploration task, in the graded anxiety test and on the rotarod. The Cx30-/- mice showed reduced exploratory activity in terms of rearings but not locomotion in the open-field and object exploration task. Furthermore, Cx30-/- mice exhibited anxiogenic behaviour as shown by higher open-field centre avoidance and corner preference. Graded anxiety test and rotarod performance was similar across groups. The Cx30-/- mice had elevated choline levels in the ventral striatum, possibly related to their aberrant behavioural phenotypes. The Cx30+/- mice had lower dopamine and metabolite levels in the amygdala and ventral striatum and lower hippocampal 5-hydroxyindole acid (5-HIAA) concentrations relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Furthermore, the Cx30+/- mice had lower acetylcholine concentrations in the ventral striatum and higher choline levels in the neostriatum, relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Our data suggest that the elimination of connexin30 can alter the reactivity to novel environments, pointing to the importance of gap-junctional signalling in behavioural processes.

  20. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object-interaction were assessed using a multivariate ...

  1. Sex- and Age-dependent Effects of Orexin 1 Receptor Blockade on Open-Field Behavior and Neuronal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Shannon R; Nam, Hannah; Luz, Sandra; Bangasser, Debra A; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-15

    Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood. Here, we examine the influence of orexin 1 receptor blockade by SB334867 in open-field behavior in male and female rats during early adolescence (PND 31-33) or adulthood (PND 75-77). Animals were injected with 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg SB334867 (i.p.). Thirty minutes later, they were placed in an open field, and behavior and neuronal activity (c-Fos) were assessed. In adolescent males, SB334867 significantly increased immobility in the 10 mg/kg group compared to vehicle. However, this increase in immobility in adolescent males was not observed in adolescent females. In contrast to adolescent males, adult males in the 10 mg/kg dose group showed the opposite effect on immobility compared to vehicle. These results indicate that 10 mg/kg dose of SB334867 has opposing effects in adolescent and adult males, but few effects in adolescent and adult females. Differences in functional networks between limbic regions may underlie these effects of orexin receptor blockade that are sex- and age-dependent in rats. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of low or moderate prenatal ethanol exposures during gastrulation or neurulation for open field activity and emotionality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Uta B; Nunley, Kevin; Harrison, Theresa A; Lewis, C Nicole

    In a previous study we used a mouse model for ethanol exposure during gastrulation or neurulation to investigate the effects of modest and occasional human drinking during the 3rd or 4th week of pregnancy (Schambra et al., 2015). Pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were treated by gavage during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 or neurulation on GD8 with 2 doses 4h apart of either 2.4 or 2.9g ethanol/kg body weight, resulting in peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively. We found that mice exposed to the low dose on either day were significantly delayed in their neonatal sensorimotor development. In the present study, we tested the same cohort of mice in an open field as juveniles on postnatal day (PD) 23-25 and as young adults on PD65-67 for prenatal ethanol effects on exploration and emotionality with measures of activity, rearing, grooming and defecation. We evaluated the effects of dose, sex, day of treatment and day of birth by multiple regression analyses. We found that, compared to the respective gavage controls, juvenile mice that had been prenatally exposed to the low BEC on either GD7 or GD8 were significantly hypoactive on the first 2 test days, reared significantly more on the last 2 test days, and groomed and defecated significantly more on all 3 test days. Only mice that had been treated on GD7 remained hypoactive as adults. Juvenile mice prenatally exposed to the moderate BEC on GD7 groomed significantly more, while those exposed on GD8 reared and defecated significantly more. Sex differences were highly significant in adult control mice, with control males less active and more emotional than females. Similar, but smaller, sex differences were also evident in adults exposed to ethanol prenatally. Persistence into later life of a deleterious effect of premature birth (i.e., birth on GD19 rather than GD20) on weight and behavior was not consistently supported by these data. Importantly, mice shown previously to be delayed in

  3. Monitoring of piglets' open field activity and choice behaviour during the replay of maternal vocalization: a comparison between Observer and PID technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppe, B; Schön, P C; Wendland, K

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents a new system for the automatic monitoring of open field activity and choice behaviour of medium-sized animals. Passive infrared motion detectors (PID) were linked on-line via a digital I/O interface to a personal computer provided with self-developed analysis software based on LabVIEW (PID technique). The set up was used for testing 18 one-week-old piglets (Sus scrofa) for their approach to their mother's nursing vocalization replayed through loudspeakers. The results were validated by comparison with a conventional Observer technique, a computer-aided direct observation. In most of the cases, no differences were seen between the Observer and PID technique regarding the percentage of stay in previously defined open field segments, the locomotor open field activity, and the choice behaviour. The results revealed that piglets are clearly attracted by their mother's nursing vocalization. The monitoring system presented in this study is thus suitable for detailed behavioural investigations of individual acoustic recognition. In general, the PID technique is a useful tool for research into the behaviour of individual animals in a restricted open field which does not rely on subjective analysis by a human observer.

  4. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17β estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improve spatial memory, suggesting that GPR30 plays a role in hippocampal-dependent cognition. In this study, we investigated the effect of a similar chronic administration of G-1 on behaviors that denote anxiety in adult ovariectomized female mice, using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test as well as the activation of the ERK pathway in the hippocampus. Although estradiol benzoate had no effect on behaviors in the EPM or the open field, G-1 had an anxiolytic effect solely in the open field that was independent of ERK signaling in either the ventral or dorsal hippocampus. Such an anxiolytic effect may underlie the ability of G-1 to increase spatial memory, by acting on the hippocampus.

  5. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Rodrigues, Domingos Sávio; Rodrigues, Daniela; Pontes, Victoria Bottino

    2015-06-20

    Pimpinella anisum L. is considered one of the first plants used for medicinal purposes. Pharmacological actions of the plant on the central nervous system have been proven but previous analyses have focused on anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions. In traditional medicine worldwide, the use of Pimpinella is commonly recommended as a tranquilizer, although no scientific information supporting this use is available. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the central actions of the plant to observe behavioral responses, with an emphasis on the emotional component. To investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Seeds of Pimpinella were extracted with distilled water, concentrated and freeze-dried yielding the aqueous extract(AE). Rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. Individual observations were performed in an open field and the parameters locomotor activity, rearing, grooming and defecation were recorded. In elevated plus maze test, rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. The parameters arm entries, total time spent in open and closed arms; and total number of arrivals at the end of an open or closed arm were recorded for each rat. Among the parameters assessed with the open field test, only rearing was reduced in the AE 0.5 g/kg group. When AE 1.0 g/kg was administered, only the initiation of exploratory activity was delayed, without impairing the animals' general activity. The highest dose of AE (2.0 g/kg) induced a reduction in the animals' habituation during the open field test within the same session, as evidenced by the maintenance of high levels of peripheral locomotion and rearing throughout the test. On the elevated plus maze test, no alterations were observed in the responses of the animals relative to

  6. Reciprocal activation/inactivation of ERK in the amygdala and frontal cortex is correlated with the degree of novelty of an open-field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedo, Frederico Velasco; Dias, Caio Vitor Bueno; Dias, Flavia Regina Cruz; Samuels, Richard Ian; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has been used to identify brain areas activated by exogenous stimuli including psychostimulant drugs. Assess the role of the amygdala in emotional responses. Experimental manipulations were performed in which environmental familiarity was the variable. To provide the maximal degree of familiarity, ERK was measured after removal from the home cage and re-placement back into the same cage. To maximize exposure to an unfamiliar environment, ERK was measured following placement into a novel open field. To assess whether familiarity was the critical variable in the ERK response to the novel open field, ERK was also measured after either four or eight placements into the same environment. ERK quantification was carried out in the amygdala, frontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens. After home cage re-placement, ERK activation was found in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens but was absent in the amygdala. Following placement in a novel environment, ERK activation was more prominent in the amygdala than the frontal cortex or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, with habituation to the novel environment, ERK phosphors declined markedly in the amygdala but increased in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens to the level observed following home cage re-placement. The differential responsiveness of the amygdala versus the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens to a novel versus a habituated environment is consistent with a reciprocal interaction between these neural systems and points to their important role in the mediation of behavioral activation to novelty and behavioral inactivation with habituation.

  7. Scaling law in free walking of mice in circular open fields of various diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiroto

    2016-03-01

    Open-field tests are routinely used to study locomotor activity in rodents. I studied the effects of apparatus size on rodent locomotor activity, specifically with respect to how resting and walking periods are interwoven. I explored the open-field behavior of mice utilizing circular open fields of various diameters. When the diameter of the test apparatus was greater than 75 cm, the durations of the resting and moving periods of free walking behavior obeyed bounded power-law distribution functions. I found that the properties of the scaling exponents and model selection became similar for test apparatus diameters greater than 75 cm. These results can provide a guide for the selection of the size of the test apparatus for use in the study of the open-field behavior of rodents.

  8. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with γ rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm 2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to γ rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months. 10 refs. 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi.

    1996-01-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with γ-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of γ-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months. (author)

  10. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, T; Hirokaga, K

    1996-06-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of gamma-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months.

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, T; Hirokaga, K

    1995-11-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to gamma rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 months but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months.

  12. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamisawa, Takeru [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan); Hirokaga, Kouichi

    1996-06-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F{sub 1}) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with {gamma}-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of {gamma}-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months. (author)

  13. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  14. Reduction in open field activity in the absence of memory deficits in the AppNL-G-F knock-in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Lauren S; Hemsley, Kim M; Lau, Adeline A; Hassiotis, Sofia; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi C; Hopwood, John J; Sargeant, Timothy J

    2018-01-15

    The recent development of knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease provides distinct advantages over traditional transgenic mouse models that rely on over-expression of amyloid precursor protein. Two such knock-in models that have recently been widely adopted by Alzheimer's researchers are the App NL-F and App NL-G-F mice. This study aimed to further characterise the behavioural phenotype and amyloid plaque distribution of App NL-G-F/NL-G-F (C57BL/6J background) mice at six-months of age. An attempt to replicate a previous study that observed deficits in working memory in the Y-maze, showed no difference between App NL-G-F/NL-G-F and wild-type mice. Further assessment of these mice using the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze also revealed no differences between App NL-G-F/NL-G-F and wild-type mice. Despite a lack of demonstrated cognitive deficits, we report a reduction in locomotor/exploratory activity in an open field. Histological examination of App NL-G-F/NL-G-F mice showed widespread distribution of amyloid plaques at this age. We conclude that whilst at six-months of age, memory deficits are not sufficiently robust to be replicated in varying environments, amyloid plaque burden is significant in App NL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ENU mutagenesis screening for dominant behavioral mutations based on normal control data obtained in home-cage activity, open-field, and passive avoidance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.

  16. Open Field Scoring Record No. 298

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Jr., Larry; Robitaille, George; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  17. Open Field Scoring Record No. 299

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  18. Dysregulated corticostriatal activity in open-field behavior and the head-twitch response induced by the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J; Luedtke, Robert R; Rebec, George V

    2017-02-01

    The substituted amphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), is a hallucinogen that has been used to model a variety of psychiatric conditions. Here, we studied the effect of DOI on neural activity recorded simultaneously in the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal striatum of freely behaving FvB/N mice. DOI significantly decreased the firing rate of individually isolated neurons in M1 and dorsal striatum relative to pre-drug baseline. It also induced a bursting pattern of activity by increasing both the number of spikes within a burst and burst duration. In addition, DOI increased coincident firing between simultaneously recorded neuron pairs within the striatum and between M1 and dorsal striatum. Local field potential (LFP) activity also increased in coherence between M1 and dorsal striatum after DOI in the low frequency gamma band (30-50 Hz), while corticostriatal coherence in delta, theta, alpha, and beta activity decreased. We also assessed corticostriatal LFP activity in relation to the DOI-induced head-twitch response (HTR), a readily identifiable behavior used to assess potential treatments for the conditions it models. The HTR was associated with increased delta and decreased theta power in both M1 and dorsal striatum. Together, our results suggest that DOI dysregulates corticostriatal communication and that the HTR is associated with this dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thigmotactic responses in an open-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Lamprea

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of thigmotaxis (the tendency to remain close to vertical surfaces in rat exploratory behavior in an open-field. Thigmotaxis was investigated in a parametric way, using 24 experimentally adult naive male Wistar rats (210-230 g. Exploratory behavior was studied in an open-field (N = 12 in 5-min sessions and behavior was analyzed in terms of where it occurred: in areas surrounded by two, one, or no walls. Another group of rats (N = 12 was studied in an open-field with blocks placed near two of the corners so as to make these corner areas surrounded by three walls. The floor of the open-fields was divided into 20-cm squares in order to locate the exact place of occurrence of each behavior. The following behaviors were recorded: entries into the squares, rearings, and groomings. In both types of open-field the rats chose to remain longer in the squares surrounded by the largest possible number of walls. In one of the open-fields, the mean time (seconds spent in squares surrounded by two walls was longer than the time spent in squares surrounded by one or no walls (37.2, 7.7, and 1.8 s, respectively. In the other open-field, the mean time spent in squares surrounded by three walls was longer than the time spent in squares surrounded by two, one or no walls (41.7, 20.4, 7.0, and 2.6 s, respectively. Other measures presented a similar profile. These results indicate that rats are sensitive to the number of walls in an environment and prefer to remain close to them.

  20. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity.

  1. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17beta estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improv...

  2. Open-field exposure facilitates consummatory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, Nadia; Psyrdellis, Mariana; Pautassi, Ricardo M

    2016-12-07

    During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i.e. experimental animals provided novelty exposure had lower consummatory behavior than control animals) when applied before - but not after - the first extinction trial, or when applied before the second extinction trial. The results suggest that environmental treatments such as novelty exposure provide a valuable, nonpharmacological alternative to potentially modulate extinction processes.

  3. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  4. Activity of the greater padloper, Homopus femoralis (Testudinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or imminent rain, perhaps to avoid avian predators or physiological costs of water and food shortages. Future studies might locate active tortoises in the highest rainfall months, and use telemetry to identify activity patterns throughout the year. Key words: behaviour, ecology, Karoo, morphology, predation, reptile, tortoise.

  5. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  6. The relation between open-field and emergence tests in a hyperactive mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2009-12-01

    The relation between open-field and emergence tests was examined in mice with idiopathic hypertension. Spontaneous hypertensive mice (SHM) crossed more segments and reared more often in the open-field than normotensive controls at both age levels. In contrast, grooming episodes decreased only in the older SHM cohort. While young SHM emerged more quickly from a toy object only partially, complete emergence was faster only in the older SHM cohort. In the entire series, open-field segments were inversely correlated with 2- and 4-paw emergence latencies. There was also an inverse correlation between rears and 2-paw emergence but a positive correlation between grooming episodes and both types of emergence. In view of its association with open-field activity, the emergence test may have value in screening potential ADHD therapies.

  7. Enriched open field facilitates exercise and social interaction in 2 strains of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A

    2014-07-01

    Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species' natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs.

  8. Strain differences in the influence of open field exposure on sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangdong; Xiao, Jihua; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D

    2004-09-23

    The open field (OF) is thought to induce anxiety in rodents. It also allows an opportunity for exploration in a novel environment. Less activity in the OF is thought to indicate greater anxiety whereas more activity may reflect greater exploration, and possibly greater exploratory learning. Anxiety and learning have poorly understood relationships to sleep. In order to determine how anxiety and exploration in the OF could influence sleep, we recorded sleep in mouse strains (C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (C), DBA/2J (D2), and CB6F1/J (CB6)) with different levels of anxiety and exploration after 30 min in an OF. In all strains, OF exposure induced immediate decreases in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) followed by longer latency increases in REM. The time course and amount of REM decreases and increases varied among strains. Compared to less anxious B6, D2 and CB6 mice, C mice had greater and longer lasting immediate decreases in REM. C mice also displayed longer periods of decreases REM and a smaller, longer latency increase in REM. OF exploratory activity was positively correlated to percentage of REM increases from 6 to 10h after OF exposure. The results suggest that the anxiogenic component of the OF produced an immediate decrease in REM that was greater in more "anxious" mice. In contrast, exploration in the OF was associated with increased REM, with the increase greater in less anxious mice. The results are discussed with respect to the potential influences of anxiety and learning on sleep.

  9. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking and open-field reponse in laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and

  10. Strain, Sex, and Open-Field Behavior: Factors Underlying the Genetic Susceptibility to Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eimeira; Barrett, Douglas W.; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Learned helplessness represents a failure to escape after exposure to inescapable stress and may model human psychiatric disorders related to stress. Previous work has demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to learned helplessness. In this study, we assessed different factors associated with this susceptibility, including strain, sex, and open-field behavior. Testing of three rat strains (Holtzman, Long-Evans, and Sprague-Dawley) revealed that Holtzman rats were the most susceptible to helplessness. Holtzman rats not only had the longest escape latencies following inescapable shock, but also showed spontaneous escape deficits in the absence of prior shock when tested with a fixed-ratio 2 (FR2) running response. Moreover, when tested with fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) running—an easy response normally unaffected by helplessness training in rats—inescapable shock significantly increased the escape latencies of Holtzman rats. Within the Holtzman strain, we confirmed recent findings that females showed superior escape performance and therefore appeared more resistant to helplessness than males. However, regression and covariance analyses suggest that this sex difference may be explained by more baseline ambulatory activity among females. In addition, some indices of novelty reactivity (greater exploration of novel vs. familiar open-field) predicted subsequent helpless behavior. In conclusion, Holtzman rats, and especially male Holtzman rats, have a strong predisposition to become immobile when stressed which interferes with their ability to learn active escape responses. The Holtzman strain therefore appears to be a commercially available model for studying susceptibility to helplessness in males, and novelty-seeking may be a marker of this susceptibility. PMID:19428642

  11. Effects of a single inhalative exposure to formaldehyde on the open field behavior of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Fathi A; Möritz, Klaus-Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen

    2004-02-01

    The effects of formaldehyde on the explorative behavior and locomotor activity of mice after a single inhalative exposure were examined in an open field. Adult male mice were exposed to approximately 1.1 ppm, 2.3 ppm, or 5.2 ppm formaldehyde vapour for 2 hours and the open field test was carried out two hours after the end of exposure (trial 1) and repeated 24 hours thereafter (trial 2). The following behavioral parameters were quantitatively examined: numbers of crossed floor squares (inner, peripheral, total), sniffing, grooming, rearing, climbing, and incidence of fecal boli. The results of the first trial revealed that the motion activity was significantly reduced in all exposed groups. In the 1.1 ppm group, the frequency of rearing was reduced and that of floor sniffing increased. The exposure to the two higher formaldehyde concentrations caused a significant decrease in total numbers of floor squares crossed by the subjects, air sniffing, and rearing. The open field test on the next day (trial 2) showed that the frequencies of floor sniffing, grooming, and rearing in all formaldehyde groups were significantly altered. In the 2.5 ppm group, an increased incidence of fecal boli was observed. From the results obtained, we conclude that the exposure of male mice to formaldehyde vapour affects their locomotor and explorative activity in the open field, and that some open field parameters are still altered in the exposed animals even after 24 hours.

  12. Proactive interference of open field on consummatory successive negative contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, Nadia; Pautassi, Ricardo; Mustaca, Alba

    2014-03-01

    Reactivity to a reward is affected by prior experience with the different reinforcer values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity, which can be studied using the consummatory succesive negative contrast (cSNC) paradigm, in which the performance of animals that receive a 4 % sucrose solution after trials on which they were exposed to 32 % sucrose is compared with that of subjects that always receive the 4 % sucrose solution. The exploration of a novel open field can enhance or block the acquisition of associative and nonassociative memories. The effect of open field on cSNC has not yet been explored. The main result of the present study was that open-field exposure significantly modified the expression of cSNC. Exposure to an open field 1 h but not immediately before the downshift interfered with the expression of cSNC. These animals drank more of the downshifted reward than did controls that were not exposed to the apparatus, and this behavior persisted for up to three recovery trials. This phenomenon was observed even when the animals were given a more protracted preshift phase and when the discrepancy between the preshift and shift incentive values of sucrose were increased. An open field also interfered with incentive downshift when open-field exposure occurred 6 h before the downshift, and repeated exposure to the apparatus did not deteriorate this effect. The present study adds to a growing body of literature that indicates that open-field exploration can interfere with memory formation.

  13. Does open-field exposure during infancy influence open-field behavior of the same adult mice?

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Gómez, José

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this report is to find out whether early exposure of mice to the open-field results in altered behavior of the same adult mice in the same open-field. Early exposure to the open-field was carried out between birth and weaning; two control groups were included: control 2 (mice exposed to a reduced dark space) and control 1 (mice left undisturbed). The (male and female) mice were of the Balb/c and C57Bl/6 strains. Adult C57Bl/6 female mice of the openfield and control 2 groups ambul...

  14. Four factors underlying mouse behavior in an open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Young, Jared W; Halberstadt, Adam L; Masten, Virginia L; Geyer, Mark A

    2012-07-15

    The observation of the locomotor and exploratory behaviors of rodents in an open field is one of the most fundamental methods used in the field of behavioral pharmacology. A variety of behaviors can be recorded automatically and can readily generate a multivariate pattern of pharmacological effects. Nevertheless, the optimal ways to characterize observed behaviors and concomitant drug effects are still under development. The aim of this study was to extract meaningful behavioral factors that could explain variations in the observed variables from mouse exploration. Behavioral data were recorded from male C57BL/6J mice (n=268) using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). The BPM data were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. The factor analysis extracted four factors: activity, sequential organization, diversive exploration, and inspective exploration. The activity factor and the two types of exploration factors correlated positively with one another, while the sequential organization factor negatively correlated with the remaining factors. The extracted factor structure constitutes a behavioral model of mouse exploration. This model will provide a platform on which one can assess the effects of psychoactive drugs and genetic manipulations on mouse exploratory behavior. Further studies are currently underway to examine the factor structure of similar multivariate data sets from humans tested in a human BPM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of interleukin-1beta on the behavior of rats during mild stress in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsov, S S; Koplik, E V; Simbirtsev, A S; Kalinichenko, L S

    2009-11-01

    We studied the effect of interleukin-1beta on the behavior of rats with different individual typological characteristics during mild stress in the open-field test. Intraperitoneal injection of interleukin-1beta (5 microg/kg, 108 U/mg) was followed by a decrease in orientation and exploratory activity of passive and, particularly, of active animals in the open field. As differentiated from rats receiving physiological saline, the initial differences in behavioral characteristics of active and passive animals were not revealed in the repeated test after injection of interleukin-1beta. We conclude that interleukin-1beta abolishes the behavioral differences between active and passive specimens in the open field. These data suggest that administration of interleukin-1beta to rats leads to reorganization of the mechanisms for emotional evaluation of adverse emotiogenic factors under conditions of mild stress in the open-field test.

  16. Strain Differences of Mice for Open Field Behaviour, Circadian Rhythms,and Morphine Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Shigehisa

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the work in the field of Behaviour Genetics at the Psychological Laboratory in Shiga University. The first part concerns open field behaviour, the second part discusses circadian rhythms of general activity and of sleepwakefulness cycle, and the third part relates to morphine effects on avoidance behaviour.

  17. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  18. Behaviour in the open field predicts the number of KCl-induced cortical spreading depressions in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr Borysovych; Bogdanova, Olena Viktorivna; Koulchitsky, Stanislav Vladimirovich; Chauvel, Virginie; Multon, Sylvie; Makarchuk, Mykola Yukhymovych; Brennan, Kevin Christopher; Renshaw, Perry F.; Schoenen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility to CSD and anxiety we used the open field test in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically treated with the preventive anti-migraine drugs valproate or riboflavin. Animals avoiding the central area of the open field chamber and those with less exploratory activity (i.e. rearing) were considered m...

  19. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, José Damasceno; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; da Silva Oliveira, Johanssy; Dos Santos, Pauline Sousa; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus against oxidative stress in neuronal cells compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) as well as evaluated the nerolidol sedative effects by open field test compared to diazepam (positive control). Thirty minutes prior to behavioral observation on open field test, mice were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle, nerolidol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg). To clarify the action mechanism of of nerolidol on oxidative stress in animals subjected to the open field test, Western blot analysis of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in mice hippocampus were performed. In nerolidol group, there was a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels when compared to negative control (vehicle). However, a significant increase was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in this group when compared to the other groups. Vehicle, diazepam, ascorbic acid and nerolidol groups did not affected Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase mRNA or protein levels. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.

  1. Effects of magnetic field exposure on open field behaviour and nociceptive responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Choleris, Elena; Luschi, Paolo; Ghione, Sergio

    2003-09-15

    Results of previous studies have shown that nociceptive sensitivity in male C57 mice is enhanced by exposure to a regular 37 Hz or an irregularly varying (field. In order to test whether these fields affect more generally mouse behaviour, we placed Swiss CD-1 mice in a novel environment (open field test) and exposed them for 2 h to these two different magnetic field conditions. Hence, we analysed how duration and time course of various behavioural patterns (i.e. exploration, rear, edge chew, self-groom, sit, walk and sleep) and nociceptive sensitivity had been affected by such exposure. Nociceptive sensitivity was significantly greater in magnetically treated mice than in controls. The overall time spent in exploratory activities was significantly shorter in both magnetically treated groups (time), than in controls (42%). Conversely, the time spent in sleeping was markedly longer in the treated groups (both 27% of total time) than in controls (11%). These results suggest that exposure to altered magnetic fields induce a more rapid habituation to a novel environment.

  2. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  3. Landscape history and archaeology of open field landscapes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071365303

    2016-01-01

    The landscapes of open fields were the grain baskets of medieval Europe. The term ‘open fields’ refers to the large arable fields that have an open character because the individual parcels of the owners were not surrounded by hedges, woodbanks, drystone walls or other visible boundaries. In this

  4. Foraging enrichment modulates open field response to monosodium glutamate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-07-01

    Environmental enrichment can enhance expression of species-specific behaviour. While foraging enrichment is encouraged in laboratory animals, its impact on novelty induced behaviour remain largely unknown. Here, we studied behavioural response of mice to acute and subchronic oral monosodium glutamate (MSG) in an open field with /without foraging enrichment. Adult male mice, assigned to five groups were administered vehicle (distilled water), or one of four selected doses of MSG (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) for 21 days. Open field novelty induced behaviours i.e. horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last doses of MSG. Results were analysed using MANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test and expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Following acute MSG administration without enrichment, locomotor activity reduced, grooming increased, while rearing activity reduced at lower doses and increased at higher doses. Subchronic administration without enrichment was associated with increased locomotor activity and reduction in grooming, rearing activity however still showed a biphasic response. Addition of enrichment with acute administration resulted in sustained reduction in locomotor and rearing activities with a biphasic grooming response. Subchronically, there was reduction in horizontal locomotion, biphasic rearing response and sustained increase in grooming activity. Behavioural response to varying doses of MSG as observed in the open field is affected by modifications such as foraging enrichment, which can reverse or dampen the central effects seen irrespective of duration of administration.

  5. Dissipation and enantioselective degradation of plant growth retardants paclobutrazol and uniconazole in open field, greenhouse, and laboratory soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengwang; Sun, Jianqiang; Zhang, Anping; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-15

    Greenhouses are increasingly important in human food supply. Pesticides used in greenhouses play important roles in horticulture; however, little is known about their behavior in greenhouse environments. This work investigates the dissipation and enantioselctive degradation of plant growth retardants including paclobutrazol and uniconazole in soils under three conditions (i.e., open field, greenhouse, and laboratory). The dissipation and enantioselective degradation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole in greenhouse were different from those in open field; they were more persistent in greenhouse than in open field soil. Leaching produced by rainfall is responsible for the difference in dissipation. Thus, local environmental impacts may occur more easily inside greenhouses, while groundwater may be more contaminated in open field. Spike concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 times the concentrations of native residues were tested for the enantioselective dissipation of the two pesticides; the most potent enantioselective degradation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole occurred at the 10 times that of the native residues in the greenhouse environments and at 20 times native residues in open field environments. The higher soil activity in greenhouses than in open fields was thought to be responsible for such a difference. The environmental risk and regulation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole should be considered at the enantiomeric level.

  6. The shaking signal of the honey bee informs workers to prepare for greater activity

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D.; Weidenmüller, Anja; Kühnholz, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    One of the most conspicuous activities o f worker bees inside a hive is the shaking of other wc~rliersT. his shaking has long been suspected to be a communication behavior, but its information content and function have until recently remained mysterious. Prior studies of the colony-level patterns of the production of ihc shaking signal supgest strongly that this signal semes to arouse workers to greater activity, such as at times of good foraging. Data from our obsenrauons of mdividual bees h...

  7. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  8. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  10. Evidence for open field lines in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, C. K.; Randall, B. A.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jones, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the night-side Jovian magnetic field is derived partly on the basis of theoretical considerations and partly on the basis of the magnetic-field data obtained during the outbound leg of the path of Pioneer 10. This model can explain the observed sawtooth modulation of energetic particle fluxes in terms of closed and open field lines that cannot contain the particles. The model is applicable only to the Jovian magnetotail.

  11. Emotionality in growing pigs: is the open field a valid test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Ramona D; Healy, Susan D; Lawrence, Alistair B; Rutherford, Kenneth M D

    2011-10-24

    The ability to assess emotionality is important within animal welfare research. Yet, for farm animals, few tests of emotionality have been well validated. Here we investigated the construct validity of behavioural measures of pig emotionality in an open-field test by manipulating the experiences of pigs in three ways. In Experiment One (pharmacological manipulation), pigs pre-treated with Azaperone, a drug used to reduce stress in commercial pigs, were more active, spent more time exploring and vocalised less than control pigs. In Experiment Two (social manipulation), pigs that experienced the open-field arena with a familiar companion were also more exploratory, spent less time behaviourally idle, and were less vocal than controls although to a lesser degree than in Experiment One. In Experiment Three (novelty manipulation), pigs experiencing the open field for a second time were less active, explored less and vocalised less than they had done in the first exposure to the arena. A principal component analysis was conducted on data from all three trials. The first two components could be interpreted as relating to the form (cautious to exploratory) and magnitude (low to high arousal) of the emotional response to open-field testing. Based on these dimensions, in Experiment One, Azaperone pigs appeared to be less fearful than saline-treated controls. However, in Experiment Two, exposure to the arena with a conspecific did not affect the first two dimensions but did affect a third behavioural dimension, relating to oro-nasal exploration of the arena floor. In Experiment Three, repeat exposure altered the form but not the magnitude of emotional response: pigs were less exploratory in the second test. In conclusion, behavioural measures taken from pigs in an open-field test are sensitive to manipulations of their prior experience in a manner that suggests they reflect underlying emotionality. Behavioural measures taken during open-field exposure can be useful for making

  12. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IMPAIRED LEARNING AND ABNORMAL OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIORS OF RATS AFTER EARLY POSTNATAL ANOXIA AND THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF THE CALCIUM-ANTAGONIST NIMODIPINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; MARKEL, E; SCHUURMAN, T; LUITEN, PGM

    1991-01-01

    Perinatal anoxia/hypoxia is considered a serious risk factor for normal brain development. Anoxia induced by repeated asphyxia at 2 and 4 days after birth resulted in a transient hyperactivity in the small open-field, and a behavioural depression in adult open-field activity of male Wistar rats. The

  14. Parallel inhomogeneity and the Alfven resonance. 1: Open field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P. J.; Harrold, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    In light of a recent demonstration of the general nonexistence of a singularity at the Alfven resonance in cold, ideal, linearized magnetohydrodynamics, we examine the effect of a small density gradient parallel to uniform, open ambient magnetic field lines. To lowest order, energy deposition is quantitatively unaffected but occurs continuously over a thickened layer. This effect is illustrated in a numerical analysis of a plasma sheet boundary layer model with perfectly absorbing boundary conditions. Consequences of the results are discussed, both for the open field line approximation and for the ensuing closed field line analysis.

  15. Effect of exposure to greater active videogame variety on time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Cardoso, Chelsi; Bond, Dale S

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examined whether exposure to greater active videogame variety increases moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Twenty-three participants (age=22.7±4.2yrs; body mass index=23.5±3.0kg/m(2); self-reported MVPA=298.7±116.7min/wk; 62.2% female; 73.9% Caucasian) participated in VARIETY (4 different active videogames during 4, 15-min bouts) and NON-VARIETY (only 1 active videogame during 4, 15-min bouts) counterbalanced sessions. VARIETY provided a different active videogame in each bout. NON-VARIETY provided participants their most highly liked active videogame in each bout. The Sensewear Mini Armband objectively assessed MVPA. For MVPA minutes, a session×bout (p<0.05) interaction occurred. In NON-VARIETY, bouts 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (p<0.05) fewer minutes than bout 1, with no decrease occurring in VARIETY. In bout 4, VARIETY had significantly (p<0.05) more minutes than NON-VARIETY. A main effect of session (p<0.05) occurred for MVPA minutes and energy expenditure, with VARIETY achieving greater amounts (31.8±14.3min vs. 27.6±16.9min; 186.1±96.8kcal vs. 171.2±102.8kcal). Exposure to greater activity variety within a session increased MVPA. Future research should examine exposure to a variety of activities over a longer time frame with participants of differing lifestyles in free-living environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Lizard activity and abundance greater in burned habitat of a xeric montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Kevin L.; Moore, Clinton; Johnson, Kristine D.; Maerz, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Restoring the natural or historical state of ecosystems is a common objective among resource managers, but determining whether desired system responses to management actions are occurring is often protracted and challenging. For wildlife, the integration of mechanistic habitat modeling with population monitoring may provide expedited measures of management effectiveness and improve understanding of how management actions succeed or fail to recover populations. Southern Appalachia is a region of high biodiversity that has undergone dramatic change as a result of human activities such as historic logging, exotic invasions, and alteration of disturbance regimes—including reduction in application of fire. Contemporary efforts to restore fire-maintained ecosystems within southern Appalachian forests require tools to assess the effects of fire management practices on individual animal fitness and relate them to corresponding influences on species abundance. Using automated sensing equipment, we investigated the effects of burned forests on reptile habitat suitability within the western portion of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. Specifically, we used microclimate measurements to model northern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus diurnal activity budgets in unburned and variable burn age (3–27-y) forest stands. We estimated northern fence lizard occurrence and abundance along transects through burned and unburned forests. Burned forest stands had microclimates that resulted in longer modeled daily activity periods under most conditions during summer. S. undulatus abundance was 4.75 times greater on burned stands compared to paired unburned stands, although the relationship between burn age and abundance was not well determined. Results suggest the more open habitat structure of burned areas within these xeric pine–oak forests may benefit S. undulatus.

  17. Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events on open field lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events have been identified as a common 1 AU signature of coronal mass ejection events, and have generally been interpreted as indicative of closed magnetic field topologies, i.e., magnetic loops or flux ropes rooted at both ends in the Sun, or detached plasmoids. In this paper we examine the possibility that these events may instead occur preferentially on open field lines, and that counterstreaming results from reflection or injection behind interplanetary shocks or from mirroring from regions of compressed magnetic field farther out in the heliosphere. We conclude that neither of these suggested sources of counterstreaming electron beams is viable and that the best interpretation of observed counterstreaming electron events in the solar wind remains that of passage of closed field structures.

  18. Identification of QLTs involved in open-field behavior in young and ad laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Line differences for open-field behavior in chickens have been observed, and it has been shown that this behavior has a genetic component. The aim of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in open-field behavior. For this purpose, open-field behavior was studied at 5 and 29

  19. Prepartum and postpartum open-field behavior and maternal responsiveness in mice bidirectionally selected for open-field thigmotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ravaja, Niklas; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined pre- and postpartum open-field (OF) behavior and maternal responsiveness in mice that they bidirectionally selected for OF thigmotaxis. The authors tested 40 female mice under 3 conditions: prepartum OF, postpartum OF, and a pup retrieval test. In both OF conditions, the high OF thigmotaxis (HOFT) mice were more thigmotactic but explored and reared less than the low OF thigmotaxis (LOFT) mice, indicating that the HOFT mice were more emotional. In the postpartum condition, the HOFT mothers also defecated more and ambulated less than the LOFT mothers. The increase in grooming after parturition was more conspicuous among the LOFT mothers than among the HOFT mothers. The LOFT mothers were also more attracted to their pups in the OF, but the retrieval test did not show any substantial line differences. The results suggested that the line difference in emotionality was more pronounced during lactation than during pregnancy, although parturition exerted no effect on thigmotaxis.

  20. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater

  1. Beaver Activity, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream Scales in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) have been part of the fluvial and riparian landscape across much of North America since the Pleistocene, increasing channel habitat complexity and expanding riparian landscapes. The fur trade, however, decimated beaver populations by the 1840s, and other human activities have limited beaver in many areas, including parts of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Understanding fluctuations in beaver occupation through the Holocene will aid in understanding the natural range of variability in beaver activity as well as climatic and anthropogenic impacts to fluvial systems. We are developing a detailed chronology of beaver-assisted sedimentation and overall fluvial activity for Odell and Red Rock Creeks (basin areas 83 and 99 km2) in Centennial Valley (CV), Montana, to augment related studies on the long-term effects of beaver on smaller GYE fluvial systems (basin areas 0.1-50 km2). In developing the CV chronology, we use the presence of concentrations of beaver-chewed sticks as a proxy for beaver occupancy. Beaver-stick deposits are found in paleochannel and fluvial terrace exposures. The relative ages of exposures were determined by elevation data from airborne LiDAR and ground surveys. Numerical ages were obtained from 36 14C ages (~30 more are pending) of beaver-stick wood collected during investigation of the stratigraphy. Most beaver-stick deposits are associated with ~ 1 meter of fine-grained sediment, interpreted as overbank deposits, commonly overlying gravelly sand or pebble gravel channel deposits which is consistent with enhanced overbank sedimentation associated with active beaver dams in CV streams. The CV deposits differ from those on smaller GYE streams where beaver-stick deposits are associated with abandoned dams (berms), infilled ponds and laminated sediments. The lack of pond-related deposition associated with CV beaver-stick deposits is consistent with frequent dam breaching (≤ 5 years) in the modern channel of Odell

  2. A Measurement and Analysis of Buildup Region Dose for Open Field Photon Beams (Cobalt-60 through 24 MV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    The central axis depth dose in the build-up region (surface to d_m_a_x) of single open field photon beams (cobalt-60 through 24 MV) has been measured utilizing parallel plate and extrapolation chamber methodology. These data were used to derive, for a prescription dose of 100 cGy, values of surface dose, the maximum value of dose along the central axis (D_m_a_x) and the depth (nearest the surface) at which 90% of the prescription dose occurs (d_9_0). For both single and parallel opposed pair (POP) open field configurations, data are presented at field sizes of 5 × 5, 15 × 15 and 25 × 25 cm"2 for prescription depths of 10, 15 and 20 cm (midplane for POP). For the treatment machines, field sizes, and prescription depths studied, it is possible to conclude that: for single open field irradiation, surface dose values (as a percentage of the prescription dose) can be either low (<10%) or comparable to the prescription dose itself; for POP open fields, surface dose values are relatively independent of photon energy and midplane depth, and range between 30% and 70% of prescription dose, being principally dependent on field size; the depth of the initial 90 cGy point for a prescription dose of 100 cGy, d_9_0, was larger for POP fields. For either single or POP open field treatments, d_9_0 was always less than 22 mm, while for 6 MV or less, values of d_9_0 were less than 4 mm; D_m_a_x values can be very large (e.g., above 300 cGy) for certain treatment situations and are reduced significantly for POP treatments; for open field POP treatments, the percent reduction in D_m_a_x with each increment in beam energy above 10 MV is reduced over that seen at 10 MV or less and, possibly, this further reduction may be clinically insignificant; for open field POP treatments, changes in surface dose, d_9_0 and D_m_a_x with beam energy above 10 MV do not suggest, with regard to these specific build-up curve parameters, any obvious advantage for treatment with beam energies greater

  3. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf-livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40-60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into areas

  4. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Middleton, Arthur D.; Jimenez, Mike; McWhirter, Douglas; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human–wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf–livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40–60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into

  5. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  6. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavior in the open field predicts the number of KCl-induced cortical spreading depressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr Borysovych; Bogdanova, Olena Viktorivna; Koulchitsky, Stanislav Vladimirovich; Chauvel, Virginie; Multon, Sylvie; Makarchuk, Mykola Yukhymovych; Brennan, Kevin Christopher; Renshaw, Perry Franklin; Schoenen, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility to CSD and anxiety we used the open field test in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically treated with the preventive anti-migraine drugs valproate or riboflavin. Animals avoiding the central area of the open field chamber and those with less exploratory activity (i.e. rearing) were considered more anxious. After 4 weeks of treatment CSDs were elicited by application of 1M KCl over the occipital cortex and the number of CSDs occurring over a 2h period was compared to the previously assessed open field behavior. Higher anxiety-like behavior was significantly correlated with a higher frequency of KCl-induced CSDs. In saline-treated animals, fewer rearings were found in animals with more frequent CSDs (R=-1.00). The duration of ambulatory episodes in the open field center correlated negatively with number of CSDs in the valproate group (R=-0.83; popen field center in both groups (R=-0.75; p<0.05 and R=-0.58; p<0.1 respectively). These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are associated with susceptibility to CSD and might explain why it can be an aggravating factor in migraine with aura. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Singular surfaces in the open field line region of a diverted tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the open field lines of a slightly nonaxisymmetric, poloidally diverted tokamak is explored by numerical integration of the field line equations for a simple model field. In practice, the nonaxisymmetry could be produced self-consistently by the nonlinear evolution of a free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode, or it could be produced by field errors, or it could be imposed externally by design. In the presence of a nonaxisymmetric perturbation, the tokamak is shown to develop open field line regions of differing topology separated by singular surfaces. It is argued that the singular surfaces can be expected to play a role analogous to that of rational toroidal flux surfaces, in terms of constraining ideal MHD perturbations and thus constraining the free-energy that can be tapped by ideal MHD instabilities. The possibility of active control of free-boundary instabilities by means of currents driven on the open singular surfaces, which are directly accessible from the divertor plates, is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-04-17

    The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring.

  10. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Singular surfaces in the open field line region of a diverted tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.

    1995-05-01

    The structure of the open field lines of a slightly nonaxisymmetric, poloidally diverted tokamak is explored by numerical integration of the field line equations for a simple model field. In practice, the nonaxisymmetry could be produced self-consistently by the nonlinear evolution of a free-boundary MHD mode, or it could be produced by field errors, or it could be imposed externally by design. In the presence of a nonaxisymmetric perturbation, the tokamak is shown to develop open field line regions of differing topology separated by singular surfaces. It is argued that the singular surfaces can be expected to play a role analogous to that of rational toroidal flux surfaces, in terms of constraining ideal MHD perturbations and thus constraining the free-energy that can be tapped by ideal MHD instabilities. The possibility of active control of free-boundary instabilities by means of currents driven on the open singular surfaces, which are directly accessible from the divertor plates, is discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of early detection of imminent disruptions through localized measurement of the singular surface currents

  12. Naloxone effects on behavior of inbred mice with different response to emotional stress in open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorova, A V; Kozlovskaja, M M; Seredenin, S B

    2009-10-01

    Effects of nonspecific opiate receptor antagonist naloxone in doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg on open field behavior and spontaneous motor activity were studied in male BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Differently directed effects of naloxone on behavioral parameters of emotional-stress reaction in BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice were observed. Naloxone increased motor activity in the open field test in BALB/c mice, but decreased it in C57Bl/6 mice. In the absence of stress, naloxone in the studied dose range did not affect spontaneous motor activity in C57Bl/6 mice, and significantly reduced activity in BALB/c mice in doses 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg.

  13. Impact Of anthropogenic activities on the water quality of Songor Lagoon, Ada, Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackey, Justice

    2014-06-01

    Wetlands are vital ecosystems with important social, economic and environmental functions. The Ada Songor lagoon (located in the Dangbe East district, Greater Accra Region), is an internationally designated wetland (Ramsar site). Intense anthropogenic activities have impacted negatively on the quality of water and sediment in the lagoon. The study assessed the extent of heavy metal, pesticide residues and nutrients contamination of surface water and sediment in the Ada Songor Lagoon. The objective of the study was achieved through the determination of physico-chemical parameters [pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), total hardness)]; the nutrients load (SO_4"2"- , PO_4"3"- , NO_3"- ) using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry; major ions (Na"+, K"+, Ca"2"+, HCO_3 "-); trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, As and Hg) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); and pesticides residues [organochlorines (OC’s), and synthetic pyrethroids by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and organophosphorus (OP’s) by gas chromatography-pulse flame photometric detection (G C-PFPD)]. Na and K contents were determined by Flame Emission Photometry. The water temperature (25.7 to 26.6 "oC), fall in the range of 25 to 30 "oC suitable for sustainability fish and aquatic organisms. The pH range (8.18 to 9.70) which is typical of coastal waters in Ghana is ideal for aquatic organisms. The TDS range (591 to 1,046 mg/L) is not ideal for water birds spawning since it makes it harder for them to find food. BOD ranges from 1.19 to 5.35 mg/L. The pattern of ionic dominance in the lagoon during the present study was K"+ > Na"+ > Ca"2"+ > Mg"2"+. The cationic dominance pattern was similar to that of seawater as observed by other works. Nitrate levels ranges from 0.83 to 0.92 mg/L. PO_4"3"- in this study varied from 0.05 to 2.92 mg/L which exceeds the levels in most natural

  14. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site. Open Field Scoring Record Number 154

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  15. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  16. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 354

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  17. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 311

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  18. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Recording Number 231 (Human Factors Applications, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbuy and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  19. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 426

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 657

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 129

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APO Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  2. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 229

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  3. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 411

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  4. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record No. 897

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, William; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by William Burch and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  5. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 673 (Naval Research Laboratories)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  6. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 169

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  7. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 492 (Shaw Environmental, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  8. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 442

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) unitizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  9. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 201

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Fling, Rick; Robitaille, George

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  10. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 668 (NAEVA Geophysics, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing they PG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  11. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 165

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APO Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  12. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 638

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Robitaille, George; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 857

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Banta, Matthew; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Temporal stability of novelty exploration in mice exposed to different open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Keisala, Tiina; Minasyan, Anna; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2006-03-01

    We investigated behavioural activity and temporal distribution (patterning) of mouse exploration in different open field (OF) arenas. Mice of 129S1 (S1) strain were subjected in parallel to three different OF arenas (Experiment 1), two different OF arenas in two trials (Experiment 2) or two trials of the same OF test (Experiment 3). Overall, mice demonstrated a high degree of similarity in the temporal profile of novelty-induced horizontal and vertical exploration (regardless of the size, colour and shape of the OF), which remained stable in subsequent OF exposures. In Experiments 4 and 5, we tested F1 hybrid mice (BALB/c-S1; NMRI-S1), and Vitamin D receptor knockout mice (generated on S1 genetic background), again showing strikingly similar temporal patterns of their OF exploration, despite marked behavioural strain differences in anxiety and activity. These results suggest that mice are characterised by stability of temporal organization of their exploration in different OF novelty situations.

  15. A survey of joint activities and travel of household members in the Greater Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Vuk, Goran; Kaplan, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    and family quality time, within a daily schedule. The current study unveils the joint activity and travel patterns of household members in the Copenhagen area, as part of the ACTUM research project, funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, for the development of a new generation of activity......The traditional approach for modeling transport-related choices in Denmark refers to individual decision makers. However, in daily activities and travel choices individuals function according to the commitments as family members, and thus their choices derive from the welfare needs of other family...... members. A family-based approach enables to capture intra-household interactions and the priorities of household members in scheduling their daily activities, thus adding to the realism and the predictive strength of transport models. Joint activities and travel occur in order to maximize efficiency...

  16. Open-field mouse brain PET: design optimisation and detector characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z; Judenhofer, Martin S; Gong, Kuang; Bec, Julien; Selfridge, Aaron; Du, Junwei; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R; Meikle, Steven R

    2017-07-13

    imaging the mouse brain. We also built and characterised the block detector modelled in the simulations, including a dual-ended readout based on 6  ×  6 arrays of through-silicon-via silicon photomultipliers (active area 84%) for DoI estimation. Identification of individual crystals in the flood map was excellent, energy resolution varied from 12.4%  ±  0.6% near the centre to 24.4%  ±  3.4% at the ends of the crystal, and the average DoI resolution was 2.8 mm  ±  0.35 mm near the central depth (10 mm) and 3.5 mm  ±  1.0 mm near the ends. Timing resolution was 1.4  ±  0.14 ns. Therefore, the DoI detector module meets the target specifications for the application and will be used as the basis for a prototype open-field mouse PET scanner.

  17. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  19. Fostering Culture Change in an Undergraduate Business Program: "Nudging" Students towards Greater Involvement in Extra-Curricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    A report on a successfully implemented program to increase student participation in extra-curricular activities in an undergraduate business program with a high percentage of first-generation college students. A market-research study offered insight as to why students were not participating before the program was launched. Greater participation in…

  20. Plasma behaviors in the open field region of reversed-field theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1983-03-01

    A characteristic behavior of the plasma in an open field region of reversed field theta pinch has been studied with the guide field (GF) which extends the field line along the axial direction. The experimental result suggests that the rotaional instability may be induced in FRC after the plasma touches the wall at the ends of the open field. (author)

  1. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many case...

  2. Active unicameral bone cysts in the upper limb are at greater risk of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Inn Kuang; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lim, Kevin Boon Leong; Lee, Eng Hin; Nathan, Saminathan Suresh

    2009-08-01

    To elucidate the natural history of unicameral bone cyst (UBC) and risk factors for pathological fracture. 14 males and 8 females (mean age, 9 years) diagnosed with UBC were reviewed. Cyst location, symptoms, and whether there was any fracture or surgery were recorded. Cyst parameters were measured on radiographs, and included (1) the cyst index, (2) the ratio of the widest cyst diameter to the growth plate diameter, and (3) the adjusted distance of the cyst border from the growth plate. There were 11 upper- and 11 lower-limb cysts. 13 patients had pathological fractures and 9 did not. 20 patients were treated conservatively with limb immobilisation; 2 underwent curettage and bone grafting (one resolved and one did not). Seven cysts resolved (5 had fractures and 2 did not). The risk of fracture was higher in the upper than lower limbs (100% vs 18%, pFractured cysts were larger than unfractured cysts (mean cyst index, 4.5 vs. 2.2, p=0.07). Active cysts were more likely to fracture. Conservative management had a 30% resolution rate. Surgery should be considered for large active cysts in the upper limbs in order to minimise the fracture risk.

  3. Clinical effects of buprenorphine on open field behaviour and gait symmetry in healthy and lame weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Ellen; van Nes, Arie; Back, Willem; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-12-01

    Lameness in pigs decreases animal welfare and economic profit for the farmer. An important reason for impaired welfare in lame animals is pain due to lameness. No direct measurement of pain is possible in animals, and methods to indirectly detect and quantify the amount of pain an animal is experiencing are urgently needed. In this study, two methods to assess pain associated with lameness in pigs were evaluated to determine if they were sensitive enough to detect a lameness reduction as an effect of an experimental analgesic medication. Asymmetry associated with lameness was objectively quantified using pressure mat kinetic parameters: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Locomotor activity was assessed in an open field test. A dose of 0.04 mg/kg buprenorphine, a strong analgesic, was used to treat 10 lame pigs, while eight other lame pigs, treated with physiological saline solution, served as controls. Buprenorphine decreased lameness-associated asymmetry for pressure mat LR (P = 0.002), VI (P = 0.003) and PVP (P = 0.001) and increased activity of the lame pigs in the open field (P = 0.023), while saline-treated animals did not show any changes in asymmetry and became less active in the open field (P open field test are both sensitive enough to detect the analgesic effects of buprenorphine when used to treat moderate to severe clinical pain in a relatively small group of affected pigs. The methods used in this study may also provide promising additional tools for future research into early pain recognition and lameness treatment in pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Maternal environment alters social interactive traits but not open-field behavior in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    Although it is recognized that the genetic background governs behavioral phenotypes, environmental factors also play a critical role in the development of various behavioral processes. The maternal environment has a major impact on pups, and the cross-fostering procedure is used to determine the influence of early life experiences. The present study examined the influence of maternal environment on behavioral traits in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. F344/DuCrlCrlj and Wistar (Crlj:WI) pups were fostered from postnatal day 1 as follows: Wistar pups raised by Wistar dams, F344 raised by Wistar, Wistar raised by F344, and F344 raised by F344. At 10 weeks of age, rats were randomly assigned to an open-field test and social interaction test. In the open-field test, irrespective of the rearing conditions, the activity during the first 1 min was significantly lower in F344 rats than in Wistar rats. Latency to the onset of movement showed no difference between groups. In the social interaction test, the recognition performance during the first 1 min in F344 raised by F344 was significantly shorter than that in the other groups. The onset of recognition to a novel social partner in F344 raised by F344 was significantly delayed, and the delay disappeared upon cross-fostering by Wistar dams. These results raise the possibility that the behavioral phenotype of F344 rats results from the interplay of genetic factors and maternal environment during early life, and that F344 rats are a strain with high susceptibility to rearing conditions for the formation of their emotionality.

  6. Open-field mouse brain PET: design optimisation and detector characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Gong, Kuang; Bec, Julien; Selfridge, Aaron; Du, Junwei; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    suited for imaging the mouse brain. We also built and characterised the block detector modelled in the simulations, including a dual-ended readout based on 6  ×  6 arrays of through-silicon-via silicon photomultipliers (active area 84%) for DoI estimation. Identification of individual crystals in the flood map was excellent, energy resolution varied from 12.4%  ±  0.6% near the centre to 24.4%  ±  3.4% at the ends of the crystal, and the average DoI resolution was 2.8 mm  ±  0.35 mm near the central depth (10 mm) and 3.5 mm  ±  1.0 mm near the ends. Timing resolution was 1.4  ±  0.14 ns. Therefore, the DoI detector module meets the target specifications for the application and will be used as the basis for a prototype open-field mouse PET scanner.

  7. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  8. Hyperactive behaviour in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB in the open field and home cage environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, A; Malinowska, M; Langford-Smith, K J; Wegrzyn, G; Jones, S; Wynn, R; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, F L; Bigger, B W

    2011-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe behavioural disturbances and progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. There is no effective treatment, but behavioural testing is a valuable tool to assess neurodegeneration and the effect of novel therapies in mouse models of disease. Several groups have evaluated behaviour in this model, but the data are inconsistent, often conflicting with patient natural history. We hypothesize that this discrepancy could be due to differences in open field habituation and home cage behaviour. Eight-month-old wild-type and MPS IIIB mice were tested in a 1-h open field test, performed 1.5 h after lights on, and a 24-h home cage behaviour test performed after 24 h of acclimatization. In the 1-h test, MPS IIIB mice were hyperactive, with increased rapid exploratory behaviour and reduced immobility time. No differences in anxiety were seen. Over the course of the test, differences became more pronounced with maximal effects at 1 h. The 24-hour home cage test was less reliable. There was evidence of increased hyperactivity in MPS IIIB mice, however, immobility was also increased, suggesting a level of inconsistency in this test. Performance of open field analysis within 1-2 h after lights on is probably critical to achieving maximal success as MPS IIIB mice have a peak in activity around this time. The open field test effectively identifies hyperactive behaviour in MPS IIIB mice and is a significant tool for evaluating effects of therapy on neurodegeneration. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. [Association between the canine monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene polymorphisms and behavior of puppies in open-field test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Han-Kun; Mao, Da-Gan; Ma, Da-Jun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li-Guo

    2006-11-01

    Excitability, activity and exploration behavior of puppies in a novel open-field were tested in a total of 204 two-month-old German shepherd dog, labrador retriever or English springer spaniel puppies. The polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) were detected by PCR-RFLP. Statistics analysis indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms were significantly different among three breeds (P open-field test. The results showed that MAOB gene polymorphisms had a significant effect on walking time, squares crossed, lying time, the times of standing up against walls(P times of posture change (P=0.064). Walking time and squares crossed were higher in TT genotype puppies than those in TC and CC puppies (P times of posture change and standing up against walls were also higher than those in CC (P time in CC genotype puppies were higher than that in TT (P walking time, lying time, squares crossed, the times of posture change, the times of standing up against walls in the three dog breeds that was highly statistically significant (P open-field test and TT genotype has favorable effects in these behavior traits.

  10. Effects of environmental enrichment and paradoxical sleep deprivation on open-field behavior of amphetamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda; Lopez, Giorgia Batlle; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2007-11-23

    Environmental enrichment or paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) has been shown to modify some responses elicited by drugs of abuse. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and PSD, conducted separately or in association, on open-field behavior elicited by amphetamine (AMP) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to live in either an enriched environmental condition (EC) or a standard environmental condition (SC) for 12 months since weaning. Some of the EC and SC mice were sleep deprived for 48 h, while others were maintained in their home-cages. Immediately after PSD or home-cage stay, the animals received an ip injection of saline, 2.5 mg/kg AMP or 5.0 mg/kg AMP. Fifteen minutes later, their open-field behavior was quantified. Whereas PSD enhanced total and peripheral locomotor activity of acutely AMP-treated mice, environmental enrichment presented only a trend toward enhancement. When PSD and environmental enrichment were combined, an increase in the total and peripheral locomotion frequencies of AMP-treated animals, similar to that observed after PSD, was revealed. In addition, PSD, environmental enrichment or their combination did not modify the effects of AMP on the other open-field behavioral parameters that were analyzed. The present findings demonstrate that some (but not all) of the behavioral effects caused by AMP acute administration can be similarly and specifically enhanced by both environmental enrichment and PSD in C57BL/6 mice.

  11. [Open-field behavioral study in rat hyperlipidemia combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Zhang, Yingchun; Xu, Yeqing; Liu, Chunfeng; Wang, Liwei

    2015-06-16

    To investigate behavioral changes in a rat hyperlipidemia model induced by high lipid feed combined with depression by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into control (CON), control feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (CON + CUMS), high fat diet (HFD) and high lipid feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (HFD + CUMS) (n = 10 each). Open-field test was individually measured at baseline, week 9 and week 13. (1) Serum lipids: total cholesterol [(2.67 ± 0.04) mmol/L, (2.68 ± 0.02) mmol/L] and low density lipoprotein [(1.08 ± 0.03) mmol/L, (1.06 ± 0.01) mmol/L] of HFD and HFD + CUMS were both significantly higher than those of CON and CON + CUMS [(1.78 ± 0.12) mmol/L, (0.79 ± 0.04) mmol/L; (1.76 ± 0.09) mmol/L, (0.76 ± 0.06) mmol/L, all P Open-field test: at week 13, compared to CON rats, CON + CUMS rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity during the first minute, reduced activity in the center squares and rearing, and increased the number of grooming and defecation (all P < 0.05). In comparison to the CON rats, a decrease in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares was observed in HFD rats at week 13 (all P < 0.05). However, compared with HFD, CON, CON + CUMS rats, when high lipid feed for 9 weeks combined with depression, significant decrease activities in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares were observed in HFD + CUMS rats at week 13. Besides these, the number of rearing was reduced, however, locomotor activity during the first minute and the number of grooming and defecation was significantly increased (all P < 0.001). Under uncontrolled hyperlipidemia, severe depressive symptoms will present more early once exposure to a series of chronic stressors followed by significant autonomic nervous dysfunctional symptoms.

  12. Between and within laboratory reliability of mouse behaviour recorded in home-cage and open-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lianne; Spruijt, Berry; Riedel, Gernot

    2018-04-15

    Reproducibility of behavioural findings between laboratories is difficult due to behaviour being sensitive to environmental factors and interactions with genetics. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility of behavioural data between laboratories using the PhenoTyper home cage observation system and within laboratory reproducibility using different lighting regimes. The ambulatory activity of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice was tested in PhenoTypers in two laboratories under near identical housing and testing conditions (Exp. 1). Additionally activity and anxiety were also assessed in the open-field test. Furthermore, testing in either a normal or inverted light/dark cycle was used to determine effects of lighting regime in a within-laboratory comparison in Aberdeen (Exp. 2). Using the PhenoTyper similar circadian rhythms were observed across laboratories. Higher levels of baseline and novelty-induced activity were evident in Aberdeen compared to Utrecht although strain differences were consistent between laboratories. Open field activity was also similar across laboratories whereas strain differences in anxiety were different. Within laboratory analysis of different lighting regimes revealed that behaviour of the mice was sensitive to changes in lighting. Utilisation of a home cage observation system facilitates the reproducibility of activity but not anxiety-related behaviours across laboratories by eliminating environmental factors known to influence reproducibility in standard behavioural tests. Standardisation of housing/test conditions resulted in reproducibility of home cage and open field activity but not anxiety-related phenotypes across laboratories with some behaviours more sensitive to environmental factors. Environmental factors include lighting and time of day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 901 (Sky Research, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClung, J. S; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; Lombardo, Leonardo; McDonnell, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Stephen McClung and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 245

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  15. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 675

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  16. Correlation between two parameters of mice behaviour in the open field test

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović, Nikola M.; Ranđelović, Pavle J.; Radulović, Niko S.

    2017-01-01

    The open field test is being used extensively for the determination of different aspects of animal behaviour for over seventy years. The correlation between different behavioural parameters obtained in this test, although previously studied, is still debatable. Thus, we aimed to analyze and correlate behaviour scores to estimate the importance of individual parameters in this type of experiment. The open field test was performed on male BALB/c mice treated with either saline (10 ml/kg) or dia...

  17. Anxiolytic effects of lavender oil inhalation on open-field behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D; Annett, J M; Doherty, B; Leslie, J C

    2007-09-01

    To establish a valid animal model of the effects of olfactory stimuli on anxiety, a series of experiments was conducted using rats in an open-field test. Throughout, effects of lavender oil were compared with the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP), as a reference anxiolytic with well-known effects on open-field behaviour. Rats were exposed to lavender oil (0.1-1.0 ml) for 30 min (Experiment 1) or 1h (Experiment 2) prior to open-field test and in the open field or injected with CDP (10 mg/kg i.p.). CDP had predicted effects on behaviour, and the higher doses of lavender oil had some effects on behaviour similar to those of CDP. In Experiment 3, various combinations of pre-exposure times and amounts of lavender oil were used. With sufficient exposure time and quantity of lavender the same effects were obtained as in Experiment 2. Experiment 4 demonstrated that these behavioural effects of lavender could be obtained following pre-exposure, even if no oil was present in the open-field test. In Experiments 2-4, lavender oil increased immobility. Together, these experiments suggest that lavender oil does have anxiolytic effects in the open field, but that a sedative effect can also occur at the highest doses.

  18. The Use of an Open Field Model to Assess Sound-Induced Fear and Anxiety Associated Behaviors in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Case, Beth C; Foster, Melanie L; Lazarowski, Lucia; Fish, Richard E; Landsberg, Gary; DePuy, Venita; Dorman, David C; Sherman, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the playing of thunderstorm recordings during an open-field task elicits fearful or anxious responses in adult beagles. The goal of our study was to apply this open field test to assess sound-induced behaviors in Labrador retrievers drawn from a pool of candidate improvised explosive devices (IED)-detection dogs. Being robust to fear-inducing sounds and recovering quickly is a critical requirement of these military working dogs. This study presented male and female dogs, with 3 minutes of either ambient noise (Days 1, 3 and 5), recorded thunderstorm (Day 2), or gunfire (Day 4) sounds in an open field arena. Behavioral and physiological responses were assessed and compared to control (ambient noise) periods. An observer blinded to sound treatment analyzed video records of the 9-minute daily test sessions. Additional assessments included measurement of distance traveled (activity), heart rate, body temperature, and salivary cortisol concentrations. Overall, there was a decline in distance traveled and heart rate within each day and over the five-day test period, suggesting that dogs habituated to the open field arena. Behavioral postures and expressions were assessed using a standardized rubric to score behaviors linked to canine fear and anxiety. These fear/anxiety scores were used to evaluate changes in behaviors following exposure to a sound stressor. Compared to control periods, there was an overall increase in fear/anxiety scores during thunderstorm and gunfire sound stimuli treatment periods. Fear/anxiety scores were correlated with distance traveled, and heart rate. Fear/anxiety scores in response to thunderstorm and gunfire were correlated. Dogs showed higher fear/anxiety scores during periods after the sound stimuli compared to control periods. In general, candidate IED-detection Labrador retrievers responded to sound stimuli and recovered quickly, although dogs stratified in their response to sound stimuli. Some dogs were

  19. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  20. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...... to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral...

  1. Effects of buspirone, diazepam, and zolpidem on open field behavior, and brain [3H]muscimol binding after buspirone pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatkowski, M; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, H; Członkowska, A I; Bidziński, A; Płaźnik, A

    2000-07-01

    The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist buspirone, a nonselective (diazepam), and a selective (zolpidem) GABA(A) receptor agonist were compared in the open field test of neophobia. Unhabituated rats were pretreated with the drugs once, prior to a first exposure to the open field, and their behavior was recorded both during this test and during a second trial 24 h later. It has been hypothesized that the decrease in exploratory activity observed during the second test session may be considered an adaptive reaction to the first day aversive experience (neophobia). If so, a selective modulation of 5-HT and GABA systems activity during the test could bring about significant changes in animal behavior on the retest. Buspirone at the lowest dose of 0.3 mg/kg revealed anxiolytic-like properties on the first day, whereas the action of diazepam and zolpidem was modulated by the dose-related sedative effect. At the dose of 2.4 mg/kg buspirone elicited delayed in time anxiolytic-like action, i.e., produced the antithigmotactic effect during the retrial 24 h later. Diazepam and zolpidem failed to exhibit similar profile of action. Autoradiography of [3H]muscimol binding after pretreatment of rats with buspirone showed a significant increase in the selective radioligand binding within the frontal cortex and a similar, near-significant tendency in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The behavioral data validate buspirone as important drug for the treatment of anxiety disorders, devoid of disruptive influence on motor and cognitive processes. The open field test, as modified by us, appeared sensitive in distinguishing the behavioral profiles of action of different anxiolytic compounds, including 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist. The present results support the assumption that reduced turnover of 5-HT due to stimulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, may bring about changes in GABA(A) receptor system activity, in some brain structures, leading to the anxiolytic effect.

  2. Oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid inhibits reflex hypersensitivity and open-field-induced anxiety after spared nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Martin, G; Galan-Arriero, I; Ferrer-Donato, A; Busquets, X; Gomez-Soriano, J; Escribá, P V; Taylor, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, fatty acids have been shown to modulate sensory function in animal models of neuropathic pain. In this study, the antinociceptive effect of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) was assessed following spared nerve injury (SNI) with reflex and cerebrally mediated behavioural responses. Initial antinociceptive behavioural screening of daily administration of 2-OHOA (400 mg/kg, p.o.) was assessed in Wistar rats by measuring hindlimb reflex hypersensitivity to von Frey and thermal plate stimulation up to 7 days after SNI, while its modulatory effect on lumbar spinal dorsal horn microglia reactivity was assessed with OX-42 immunohistochemistry. In vitro the effect of 2-OHOA (120 μM) on cyclooxygenase protein expression (COX-2/COX-1 ratio) in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells was tested with Western blot analysis. Finally, the effects of 2-OHOA treatment on the place escape aversion paradigm (PEAP) and the open-field-induced anxiety test were tested at 21 days following nerve injury compared with vehicle-treated sham and pregabalin-SNI (30 mg/kg, p.o.) control groups. Oral 2-OHOA significantly reduced ipsilateral mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity up to 7 days after SNI. Additionally 2-OHOA decreased the COX-2/COX-1 ratio in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells and OX-42 expression within the ipsilateral lumbar spinal dorsal horn 7 days after SNI. 2-OHOA significantly restored inner-zone exploration in the open-field test compared with the vehicle-treated sham group at 21 days after SNI. Oral administration of the modified omega 9 fatty acid, 2-OHOA, mediates antinociception and prevents open-field-induced anxiety in the SNI model in Wistar rats, which is mediated by an inhibition of spinal dorsal horn microglia activation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. A detailed analysis of open-field habituation and behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects in postweaning enriched rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Padilla, Michael; Fornaguera, Jaime

    2009-01-30

    Our previous work has shown that male Sprague-Dawley rats reared in social isolation, standard housing and environmental enrichment differ in their spontaneous open-field activity and in some neurobehavioral depressive-like parameters. Here, we extended this evidence by using a shorter postweaning rearing period (1 month) and including additional evaluations. First, in order to obtain a better characterization of the exploratory strategies among rearing conditions we analyzed in detail the spontaneous activity at the first minute and during the 10-min session. Second, we asked whether the changes in open-field activity were related with basal anxiety levels in the elevated plus-maze. Third, behavior in the forced-swimming test was analyzed and afterward, the tissue levels of hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin were assessed. The possible relationship between neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behavior were explored through correlation analyses. We found that rearing conditions (i) differed on locomotor habituation and on sensory-motor exploration at the first minute and during the 10-min session without modifying the plus-maze behavior; (ii) affected differentially the grooming time, its sequential components, and the relationship between grooming and locomotor parameters; (iii) modified forced-swimming behavior and the hippocampal concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin, and its turnover; and (iv) produced different correlation patterns between both neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behaviors. Overall, environmental enrichment accelerated open-field habituation and led to behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects. In contract, isolation rearing strongly impaired habituation and simple information processing, but showed marginal effects on depressive-like behavior and on hippocampal neurochemistry. The current results suggest that differential rearing is not only a useful procedure to study behavioral plasticity or rigidity in response

  4. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  5. Pharmacological differences between memory consolidation of habituation to an open field and inhibitory avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna M.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex were submitted to either a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, or to 5 min of habituation to an open field. Immediately after training, they received intrahippocampal or intraentorhinal 0.5-µl infusions of saline, of a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline, of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphono pentanoic acid (AP5, of the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMPs (0.5 µg/side, of the calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62, of the dopaminergic D1 antagonist SCH23390, or of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059. Animals were tested in each task 24 h after training. Intrahippocampal KN-62 was amnestic for habituation; none of the other treatments had any effect on the retention of this task. In contrast, all of them strongly affected memory of the avoidance task. Intrahippocampal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62 and AP5, and intraentorhinal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62, PD098059 and SCH23390 caused retrograde amnesia. In view of the known actions of the treatments used, the present findings point to important biochemical differences in memory consolidation processes of the two tasks.

  6. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  7. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Mice selectively bred for open-field thigmotaxis: life span and stability of the selection trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Selander, Ritva-Kajsa

    2005-04-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined 69 mice selectively bred for high or low levels of open-field (OF) thigmotactic behavior (high open-field thigmotaxis [HOFT] and low open-field thigmotaxis [LOFT], respectively). They found that the strains differed in defecation during the 60-min exposure to the OF. Furthermore, the strains differed with regard to their life spans: The more thigmotactic HOFT mice lived longer than the LOFT mice. The strains were not differentiated by food intake or excretion. The strain difference in thigmotaxis was not age dependent, and it persisted in the home-cage condition as well. Neither the location (center or wall) of the starting point nor the shape (circular or square) of the OF arena affected the difference in wall-seeking behavior between the two strains. The authors concluded that the difference in thigmotaxis (or emotionality) between the HOFT and LOFT mice is a stable and robust feature of these animals.

  9. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes.

  10. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Jones, Simon A; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Effects of phenazepam on the behavior of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice in the open field test after naloxone pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredenin, S B; Nadorova, A V; Kolik, L G; Yarkova, M A

    2013-07-01

    We studied the effects of phenazepam (0.075 mg/kg) after pretreatment (5 minutes before) with naloxone (10 mg/kg) on open-field behavior of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice. In ex vivo experiments, we studied the effects of naloxone (1 and 10 mg/kg) on receptor binding of [(3)H]-flunitrazepam by membranes of brain fraction (P1+P2) of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice. It was shown that naloxone increased motor activity in the open field in BALB/c mice and decreased this parameter in C57Bl/6 mice. During combined treatment, naloxone potentiated the activating effects of phenazepam on the open-field behavior of BALB/c mice and slightly increased the sedative effect of this drug in C57Bl/6 mice. Naloxone stimulated reception of [(3)H]-flunitrazepam in BALB/c mice and slightly increased radioligand binding in C57Bl/6 mice. These data attest to enhanced reception in benzodiazepine site of GABAA-receptor under conditions of opioid receptor blockade, the presence of anxiolytic or sedative (depending on the phenotype of the response to emotional stress) effect of naloxone, and co-directed effects of naloxone and benzodiazepine tranquilizer on open-field behavior of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  14. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  15. Effect of Wearing a Telemetry Jacket on Behavioral and Physiologic Parameters of Dogs in the Open-Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard E; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Dorman, Davidc C

    2017-07-01

    Safety pharmacology studies in dogs often integrate behavioral assessments made using video recording with physiologic measurements collected by telemetry. However, whether merely wearing the telemetry vest affects canine behavior and other parameters has not been evaluated. This pilot study assessed the effect of a telemetry vest on behavioral and physiologic responses to an environmental stressor, the sounds of a thunderstorm, in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were assigned to one of 2 experimental groups (Vest and No-Vest, n = 8 dogs per group) by using a matched pairs design, with a previously determined, sound-associated anxiety score as the blocking variable. Dogs were individually retested with the same standardized sound stimulus (thunderstorm) in an open-field arena, and their behavioral responses were video recorded. Video analysis of locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior and manual determination of heart rate and body temperature were performed; results were compared between groups. Vest wearing did not affect total locomotor activity or rectal body temperature but significantly decreased heart rate by 8% and overall mean anxiety score by 34% during open-field test sessions. Our results suggest that the use of telemetry vests in dogs influences the measurement of physiologic parameters and behaviors that are assessed in safety pharmacology studies.

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  18. Automated TV based system for open field studies: Effects of methamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanger, H.J.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described whereby open field behaviour of rats can be automatically registered using a TV camera, a video converter, an X-Y recorder and a papertape puncher. Use is made of the scanning properties of the TV camera to obtain the X and Y coordinates of the rat's position and to print this

  19. Measurements and predictions of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. Sound propagation predictions and background noise...

  20. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  1. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the

  2. Role of herbicide treatments and application times in cogongrass eradication under open field infestation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cogongrass eradication project was conducted from spring 2008 through fall 2011 on natural, open-field Cogongrass infestations at two locations near Tilman's Corner and Bayou La Batre in southwestern Alabama. Treatments consisted of glyphosate alone (4 lb/acre), imazapyr alone (0.75 lb/acre) and ...

  3. Modeling and measuring sound propagation of hooded crow calls in open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    representative of crow territorial communication and taking into account ground effect and air turbulence, we predict an optimal transmission frequency range between 0,5-1.6 kHz. In a natural open field crow habitat we measure, with sender and receiver heights of 2.8 m and transmission distances up to 320 m...

  4. Social Effects on Rat Spatial Choice in an Open Field Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew R.; Brown, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Pairs of rats foraged in trials either together or separately in an open field apparatus for pellets hidden in discreet locations in a 5 x 5 matrix. Trial duration was either 1 or 4 min. The tendency to choose locations that had earlier been visited by another rat was examined by comparing the choices made in the presence and absence of the other…

  5. A handheld open-field infant keratometer (an american ophthalmological society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M

    2010-12-01

    To design and evaluate a new infant keratometer that incorporates an unobstructed view of the infant with both eyes (open-field design). The design of the open-field infant keratometer is presented, and details of its construction are given. The design incorporates a single-ring keratoscope for measurement of corneal astigmatism over a 4-mm region of the cornea and includes a rectangular grid target concentric within the ring to allow for the study of higher-order aberrations of the eye. In order to calibrate the lens and imaging system, a novel telecentric test object was constructed and used. The system was bench calibrated against steel ball bearings of known dimensions and evaluated for accuracy while being used in handheld mode in a group of 16 adult cooperative subjects. It was then evaluated for testability in a group of 10 infants and toddlers. Results indicate that while the device achieved the goal of creating an open-field instrument containing a single-ring keratoscope with a concentric grid array for the study of higher-order aberrations, additional work is required to establish better control of the vertex distance. The handheld open-field infant keratometer demonstrates testability suitable for the study of infant corneal astigmatism. Use of collimated light sources in future iterations of the design must be incorporated in order to achieve the accuracy required for clinical investigation.

  6. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  7. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  8. Seasonal variation of the impact of a stressful procedure on open field behaviour and blood corticosterone in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Caston, J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2006-02-28

    Behavioural and hormonal seasonal changes are well documented in various vertebrate species living in their natural environment but circannual variations that may occur in laboratory animals reared in standard conditions are poorly investigated. This study shows that, in laboratory mice, the effects of stress on behavioural inhibition, investigatory behaviour and blood concentration of corticosterone are seasonally dependent. No consistency was observed between the reactivity of biological structures controlling the hormonal response to stress and the behavioural activities investigated at every period of the year. During the spring time, stress, which elicited a decrease of investigatory behaviour (estimated by the walking time in an open field), increased behavioural inhibition (estimated by the percentage of walking in the central area of the open field) as well as the blood corticosterone concentration in laboratory mice. In autumn, stress had no significant effect on behaviour despite the great hormonal concentration increase. The results reveal that, at certain period of the year, a stressful procedure is unable to affect behavioural parameters in laboratory mice which were maintained in constant 12-h dark/12-h light cycle. The report constitutes a novel piece of information suggesting a potential role of the endogenous biological clock in the modulation of stress response in mammals.

  9. Effects of clinically relevant doses of methyphenidate on spatial memory, behavioral sensitization and open field habituation: a time related study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-03-15

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD) is a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite acceptable therapeutic efficacy, there is limited data regarding the long-term consequences of MPD exposure over extended periods. The present study concerns effects of clinically relevant doses of MPD, administered orally to rats for an extended period, on spatial memory, behavioral sensitization and habituation to an open field. Water maze test was used to monitor memory acquisition (2 h after training), retention (day next to training), extinction (1 week after training) and reconsolidation (weekly for 4 weeks). Administration of MPD at doses of 0.25-1.0 mg/kg improved memory acquisition, retention, reconsolidation and impaired memory extinction. Treatment with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg MPD for 6 weeks produced a sustained increase in motor activity but higher dose (1.0 mg/kg) elicited behavioral sensitization. High as well as low doses MPD impaired open field habituation. We conclude that clinically relevant doses of MPD enhance memory even if used for extended period. It is suggested that higher (1.0 mg/kg) clinically relevant doses of MPD, if used for extended period, may exacerbate hyperactivity and impulsivity associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions....... Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  11. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing various modes of installation for permanent broadband stations in open field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier; Arnold, Benoît; Louis-Xavier, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français) project, we plan to install more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations in metropolitan France within the next 6 years. Whenever possible, the sensors will be installed in natural or artificial underground cavities that provide a stable thermal environment. However such places do not exist everywhere and we expect that about half the future stations will have to be set up in open fields. For such sites, we are thus looking for a standard model of hosting infrastructure for the sensors that would be easily replicated and would provide good noise level performances at long periods. Since early 2013, we have been operating a prototype station at Clévilliers, a small location in the sedimentary Beauce plain, where we test three kinds of buried seismic vaults and a down-hole installation. The cylindrical seismic vaults are 3m deep and 1m wide and only differ by the type of coupling between the casing and the concrete slab where we installed insulated Trillium T120PA seismometers. The down-hole installation consists in a 3m deep well hosting a Trillium Posthole seismometer. For reference, another sensor has been installed in a ~50cm deep hole, similarly to the way we test every new potential site. Here we compare the noise level in each infrastructure at different frequencies. We observe quite similar performances for the vertical component recorded in the different wells. Conversely, the noise levels on the horizontal components at periods greater than 10s vary by more than 20dB depending on the installation condition. The best results are obtained in the completely decoupled vault and for the down-hole setting, both showing performances comparable to some of our permanent stations installed in tunnels. The amplitude of the horizontal noise also appears to be highly correlated to wind speed recorded on site, even at long periods. The variable response of each vault to such

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record No. 770. Magnetometer FEREX DLG GPS/Sling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwatka, Mike; Packer, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site open field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Mike Karwatka and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted...... with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity...

  15. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, M W; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Poulsen, B; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2008-08-26

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to the open-field arena activates an anxiety-related neuronal system with convergent input to the

  16. Chronic methylphenidate-effects over circadian cycle of young and adult rats submitted to open-field and object recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karin M; Souza, Renan P; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Inácio, Cecília G; Martins, Márcio R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João

    2009-11-01

    In this study age-, circadian rhythm- and methylphenidate administration- effect on open field habituation and object recognition were analyzed. Young and adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline or methylphenidate 2.0 mg/kg for 28 days. Experiments were performed during the light and the dark cycle. Locomotor activity was significantly altered by circadian cycle and methylphenidate treatment during the training session and by drug treatment during the testing session. Exploratory activity was significantly modulated by age during the training session and by age and drug treatment during the testing session. Object recognition memory was altered by cycle at the training session; by age 1.5 h later and by cycle and age 24 h after the training session. These results show that methylphenidate treatment was the major modulator factor on open-field test while cycle and age had an important effect on object recognition experiment.

  17. GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF KIWANO IN THE OPEN FIELD IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Naumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiwano plants, or horned cucumber (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey ex Naudin was grown in the open field in several experimental plots in the south of West Siberia (54,95025 N, 83,09763 E. Fruits production was correlated with night air temperature sum and soil organic matter content, reaching the maximum of 2.7 kg (fresh phytomass per plant. Fruit size and some basic juice characteristics were similar to those of kiwano fruits grown elsewhere in the world. The vegetative phytomass grown was correlated with day air temperature sum, being practically independent of soil chemical properties. Thus kiwano can be recommended as a crop to be grown in the open field in the south of West Siberia and other regions of Russia with similar soil and environmental conditions.

  18. Finasteride inhibited brain dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kang, Yun-Xiao; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ying-Kun; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Cui, Hui-Xian; Shi, Ge-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels. Meanwhile, open-field behaviors of the rats are examined because of the regulatory effect of dopaminergic system on the behaviors. Open-field behaviors were evaluated by exploratory and motor behaviors. Dopamine and its metabolites were assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. It was found that in adolescent male rats, administration of finasteride at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days dose dependently inhibited open-field behaviors, reduced contents of dopamine and its metabolites in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and down-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, there was no significant change of these parameters in early developmental rats after finasteride treatment. These results suggest that finasteride inhibits dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and imply finasteride as a potential therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hyperactivities of dopaminergic system and androgen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, Moshe; Legg, James P; Wintermantel, William M; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open-field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open-field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many cases adequate management has not been possible. Diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted viruses have become limiting factors in open-field production of a wide range of crops, i.e., bean golden mosaic disease in beans, tomato yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease in cassava, and cotton leaf crumple disease in cotton. While host resistance has proven to be the most cost-effective management solution, few examples of host resistance have been developed to date. The main strategy to limit the incidence of virus-infected plants has been the application of insecticides to reduce vector populations aided to some extent by the use of selected cultural practices. However, due to concerns about the effect of insecticides on pollinators, consumer demand for reduced pesticide use, and the ability of the whitefly vectors to develop insecticide-resistance, there is a growing need to develop and deploy strategies that do not rely on insecticides. The reduction in pesticide use will greatly increase the need for genetic resistance to more viruses in more crop plants. Resistance combined with selected IPM strategies could become a viable means to increase yields in crops produced in open fields despite the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

  20. Characterizing the Utility and Limitations of Repurposing an Open-Field Optical Imaging Device for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsay S; Rosenthal, Eben L; Chung, Thomas K; de Boer, Esther; Patel, Neel; Prince, Andrew C; Korb, Melissa L; Walsh, Erika M; Young, E Scott; Stevens, Todd M; Withrow, Kirk P; Morlandt, Anthony B; Richman, Joshua S; Carroll, William R; Zinn, Kurt R; Warram, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared devices designed for indocyanine green-based perfusion imaging to identify cancer-specific bioconjugates with overlapping excitation and emission wavelengths. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated potential for fluorescence-guided surgery, but the time and cost of the approval process may impede clinical translation. To expedite this translation, we explored the feasibility of repurposing existing optical imaging devices for fluorescence-guided surgery. Consenting patients (n = 15) scheduled for curative resection were enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the safety and specificity of cetuximab-IRDye800 (NCT01987375). Open-field fluorescence imaging was performed preoperatively and during the surgical resection. Fluorescence intensity was quantified using integrated instrument software, and the tumor-to-background ratio characterized fluorescence contrast. In the preoperative clinic, the open-field device demonstrated potential to guide preoperative mapping of tumor borders, optimize the day of surgery, and identify occult lesions. Intraoperatively, the device demonstrated robust potential to guide surgical resections, as all peak tumor-to-background ratios were greater than 2 (range, 2.2-14.1). Postresection wound bed fluorescence was significantly less than preresection tumor fluorescence (P open-field imaging device was successfully repurposed to distinguish cancer from normal tissue in the preoperative clinic and throughout surgical resection. This study illuminated the potential for existing open-field optical imaging devices with overlapping excitation and emission spectra to be used for fluorescence-guided surgery. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  1. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  2. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  3. Habituation of medaka (Oryzias latipes) demonstrated by open-field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

    2010-10-01

    Habituation to novel environments is frequently studied to analyze cognitive phenotypes in animals, and an open-field test is generally conducted to investigate the changes that occur in animals during habituation. The test has not been used in behavioral studies of medaka (Oryzias latipes), which is recently being used in behavioral research. Therefore, we examined the open-field behavior of medaka on the basis of temporal changes in 2 conventional indexes of locomotion and position. The findings of our study clearly showed that medaka changed its behavior through multiple temporal phases as it became more familiar with new surroundings; this finding is consistent with those of other ethological studies in animals. During repeated open-field testing on 2 consecutive days, we observed that horizontal locomotion on the second day was less than that on the first day, which suggested that habituation is retained in fish for days. This temporal habituation was critically affected by water factors or visual cues of the tank, thereby suggesting that fish have spatial memory of their surroundings. Thus, the data from this study will afford useful fundamental information for behavioral phenotyping of medaka and for elucidating cognitive phenotypes in animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Propentofylline treatment on open field behavior in rats with focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelination in the ventral surface of the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, J L; Bernardi, M M; Bondan, E F

    2016-03-01

    Propentofylline (PPF) is a xanthine derivative with pharmacological effects that are distinct from those of classic methylxanthines. It depresses the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes, which is associated with neuronal damage during neural inflammation and hypoxia. Our previous studies showed that PPF improved remyelination following gliotoxic lesions that were induced by ethidium bromide (EB). In the present study, the long-term effects of PPF on open field behavior in rats with EB-induced focal demyelination were examined. The effects of PPF were first evaluated in naive rats that were not subjected to EB lesions. Behavior in the beam walking test was also evaluated during chronic PPF treatment because impairments in motor coordination can interfere with behavior in the open field. The results showed that PPF treatment in unlesioned rats decreased general activity and caused motor impairment in the beam walking test. Gliotoxic EB injections increased general activity in rats that were treated with PPF compared with rats that received saline solution. Motor incoordination was also attenuated in PPF-treated rats. These results indicate that PPF reversed the effects of EB lesions on behavior in the open field and beam walking test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of perinatal lead exposure on rat behaviour in open-field and two-way avoidance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.L.S. [Federal Univ. of Santa Catarina, Center of Biological Sciences, Dept. of Biochemistry, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Rocha, J.B.T.; Mello, C.F. [Federal Univ. of Santa Maria, Dept. of Chemistry, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Souza, D.O. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Biosciences Inst., Dept. of Biochemistry, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-09-01

    In view of conflicting results in literature concerning lead exposure associated with behavioural alterations, this study investigated behaviour in the open-field and shuttle avoidance, for as well as tissue lead burdens of pre- and postnatally lead-exposed rats. Rats were exposed to the metal from conception to weaning by giving the dams 0.5, 2.0 or 4.0 mM lead acetate in drinking water. This regimen did not affect body weight gain of dams or offspring development and had no effect on cerebral weights nor on haematological parameters of 23-day-old rats. In 1-day-old rats, lead accumulated in the blood but not in the brain, whereas both in 23-day-old rats and in dams lead accumulated in blood, kidney and cerebral cortex. In the open-field, lead-exposed groups showed higher locomotor activity in the test session as compared to controls and did not show any decrease in rearing responses in the test, indicating less habituation. Lead-treated rats subjected to a shuttle avoidance task showed no significant increase in avoidance responses between sessions as compared to control, indicating less retention. Moreover, only the control group presented a significant reduction of the footshock escape latency along testing session, suggesting a lead effect on footshock escape acquisition. In the shuttle box, intertrial crossing responses were not affected by lead treatment. The behavioural alterations occurred in animals with blood lead levels in the range 11-50.6 {mu}g/dl. (au) 34 refs.

  6. QTL and systems genetics analysis of mouse grooming and behavioral responses to novelty in an open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprato, A; Algéo, M-P; Bonheur, B; Bubier, J A; Lu, L; Williams, R W; Chesler, E J; Crusio, W E

    2017-11-01

    The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety and locomotor activity in rodents. Here, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources. We quantified behavioral traits during 20-min test sessions including (1) percent time spent and distance traveled near the wall (thigmotaxis), (2) leaning against the wall, (3) rearing, (4) jumping, (5) grooming duration, (6) grooming frequency, (7) locomotion and (8) defecation. All traits exhibit moderate heritability making them amenable to genetic analysis. We identified a significant QTL on chromosome M.m. 4 at approximately 104 Mb that modulates grooming duration in both males and females (likelihood ratio statistic values of approximately 18, explaining 25% and 14% of the variance, respectively) and a suggestive QTL modulating locomotion that maps to the same locus. Bioinformatic analysis indicates Disabled 1 (Dab1, a key protein in the reelin signaling pathway) as a particularly strong candidate gene modulating these behaviors. We also found 2 highly suggestive QTLs for a sex by strain interaction for grooming duration on chromosomes 13 and 17. In addition, we identified a pairwise epistatic interaction between loci on chromosomes 12 at 36-37 Mb and 14 at 34-36 Mb that influences rearing frequency in males. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the rangewide conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, D.J.; Wood, David J.A.; Bowen, Z.H.; Donovan, R.M.; Holloran, M.J.; Juliusson, L.M.; Mayne, K.S.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quamen, F.R.; Saher, D.J.; Titolo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Sage-Grouse, has been observed, hunted, and counted for decades. The sagebrush biome, home to the Greater Sage-Grouse, includes sagebrush-steppe and Great Basin sagebrush communities, interspersed with grasslands, salt flats, badlands, mountain ranges, springs, intermittent creeks and washes, and major river systems, and is one of the most widespread and enigmatic components of Western U.S. landscapes. Over time, habitat conversion, degradation, and fragmentation have accumulated across the entire range such that local conditions as well as habitat distributions at local and regional scales are negatively affecting the long-term persistence of this species. Historic patterns of human use and settlement of the sagebrush ecosystem have contributed to the current condition and status of sage-grouse populations. The accumulation of habitat loss, persistent habitat degradation, and fragmentation by industry and urban infrastructure, as indicated by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) findings, presents a significant challenge for conservation of this species and sustainable management of the sagebrush ecosystem. Because of the wide variations in natural and human history across these landscapes, no single prescription for management of sagebrush ecosystems (including sage-grouse habitats) will suffice to guide the collective efforts of public and private entities to conserve the species and its habitat. This report documents and summarizes several decades of work on sage-grouse populations, sagebrush as habitat, and sagebrush community and ecosystem functions based on the recent assessment and findings of the USFWS under consideration of the Endangered Species Act. As reflected here, some of these topics receive a greater depth of discussion because of the perceived importance of the issue for sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse populations. Drawing connections between the direct effects on sagebrush ecosystems and the effect of ecosystem condition on

  8. Post-training scopolamine treatment induced maladaptive behavior in open field habituation task in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Popović

    Full Text Available The effects of scopolamine on memory consolidation are controversial and depend on several factors (i.e. site of administration, time of administration and testing, dose, cognitive task, experimental protocol, specie, strain, etc.. Generally, the range dose of systemic administered scopolamine, used in memory consolidation studies, has varied from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg. However, according to the literature, the most frequently used doses of scopolamine efficient on memory consolidation, are 1 and 30 mg/kg, low and high doses, respectively. In open field habituation studies only lower doses of scopolamine were used to test memory consolidation. Therefore, in the present study we compared the effects of low (1 mg/kg and high (30 mg/kg scopolamine dose, on the open field habituation task, in male Wistar rats. Scopolamine was administered immediately after the acquisition task and animals were retested 48 h later on. On the retested day, the ambulation and rearing in the open field decreased in the same manner in all tested groups. In saline- and 1 mg/kg scopolamine-treated animals, the time spent in grooming significantly decreased in the habituation task, while the same parameter significantly increased in animals treated with 30 mg/kg of scopolamine. The defecation rate significantly decreased (control group, maintained (1 mg/kg of scopolamine treated animals or significantly increased (30 mg/kg of scopolamine treated group on retention test. In conclusion, the present data suggest that post-training scopolamine administration does not affect locomotion neither exploration in the habituation to a novel environment, but increases defecation and grooming, two behaviours associated with fearful and stressful situations.

  9. A Human Open Field Test Reveals Thigmotaxis Related to Agoraphobic Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Nora; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Thigmotaxis refers to a specific behavior of animals (i.e., to stay close to walls when exploring an open space). Such behavior can be assessed with the open field test (OFT), which is a well-established indicator of animal fear. The detection of similar open field behavior in humans may verify the translational validity of this paradigm. Enhanced thigmotaxis related to anxiety may suggest the relevance of such behavior for anxiety disorders, especially agoraphobia. A global positioning system was used to analyze the behavior of 16 patients with agoraphobia and 18 healthy individuals with a risk for agoraphobia (i.e., high anxiety sensitivity) during a human OFT and compare it with appropriate control groups (n = 16 and n = 19). We also tracked 17 patients with agoraphobia and 17 control participants during a city walk that involved walking through an open market square. Our human OFT triggered thigmotaxis in participants; patients with agoraphobia and participants with high anxiety sensitivity exhibited enhanced thigmotaxis. This behavior was evident in increased movement lengths along the wall of the natural open field and fewer entries into the center of the field despite normal movement speed and length. Furthermore, participants avoided passing through the market square during the city walk, indicating again that thigmotaxis is related to agoraphobia. This study is the first to our knowledge to verify the translational validity of the OFT and to reveal that thigmotaxis, an evolutionarily adaptive behavior shown by most species, is related to agoraphobia, a pathologic fear of open spaces, and anxiety sensitivity, a risk factor for agoraphobia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  11. GREATER HEMOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) FROM A RELATIVELY CONTAMINATED SITE IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica inhabiting polluted estuaries and coastal areas may bioaccumulate high concentrations of contaminants without apparent ill effects. However, changes in putative internal defense activities have been associated with contaminant accumu...

  12. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  13. The effects of a head only gamma-irradiation on the learning and spatial memory and on open field behavior in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects or a sublethal dose or gamma-rays applied to the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n = 9) were irradiated with a single dose or 20 Gy or gamma rays from a 6O Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in a Morris water maze (MWM) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in the MWM. Horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings or the center of the field and washing behavior were recorded in tests in tbe open field. The results obtained showed, that radiation did not significantly alter the time course of learning in MWM during the experiment. The levels of horizontal and vertical locomotor activity in open field were lower in the irradiated group in comparison with the controls. The number of tbe crossings or the fields center, related to tbe level or anxiety of the animals was not significantly lower in the irradiated animals, whereas no differences in the number of washings between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different levels of their control and coordination in the CNS. (authors)

  14. Open field modifications needed to measure, in the mouse, exploration- driven ambulation and fear of open space.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    The open field test is used to assess ambulation and anxiety; one way to assess anxiety is to compare ambulation in the center with ambulation in the periphery: the more anxious is the mouse, the less it moves in the center. The results of this report cast doubts on the generality of that rule, because they show that ambulation, both in the center and in the periphery, depends on the mouse strain and on the size of the open field; specifically, in a brightly lit open-field of moderate size (3...

  15. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  16. Twenty-three generations of mice bidirectionally selected for open-field thigmotaxis: selection response and repeated exposure to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ravaja, N; Ewalds-Kvist, S B M

    2006-03-01

    We examined: (a) the response to bidirectional selection for open-field (OF) thigmotaxis in mice for 23 generations and (b) the effects of repeated exposure (during 5 days) on different OF behaviors in the selectively bred high OF thigmotaxis (HOFT) and low OF thigmotaxis (LOFT) mice. A total of 2049 mice were used in the study. Prior to the testing in the selection experiment, the mice were exposed to the OF apparatus for approximately 2 min on each of 4 consecutive days. Thus, the selection was based on the scores registered on the 5th day after the four habituation periods. The HOFT mice were more thigmotactic than the LOFT mice in almost each generation. The HOFT mice also tended to rear less than the LOFT mice, which was explained by the inverse relationship between emotionality and exploratory tendencies. The lines did not generally differ in ambulation. Sex differences were found in thigmotaxis, ambulation, and rearing. In the repeated exposure experiment, the development of nine different OF behaviors across the 5 days of testing was addressed. Both lines ambulated, explored, and reared most on the 1st, 4th, and 5th days. Grooming and radial latency decreased and thigmotaxis increased linearly across the testing days. Line differences were found in ambulation, exploration, grooming, and rearing, while sex differences were manifested in ambulation and exploration. The line difference in thigmotaxis was evident only on the 5th day. Temporal changes were partially at variance with the general assumptions. OF thigmotaxis was found to be a powerful characteristic for producing two diverging lines of mice.

  17. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  18. Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lixiang; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-07-21

    Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin-and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9-3.1% ( n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan).

  19. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  20. Olfactory source localization in the open field using one or both nostrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge-Lussen, A; Looser, G L; Westermann, B; Hummel, T

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to examine humans ́ abilities to localize odorants within the open field. Young participants were tested on a localization task using a relatively selective olfactory stimulus (2-phenylethyl-alcohol, PEA) and cineol, an odorant with a strong trigeminal component. Participants were blindfolded and had to localize an odorant source at 2 m distance (far-field condition) and a 0.4 m distance (near-field condition) with either two nostrils open or only one open nostril. For the odorant with trigeminal properties, the number of correct trials did not differ when one or both nostrils were used, while more PEA localization trials were correctly completed with both rather than one nostril. In the near-field condition, correct localization was possible in 72-80% of the trials, irrespective of the odorant and the number of nostrils used. Localization accuracy, measured as spatial deviation from the olfactory source, was significantly higher in the near-field compared to the far-field condition, but independent of the odorant being localized. Odorant localization within the open field is difficult, but possible. In contrast to the general view, humans seem to be able to exploit the two-nostril advantage with increasing task difficulty.

  1. Place and Response Learning in the Open-field Tower Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Campolattaro, Matthew M; Toufexis, Donna J; Mabry, Erin A

    2015-10-28

    This protocol describes how the Open-field Tower Maze (OFTM) paradigm is used to study spatial learning in rodents. This maze is especially useful for examining how rats learn to use a place- or response-learning to successfully navigate in an open-field arena. Additionally, this protocol describes how the OFTM differs from other behavioral maze paradigms that are commonly used to study spatial learning in rodents. The OFTM described in this article was adapted from the one previously described by Cole, Clipperton, and Walt (2007). Specifically, the OFTM was created to test spatial learning in rodents without the experimenter having to consider how "stress" might play a role as a confounding variable. Experiments have shown that stress-alone can significantly affect cognitive function(1). The representative results section contains data from an experiment that used the OFTM to examine the effects of estradiol treatment on place- and response-learning in adult female Sprague Dawley rats(2). Future studies will be designed to examine the role of the hippocampus and striatum in place- and response-learning in the OFTM.

  2. Influence of fogging lenses and cycloplegia on open-field automatic refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, A; González-Méijome, J; Jorge, J

    2008-07-01

    To compare refractive values measured with and without cycloplegia, or with fogging lenses, using an open-field auto-refractor. One hundred and forty-two young adults were enrolled from a university population; 96 were female (67.6%) and 46 were male (32.4%), the age range was 18-26 years (mean 22.3 +/- 3.7 years). The refraction measurement was obtained for the right eye of each subject with the Grand Seiko Auto Ref/Keratometer WAM-5500 (GS) under three conditions, always in this sequence: (1) without cycloplegia (GS), (2) without cycloplegia but using a + 2.00 D fogging lens (GS_2D) and (3) with cycloplegia (GS_cycl). When the average values of spherical equivalent were compared, both accommodation control strategies were almost equally successful: GS, M = -0.85 +/- 2.21 D; GC_2D, M = -0.53 +/- 2.10 D and GS_cycl, M = -0.57 +/- 2.24 D (Kruskal-Wallis test, p open-field autorefraction is performed in young adults.

  3. Automated measurement of spatial preference in the open field test with transmitted lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Kulikov, Victor A

    2008-05-30

    New modification of the open field was designed to improve automation of the test. The main innovations were: (1) transmitted lighting and (2) estimation of probability to find pixels associated with an animal in the selected region of arena as an objective index of spatial preference. Transmitted (inverted) lighting significantly ameliorated the contrast between an animal and arena and allowed to track white animals with similar efficacy as colored ones. Probability as a measure of preference of selected region was mathematically proved and experimentally verified. A good correlation between probability and classic indices of spatial preference (number of region entries and time spent therein) was shown. The algorithm of calculation of probability to find pixels associated with an animal in the selected region was implemented in the EthoStudio software. Significant interstrain differences in locomotion and the central zone preference (index of anxiety) were shown using the inverted lighting and the EthoStudio software in mice of six inbred strains. The effects of arena shape (circle or square) and a novel object presence in the center of arena on the open field behavior in mice were studied.

  4. Use of the Open Field Maze to measure locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibenhener, Michael L; Wooten, Michael C

    2015-02-06

    Animal models have proven to be invaluable to researchers trying to answer questions regarding the mechanisms of behavior. The Open Field Maze is one of the most commonly used platforms to measure behaviors in animal models. It is a fast and relatively easy test that provides a variety of behavioral information ranging from general ambulatory ability to data regarding the emotionality of the subject animal. As it relates to rodent models, the procedure allows the study of different strains of mice or rats both laboratory bred and wild-captured. The technique also readily lends itself to the investigation of different pharmacological compounds for anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects. Here, a protocol for use of the open field maze to describe mouse behaviors is detailed and a simple analysis of general locomotor ability and anxiety-related emotional behaviors between two strains of C57BL/6 mice is performed. Briefly, using the described protocol we show Wild Type mice exhibited significantly less anxiety related behaviors than did age-matched Knock Out mice while both strains exhibited similar ambulatory ability.

  5. [C57BL/6 mice open field behaviour qualitatively depends on arena size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, I V; Pleskacheva, M G; Anokhin, K V

    2012-01-01

    Open field behavior is well known to depend on physical characteristics of the apparatus. However many of such effects are poorly described especially with using of modern methods of behavioral registration and analysis. The previous results of experiments on the effect of arena size on behavior are not numerous and contradictory. We compared the behavioral scores of four groups of C57BL/6 mice in round open field arenas of four different sizes (diameter 35, 75, 150 and 220 cm). The behavior was registered and analyzed using Noldus EthoVision, WinTrack and SegmentAnalyzer software. A significant effect of arena size was found. Traveled distance and velocity increased, but not in proportion to increase of arena size. Moreover a significant effect on segment characteristics of the trajectory was revealed. Detailed behavior analysis revealed drastic differences in trajectory structure and number of rears between smaller (35 and 75 cm) and bigger (150 and 220 cm) arenas. We conclude, that the character of exploration in smaller and bigger arenas depends on relative size of central open zone in arena. Apparently its extension increases the motivational heterogeneity of space, that requires another than in smaller arenas, strategy of exploration.

  6. Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

    2009-02-11

    In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls.

  7. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L

    2012-09-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 26°C), one (HC; 16°C to 26°C) or no (CC; 16°C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  8. The spectral analysis of motion: An "open field" activity test example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have described the new mathematical approach, with spectral analysis of the data to evaluate position and motion in the „„open field““ experiments. The aim of this work is to introduce several new parameters mathematically derived from experimental data by means of spectral analysis, and to quantitatively estimate the quality of the motion. Two original software packages (TRACKER and POSTPROC were used for transforming a video data to a log file, suitable for further computational analysis, and to perform analysis from the log file. As an example, results obtained from the experiments with Wistar rats in the „open field“ test are included. The test group of animals was treated with diazepam. Our results demonstrate that all the calculated parameters, such as movement variability, acceleration and deceleration, were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group. We believe that the application of parameters obtained by spectral analysis could be of great significance in assessing the locomotion impairment in any kind of motion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41007 i br. ON174028

  9. Behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Are the effects on mood and behavior detectable in open-field test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimcikova, Eva; Simko, Julius; Karesova, Iva; Kremlacek, Jan; Malakova, Jana

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are common including both positive and negative effects on mood, anxiety, depression, and psychosis. We aimed to evaluate behavioral patterns in rats after administration of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and zonisamide. The open-field test was performed and locomotion, rearing, grooming, central latency and defecation were recorded over a 5min interval for each rat (8 rats in each group receiving AED and 16 controls). Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test or ANOVA were used to assess differences among the groups. The experimental groups did not differ in latency to enter the center compartment, neither in the decline of locomotor activity in the 1st and the 5th minute of the observation, nor in number of rears. Significant differences among groups were observed in the total number of lines crossed, grooming, as well in the number of fecal pellets. Locomotor activity was significantly increased in lamotrigine, if compared with gabapentin and pregabalin (ANOVA; p <0.05). Rats exposed to topiramate displayed a significantly increased number of grooming (when compared to pregabalin: p<0.01). Defecation (the number of fecal pellets) significantly increased in the gabapentin and carbamazepine group. There are significant differences between AEDs in terms of their behavioral profile. It is of great importance to evaluate these effects in clinical practice to bring more clear insight into these positive or negative side effects of AEDs. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Open-field behaviour in sheep following treatment with the neuroleptics azaperone and acetylpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R N; Syme, L A; Syme, G J

    1977-03-23

    The behavior of individual Romney ewes in an open field was observed after intramuscular injection of isotonic saline or two doses of azaperone (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) or acetylpromazine (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg). Azaperone significantly reduced the distance travelled, urination, and the time spent walking. However it increased nosing of the walls and floor (investigation). Azaperone also increased the numbers of sheep seen grazing and pawing and decreased the number heart vocalizing at least once. The only effect acetylpromazine had was to reduce the number of sheep heart vocalizing. The main results were interpreted as supporting a superior reduction of emotional behaviour by azaperone. It was therefore suggested that, as with pigs, azaperone might be useful for treating stress in sheep.

  11. Mangifera indica extract (Vimang) impairs aversive memory without affecting open field behaviour or habituation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Thales; Martins, Márcio Rodrigo; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Quevedo, João; Delgado, Rene; Roesler, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba for the treatment of immunopathological disorders. Increasing evidence from preclinical studies indicates that Vimang displays antioxidant, antiallergic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions. The present study investigated the effects of systemic administration of Vimang on behavioural outcomes of neurological function in rats. A single oral administration of Vimang produced an impairment of short- and long-term retention of memory for aversive training when given either 1 h pretraining or immediately posttraining, but not 8 h posttraining. Vimang did not affect open field behaviour or habituation. The results indicate that Vimang might induce deficits of emotionally motivated memory without affecting nonassociative memory, locomotion, exploratory behaviour or anxiety. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  13. Charge and current transport in open field lines turbulence: Influence of plasma-surface boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futtersack, R., E-mail: romain.futtersack@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hagelaar, G. [Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the impact of both parallel and transverse boundary conditions on the current and charge transport in open field line systems using the TOKAM2D code, which solves a minimal model for interchange turbulence. Various limit test cases are discussed and analyzed. In the parallel direction, the sheath conductivity is found to play an essential role in the stabilization of large-scale potential structures, leading to the formation of transport channel or transport barrier respectively for an insulating end wall or a wall with an enhanced sheath conductivity. On another hand, the addition of transverse boundary conditions intrinsically changes the transport characteristics, influencing both radial profiles and probability density functions. It underlines that in some cases a detailed description of the plasma-wall interaction process is required to get a proper description of the current loop pattern that determines electrostatic turbulent transport.

  14. Crossfostering in mice selectively bred for high and low levels of open-field thigmotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2005-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether the difference in open-field (OF) thigmotaxis between mice selectively bred for high and low levels of wall-seeking behavior originated from genetic or acquired sources. Unfostered, infostered, and crossfostered mice were compared in two experiments in which the effects of strain, sex, and fostering on ambulation, defecation, exploration, grooming, latency to move, radial latency, rearing, thigmotaxis, and urination were studied. These experiments revealed that OF thigmotaxis was unaffected by the foster condition and thus genetically determined. The selected strains of mice also diverged repeatedly with regard to exploration and rearing. The findings are in line with the previously described existence of an inverse relationship between emotionality and exploration.

  15. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  16. Inability of Open-Field Autorefraction to Eliminate Accommodation in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Caner; Petriçli, İkbal Seza

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer (Rexxam Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) (also branded as the Grand Seiko WR-5100K; Grand Seiko Co. Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) based on the open-field refractometry principle in refractive measurements of preschool children and to determine its ability to eliminate accommodation adequately. The refractive results of 114 preschool children who presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department for screening were evaluated. The measurements were obtained before and after cycloplegia with the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer and after cycloplegia with retinoscopy, which is the gold standard. The results underwent vectorial transformation to produce the spherical equivalent (M) and two Jackson cross-cylinder (J0 and J45) values. All results were then subjected to statistical analysis. The difference between the measurements was evaluated with repeated measures analysis of variance. Included in the study were 106 preschool children (51 boys and 55 girls). The mean age was 5.3 ± 0.9 years (range: 3 to 6 years). Although statistically significantly more myopic results were obtained with non-cycloplegic measurements using the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer (P .05). Cycloplegic J0 measurements were significantly lower (P .05). The Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001/Grand Seiko WR-5100K open-field autorefractometer seems to be inadequate in eliminating accommodation in childhood. Measurements under cycloplegia continue to be the best method to ensure accurate results. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(5):311-318.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Automatic analysis of altered gait in arylsulphatase A-deficient mice in the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Toon; Stroobants, Stijn; Aerts, Jean-Marie; D'Hooge, Rudi; Berckmans, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    In current research with laboratory animals, observing their dynamic behavior or locomotion is a labor-intensive task. Automatic continuous monitoring can provide quantitative data on each animal's condition and coordination ability. The objective of the present work is to develop an automated mouse observation system integrated with a conventional open-field test for motor function evaluation. Data were acquired from 86 mice having a targeted disruption of the arylsulphatase A (ASA) gene and having lowered coordinated locomotion abilities as a symptom. The mice used were 36 heterozygotes (12 females) and 50 knockout mice (30 females) at the age of 6 months. The mice were placed one at a time into the test setup, which consisted of a Plexiglas cage (53x34.5x26 cm) and two fluorescent bulbs for proper illumination. The transparent cage allowed images to be captured from underneath the cage, so image information could be obtained about the dynamic variation of the positions of the limbs of the mice for gait reconstruction. Every mouse was recorded for 10 min. Background subtraction and color filtering were used to measure and calculate image features, which are variables that contain crucial information, such as the mouse's position, orientation, body outline, and possible locations for the mouse's paws. A set of heuristic rules was used to prune implausible paw features and label the remaining ones as front/hind and left/right. After we had pruned the implausible paw features, the paw features that were consistent over subsequent images were matched to footprints. Finally, from the measured footprint sequence, eight parameters were calculated in order to quantify the gait of the mouse. This automatic observation technique can be integrated with a regular open-field test, where the trajectory and motor function of a free-moving mouse are measured simultaneously.

  18. Environmental novelty and illumination modify ethanol-induced open-field behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela F; Benetti, Liliane F; Josino, Fabiana S; Oliveira, Gabriela P; Fernandes, Maiara deM; Saito, Luis P; Uehara, Regina A; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Oliveira, Camila S; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Both spontaneous and drug-induced animal behaviors can be modified by exposure to novel stimuli or different levels of environmental illumination. However, research into how these factors specifically impact ethanol (ETH)-induced behavioral effects is currently lacking. We aimed to investigate the effects of these two factors, considered separately or in conjunction, on ETH-induced acute hyperlocomotor effect and its sensitization in adult male Swiss mice. Mice were placed in a novel or familiar open-field under normal light (200 lx) or low light (9 lx) immediately after receiving an ip injection of either 1.8 g/kg ETH or saline (SAL). After 7 days, all animals received an ip challenge injection of 1.8 g/kg ETH, and were placed in the open-field under the same light conditions described above. Novelty increased central locomotion and decreased grooming, while low light increased grooming. Acute ETH administration increased both total and peripheral locomotion and these effects were potentiated by low light. Both low light and novelty were able to facilitate ETH-induced locomotor sensitization, which was detected by the central locomotion parameter. However, there was no synergism between the effects of these two modulating factors on ETH-induced behavioral sensitization. We conclude that both the acute behavioral effects of ETH and behavioral sensitization induced by previous administration of this drug can be critically modified by environmental factors. In addition, our study stresses the importance of using different behavioral parameters to evaluate the interaction between environmental factors and ETH effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Neonatal Semax and saline injections induce open-field behavior changes in mice of different genotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, O B; Markina, N V; Perepelkina, O V; Gichenok, I V; Korochkin, L I; Poletaeva, I I

    2004-01-01

    DBA/2, CBA mice, and their F1 hybrids (first series) and 101/HY and C3H mice (second series) were injected as neonates (2-7 days of life) with Semax (sc., 7 microg per animal). Semax is a peptide analogue of ACHT4-10 fragment which is resistant to degradation. The common feature of remote effects of both Semax and saline injections was the set of changes in the open-field behavior in adult (2.5- to 3-month-old) animals as compared to intact mice. Unexpectedly, the neonatal saline injections induced many changes in adult behavior, part of these effects being genotype-dependent. The most conspicuous shifts (genotype-dependent increase or decline) in freezing, grooming and rearing scores were displayed by DBA/2 and C3H mice, whereas the hole-poke frequencies were significantly changed in CBA and C3H mice. Squares crossed in the center of arena and rearing number were significantly increased in saline group of DBA/2 mice, whereas in Semax-injected DBA/2 group they were approximately equal to the level of intact mice. This means that the remote effects of noxious stimulation (injections of saline) were in some ways "compensated" as the result of concomitant peptide effect. At the same time, the numbers of freezing and grooming episodes were also increased in these groups. Because exploratory behavior and manifestations of anxiety increased or decreased simultaneously, it proves to be difficult to ascribe these changes to behavioral modulation along the "novelty seeking--anxiety" axis. In mice of other genotypes, changes in the same indices of the open-field behavior were revealed, but these changes were different in their direction. It was suggested that the complex patterns of postnatal behavior was the result of neonatal injections modulating subsequent brain development.

  20. Use of a platform in an automated open-field to enhance assessment of anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, Vladimir M; Lanthorn, Thomas H; Savelieva, Katerina V

    2007-05-15

    The present report describes a setup for simultaneously measuring anxiety-like behaviors and locomotor activity in mice. Animals are placed in a brightly lit, standard automated open-field (OF) in which a rectangular ceramic platform 8 cm high covers one quadrant of the floor. Mice preferred to stay under the platform, avoiding the area with bright illumination. Activities under and outside the platform were measured for 5 min. Chlordiazepoxide and buspirone dose-dependently increased time spent outside the platform (L-Time) and the light distance to total OF distance ratio (L:T-TD) in both genders without changing total OF distance. By contrast, amphetamine decreased L-Time and L:T-TD in males, thus displaying an anxiogenic effect. Imipramine was without selective effect on L-Time or L:T-TD, but decreased total OF distance at the highest dose indicative of a sedative effect. Drug effects were also evaluated in the OF without platform using conventional anxiety measures. Introduction of the platform into the OF apparatus strongly enhanced the sensitivity to anxiolytics. Comparison of strains differing in activity or anxiety levels showed that L-Time and L:T-TD can be used as measures of anxiety-like behavior independent of locomotor activity. Changes in motor activity are reflected in the total distance traveled under and outside the platform. Therefore, the platform test is fully automated, sensitive to both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs and genetic phenotypes with little evidence of gender-specific responses, and can be easily utilized by most laboratories measuring behavior.

  1. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  2. Are voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior correlated in mice? Different answers from comparative and artificial selection approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Ordonez, Genesis; Garland, Theodore

    2012-09-01

    Voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior are probably the two most widely used measures of locomotion in laboratory rodents. We tested whether these two behaviors are correlated in mice using two approaches: the phylogenetic comparative method using inbred strains of mice and an ongoing artificial selection experiment on voluntary wheel running. After taking into account the measurement error and phylogenetic relationships among inbred strains, we obtained a significant positive correlation between distance run on wheels and distance moved in the open-field for both sexes. Thigmotaxis was negatively correlated with distance run on wheels in females but not in males. By contrast, mice from four replicate lines bred for high wheel running did not differ in either distance covered or thigmotaxis in the open field as compared with mice from four non-selected control lines. Overall, results obtained in the selection experiment were generally opposite to those observed among inbred strains. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  3. Effects of combined exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and shaker stress on acoustic startle response, pre-pulse inhibition and open field behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovicky, M; Paton, S; Morris, M; Mach, M; Lucot, J B

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of combined exposure of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and chronic shaker stress on acoustic startle responses (ASR), pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and open field behavior of adult C57BL/6J mice. PB (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days) or saline was administered subcutaneously using osmotic Alzet minipumps implanted under the skin on the back of the mice. At the same time, the mice were exposed to 7 days of intermittent shaker stress. They were tested for ASR (100 dB and 120 dB stimuli) and PPI (70 dB + 100 dB and 70 dB + 120 dB) in the acoustic startle monitor system. The mice were assessed during the shaker stress on days 2 and 7 and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after discontinuation of treatment. Separate groups of mice were tested in the open field in 15 min sessions on days 1, 3 and 6 during shaker stress and PB treatment. Exposure of mice to PB resulted in an exaggerated ASR, reduced PPI and non-significant decrease in locomotor activity. These behavioral changes were apparent only during exposure to PB. Repeated shaker stress did not have any effect on sensorimotor functions or open field behavior of mice. There was no prolonged or delayed effect of PB and/or stress on individual behavioral variables. The study found C57BL/6J mice to be behaviorally sensitive to PB treatment. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparative energy input–output and financial analyses of greenhouse and open field vegetables production in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswardhani, Nita; Soni, Peeyush; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates energy consumption per unit floor area of greenhouse and open field for tomato, chili and lettuce production. Primary data were collected from 530 vegetable farmers during Jan–Dec, 2010 in West Java, Indonesia. Energy estimates were calculated from actual amount of inputs and outputs and corresponding conversion factors. Results reveal that the total input energy used in greenhouse (GH) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 47.62, 41.55, 58.84, and 24.54 GJ/ha respectively. Whereas, the requirement of total input energy for open field (OF) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 49.01, 41.04, 57.94 and 23.87 GJ/ha, respectively. The ratio of output to input energy was higher in greenhouse production (0.85, 0.45 and 0.49) than open field vegetable production (0.52, 0.175 and 0.186) for tomato, chili medium land and chili highland, respectively, but output–input ratio of lettuce open field production was twice as that of greenhouse vegetable production. Financial analysis revealed higher mean net returns from greenhouse vegetable production as 7043 $/ha (922–15,299 $/ha) when compared to 571 $/ha (44–1172 $/ha) from open field vegetable production. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation was the most profitable in terms of energy efficiency and financial productivity. - Highlights: ► Energy input–output analysis is carried out to compare vegetables production in greenhouse and open field. ► Tomato, Chili and Lettuce production in West Java, Indonesia. ► Economic analysis is conducted to compare the two production systems

  5. Advances in continuum kinetic and gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence on open-field line geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ammar; Shi, Eric; Juno, James; Bernard, Tess; Hammett, Greg

    2017-10-01

    For weakly collisional (or collisionless) plasmas, kinetic effects are required to capture the physics of micro-turbulence. We have implemented solvers for kinetic and gyrokinetic equations in the computational plasma physics framework, Gkeyll. We use a version of discontinuous Galerkin scheme that conserves energy exactly. Plasma sheaths are modeled with novel boundary conditions. Positivity of distribution functions is maintained via a reconstruction method, allowing robust simulations that continue to conserve energy even with positivity limiters. We have performed a large number of benchmarks, verifying the accuracy and robustness of our code. We demonstrate the application of our algorithm to two classes of problems (a) Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of turbulence in a magnetized plasma, applicable to space plasmas; (b) Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in open-field-line geometries, applicable to laboratory plasmas. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  6. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  7. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after...

  9. The behavior of rats irradiated with a sublethal single dose of γ-rays on the region of head in open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Kereskenyiova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was to establish the effects of the irradiation of head in laboratory rats on some forms of naturalistic behavior in the open field test. During a 5-day control period behavioral parameters reflecting motory and explorative activity, as well as anxiousness of animals (6 parameters in total) were followed daily in 20 male Sprague-Dowley rats in an open field test lasting 5 minutes. Fourteen animals were repeatedly tested after irradiation of head with a single dose of 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results showed statistically significant depression of motory and explorative activities during the first 3 days after irradiation in comparison with the control period. The anxiousness of animals was decreased, too. Novelty habituation was observed only in non-irradiated animals. Based on these results it is possible to presume, that the applied dose of ionizing radiation was able to influence the brain centers involved in control of naturalistic behavioral functions connected with response to new environment in rats. (authors)

  10. [Effect of genotype and day or night time of testing on mice behavior in the light-dark box and the open-field tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, M V; Kulikov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The light-dark box (LDB) and the open-field (OF) tests are widespread experimental models for studying locomotion and anxiety in laboratory rats and mice. The fact that rodents are nocturnal animals and more active at night raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments carried out in the light phase are methodologically correct. Parameters of behavior of four mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA2/J, AKR/J and CBA/LacJ) in the light-dark box and open-field tests in the light and dark phases were compared. No significant influence of the phase of testing on anxiety in LDB and OF tests was revealed. In the OF test CBA mice showed increased locomotor activity, whereas AKR and C57BL/6 mice showed increased defecation in the dark phase. It was concluded that: 1) the phase of testing is not crucial for the expression of anxiety in LDB and OF; 2) the sensitivity to the phase of testing depends on the genotype; 3) the indices of behavior in the genotypes sensitive to the phase of testing (locomotion in the CBA and defecation in the AKR and C57BL/6 mouse strains) are increased in the dark phase.

  11. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Tarr, Andrew J; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yufen; Reed, Nathaniel S; Demarsh, Cameron P; Sheridan, John F; Quan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6). However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior) of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure) without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive challenges with subthreshold levels of E. coli may obviate the induction of sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine expression.

  12. Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in c57-bl/6 mice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A M; Burleson, L E; Holmes, A K; Geist, C R

    2000-09-01

    Kombucha is a lightly fermented tea beverage popularly consumed as a self-prescribed folk-remedy for numerous ailments. Kombucha is claimed to enhance cognition, aid weight loss, and prolong life. This pilot study reports longevity, general health, and open-field exploratory behavioral outcomes from a 3-y longitudinal study of 64 C57-BL/6 mice (males and females), half of which chronically drank kombucha, and all of which experienced natural mortality. Compared by MANOVA to controls, mice that drank kombucha showed greater vertical exploration (P = 0.001) and a sex-interactive effect in novel object manipulation (P = 0.049). MANOVA of kombucha-drinking mice compared to controls detected differences in appetitive behaviors (food consumption, P kombucha lived longer than controls (P kombucha.

  13. Analysis of the trajectory of Drosophila melanogaster in a circular open field arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Dan; Golani, Ilan; Mitra, Partha P

    2007-10-24

    Obtaining a complete phenotypic characterization of a freely moving organism is a difficult task, yet such a description is desired in many neuroethological studies. Many metrics currently used in the literature to describe locomotor and exploratory behavior are typically based on average quantities or subjectively chosen spatial and temporal thresholds. All of these measures are relatively coarse-grained in the time domain. It is advantageous, however, to employ metrics based on the entire trajectory that an organism takes while exploring its environment. To characterize the locomotor behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, we used a video tracking system to record the trajectory of a single fly walking in a circular open field arena. The fly was tracked for two hours. Here, we present techniques with which to analyze the motion of the fly in this paradigm, and we discuss the methods of calculation. The measures we introduce are based on spatial and temporal probability distributions and utilize the entire time-series trajectory of the fly, thus emphasizing the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Marginal and joint probability distributions of speed, position, segment duration, path curvature, and reorientation angle are examined and related to the observed behavior. The measures discussed in this paper provide a detailed profile of the behavior of a single fly and highlight the interaction of the fly with the environment. Such measures may serve as useful tools in any behavioral study in which the movement of a fly is an important variable and can be incorporated easily into many setups, facilitating high-throughput phenotypic characterization.

  14. Analysis of the trajectory of Drosophila melanogaster in a circular open field arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Valente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining a complete phenotypic characterization of a freely moving organism is a difficult task, yet such a description is desired in many neuroethological studies. Many metrics currently used in the literature to describe locomotor and exploratory behavior are typically based on average quantities or subjectively chosen spatial and temporal thresholds. All of these measures are relatively coarse-grained in the time domain. It is advantageous, however, to employ metrics based on the entire trajectory that an organism takes while exploring its environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize the locomotor behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, we used a video tracking system to record the trajectory of a single fly walking in a circular open field arena. The fly was tracked for two hours. Here, we present techniques with which to analyze the motion of the fly in this paradigm, and we discuss the methods of calculation. The measures we introduce are based on spatial and temporal probability distributions and utilize the entire time-series trajectory of the fly, thus emphasizing the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Marginal and joint probability distributions of speed, position, segment duration, path curvature, and reorientation angle are examined and related to the observed behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The measures discussed in this paper provide a detailed profile of the behavior of a single fly and highlight the interaction of the fly with the environment. Such measures may serve as useful tools in any behavioral study in which the movement of a fly is an important variable and can be incorporated easily into many setups, facilitating high-throughput phenotypic characterization.

  15. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  16. Electroantennogram responses of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes) to host odours in an open field and riverine woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; den Otter, C.J; Noorman, N

    The present study was initiated to gain insight into the way in which tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) sense odours at different locations in odour plumes in both an open field and a wooded area. We recorded the antennal responses (EAGs) from stationary living female G. pallidipes 15 m upwind and at

  17. Predicting Canopy Temperatures without and with Infrared Heating of Open-Field Plots and Energy Requirements for such Infrared Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the likely effect of global warming on agricultural productivity while avoiding experimental artifacts, there is a need to conduct warming research under conditions as representative as possible of future open fields, i.e., temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) e...

  18. The behaviour of the paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis) in two different open-fields. A correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, R; Csányi, V

    1987-01-01

    The behaviour of the paradise fish in a traditional "closed" and in a new "transparent" open-field was investigated. The traditional way of measuring ambulation scores was extended by recording ethologically defined behaviour units. The correlations found between the scores measured in the "closed" field and those measured in the "transparent" field are discussed in this paper.

  19. Behavioral consequences of radiation exposure to simulated space radiation in the C57BL/6 mouse: open field, rotorod, and acoustic startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, Michael J.; Haerich, Paul; Zuccarelli, Cara N.; Smith, Anna L.; Zendejas, Eric D.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the consequences of exposure to proton radiation, such as might occur for astronauts during space flight. C57BL/6 mice were exposed, either with or without 15-g/cm2 aluminum shielding, to 0-, 3-, or 4-Gy proton irradiation mimicking features of a solar particle event. Irradiation produced transient direct deficits in open-field exploratory behavior and acoustic startle habituation. Rotorod performance at 18 rpm was impaired by exposure to proton radiation and was impaired at 26 rpm, but only for mice irradiated with shielding and at the 4-Gy dose. Long-term (>2 weeks) indirect deficits in open-field activity appeared as a result of impaired experiential encoding immediately following exposure. A 2-week recovery prior to testing decreased most of the direct effects of exposure, with only rotorod performance at 26 rpm being impaired. These results suggest that the performance deficits may have been mediated by radiation damage to hippocampal, cerebellar, and possibly, forebrain dopaminergic function.

  20. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  1. Memory retrieval of smoking-related images induce greater insula activation as revealed by an fMRI-based delayed matching to sample task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Amy C; Ross, Robert S; Farmer, Stacey; Frederick, Blaise B; Nickerson, Lisa D; Lukas, Scott E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic and difficult to treat disorder. While environmental stimuli associated with smoking precipitate craving and relapse, it is unknown whether smoking cues are cognitively processed differently than neutral stimuli. To evaluate working memory differences between smoking-related and neutral stimuli, we conducted a delay-match-to-sample (DMS) task concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nicotine-dependent participants. The DMS task evaluates brain activation during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of working memory. Smoking images induced significantly more subjective craving, and greater midline cortical activation during encoding in comparison to neutral stimuli that were similar in content yet lacked a smoking component. The insula, which is involved in maintaining nicotine dependence, was active during the successful retrieval of previously viewed smoking versus neutral images. In contrast, neutral images required more prefrontal cortex-mediated active maintenance during the maintenance period. These findings indicate that distinct brain regions are involved in the different phases of working memory for smoking-related versus neutral images. Importantly, the results implicate the insula in the retrieval of smoking-related stimuli, which is relevant given the insula's emerging role in addiction. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Current Population Status and Activity Pattern of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor and Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park (ASLNP, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Kumssa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the population status, habitat preference, and activity pattern of nonbreeding flamingos was carried out in Lakes Abijata, Shalla, and Chitu, part of the Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia, from 2011 to 2013. The current population status and habitat preference of flamingos in the area are still poorly known. Likewise, data on diurnal and seasonal activity pattern of the species are scarce and this leads to the misunderstanding of how Flamingos use local wetlands throughout the different seasons. Data regarding population size and activity pattern were gathered during the wet and dry seasons. Point-count method was used to estimate the population size. Behaviors were recorded using scan sampling techniques. A total of 53671 individuals representing two species of flamingo were counted during both wet and dry seasons from the three lakes. There were more flamingos during the dry season than the wet season in Lake Abijata contrary to Lakes Shalla and Chitu during the wet season. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor were the most abundant species comprising 95.39%, while Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus accounted for 4.61% of the total population. Lake Abijata is the major stronghold of Lesser Flamingos in the area. There was significant variation in the mean number of both species during the wet and dry season in the different study sites of the lake, respectively. The species were known to use varied habitats within the lakes. The Lesser Flamingo mainly preferred the shoreline and mudflat areas of the lakes. However, Greater Flamingo on several occasions showed preference to offshore area of the lakes. Seasonal average flock sizes were not similar between the species. There was a strong relationship between time allocated to each activity and time of day. Feeding activity varied among daylight hours and was higher in the evening (76.5% and late morning (74.56% and least during midday (54%. Some variations in activity breakdown were

  3. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  4. Suitability of open-field autorefractors as pupillometers and instrument design effects

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    Carles Otero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the agreement and repeatability of the pupil measurement obtained with VIP-200 (Neuroptics, PowerRef II (Plusoptix, WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko and study the effects of instrument design on pupillometry. METHODS: Forty patients were measured twice in low, mid and high mesopic. Repeatability was analyzed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw and paired t-tests. Agreement was studied with Bland-Altman plots and repeated measures ANOVA. Instrument design analysis consisted on measuring pupil size with PowerRef II simulating monocular and binocular conditions as well as with proximity cues and without proximity cues. RESULTS: The mean difference (±standard deviation between test-retest for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.09 (±0.16, -0.05 (±0.18 and -0.08 (±0.23 mm for Neuroptics, -0.05 (±0.17, -0.12 (±0.23 and -0.17 (±0.34 mm for WAM-5500, -0.04 (±0.27, -0.13 (±0.37 and -0.11 (±0.28 mm for PowerRef II. Regarding agreement with Neuroptics, the mean difference for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.48 (±0.35, -0.83 (±0.52 and -0.38 (±0.56 mm for WAM-5500, -0.28 (±0.56, -0.70 (±0.55 and -0.61 (±0.54 mm for PowerRef II. The mean difference of binocular minus monocular pupil measurements was: -0.83 (±0.87 mm; and with proximity cues minus without proximity cues was: -0.30 (±0.77 mm. CONCLUSION: All the instruments show similar repeat-ability. In all illumination conditions, agreement of Neuroptics with WAM-5500 and PowerRef II is not good enough, which can be partially induced due to their open field design.

  5. Suitability of open-field autorefractors as pupillometers and instrument design effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Carles; Aldaba, Mikel; Ferrer, Oriol; Gascón, Andrea; Ondategui-Parra, Juan C; Pujol, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    To determine the agreement and repeatability of the pupil measurement obtained with VIP-200 (Neuroptics), PowerRef II (Plusoptix), WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko) and study the effects of instrument design on pupillometry. Forty patients were measured twice in low, mid and high mesopic. Repeatability was analyzed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and paired t -tests. Agreement was studied with Bland-Altman plots and repeated measures ANOVA. Instrument design analysis consisted on measuring pupil size with PowerRef II simulating monocular and binocular conditions as well as with proximity cues and without proximity cues. The mean difference (±standard deviation) between test-retest for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.09 (±0.16), -0.05 (±0.18) and -0.08 (±0.23) mm for Neuroptics, -0.05 (±0.17), -0.12 (±0.23) and -0.17 (±0.34) mm for WAM-5500, -0.04 (±0.27), -0.13 (±0.37) and -0.11 (±0.28) mm for PowerRef II. Regarding agreement with Neuroptics, the mean difference for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.48 (±0.35), -0.83 (±0.52) and -0.38 (±0.56) mm for WAM-5500, -0.28 (±0.56), -0.70 (±0.55) and -0.61 (±0.54) mm for PowerRef II. The mean difference of binocular minus monocular pupil measurements was: -0.83 (±0.87) mm; and with proximity cues minus without proximity cues was: -0.30 (±0.77) mm. All the instruments show similar repeat-ability. In all illumination conditions, agreement of Neuroptics with WAM-5500 and PowerRef II is not good enough, which can be partially induced due to their open field design.

  6. Automated gait analysis in the open-field test for laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Toon; Silva, Mitchell; D'Hooge, Rudi; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this article, an automated and accurate mouse observation method, based on a conventional test for motor function evaluation, is outlined. The proposed measurement technique was integrated in a regular open-field test, where the trajectory and locomotion of a free-moving mouse were measured simultaneously. The system setup consisted of a transparent cage and a camera placed below it with its lens pointing upward, allowing for images to be captured from underneath the cage while the mouse was walking on the transparent cage floor. Thus, additional information was obtained about the position of the limbs of the mice for gait reconstruction. In a first step, the camera was calibrated as soon as it was fixed in place. A linear calibration factor, relating distances in image coordinates to real-world dimensions, was determined. In a second step, the mouse was located and its body contour segmented from the image by subtracting a previously taken "background" image of the empty cage from the camera image. In a third step, the movement of the mouse was analyzed and its speed estimated from its location in the past few images. If the speed was above a 1-sec threshold, the mouse was recognized to be running, and the image was further processed for footprint recognition. In a fourth step, color filtering was applied within the recovered mouse region to measure the position of the mouse's paws, which were visible in the image as small pink spots. Paws that were detected at the same location in a number of subsequent images were kept as footprints-that is, paws in contact with the cage floor. The footprints were classified by their position relative to the mouse's outline as corresponding to the front left or right paw or the hind left or right paw. Finally, eight parameters were calculated from the footprint pattern to describe the locomotion of the mouse: right/left overlap, front/hind base, right/left front limb stride, and right/left hind limb stride. As an application

  7. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  8. A feasibility study of a culturally and gender-specific dance to promote physical activity for South Asian immigrant women in the greater Toronto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample evidence demonstrating the protective effect of physical activity, the uptake of regular physical activity among South Asian (SA) women remains relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and health impacts of implementing a culture- and gender-specific physical activity among SA immigrant women residing in Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. A community-based mixed methods approach combining cohort pretest and posttest design and qualitative methods employing in depth interviews was used. Twenty-seven SA women from the GTA participated in a 6-week, 2 days per week, Bollywood Dance exercise program led by a female SA instructor. The participation rate was considerably high (85%) and approximately 82% of the participants attended 10 or more of the classes offered. The participants' physical measurements (weight, waist and hip, and body mass index) decreased, although not significantly, over the 6-week period and there was an improvement in their physical, mental, and social health. During the face-to-face interviews, participants reported feeling less stressed and tired, being more mentally and physically robust, and having a sense of fulfillment and self-satisfaction. The only common criticism expressed was that the 6-week duration of the intervention was too short. The results showed that the Bollywood Dance was a feasible strategy in engaging SA immigrant women in physical activity. The key aspects when designing culture- and gender-specific dance interventions include community participation and active engagement in planning and implementation of the program, a supportive environment, same gender and culturally attuned dance instructor, easy access, and minimal to no cost. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Li, Shuguang; Sugimachi, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro; Kato, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves), but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Research Design and Methods The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task). Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections. Results Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05), but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p right frontal eye field. Conclusions Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions

  10. Is the intention-behaviour gap greater amongst the more deprived? A meta-analysis of five studies on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Ng, Yin-Lam; Griffin, Simon J; Sutton, Stephen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-02-01

    Unhealthy behaviour is more common amongst the deprived, thereby contributing to health inequalities. The evidence that the gap between intention and behaviour is greater amongst the more deprived is limited and inconsistent. We tested this hypothesis using objective and self-report measures of three behaviours, both individual- and area-level indices of socio-economic status, and pooling data from five studies. Secondary data analysis. Multiple linear regressions and meta-analyses of data on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation from 2,511 participants. Across five studies, we found no evidence for an interaction between deprivation and intention in predicting objective or self-report measures of behaviour. Using objectively measured behaviour and area-level deprivation, meta-analyses suggested that the gap between self-efficacy and behaviour was greater amongst the more deprived (B = .17 [95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]). We find no compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that the intention-behaviour gap is greater amongst the more deprived. What is already known on this subject? Unhealthy behaviour is more common in those who are more deprived. This may reflect a larger gap between intentions and behaviour amongst the more deprived. The limited evidence to date testing this hypothesis is mixed. What does this study add? In the most robust study to date, combining results from five trials, we found no evidence for this explanation. The gap between intentions and behaviour did not vary with deprivation for the following: diet, physical activity, or medication adherence in smoking cessation. We did, however, find a larger gap between perceived control over behaviour (self-efficacy) and behaviour in those more deprived. These findings add to existing evidence to suggest that higher rates of unhealthier behaviour in more deprived groups may be reduced by the following: ◦ Strengthening behavioural control mechanisms (such as executive

  11. Evaluation of acute tacrine treatment on passive-avoidance response, open-field behavior, and toxicity in 17- and 30-day-old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S Y; Han, Y F; Yu, Z L; Yang, R; Dong, H; Ko, K M

    2006-09-01

    The potential of tacrine in altering cognitive/behavioral function as well as in causing toxicity was evaluated in mice of 17 and 30 days of age. Cognitive and behavioral studies were performed using a step-through passive avoidance task and a habituation open-field test with a 24-h retention interval. Tacrine was subcutaneously injected (1.25-80 micro mol/kg) 30 min prior to the first session of both tests. During the training session in step-through task, tacrine treatment dose-dependently decreased the number of footshocks, with IC(50) values being 7.8 and 23.3 micro mol/kg in 17- and 30-day-old mice, respectively. Treatment with tacrine at a low dose (5 micro mol/kg) significantly prolonged the retention latency in 17-day-old mice only, but it shortened the retention latency at high doses of 20 and 40 micro mol/kg in 17- and 30-day-old, respectively. During the acquisition session in the open-field test, tacrine treatment dose-dependently decreased the locomotor activity in 17- and 30-day-old mice, with IC(50) values being 15.1 and 24.7 micro mol/kg, respectively. High doses of tacrine invariably increased the locomotor activity during the recall session. Tacrine treatment at a dose of 40 micro mol/kg caused a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in 17- and 30-day-old mice at 6 h post-dosing, with the extent of stimulation in 30-day-old mice being more prominent. In conclusion, tacrine was more potent in enhancing/disrupting the cognitive function, inhibiting locomotor activity as well as in causing hepatotoxicity in 17-day-old than in 30-day-old mice.

  12. Distress calls of the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Subramanian; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2013-09-01

    In a stressful situation, greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx) emit audible vocalization either to warn or to inform conspecifics. We examined the effect of distress calls on bats emitting the call as well as the bats receiving the distress signal through analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catacholaminargic systems. We measured the levels of neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)] and stress hormones [(adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT)]. Our results showed that distress call emission elevated the level of ACTH and CORT, as well as 5-HT, DA and NE in the amygdala, for both the call emitting bat and the responding bat. Subsequently, we observed increased activity of glucocorticoid receptor and its steroid receptor co-activator (SRC-1). An expression of SRC-1 was up-regulated in the distress call emitter only, whereas it was at a similar level in both the call responder and silent bats. These findings suggest that bats emitting distress calls and also bats responding to such calls have similar neurotransmitter expression patterns, and may react similarly in response to stress.

  13. Systemic L-Kynurenine sulfate administration disrupts object recognition memory, alters open field behavior and decreases c-Fos immunopositivity in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Dániel; Herédi, Judit; Kánvási, Zita; Ruszka, Marian; Kis, Zsolt; Ono, Etsuro; Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József; Gellért, Levente

    2015-01-01

    L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice.

  14. The stimulatory effects of caffeine with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) on light-dark behavior and open-field behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hidemori; Toda, Akihisa; Imoto, Masumi; Nishimura, Satoko; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shigenori; Eyanagi, Reiko

    2010-01-22

    Abnormal behaviors and death associated with the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) have emerged as a major issue in influenza patients taking the drug. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of oseltamivir on the behavior of mice using light-dark and open-field preference tests. Oseltamivir (75 and 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) alone affected neither time spent in the open area in the light-dark preference test nor ambulation in the open-field test at 2h post-injection. However, a non-selective adenosine A(1)/A(2) receptor antagonist, caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.) increased time spent in the open area in the light-dark preference test. This enhancement was not inhibited by a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil (10-20mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Enhancement of ambulation in the open-field test was also observed when caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was combined with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.). This enhancement was inhibited by a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, s.c.). Furthermore, an adenosine A(2) receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (3mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.) increased ambulation in the open-field test, while an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, DPCPX (1-3mg/kg, i.p.) did not. These findings suggest that the actions of oseltamivir may involve the dopamine and adenosine systems. Our findings suggest that due to the interaction between central blockade of adenosine A(2) receptors by caffeine, and oseltamivir-induced behavioral changes, patients being treated with oseltamivir should be closely monitored. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, J. Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y. Adejoke; Akanmu, A. Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Methods: Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (...

  16. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  17. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Scaramussa Deprá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  18. Effects on enantiomeric drug disposition and open-field behavior after chronic treatment with venlafaxine in the P-glycoprotein knockout mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Hiemke, Christoph; Carlsson, Björn; Josefsson, Martin; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2011-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays an important role in the efflux of drugs from the brain back into the bloodstream and can influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug molecules. To our knowledge, no studies have reported pharmacodynamic effects of any antidepressant drug in the P-gp knockout mice model. The aim of this study was to investigate the enantiomeric venlafaxine and metabolite concentrations in serum and brain of abcb1ab⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice upon chronic dosing, and to assess the effect of venlafaxine treatment on open-field behavior. P-gp knockout and wild-type mice received two daily intraperitoneal injections of venlafaxine (10 mg/kg) over ten consecutive days. Locomotor and rearing activities were assessed on days 7 and 9. After 10 days, drug and metabolite concentrations in brain and serum were determined using an enantioselective LC/MS/MS method. The brain concentrations of venlafaxine and its three demethylated metabolites were two to four times higher in abcb1ab⁻/⁻ mice compared to abcb1ab+/+ mice. The behavioral results indicated an impact on exploration-related behaviors in the open-field as center activity was increased, and rears were decreased by venlafaxine treatment. Our results show that P-gp at the blood-brain barrier plays an important role in limiting brain entry of the enantiomers of venlafaxine and its metabolites after chronic dosing. Taken together, the present pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings offer the possibility that the expression of P-gp in patients may be a contributing factor for limited treatment response.

  19. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Past climate change and recent anthropogenic activities affect genetic structure and population demography of the greater long-tailed hamster in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junbin; Xiao, Zhenlong; Li, Chuanhai; Wang, Fusheng; Liao, Jicheng; Fu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-09-01

    The genetic diversity and the spatial structure of a species are likely consequences of both past and recent evolutionary processes, but relevant studies are still rare in East Asia where the Pleistocene climate has unique influences. In this study, we examined the impact of past climate change and recent anthropogenic activities on the genetic structure and population size of the greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton), an agricultural rodent pest species in northern China. DNA sequence data of 2 mitochondrial genes and genotypic data of 11 microsatellite DNA loci from 41 populations (545 individuals) were gathered. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as well as species distribution modeling and coalescent simulations, were conducted to infer its historical and demographic patterns and processes. Two deeply diverged mitochondrial clades were recovered. A small one was restricted to the Shandong Peninsula while the main clade was further divided into 3 geographic clusters by their microsatellite DNA genotypes: Northwest, North-center and Northeast. Divergence dating indicated a Middle-to-Late Pleistocene divergence between the 2 clades. Demographic analysis indicated that all 3 and pooled populations showed consistent long-period expansions during last glacial period; but not during the Holocene, probably due to the impact of climate warming and human disturbances. Conflicting patterns between mtDNA and microsatellite markers imply an anthropogenic impact on North-center populations due to intensified agricultural cultivation in this region. Our study demonstrated that the impact of past glaciation on organisms in East Asia significantly differs from that of Europe and North America, and human activity is an important factor in determining the genetic diversity of a species, as well as its spatial structure. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  2. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, J Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y Adejoke; Akanmu, A Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (subdivided into 6 groups of 10 each, based on sex), and administered vehicle or graded oral doses of caffeine (10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. On day 14, a main group was subjected to 6 h of total sleep-deprivation by 'gentle-handling'. Open-field behaviours were then assessed in both groups, after which animals were euthanized, and levels of corticosterone, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase assayed. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly, compared to control, with sleep-deprived (SD) mice showing stronger caffeine-driven responses at higher doses; and SD female mice showing sustained response to caffeine, compared to respective males. Plasma corticosterone increased with increasing doses of caffeine in both non sleep-deprived (NSD) and SD mice; although SD mice had higher corticosterone levels. Sleep-deprivation and/or higher doses of caffeine were associated with derangements in brain antioxidant levels. Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  3. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  4. Characterization of an electronic system for Image acquisition portal to open field dosimetry; Caracterizacao de um sistema eletronico de aquisicao de imagem portal para dosimetria em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbi, Gustavo L.; Oliveira, Harley F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Amaral, Leonardo L.; Borges, Leandro F., E-mail: gustavobarbi@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica

    2012-08-15

    The objective was to characterize and enable an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to use like a portal dosimetry device - PDI, in non-transit mode, without interposition of scattering between the beam and EPID for measurement to open fields. The images as well as the DICOM header data are extracted from software ImageJ and the information are used in the basic algorithm for converting pixel to dose. The linearity and reproducibility of response were analyzed, and the maximum deviation found of 2,3% to 800 monitor units (MU) for linearity and -0,9% for reproducibility of signal measured daily. A 512x512 matrix with a resolution of 0,8mm was established to restore the shape of beam from the image. The field size dependence was evaluated, by obtaining the ratio of total scattering of ionization chamber and EPID. Finally, a calibration factor of 28470.88{+-}170.73 pixel/cGy was established for the central area of the image. Comparative analyzes between the PDI, radiochromic film and array of ionization chambers (MatriXX) showed good agreement for fields greater then 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} to reestablishment of form field and dose, however, for fields between 3x3 cm{sup 2} and 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the agreement to shape of beam was best established by film. (author)

  5. Quantitative evaluation of 3D mouse behaviors and motor function in the open-field after spinal cord injury using markerless motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Lai, Po-Lun; Fisher, Lesley C; Basso, D Michele

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study's goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz). Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal's silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal's front Center of Volume (CoV) height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 p<.005) and rear CoV height (r = .65 p<.01) were significantly correlated with greater lesion size. This markerless tracking approach is a first step toward fundamentally changing how rodent movement studies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative measurement methods

  6. Quantitative evaluation of 3D mouse behaviors and motor function in the open-field after spinal cord injury using markerless motion tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Sheets

    Full Text Available Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study's goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz. Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal's silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal's front Center of Volume (CoV height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 p<.005 and rear CoV height (r = .65 p<.01 were significantly correlated with greater lesion size. This markerless tracking approach is a first step toward fundamentally changing how rodent movement studies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative

  7. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  8. Assessing the spatial distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs in open-field tomato cultivation through geostatistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlio C; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Ricardo S; Gonring, Alfredo Hr; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting pest damage. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T. absoluta on open-field tomato cultivation remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution of T. absoluta in 22 commercial open-field tomato cultivations with plants at the three phenological development stages by using geostatistical analysis. Geostatistical analysis revealed that there was strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) T. absoluta eggs in 19 of the 22 sample tomato cultivations. The maps that were obtained demonstrated the aggregated structure of egg densities at the edges of the crops. Further, T. absoluta was found to accomplish egg dispersal along the rows more frequently than it does between rows. Our results indicate that the greatest egg densities of T. absoluta occur at the edges of tomato crops. These results are discussed in relation to the behavior of T. absoluta distribution within fields and in terms of their implications for improved sampling guidelines and precision targeting control methods that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A model to generate beam profiles of the Varian Clinac 4 for three-dimensional dose calculation: open fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.; Lam, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    For the Clinac 4, open field profiles measured in the principal plane have higher intensity ''horns'' than those in off-axis planes. The maximum deviation occurs at 1-cm depth, where in the worst case of large field sizes and off-axis distances the deviation can be as high as 16% in the region near the horns. A model is proposed to generate open field beam profiles in off-axis planes, based on measured profiles in the transverse principal plane and in the largest field size diagonal plane of the machine. Within the central 90% portion of the field, the maximum deviation of the generated profiles from the measured ones at the same off-axis distance varies from about 3% at 1-cm depth to about 2% at 13-cm depth and then increases to less than 5% at 25-cm depth, even for very large field sizes and off-axis distances. Very little additional computer time and data storage are required for this procedure. Using these profiles, the Milan and Bentley method can be extended to three-dimensional treatment planning with good accuracy

  10. Magnitude of cyantraniliprole residues in tomato following open field application: pre-harvest interval determination and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Shalaby, Shehata

    2018-02-05

    Cyantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide, belonging to the ryanoid class, with a broad range of applications against several pests. In the presented work, a reliable analytical technique employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for analyzing cyantraniliprole residues in tomato was developed. The method was then applied to field-incurred tomato samples collected after applications under open field conditions. The latter aimed to ensure the safe application of cyantraniliprole to tomato and contribute the derived residue data to the risk assessment under field conditions. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction with acetonitrile and sodium chloride for partitioning. The extract was purified utilizing florisil as cleanup reagent. The developed method was further evaluated by comparing the analytical results with those obtained using the QuEChERS technique. The novel method outbalanced QuEChERS regarding matrix interferences in the analysis, while it met all guideline criteria. Hence, it showed excellent linearity over the assayed concentration and yielded satisfactory recovery rate in the range of 88.9 to 96.5%. The half-life of degradation of cyantraniliprole was determined at 2.6 days. Based on the Codex MRL, the pre-harvest interval (PHI) for cyantraniliprole on tomato was 3 days, after treatment at the recommended dose. To our knowledge, the present work provides the first record on PHI determination of cyantraniliprole in tomato under open field conditions in Egypt and the broad Mediterranean region.

  11. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  12. [Influence of 1, 2-dichloroethane on open field behavior and levels of neurotransmitters in brain of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying; Shi, Lei; Gao, Lan-Yue; Wang, Gao-Yang; Li, Ge-Xin; Lv, Xiu-Qiang; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2011-06-01

    To explore the effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) on the behavior and the brain neurotransmitter levels in mice. Thirty mice were randomly divided into four groups, which were control group and groups of low, middle and high exposure (225, 450 and 900 mg/m3) to 1,2-DCE for 10 days (3.5 h a day) by inhalation. After the last exposure, the open field test was performed immediately. After exposure all mice were killed and the brain tissues were taken up rapidly. The levels of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels of Asp and Glu in all exposure groups increased with doses. As compared to the control group, levels of Glu in all exposure groups increased significantly (P open field test showed that effect of low exposure to 1,2-DCE on the behavior was stimulant, but the high exposure to 1,2-DCE inhibited behavior of exploration, excitement and sport. Subacute exposure to 1,2-DCE could result in the change of amino acid neurotransmitter content and ratio in the brain, thereby change the behavior of mice appeared, which might be the mechanism of neurotoxicity caused by 1,2-DCE in part.

  13. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  14. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  15. Behaviour parameters of rats in the 'Open field' test under combined effect of radiation and non-radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadukova, E.M.; Stashkevich, D.G.; Naumov, A.D.; Kuts, F.I.

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that exposure of electromagnetic radiation and emotional stress modifies the level of integrative reaction of CNS rats which were exposed to ionizing radiation in the 'Open field' test. (authors)

  16. Manual versus Automated Rodent Behavioral Assessment: Comparing Efficacy and Ease of Bederson and Garcia Neurological Deficit Scores to an Open Field Video-Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desland, Fiona A; Afzal, Aqeela; Warraich, Zuha; Mocco, J

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of stroke have been crucial in advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Currently, the standards for determining neurological deficit in rodents are the Bederson and Garcia scales, manual assessments scoring animals based on parameters ranked on a narrow scale of severity. Automated open field analysis of a live-video tracking system that analyzes animal behavior may provide a more sensitive test. Results obtained from the manual Bederson and Garcia scales did not show significant differences between pre- and post-stroke animals in a small cohort. When using the same cohort, however, post-stroke data obtained from automated open field analysis showed significant differences in several parameters. Furthermore, large cohort analysis also demonstrated increased sensitivity with automated open field analysis versus the Bederson and Garcia scales. These early data indicate use of automated open field analysis software may provide a more sensitive assessment when compared to traditional Bederson and Garcia scales.

  17. Manual versus Automated Rodent Behavioral Assessment: Comparing Efficacy and Ease of Bederson and Garcia Neurological Deficit Scores to an Open Field Video-Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A. Desland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of stroke have been crucial in advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Currently, the standards for determining neurological deficit in rodents are the Bederson and Garcia scales, manual assessments scoring animals based on parameters ranked on a narrow scale of severity. Automated open field analysis of a live-video tracking system that analyzes animal behavior may provide a more sensitive test. Results obtained from the manual Bederson and Garcia scales did not show significant differences between pre- and post-stroke animals in a small cohort. When using the same cohort, however, post-stroke data obtained from automated open field analysis showed significant differences in several parameters. Furthermore, large cohort analysis also demonstrated increased sensitivity with automated open field analysis versus the Bederson and Garcia scales. These early data indicate use of automated open field analysis software may provide a more sensitive assessment when compared to traditional Bederson and Garcia scales.

  18. Koumine exhibits anxiolytic properties without inducing adverse neurological effects on functional observation battery, open-field and Vogel conflict tests in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Feng; Xin, Zhi-Ming; Hong, Long-Hui; Su, Yan-Ping; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats. Koumine exhibited anxiolytic-like activities but did not affect other autonomic, neurological and physical functions in FOB. Furthermore, koumine released anxiolytic responses and anti-punishment action in a manner similar to diazepam in OFT and VCT, respectively. The results constitutes solid set of fundamental data further demonstrating anxiolytic properties of koumine at the therapeutic doses without inducing adverse neurological effects, which supports the perspectives for the development of safe and effective koumine medicine against pathological anxiety.

  19. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. DE RON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  20. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  1. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorni, Paola; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open. PMID:26378580

  2. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  3. [Effect of previous experience in reacting to a danger signal on "open field" behavior in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltyreva, T E; Petrov, E S

    1983-01-01

    Modification of rats behaviour in an "hopen field" test was investigated, induced by an acoustic stimulus, previously subjected to conditioning in a shuttle chamber in experiments with possibility and impossibility of avoidance from electrical shock. It has been established that presentation of a stimulus having the meaning of a danger signal, in a new situation, significantly suppresses investigating behaviour of rats, whereas the stimulus which had not been subjected to conditioning exerts no marked effect on behaviour. The greatest suppression was observed in rats with "learned helplessness". This fact suggests that the degree of suppression of the behaviour in an open field in response to a danger signal, depends on the animal's previous experience in reacting to this signal.

  4. Use of a standard set of profiles of open fields for photon beams in hand-held calculator (tele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guevara, Adrian; Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Sanchez Zamora, Luis; Caballero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Dosimetry has gone through different stages in their evolution to our days advanced computer programs for treatment planning show the 3D dose distribution, complex algorithms for calculating 3D dose, complex treatment techniques, etc. All this has made the verification field treatment time or dose given to the PTV using calculations manuals are increasingly uncertain, reaching values that can exceed ±10%. It is proposed a calculation tool that uses EXCEL parameters obtained by fitting model profiles open fields. This calculator (TELE) taking information from the fields of PTV and treatments patient anatomical data allows verification of the dose contributions any point, correction of surface heterogeneity of the tissues present in the beam to the point of calculation. (Author)

  5. Transient behavior of a flare-associated solar wind. I - Gas dynamics in a radial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical investigation is conducted into the way in which a solar wind model initially satisfying both steady state and energy balance conditions is disturbed and deformed, under the assumption of heating that correspoonds to the energy release of solar flares of an importance value of approximately 1 which occur in radial open field regions. Flare-associated solar wind transient behavior is modeled for 1-8 solar radii. The coronal temperature around the heat source region rises, and a large thermal conductive flux flows inward to the chromosphere and outward to interplanetary space along field lines. The speed of the front of expanding chromospheric material generated by the impingement of the conduction front on the upper chromosphere exceeds the local sound velocity in a few minutes and eventually exceeds 100 million cm/sec.

  6. Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind. II - Gas dynamics in a nonradial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind in the nonradial open field region is numerically investigated, taking into account the thermal and dynamical coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. A realistic steady solar wind is constructed which passes through the inner X-type critical point in the rapidly diverging region. The wind speed shows a local maximum at the middle, O-type, critical point. The wind's density and pressure distributions decrease abruptly in the rapidly diverging region of the flow tube. The transient behavior of the wind following flare energy deposition includes ascending and descending conduction fronts. Thermal instability occurs in the lower corona, and ascending material flows out through the throat after the flare energy input ceases. A local density distribution peak is generated at the shock front due to the pressure deficit just behind the shock front.

  7. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High Cellular Monocyte Activation in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Lifestyle-Matched Controls Is Associated With Greater Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Maurer, Irma; de Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Prins, Maria; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Franceschi, Claudio; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gisslén, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schouten, J.; Kooij, K. W.; van Zoest, R. A.; Elsenga, B. C.; Janssen, F. R.; Heidenrijk, M.; Zikkenheiner, W.; van der Valk, M.; Booiman, T.; Harskamp-Holwerda, A. M.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.; Maurer, I.; Mangas Ruiz, M. M.; Girigorie, A. F.; Villaudy, J.; Frankin, E.; Pasternak, A.; Berkhout, B.; van der Kuyl, T.; Portegies, P.; Schmand, B. A.; Geurtsen, G. J.; ter Stege, J. A.; Klein Twennaar, M.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Caan, M. W. A.; Su, T.; Weijer, K.; Bisschop, P. H. L. T.; Kalsbeek, A.; Wezel, M.; Visser, I.; Ruhé, H. G.; Franceschi, C.; Garagnani, P.

    2017-01-01

    Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation,

  9. Effects of repetitive audiogenic stimulation on open field activity in audiogenic sensitive and non-sensitive wag/rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikbaev, A.F.; Balabanov, D.V.; Sadovnikov, S.V.; Karpova, A.V.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A certain part of WAG/Rij rats combines genetically predisposed absence epilepsy with susceptibility to the development of audiogenic seizures. Repeated sound stimulation leads in audiogenic susceptible rats to propagation of epileptic discharges from the brainstem to the forebrain and neocortex. In

  10. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F

    2017-01-01

    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pwinery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; Roy, Nicole C

    2018-02-01

    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a "tonic" level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium. This enhanced TLR induction by live F. prausnitzii, which until now has not previously been described, may contribute to maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis. This highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant co-culture systems to decipher the mechanisms of action of live obligate anaerobes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. High Cellular Monocyte Activation in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Lifestyle-Matched Controls Is Associated With Greater Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Maurer, Irma; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Harskamp, Agnes M; Prins, Maria; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Franceschi, Claudio; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gisslén, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Kalsbeek, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte

  13. Physical Activity Might Be of Greater Importance for Good Spinal Control Than If You Have Had Pain or Not: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Ulrika; Lundell, Sara; Aasa, Björn; Westerståhl, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal design. A cohort followed in 3 waves of data collection. The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the performance of 2 tests of spinal control at the age of 52 years and low back pain, physical activity level, and fitness earlier in life, as well as to describe the cross-sectional relationships between these measures. Altered spinal control has been linked to pain; however, other stimuli may also lead to inability to control the movements of the spine. Participants answered questions about physical activity and low back pain, and performed physical fitness tests at the age of 16, 34, and 52 years. The fitness test battery included tests of endurance in the back and abdominal muscles, a submaximal bicycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, and measurements of hip flexion, thoracic spine flexibility, and anthropometrics. Two tests were aggregated to a physical fitness index. At the age of 52, also 2 tests of spinal control, the standing Waiter's bow (WB) and the supine double leg lower (LL) were performed. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher back muscle endurance at the age of 34 years could positively predict WB performance at 52 years and higher physical fitness at the age of 34 could positively predict LL performance at 52 years. Regarding cross-sectional relationships, an inability to perform the WB correctly was associated with lower physical fitness, flexibility and physical activity, and larger waist circumference. An inability to correctly perform the LL was associated with lower physical fitness. One-year prevalence of pain was not significantly associated with WB or LL test performance. An active life resulting in higher physical fitness is related to better spinal control in middle-aged men and women. This further strengthens the importance of physical activity throughout the life span. 3.

  14. Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for α₂- versus α₁-GABA(A-receptor complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Sindal Jensen

    Full Text Available Clobazam (CLB, a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD, was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA α₁-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the α₂ subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB, CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of α (α₁, α₂, α₃, or α₅, β₂, and γ₂ subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for α₂- vs. α₁-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between α₂ and α₁ receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for α₁ receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB.

  15. Activity-dependent expression of miR-132 regulates immediate-early gene induction during olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukilan, Murugan; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-04-01

    The activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) and microRNA (miR)-132 has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In the present study, we show that olfactory training induces the expression of IEGs (EGR-1, C-fos, C-jun) and miR-132 at similar time scale in olfactory bulb (OB) of Cynopterus sphinx. We examined the role of miR-132 in the OB using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) and demonstrated that a local infusion of AS-ODN in the OB 2h prior to training impaired olfactory memory formation in C. sphinx. However, the infusion of AS-ODN post-training did not cause a deficit in memory formation. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-132 reduced the olfactory training-induced expression of IEGs and post synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the OB. Additionally, we show that miR-132 regulates the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), possibly through miR-148a. These data suggest that olfactory training induces the expression of miR-132 and IEGs, which in turn activates post-synaptic proteins that regulate olfactory memory formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  17. Background synaptic activity in rat entorhinal cortex shows a progressively greater dominance of inhibition over excitation from deep to superficial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart David Greenhill

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2 and V (L5. Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3. Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles.

  18. Effect of perphenazine enanthate on open-field test behaviour and stress-induced hyperthermia in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernera-Romano, Cecilia; Ruiz de la Torre, José L; Badiella, Llorenç; Manteca, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The open-field test (OFT) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) have been used to measure individual differences in fear. The present study has been designed as a pharmacological validation of OFT and SIH as indicators of fear in sheep using perphenazine enanthate (PPZ), a long-acting neuroleptic. Twenty four ewes of two breeds, Lacaune and Ripollesa, were tested in an arena measuring 5mx2.5m. Treatment group received one dose of 1.5mg/kg of PPZ and control group received sterile sesame oil. All animals were tested for 10min and behaviours were recorded. Rectal temperature was measured at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the test. SIH was defined as the difference between T2 and T1. Sheep were tested on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after PPZ injection. Variables were analysed using a mixed model. PPZ decreased bleats on days 2, 3, 4 and the SIH response on days 2 and 3. Breed differences were observed. Treated animals showed positive correlations between SIH and bleats; squares entered; attempts to escape and negative correlation between SIH and visits to the food bucket. Our results suggest that behaviour and SIH on the OFT are useful measures of fear in sheep.

  19. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charice S. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQL for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS and Functional Independence Measure (FIM instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE GREATER AND LESSER CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS STUDIED BY THE MOSS TECHNIQUE AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shetekauri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of moss biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition of trace elements was applied for the first time in the western Caucasus Mountains to assess the environmental situation in this region. The sixteen moss samples have been collected in 2014 summer growth period along altitudinal gradients in the range of altitudes from 600 m to 2665 m. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Mo, Cd, I, Sb, Ba, La, Sm, W, Au, and U determined by neutron activation analysis in the moss samples are reported. A comparison with the data for moss collected in Norway (pristine area was carried out.  Multivariate statistical analysis of the results was used for assessment pollution sources in the studied part of the Caucasus. The increase in concentrations of most of elements with rising altitude due to gradually disappearing vegetation cover and wind erosion of soil was observed. A comparison with the available data for moss collected in the Alps at the same altitude (~ 2500 m was performed.

  1. Sustainable bio-energy production models for eradicating open field burning of paddy straw in Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Abhinav; Verma, Amit Ranjan; Kaur, Supreet; Jha, Bhaskar; Vijay, Vandit; Chandra, Ram; Vijay, Virendra Kumar; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Hariprasad, P.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    The mechanized harvesting of paddy crop has led into open field burning of paddy straw. Burning of million tonnes of paddy straw releases huge potent greenhouse gases which creates perturbations to regional atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents a case study on utilization of paddy straw for power generation through biomethane and bioethanol production on commercial scale and improved biomass cookstove on domestic scale. Three scenario (biomethane, bioethanol and pellet for improved biomass cookstove) have been compared for their energy economics and emission. It has been revealed that if paddy straw is not being burned, it can be effectively utilized for biomethanation and bioethanol production which can yield energy equivalent of 8.0 GJ/tonne and 5.6 GJ/tonne, respectively, while pelletized paddy straw can be used in improved biomass cookstoves to meet out thermal cooking energy requirement with reduced indoor air pollution. The analysis further revealed that biomethanation of paddy straw reduces net global warming potential by 2750 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. However, bioethanol production showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. The pelletization of paddy straw for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. - Highlights: • Biomethane production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 8.0 GJ/tonne. • Bioethanol production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 5.6 GJ/tonne. • Biomethanation route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2750 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. • Pelletization for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. • Bioethanol route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne.

  2. Assessment of multifocal contact lens over-refraction using an infrared, open-field autorefractor: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Anna; Aldaba, Mikel; Arjona, Montserrat; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of an infrared open-field autorefractor as a predictor of the refractive error when fitting multifocal contact lenses (MCL). Objective and subjective measurements of the non-cycloplegic distance refractive error were compared in patients wearing MCL. We used the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor for the objective measurements. Three commercially available MCL were tested. Twenty-one eyes of sixteen healthy adults were included in the study. Over-refraction was evaluated in terms of spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatic vectors (J0 and J45). The mean difference±SD of each parameter was calculated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normal distribution. Pearson's correlation, Bland and Altman plot and paired sample t test were used to compare the results obtained with both methods. The mean difference between objective and subjective results of the SE over-refraction was 0.13±0.42D; for astigmatic vectors J0 and J45 were 0.03±0.32D and -0.00±0.17D, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal distribution for all parameters. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for the SE with values of 0.98 without MCL and 0.97 with MCL. The lowest were obtained for J45 with values of 0.65 without MCL and 0.75 with MCL. Significant correlations were obtained for each parameter. The paired sample t test failed to show significant differences in analyzed parameters except for J0 without MCL. The Grand Seiko WAM-5500 can be used as a screening method of over-refraction in the clinical fitting of MCL. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prototypical anxiolytics do not reduce anxiety-like behavior in the open field in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trey; Grabowski-Boase, Laura; Tarantino, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and effectively treating anxiety disorders are a challenge for both scientists and clinicians. Despite a variety of available therapies, the efficacy of current treatments is still not optimal and adverse side effects can result in non-compliance. Animal models have been useful for studying the underlying biology of anxiety and assessing the anxiolytic properties of potential therapeutics. The open field (OF) is a commonly used assay of anxiety-like behavior. The OF was developed and validated in rats and then transferred to use in the mouse with only limited validation. The present study tests the efficacy of prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytics, chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and diazepam (DZ), for increasing center time in the OF in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Multiple doses of CDP and DZ did not change time spent in the center of the OF. Increasing illumination in the OF did not alter these results. The non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone (BUSP) also failed to increase center time in the OF while the anxiogenic meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) increased center time. Additional inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ (BALB) and DBA/2J (D2) did not show any change in center time in response to CDP. Moreover, evaluation of CDP in B6 mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), elevated zero maze (EZM) and light dark assay (LD) did not reveal changes in anxiety-like behavior while stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was decreased by DZ. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies suggest that adequate CDP is present to induce anxiolysis. We conclude that the measure of center time in the OF does not show predictive validity for anxiolysis in these inbred mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term changes in open field behaviour following a single social defeat in rats can be reversed by sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Overkamp, GJF; Benning, MA; Koolhaas, JM; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    1996-01-01

    The long-term consequences of a single social defeat on open field behaviour in rats were studied, with special emphasis on the time course of stress-induced changes. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. After the

  5. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  6. The effects of selection on low mortality and brooding by a mother hen on open-field response, feather pecking and cannibalism in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ellen, E.D.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selection on low mortality in combination with brooding by a mother hen on open-field response at 5-6 weeks of age and on plumage and body condition at 42 weeks of age. Birds in the experiment were either selected for low mortality in

  7. NMDA receptor subunits in the adult rat hippocampus undergo similar changes after 5 minutes in an open field and after LTP induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Baez

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor subunits change during development and their synaptic expression is modified rapidly after synaptic plasticity induction in hippocampal slices. However, there is scarce information on subunits expression after synaptic plasticity induction or memory acquisition, particularly in adults. GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits were assessed by western blot in 1 adult rats that had explored an open field (OF for 5 minutes, a time sufficient to induce habituation, 2 mature rat hippocampal neuron cultures depolarized by KCl and 3 hippocampal slices from adult rats where long term potentiation (LTP was induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS. GluN1 and GluN2A, though not GluN2B, were significantly higher 70 minutes--but not 30 minutes--after a 5 minutes session in an OF. GluN1 and GluN2A total immunofluorescence and puncta in neurites increased in cultures, as evaluated 70 minutes after KCl stimulation. Similar changes were found in hippocampal slices 70 minutes after LTP induction. To start to explore underlying mechanisms, hippocampal slices were treated either with cycloheximide (a translation inhibitor or actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor during electrophysiological assays. It was corroborated that translation was necessary for LTP induction and expression. The rise in GluN1 depends on transcription and translation, while the increase in GluN2A appears to mainly depend on translation, though a contribution of some remaining transcriptional activity during actinomycin D treatment could not be rouled out. LTP effective induction was required for the subunits to increase. Although in the three models same subunits suffered modifications in the same direction, within an apparently similar temporal course, further investigation is required to reveal if they are related processes and to find out whether they are causally related with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.

  8. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal tactile stimulation reverses the effect of neonatal isolation on open-field and anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity in male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, A; Morinobu, S; Toki, S; Yamamoto, S; Matsuki, A; Kozuru, T; Yamawaki, S

    2008-01-10

    It is well known that early life events induce long-lasting psychophysiological and psychobiological influences in later life. In rodent studies, environmental enrichment after weaning prevents the adulthood behavioral and emotional disturbances in response to early adversities. We compared the behavioral effect of neonatal isolation (NI) with the effect of NI accompanied by tactile stimulation (NTS) to determine whether NTS could reverse or prevent the effects of NI on the adulthood behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli. In addition, we also examined the sex difference of the NTS effect. Measurements of body weights, an open-field locomotor test, an elevated plus maze test, a hot-plate test, and a contextual fear-conditioning test were performed on postnatal day 60. As compared with rats subjected to NI, rats subjected to NTS showed significantly higher activity and exploration in the open-field locomotor test, lower anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test, and significantly prolonged latencies in the hot-plate test, and this effect was equal among males and females. In the contextual fear-conditioning test, whereas NTS significantly reduced the enhanced freezing time due to NI in females, no significant difference in the freezing time between NI and NTS was found in males. These findings indicate that adequate tactile stimulation in early life plays an important role in the prevention of disturbances in the behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli in adulthood induced by early adverse experiences.

  10. Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice injected with GABA- and 5HT-anxiolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Robert; Strazielle, Catherine

    2010-06-01

    Two 5HT(1A) receptor agonists and chlordiazepoxide were examined in open-field, elevated plus maze, and emergence tests. At doses with no effect in the open-field, chlordiazepoxide increased open and open/total arm visits as well as open arm duration in the elevated plus maze, whereas 5HT(1A) receptor agonists showed an anxiolytic response on a single measure. The anxiolytic action of chlordiazepoxide was limited to the less active BALB/c strain. Unlike the 5HT(1A) receptor agonists, chlordiazepoxide was also anxiolytic in the emergence test, once again only in BALB/c and not C57BL/6J mice. Significant correlations were found between emergence latencies and specific indicators of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze in chlordiazepoxide-treated but not in mice treated with buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT. These results indicate that elevated plus-maze and emergence tests depend on benzodiazepine receptors. In contrast, 5HT(1A) receptor agonists were ineffective in the emergence test and no correlation was found between emergence latencies and specific indicators of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze. Though superficially similar, the emergence test seems to tap into a partially separate facet of anxiety.

  11. Effects of interleukin-1beta and lipopolysaccharide on behavior of mice in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiergiel, Artur H; Dunn, Adrian J

    2007-04-01

    It has been postulated that infections, inflammatory processes and resulting cytokines may be causative factors in emotional disorders, including depression and anxiety. Support for this possibility has been sought in studies of animal behavior following administration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, such treatments induce a variety of behavioral responses, collectively known as sickness behavior, some of which could affect the performance in tests used to assess anxiety and depression. Thus the effects of peripheral administration of IL-1beta and LPS on the behavior of mice were studied in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). Mouse IL-1beta (30, 100, 300, and 1000 ng) was injected intraperitoneally 30 or 60 min, and LPS (0.5, 1 and 5 microg) 120 min before the tests. IL-1beta and LPS induced dose-dependent decreases in open arm entries and the time spent on the open arms in the EPM, effects considered to reflect anxiety-like behavior. However, entries to all arms were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a decrease in general activity. In the OF, IL-1beta and LPS decreased the number of line crossings in the center of the field, that can also be considered to reflect anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was accompanied by a similar decrease in line crossings in the periphery, as well as in rears and climbs. Thus the doses of IL-1beta and LPS necessary to induce these effects also decreased locomotor activity in the EPM and OF. Therefore, the behavioral responses induced by IL-1beta and LPS in the EPM and the OF considered to reflect anxiety must be interpreted in the light of this reduction in overall activity. Thus the results do not provide unequivocal support for the suggestion that LPS or IL-1 mediate anxiety. Nevertheless, because infections, endotoxins, and the ensuing cytokines cause alterations in CNS norepinephrine and serotonin, they may contribute to emotionality, and perhaps to

  12. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  13. Assessing anxiety in C57BL/6J mice: a pharmacological characterization of the open-field and light/dark tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, María T; Domingo, José L

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess anxiety in mammals various tests and species are currently available. These current assays measure changes in anxiety-like behaviors. The open-field and the light/dark are anxiety tests based on the spontaneous behavior of the animals, with C57BL/6J mice being a frequently used strain in behavioral studies. However, the suitability of this strain as a choice in anxiety studies has been questioned. In this study, we performed two pharmacological characterizations of this strain in both the open-field and the light/dark tests. We examined the changes in the anxiety-like behaviors of C57BL/6J mice exposed to chlordiazepoxide (CDP), an anxiolytic drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, picrotoxine (PTX), an anxiogenic drug, at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, and methylphenidate (MPH), a psychomotor stimulant drug, at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, in a first experiment. In a second experiment, we tested CDP at 2.5 mg/kg, PTX at 2 mg/kg and MPH at 2.5 mg/kg. Results showed an absence of anxiolytic-like effects of CDP in open-field and light/dark tests. Light/dark test was more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of PTX than the open-field test. Finally, a clear anxiogenic effect of MPH was observed in the two tests. Although C57BL/6J mice could not be a sensitive model to study anxiolytic effects in pharmacological or behavioral interventions, it might be a suitable model to test anxiogenic effects. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water-maze place navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ann-Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard; Wolfer, David P

    2017-09-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water-maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water-maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water-maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water-maze are used in preclinical research. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Manual versus Automated Rodent Behavioral Assessment: Comparing Efficacy and Ease of Bederson and Garcia Neurological Deficit Scores to an Open Field Video-Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona A. Desland; Aqeela Afzal; Zuha Warraich; J Mocco

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of stroke have been crucial in advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Currently, the standards for determining neurological deficit in rodents are the Bederson and Garcia scales, manual assessments scoring animals based on parameters ranked on a narrow scale of severity. Automated open field analysis of a live-video tracking system that analyzes animal behavior may provide a more sensitive test. Results obtained from the manual Bederson and Garc...

  16. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,A.; Ferraz-de-Paula,V.; Pinheiro,M.L.; Palermo-Neto,J.

    2009-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped...

  17. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Palermo-Neto, J

    2009-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P open field test.

  18. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water‐maze place navigation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ann‐Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water‐maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water‐maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water‐maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water‐maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water‐maze are used in preclinical research. PMID:28654717

  19. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min Ryu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields.

  20. Evidence-based severity assessment: Impact of repeated versus single open-field testing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Carina; Siestrup, Sophie; Palme, Rupert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert; Richter, S Helene

    2018-01-15

    According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing, seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single testing on mouse welfare, using one of the most commonly used paradigms for behavioral phenotyping in behavioral neuroscience, the open-field test. In an independent groups design, laboratory mice (Mus musculus f. domestica) experienced either repeated, single, or no open-field testing - procedures that are assigned to different severity categories. Interestingly, testing experiences did not affect fecal corticosterone metabolites, body weights, elevated plus-maze or home cage behavior differentially. Thus, with respect to the assessed endocrinological, physical, and behavioral outcome measures, no signs of compromised welfare could be detected in mice that were tested in the open-field repeatedly, once, or, not at all. These findings challenge current classification guidelines and may, furthermore, stimulate systematic research on the severity of single procedures involving living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lithium ameliorates open-field and elevated plus maze behaviors, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta expression in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Sun, Weiwen; Pan, Ying; Yang, Quan; Cao, Kaiyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yizhi; Chen, Mincong; Chen, Feidi; Huang, Yueling; Dai, Lijun; Chen, Shengqiang

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether lithium modifies open-field and elevated plus maze behavior, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (P-GSK3beta) expression in Fmr1 knockout mice. One hundred and eighty FVB mice, including knockout and wild type, with an age of 30 days were used. An open-field and elevated plus maze was utilized to test behavior, while western blot was used to measure the P-GSK3beta expression. Six groups were formed: control (saline), lithium chloride 30, 60, 90, 120, and 200 mg/kg. The experiments were carried out in the Institute of Neuroscience, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China between January and June 2012. Lithium significantly decreased total distance, crossing, central area time, and center entry in the open-field test (popen-arm tracking, open-arm entry, and open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (popen-field and elevated plus maze behaviors of Fmr1 knockout mice. This effect may be related to its enhancement of P-GSK3beta expression. Our findings suggest that lithium might have a therapeutic effect in fragile X syndrome.

  2. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  3. Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests as displayed by C57/BL6J and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2008-06-15

    The relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests were examined in two strains of mice. In the open-field, C57BL/6J mice had more ambulatory movements and rears but not stereotyped movements relative to BALB/c. In addition, C57BL/6J mice entered more often than BALB/c into enclosed and open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When placed inside a large enclosure, C57BL/6J mice emerged more quickly than BALB/c from a small toy object. In the entire series of mice, ambulation and rears in the open-field were linearly correlated with open and enclosed arm visits in the elevated plus-maze. Ambulatory movements and rears were also correlated with emergence latencies. In contrast, stereotyped movements were correlated with emergence latencies, but not with any elevated plus-maze value. These results specify the extent and limits of association between the three tests.

  4. Subtoxic lead exposure of the albino rat during different phases of development and its effects on the open-field behaviour and the learning ability as studied by discrimination tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhoeven, P

    1980-01-01

    Female Wistar rats received a lead diet of 1.38 g lead acetate/kg food or a normal diet, respectively and after 54 days they were mated. The young rats were exposed to lead either only diaplacentally until birth or postnatally in infancy and as adult animals by plumbiferous breast milk or diet, or pre- and postnatally until ablactation. At different instants we determined the blood-lead and the brain-lead levels, the d-aminolevulic acid dehydrase activity and the packed cell volume of the dams and the young animals. In addition the respective weight was registered. For the learning test the food was reduced to 80% of the individual food demand. In the open-field test we investigated the parameters ambulation, rearing, grooming and defaecation. Neither the dams nor the young rats showed any symptoms of lead intoxication. The weight before and during food deprivation did not present any group differences. In the lead-exposed dams and in the pre- and postnatally lead-exposed young rats the mean blood-lead level ranged between 25 and 31 ..mu..g/dl. In those animals exposed to lead postnatally, these concentrations were reached slowlier. The blood-lead level of those rats exposed to lead only prenatally or until ablactation had dropped to control values within some weeks. The brain-lead level of those animals exposed still after infancy, almost agreed with the corresponding blood-lead level. Whereas the packed cell volume did not reveal any group differences, the delta-aminolevulic acid dehydrase activity was found to be significantly reduced for those test animals, which underwent the longest lead exposure. The behaviour observed in the open-field tests did not reveal any significant group differences. Also with respect to the learning performance no differences between the groups of varying conditions could be found.

  5. An analysis of sensitivity of CLIMEX parameters in mapping species potential distribution and the broad-scale changes observed with minor variations in parameters values: an investigation using open-field Solanum lycopersicum and Neoleucinodes elegantalis as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2018-04-01

    A sensitivity analysis can categorize levels of parameter influence on a model's output. Identifying parameters having the most influence facilitates establishing the best values for parameters of models, providing useful implications in species modelling of crops and associated insect pests. The aim of this study was to quantify the response of species models through a CLIMEX sensitivity analysis. Using open-field Solanum lycopersicum and Neoleucinodes elegantalis distribution records, and 17 fitting parameters, including growth and stress parameters, comparisons were made in model performance by altering one parameter value at a time, in comparison to the best-fit parameter values. Parameters that were found to have a greater effect on the model results are termed "sensitive". Through the use of two species, we show that even when the Ecoclimatic Index has a major change through upward or downward parameter value alterations, the effect on the species is dependent on the selection of suitability categories and regions of modelling. Two parameters were shown to have the greatest sensitivity, dependent on the suitability categories of each species in the study. Results enhance user understanding of which climatic factors had a greater impact on both species distributions in our model, in terms of suitability categories and areas, when parameter values were perturbed by higher or lower values, compared to the best-fit parameter values. Thus, the sensitivity analyses have the potential to provide additional information for end users, in terms of improving management, by identifying the climatic variables that are most sensitive.

  6. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  7. Greater Leisure Time Physical Activity Is Associated with Lower Allostatic Load in White, Black, and Mexican American Midlife Women: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Rainisch, Bethany Wexler; Chyu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load is a useful construct to understand how social and environmental conditions get under the skin to affect health. To date, few studies have examined health-enhancing lifestyle behaviors and their potential benefits in reducing allostatic load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of leisure time physical activity on level of allostatic load among White, Black, and Mexican American midlife women. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004 (n = 1,680, women ages 40-59). All analyses were weighted. Negative binomial regression was used to model a summative count measure of allostatic load (M = 2.30). Models were also computed to estimate adjusted predicted allostatic load for given levels of physical activity, and by race/ethnicity for each age category (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59), controlling for other demographics and medication use. Higher levels of physical activity were associated significantly with lower levels of allostatic load, independent of demographics. Compared with White women ages 40 to 44, all other racial/ethnic-by-age groups had significantly higher allostatic load. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a lower allostatic load. Adjusted prediction models demonstrated associations between greater levels of physical activity and lower allostatic load for all ages and racial/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest physical activity may ameliorate some of the effects of cumulative physiological dysregulation and subsequent disease burden in midlife women. Programs and policies that encourage and promote healthy aging and provide opportunities for a diversity of women to engage in health-enhancing lifestyle practices such as physical activity are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Gupta, D; Roche, T; Thompson, M C; Giammanco, F; Conti, F; Marsili, P; Moreno, C D

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  9. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water-maze place navigation task

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Ann-Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard; Wolfer, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for C...

  10. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  11. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed

  13. Role of thirst and visual barriers in the differential behavior displayed by streptozotocin-treated rats in the elevated plus-maze and the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Solleiro, Daniela; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Roldán-Roldán, Gabriel; Hiriart, Marcia; Pérez de la Mora, Miguel

    2013-08-15

    Conflicting results have been obtained by several groups when studying the effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Since thirst is a prominent feature in STZ-induced diabetic-like condition, we studied whether the walls of the closed arms of the EPM, by limiting the search for water in the environment, may contribute to the observed differential behavioral outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether visual barriers within the EPM have an influence on the behavior of STZ-treated rats in this test of anxiety. A striking similarity between STZ-treated (50 mg/kg, i.p., in two consecutive days) and water deprived rats (72 h) was found in exploratory behavior in the EPM, showing an anxiolytic-like profile. However the anxiolytic response of STZ-treated rats exposed to the EPM shifts into an anxiogenic profile when they are subsequently tested in the open-field test, which unlike the EPM is devoid of visual barriers. Likewise, water deprived rats (72 h) also showed an anxiogenic profile when they were exposed to the open-field test. Our results indicate that experimental outcomes based on EPM observations can be misleading when studying physiological or pathological conditions, e.g. diabetes, in which thirst may increase exploratory behavior. © 2013.

  14. Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests in C57BL/6JIco and BALB/cAnN@Ico mice injected with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2012-04-01

    The effects of ethanol were examined on three tests of exploratory activity in two mouse strains. Although ethanol reduced open-field rearing in both strains, it increased ambulation only in the less active BALB/cAnN@Ico strain, not in the C57BL/6JIco strain. Likewise, ethanol increased open and enclosed arm entries in the elevated plus-maze only in the more anxious BALB/cAnN@Ico strain. However, both strains injected with ethanol emerged faster than placebo from a small chamber at doses not affecting behaviors in the other two tests. Significant correlations were found between emergence latencies on one hand and either slow stereotyped movements or open and enclosed arm entries on the other. The strain-specific effects may be attributable to differences in GABA(A) -related receptor binding or catalase activity. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of 3D Mouse Behaviors and Motor Function in the Open-Field after Spinal Cord Injury Using Markerless Motion Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L.; Lai, Po-Lun; Fisher, Lesley C.; Basso, D. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study’s goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz). Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal’s silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal’s front Center of Volume (CoV) height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 pstudies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative measurement methods, subjectivity and human error is reduced, potentially providing insights leading to breakthroughs in treating human disease. PMID:24058586

  18. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele

    2014-06-22

    Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Results of correlation of values of individual behaviour of rats with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Kunz, K

    1976-01-01

    A significant negative correlation was found between the individual animal's horizontal activity in an open field and liver tryptophan pyrrolase (LTP) activity. On the other hand, the duration of immobility in an open field correlated postively and significantly with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  20. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  1. Morphophysiological and productive indicators of the pepper planted in the greenhouse and in the open field in the conditions of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Demesio Alemán Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is the poorest region of Ecuador, particularly the province of Pastaza. The production of vegetables in the region is very limited and only established in the greenhouse. The pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a horticultural product very demanded, however, there is a criterion that cannot be grown in the area. Therefore, since 2014, the Center for Research, Posgraduate and Conservation of Amazonian Biodiversity (CIPCA, belonging to Universidad Estatal Amazonica initiated a research program to evaluate the adaptation of different horticultural species plants to conditions in the region, in order to contribute to food sustainability. The study consisted of determining the behavior of the Nathalie hybrid pepper crop, planted in greenhouse and open field conditions, for which a randomized block design was used. Productions, physiological and morphological indicators of the crop were evaluated and the results obtained were made a statistical comparison of means. The results suggest that better morphophysiological indicators are obtained when it was sown in the greenhouse, with height of 136 cm and a foliar area of 0.95 m2. However, the best productive and agricultural performance indicators were obtained outside the greenhouse, with 9 fruits per plant, with an average fruit weight of 975.80 g and an average yield of 6.42 kg m-2. This indicates the convenience of establishing this crop in the Ecuadorian Amazon without sow in the greenhouse.

  2. Drug-, dose- and sex-dependent effects of chronic fluoxetine, reboxetine and venlafaxine on open-field behavior and spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vanessa C; Hughes, Robert N

    2015-03-15

    In an effort to address the need to include both sexes in studies of effects of the SSRI fluoxetine, the NRI reboxetine and the SNRI venlafaxine on anxiety-related behavior and memory along with the use of chronic drug administration, male and female PVG/c rats were fed diets containing two doses of each drug for 21 days. The rats' anxiety level was then assessed in an open field. Short-term spatial memory for a brightness change in a Y maze was also measured. While there was little evidence of anxiolytic effects of any of the drugs, both fluoxetine and, to a lesser extent, venlafaxine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic in their action depending on both dose and sex. Reboxetine was relatively ineffective in this respect. Ability to locate the Y-maze arm that had changed (from white to black) seemed to be impaired for male (but not female) rats by both fluoxetine and venlafaxine and, to a much lesser extent, by reboxetine. Given the relative ineffectiveness of reboxetine in either test, it is possible that the effects of the other two drugs on both anxiety and memory were mainly due to their serotonin reuptake inhibiting properties. The differences that occurred between males and females in responsiveness to all three drugs supported the long-held view that both sexes should be investigated in studies of this sort, especially in view of reports of sex differences in effects of clinically prescribed antidepressants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking blast physics to biological outcomes in mild traumatic brain injury: Narrative review and preliminary report of an open-field blast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hailong; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Catherine E; Hubler, Graham K; DePalma, Ralph G; Gu, Zezong

    2018-03-15

    Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders. Appropriate animal models of blast-induced TBI will not only assist the understanding of physical characteristics of the blast, but also help to address the potential mechanisms. This report provides a brief overview of physical principles of blast, injury mechanisms related to blast exposure, current blast animal models, and the neurological behavioral and neuropathological findings related to blast injury in experimental settings. We describe relationships between blast peak pressures and the observed injuries. We also report preliminary use of a highly reproducible and intensity-graded blast murine model carried out in open-field with explosives, and describe physical and pathological findings in this experimental model. Our results indicate close relationships between blast intensities and neuropathology and behavioral deficits, particularly at low level blast intensities relevant to mTBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  5. Plasma leptin concentrations are greater in type II diabetic patients and stimulate monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 synthesis via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Cha

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that activation of leptin synthesis may promote MCP-1 activation in a diabetic environment via the MAPK pathway in VSMCs and that it possibly contributes to the acceleration of atherosclerosis.

  6. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  7. Use of redundant sets of landmark information by humans (Homo sapiens) in a goal-searching task in an open field and on a computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Katsuo; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Sawa, Kosuke

    2018-05-01

    Landmark-based goal-searching tasks that were similar to those for pigeons (Ushitani & Jitsumori, 2011) were provided to human participants to investigate whether they could learn and use multiple sources of spatial information that redundantly indicate the position of a hidden target in both an open field (Experiment 1) and on a computer screen (Experiments 2 and 3). During the training in each experiment, participants learned to locate a target in 1 of 25 objects arranged in a 5 × 5 grid, using two differently colored, arrow-shaped (Experiments 1 and 2) or asymmetrically shaped (Experiment 3) landmarks placed adjacent to the goal and pointing to the goal location. The absolute location and directions of the landmarks varied across trials, but the constant configuration of the goal and the landmarks enabled participants to find the goal using both global configural information and local vector information (pointing to the goal by each individual landmark). On subsequent test trials, the direction was changed for one of the landmarks to conflict with the global configural information. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that participants used vector information from a single landmark but not configural information. Further examinations revealed that the use of global (metric) information was enhanced remarkably by goal searching with nonarrow-shaped landmarks on the computer monitor (Experiment 3) but much less so with arrow-shaped landmarks (Experiment 2). The General Discussion focuses on a comparison between humans in the current study and pigeons in the previous study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  9. Effects of continuous vs. cycling estrogen replacement on the acquisition, retention and expression of place- and response-learning in the open-field tower maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Byrd, Dennis; Green, John T; Toufexis, Donna J

    2014-10-01

    Estrogen has been shown to either enhance or impair learning and memory in female rats. The use of different experimental paradigms or estrogen treatment regimens may contribute to these disparate findings. In order to assess the effect of different estradiol (E2) treatments on several aspects of cognition, we trained ovariectomized female rats with either continuous, cycling, or vehicle E2 replacement, in an open-field tower maze task (OFTM) designed to test reference memory in a low-stress environment. In addition, in order to compare two distinct learning and memory systems, rats were trained to use either a dorsolateral striatum-based response type learning or a hippocampal-based place type learning to solve the maze. Results showed that cyclic, but not continuous, E2 replacement facilitated the acquisition of spatial memory in place-learners. Neither E2 regimen affected acquisition in response-learners. Additionally, when all experimental groups were performing at asymptote, rats were evaluated for performance stability by changing the location of their start position in the OFTM. Both regimens of E2 disrupted the expression of spatial memory in place-learners following the novel start position. However, E2 replacement protected ovariectomized female rats from the disruption of memory expression following a start position change in response-learners. Additionally all experimental groups performed equally well when tested following a 21-day period during which rats were absent from the maze. These results suggest that E2 fluctuation is particularly important in the acquisition of hippocampal-mediated spatial learning, and that hippocampal-based memory may be subject to disruption following environmental change, while striatum-based memory is subject to protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain histamine depletion enhances the behavioural sequences complexity of mice tested in the open-field: Partial reversal effect of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Andrea; Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Blandina, Patrizio; Ricca, Valdo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Casarrubea, Maurizio; Passani, M Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Markers of histaminergic dysregulation were found in several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by repetitive behaviours, thoughts and stereotypies. We analysed the effect of acute histamine depletion by means of i. c.v. injections of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a blocker of histidine decarboxylase, on the temporal organization of motor sequences of CD1 mice behaviour in the open-field test. An ethogram encompassing 9 behavioural components was employed. Durations and frequencies were only slightly affected by treatments. However, as revealed by multivariate t-pattern analysis, histamine depletion was associated with a striking increase in the number of behavioural patterns. We found 42 patterns of different composition occurring, on average, 520.90 ± 50.23 times per mouse in the histamine depleted (HD) group, whereas controls showed 12 different patterns occurring on average 223.30 ± 20.64 times. Exploratory and grooming behaviours clustered separately, and the increased pattern complexity involved exclusively exploratory patterns. To test the hypothesis of a histamine-dopamine interplay on behavioural pattern phenotype, non-sedative doses of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride (12.5-25-50 mg/kg) were additionally administered to different groups of HD mice. Sulpiride counterbalanced the enhancement of exploratory patterns of different composition, but it did not affect the mean number of patterns at none of the doses used. Our results provide new insights on the role of histamine on repetitive behavioural sequences of freely moving mice. Histamine deficiency is correlated with a general enhancement of pattern complexity. This study supports a putative involvement of histamine in the pathophysiology of tics and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of a force-sensing automated open field apparatus in a longitudinal study of multiple behavioral deficits in CAG140 Huntington's disease model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephen C; Muma, Nancy A

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral testing of mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) is a key component of preclinical assessment for potential pharmacological intervention. An open field with a force plate floor was used to quantify numerous spontaneous behaviors in a slowly progressing model of HD. CAG140 (+/+, +/-, -/-) male and female mice were compared in a longitudinal study from 6 to 65 weeks of age. Distance traveled, wall rears, wall rear duration, number of low mobility bouts, in-place movements, number of high velocity runs, and gait parameters (stride rate, stride length, and velocity) were extracted from the ground reaction forces recorded in 20-min actometer sessions. Beginning at 11 weeks, HD mice (both +/- and +/+) were consistently hypoactive throughout testing. Robust hypoactivity at 39 weeks of age was not accompanied by gait disturbances. By 52 and 65 weeks of age the duration of wall rears increased and in-place tremor-like movements emerged at 65 weeks of age in the +/+, but not in the +/- HD mice. Taken together, these results suggest that hypoactivity preceding frank motor dysfunction is a characteristic of CAG140 mice that may correspond to low motivation to move seen clinically in the premanifest/prediagnostic stage in human HD. The results also show that the force plate method provides a means for tracking the progression of behavioral dysfunction in HD mice beyond the stage when locomotion is lost while enabling quantification of tremor-like and similar in-place behaviors without a change in instrumentation. Use of force plate actometry also minimizes testing-induced enrichment effects when batteries of different tests are carried out longitudinally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential risk levels of invasive Neoleucinodes elegantalis (small tomato borer) in areas optimal for open-field Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) cultivation in the present and under predicted climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-03-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is one of the major insect pests of Solanum lycopersicum. Currently, N. elegantalis is present only in America and the Caribbean, and is a threat in the world's largest S. lycopersicum-producing countries. In terms of potential impact on agriculture, the impact of climate change on insect invasions must be a concern. At present, no research exists regarding the effects of climatic change on the risk level of N. elegantalis. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for S. lycopersicum and N. elegantalis, utilizing CLIMEX to determine risk levels of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation in the present and under projected climate change, using the global climate model CSIRO-Mk3.0. Large areas are projected to be suitable for N. elegantalis and optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation at the present time. However, in the future these areas will become unsuitable for both species. Conversely, other regions in the future may become optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation, with a varying risk level for N. elegantalis. The risk level results presented here provide a useful tool to design strategies to prevent the introduction and establishment of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoreactive neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus: response to acute and long-term high-light open-field (HL-OF) or forced swim (FS) stress stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowska-Szalewska, E; Spodnik, E; Ludkiewicz, B; Klejbor, I; Moryś, J

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed at examining and comparing the influence of two different stress stimuli on the density (number of cells/mm²) of nerve growth factor (NGF) containing neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer in juvenile rats (P28; P-postnatal day). The high-light open-field (HL-OF) test and forced swim (FS) test were employed to investigate the effects of a single, 15-min acute exposure and repeated (15 min daily for 21 days) long-term exposure to stress. In order to detect NGF-ir neurons, immunohistochemical (-ir) techniques were used. In comparison with nonstressed animals, acute and long-term HL-OF or FS stimulation resulted in a marked increase (P<0.001) in the density of NGF-ir containing cells in all the hippocampal structures. The frequency of stress application (acute vs. long-term), however, did not have a substantial impact on the studied parameter, with the exception of the CA3 sector, where a decreased density (P<0.001) of NGF-ir neurons was observed after long-term exposure to FS. It may be concluded that a rise in the density of NGF-ir neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus after exposure to HL-OF or FS stressors could have affected the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress axis. Prolonged HL-OF or FS stress was probably aggravating enough not to trigger the habituation process. The type of stressor applied (HL-OF vs. FS) was not essentially a factor determining the density of NGF-ir cells in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Entrepreneurship and Shrinking Regions paper thoughts: “What motivates social entrepreneurs to be active in promoting sustainable social services in shrinking rural regions? A case study of Greater Twente.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Velderman, Willem-Jan; Stienstra, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing realisation that advanced economies are suffering from a new wave of rural depopulation as a consequence of a ‘perfect storm’ of rural outmigration and falling birth-rates. The issue of managed decline (i.e. rural demolition) has actively been proposed as the only inevitable

  15. Synergistic Effects of Agronet Covers and Companion Cropping on Reducing Whitefly Infestation and Improving Yield of Open Field-Grown Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Mutisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill are one of the biggest vegetable crops in the world, supplying a wide range of vitamins, minerals and fibre in human diets. In the tropics, tomatoes are predominantly grown under sub-optimal conditions by subsistence farmers, with exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses in the open field. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is one of the major pests of the tomato, potentially causing up to 100% yield loss. To control whitefly, most growers indiscriminately use synthetic insecticides which negatively impact the environment, humans, and other natural pest management systems, while also increasing cost of production. This study sought to investigate the effectiveness of agronet covers and companion planting with aromatic basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as an alternative management strategy for whitefly in tomatoes and to evaluate the use of these treatments ontomato growth and yield. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Training Field, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Treatments comprised a combination of two factors, (1 growing environment (agronet and no agronet and (2 companion planting with a row of basil surrounding tomato plants, a row of basil in between adjacent rows of tomato, no companion planting. Agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. Better tomato yields were also recorded in treatments where the two treatments were used in combination. Higher yield (13.75 t/ha was obtained from tomatoes grown under agronet cover with a basil row planted in between adjacent rows of the tomato crop compared to 5.9 t/ha in the control. Non-marketable yield was also lowered to5.9 t/ha compared to 9.8 t/ha in the control following the use of the two treatments in combination. The results of this study demonstrate the potential viability of using companion cropping and agronet

  16. Prediction Models for Assessing Lycopene in Open-Field Cultivated Tomatoes by Means of a Portable Reflectance Sensor: Cultivar and Growing-Season Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Tuccio, Lorenza; Mencaglia, Andrea A; Sikorska-Zimny, Kalina; Hallmann, Ewelina; Kowalski, Artur; G Mignani, Anna; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw; Agati, Giovanni

    2018-05-09

    Reflectance spectroscopy represents a useful tool for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene, even in the field. For this reason, a compact, low-cost, light emitting diode-based sensor has been developed to measure reflectance in the 400-750 nm spectral range. It was calibrated against wet chemistry and evaluated by partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. The lycopene prediction models were defined for two open-field cultivated red-tomato varieties: the processing oblong tomatoes of the cv. Calista (average weight: 76 g) and the fresh-consumption round tomatoes of the cv. Volna (average weight: 130 g), over a period of two consecutive years. The lycopene prediction models were dependent on both cultivar and season. The lycopene root mean square error of prediction produced by the 2014 single-cultivar calibrations validated on the 2015 samples was large (33 mg kg -1 ) in the Calista tomatoes and acceptable (9.5 mg kg -1 ) in the Volna tomatoes. A more general bicultivar and biyear model could still explain almost 80% of the predicted lycopene variance, with a relative error in red tomatoes of less than 20%. In 2016, the in-field applications of the multiseasonal prediction models, built with the 2014 and 2015 data, showed significant ( P lycopene estimated in the crop on two sampling dates that were 20 days apart: on August 19 and September 7, 2016, the lycopene was 98.9 ± 9.3 and 92.2 ± 10.8 mg kg -1 FW for cv. Calista and 54.6 ± 13.2 and 60.8 ± 6.8 mg kg -1 FW for cv. Volna. The sensor was also able to monitor the temporal evolution of lycopene accumulation on the very same fruits attached to the plants. These results indicated that a simple, compact reflectance device and PLS analysis could provide adequately precise and robust (through-seasons) models for the nondestructive assessment of lycopene in whole tomatoes. This technique could guarantee tomatoes with the highest nutraceutical value from the production, during storage and

  17. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: First Direct Measurements of the Greater Than Or Similar To 10 Kev X-Ray Luminosity Function For Active Galactic Nuclei At z > 0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of the rest-frame 10-40 keV X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a sample of 94 sources at 0.1 ... program. Our results are consistent with the strong evolution of the AGN population seen in prior, lower-energy studies of the XLF. However, different models of the intrinsic distribution of absorption, which are used to correct for selection biases, give significantly different predictions for the total...... component (with a relative normalization of R ∼ 2 at all luminosities) can bring extrapolations of the XLF from 2-10 keV into agreement with our NuSTAR sample. Ultimately, X-ray spectral analysis of the NuSTAR sources is required to break this degeneracy between the distribution of absorbing column...

  19. The skin migratory stage of the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni has a surface showing greater permeability and activity in membrane internalisation than other forms of skin or mechanical schistosomula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Jesus Jeremias, Wander; DA Cunha Melo, Jose Renan; Baba, Elio Hideo; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Kusel, John Robert

    2015-08-01

    Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host.

  20. Sustainable agriculture and nitrogen reduction: an open field experiment using natural zeolitites in silty-clay reclaimed soil at Codigoro (Po River Delta, Ferrara, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Coltorti, Massimo; Colombani, Nicolò; Ferretti, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    Following the guidelines of Nitrate and Water Framework Directives (91/676/CEE, 200/60/CE) an innovative integrated zeolitite cycle is being tested on a reclaimed clayey-silt soil in the Po Delta area (Ferrara Province, Italy), in the framework of the EU-funded ZeoLIFE project (LIFE+10 ENV/IT/000321). Natural zeolitites are pyroclastic rocks containing more than 50% of zeolites, a kind of hydrous minerals with peculiar physical and chemical properties, like high and selective cation exchange capacity (CEC), molecular adsorption and reversible dehydration. Zeolitites can trap NH4+ from solutions and release it gradually to the plant roots once they have been mixed in agricultural soils, allowing both fertilization and irrigation reduction and improvement of the yield. The fertilization reduction can result in a decrease of the nitrate content in groundwater and surface waters, ultimately leading to a mitigation of nutrient excess in the environment. Similarly, reduction of irrigation water means a minor exploitation of the water resource. The selected material used in the project is a chabazite zeolitite coming from a quarry near Sorano in Central Italy (Bolsena volcanic district). The open-field experimentation foresees two year of cultivation. A surface of about 6 ha has been divided into six parcels: three control parcels are cultivated and irrigated in traditional way; two parcels have been added with coarse-grained (ø = 3- 6 mm) natural zeolitite at different zeolitite/soil ratios (5 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2) and one has been mixed with fine-grained (ø tests, and the ammonium enriched material is obtained by cation exchange with swine manure in a specifically conceived prototype. The environmental quality of soil and water in each parcel is monitored by periodic soil, groundwater and porewater analyses. Soil EC, temperature and volumetric water content are continuously measured with probes at different depth (5-30-50-100-150 cm). The quality of surface water is

  1. Spreading, Infestation and Damage Rates and Adult Population Monitoring of Tomato Leaf Miner [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] on Open Field Tomato Grown in the South Marmara Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Gürsel; GÖKSEL, Pınar; DURA, Onur; HANTAŞ, Cemil

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine spreading, infestation and fruit damage rates and adult population monitoring of Tomato leaf miner, (Tuta absoluta, Meyrick) on open field tomato grown in the South Marmara Region (Bilecik, Bursa, Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces) of Turkey in 2011-2012. As result of spreading studies carried out according to systematic sampling method, it was determined that all tomato locations in every province were infested by this pest. Infestation rate...

  2. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  3. Corrales de piedra, campos abiertos y pampas de camaruco: Memorias de relacionalidad en la meseta central de Chubut Stone yards, open fields and sacred places: Memories of relatedness in the Chubut´s central plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La "cuestión indígena" como política de estado en Argentina ha estado acompañada por la elaboración académica de mapas étnicos. Las definiciones hegemónicas de estas entidades han presupuesto generalmente algún elemento "esencial" como, por ejemplo, fenotipos, uso de una lengua, o la aglutinación en torno a linajes consanguíneos. A partir de las reformulaciones de las teorías del parentesco desde el modelo heurístico de las sociedades de casas y las teorías sobre la relacionalidad proponemos una aproximación a la memoria social como marco alternativo de interpretación histórica. Esta contempla las prácticas sociales del parentesco y la objetivación de la continuidad de los grupos de pertenencia en las políticas y lugares de la memoria -corrales de piedra, actividades productivas y pampas de camaruco- en la región de la "meseta" de Chubut. Dichas relaciones con el espacio físico cuestionan tanto las definiciones académicas tradicionales de parentesco y de cacicazgo como las clasificaciones étnicas-nacionales.The "Indigenous issue" as a state policy in Argentina has been accompanied by an academic production of ethnic maps. Hegemonic definitions of these entities used to presume some "essential" elements like the phenotype, the use of language or consanguineous lineage membership. Based on the reformulation of kinship theory, which came from the heuristic model of houses and relatedness theory, we propose an approach to social memory as an alternative framework for historical interpretation. This includes kinship social practices as well as the materialization of group membership's continuity in policies and places of memory -such as stone yards, productive activities, open fields and sacred places- in the Chubut central plateau. Finally, we argue that regarding a physical space, these relations question not only the ethnic-national classifications but also the traditional academic definitions of kinship and chieftaincy.

  4. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  5. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  7. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  8. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  9. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  10. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  11. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  12. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  13. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  14. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  15. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  16. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  17. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  18. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  19. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  1. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  2. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  3. Connexin31.1 deficiency in the mouse impairs object memory and modulates open-field exploration, acetylcholine esterase levels in the striatum, and cAMP response element-binding protein levels in the striatum and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, E; Zheng-Fischhöfer, Q; Viggiano, D; Gironi Carnevale, U A; Ruocco, L A; Zlomuzica, A; Schnichels, M; Willecke, K; Huston, J P; Sadile, A G

    2008-05-02

    Neuronal gap junctions in the brain, providing intercellular electrotonic signal transfer, have been implicated in physiological and behavioral correlates of learning and memory. In connexin31.1 (Cx31.1) knockout (KO) mice the coding region of the Cx31.1 gene was replaced by a LacZ reporter gene. We investigated the impact of Cx31.1 deficiency on open-field exploration, the behavioral response to an odor, non-selective attention, learning and memory performance, and the levels of memory-related proteins in the hippocampus, striatum and the piriform cortex. In terms of behavior, the deletion of the Cx31.1 coding DNA in the mouse led to increased exploratory behaviors in a novel environment, and impaired one-trial object recognition at all delays tested. Despite strong Cx31.1 expression in the peripheral and central olfactory system, Cx31.1 KO mice exhibited normal behavioral responses to an odor. We found increased levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum of Cx31.1 KO mice. In the piriform cortex the Cx31.1 KO mice had an increased heterogeneity of CREB expression among neurons. In conclusion, gap-junctions featuring the Cx31.1 protein might be involved in open-field exploration as well as object memory and modulate levels of AChE and CREB in the striatum and piriform cortex.

  4. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Tolerance and sensitization to inhaled 1,1,1-trichloroethane in mice: results from open-field behavior and a functional observational battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Scott E; Balster, Robert L

    2006-05-01

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCE), a representative abused solvent, has well described acute behavioral effects in animals. Much less is known about repeated high-concentration exposures as would be encountered in inhalant abusers. Tolerance has been demonstrated in some, but not all, studies with TCE while sensitization has also been seen with other abused solvents. The present study was designed to further characterize changes in the effects of repeated exposure to TCE on a variety of mouse behaviors. Mice were tested using locomotor activity as well as a functional observational battery (FOB) both before and after a regimen of daily exposures to various concentrations of TCE. The initial locomotor effects of acute 30-min exposures to TCE were biphasic with concentration-dependent increases in activity at lower concentrations and decreases observed at higher concentrations. The profile of acute effects as measured by the FOB included changes in posture, decreased arousal, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and decreased sensorimotor reactivity. Animals were then divided into five groups and exposed 30 min/day to either air or one of four concentrations of TCE (2,000, 6,000, 10,000, or 13,300 ppm) for 15 consecutive days. The TCE concentration used primarily affected the magnitude of change, not whether tolerance or sensitization occurred. Tolerance developed on the measures of forelimb grip strength, inverted screen, and number of rears. Conversely, sensitization developed to measures of locomotor activity. Depending on the behavioral measure, both tolerance and sensitization can occur in mice with repeated exposure to TCE. Both of these phenomena are characteristic of drugs of abuse.

  6. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  7. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  8. Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs

  9. Experiences with the use of conservative tracers as an aid in transferring lysimeter results to the open field; Erfahrungen beim Einsatz von konservativen Tracern als Hilfsmittel zur Uebertragung von Lysimeterergebnissen auf Freilandflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, J.; Meissner, R.; Rupp, H. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Lysimeterstation; Mueller, L.; Eulenstein, F. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. (ZALF), Muencheberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Four lysimeter trials performed on an IS-type soil yielded an almost constant range of displacement of a tracer front (NO{sub 3} front) of 4.0 to 4.5 mm / l of seepage water (referred to a surface area of 1 m-2 and a depth of 1 m). This was experimental confirmation of a tentatively formulated simplified relationship between seepage water volume, vertical tracer displacement, and field capacity. The results were also in very good agreement with those of a control study in the open field carried out under similar hydrological, pedological, and agrotechnical conditions using lysimeters and Cl tracers for determining quantities of seepage water formation. As the present lysimeter trials mirror soil hydrological processes in the open field with sufficient accuracy, they appear well suited to take the place of the so often lacking territorial data as a means of validating mathematical models describing seepage-water-bound material export. [Deutsch] Auf der Basis von 4 Lysimeterversuchen konnte fuer die Bodenart IS ein nahezu konstanter Wertebereich fuer die Verlagerung einer Tracerfront (NO{sub 3}-Front) in Hoehe von 4,0 bis 4,5 mm/l Sickerwasser (bezogen auf eine Oberflaeche von 1 m{sup 2} und eine Tiefe von 1 m) ermittelt werden. Damit konnte die vereinfachte Beziehung zwischen Sickerwassermenge, Tracerverlagerungstiefe und Feldkapazitaet experimentell bestaetigt werden. Ein Vergleich zur Bestimmung der Sickerwassermengenbildung mit Hilfe von Lysimetern und durch Einsatz von Cl-Tracern unter aehnlich hydrologischen, pedologischen und agrotechnischen Bedingungen im Freiland wies eine hohe Uebereinstimmung auf. Da die hier durchgefuehrten Lysimeteruntersuchungen bodenhydrologische Prozesse von Freilandflaechen mit ausreichender Genauigkeit widerspieglen, erscheinen sie anstelle oft fehlender Gebietskenndaten zur Validierung von mathematischen Modellen zur Beschreibung sickerwassergebundener Stoffaustraege gut geeignet. (orig.)

  10. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV): Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ernesto Gabriel; Hernández-Suárez, Estrella; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae) as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled), but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2%) on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3%) than in open-field sites (1.4%). The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs)/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days) compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  11. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to high- and low-light conditions in an open-field test of anxiety increases c-Fos expression in specific subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Bouwknecht, J Adriaan; Spiga, Francesca; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2006-12-11

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of forebrain structures including the basolateral amygdaloid complex (basolateral amygdala). Despite a wealth of research examining the role of the basolateral amygdala in anxiety-related behaviors and anxiety states, the specific subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that are involved in responses to anxiogenic stimuli have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a novel open-field environment, with either low- or high-levels of illumination, on expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-Fos in subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdala. The subdivisions studied included the lateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, the anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the anterior and posterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. Small increases in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in several, but not all, of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala studied following exposure of rats to either the high- or low-light conditions, compared to home cage or handled control groups. Open-field exposure in both the high- and low-light conditions resulted in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus compared to either home cage or handled control groups. These findings point toward anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the basolateral amygdaloid complex and an important role of the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in the neural mechanisms underlying physiological or behavioral responses to this anxiety-related stimulus.

  13. Effects of methimepip and JNJ-5207852 in Wistar rats exposed to an open-field with and without object and in Balb/c mice exposed to a radial-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdah, Rushdie M A; van Rensburg, Ruan; Lethbridge, Natasha L; Ennaceur, Abdel; Chazot, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    The role of the histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) in anxiety is controversial, due to limitations in drug selectivity and limited validity of behavioral tests used in previous studies. In the present report, we describe two experiments. In the first one, Wistar rats were treated with an H(3)R agonist (methimepip), and exposed to an open-field. In the second one, Balb/c mice were treated with H(3)R agonist (methimepip) or antagonist (JNJ-5207852), and exposed to an open space 3D maze which is a modified version of the radial-arm maze. C57BL/6J saline treated mice were included for comparisons. When exposed to an empty open field, Wistar rats spent more time in the outer area and made very low number of brief crossings in the central area. However, when an object occupied the central area, rats crossed frequently into and spent a long time in the central area. Administration of a range of different doses of methimepip (selective H(3)R agonist) reduced the entries into the central area with a novel object, indicating enhanced avoidance response. In the 3D maze, both Balb/c and C57BL/6J saline-treated mice crossed frequently onto the bridges that radiate from the central platform but only C57BL/6J mice crossed onto the arms which extend the bridges. This suggests that Balb/c mice are more anxious than C57BL/6J mice. Neither methimepip nor JNJ-5207852 (selective H(3)R antagonist/inverse agonist) induced entry into the arms of the maze, indicative of lack of anxiolytic effects.

  14. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  15. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  16. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  17. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  18. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  19. Auditory Perception in Open Field: Distance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    geocentric judgments, are based on the external frame of reference and are independent of the actual location of the observer. The location of one...viewing distance increases approaching an asymptotic ceiling (Gogel, 1993; Loomis and Philbeck, 1999). Sedgwick (1986) conducted an extensive...hypothesized that in the case of a sound source spherically radiating sound and approaching the stationary listener with a constant velocity in an open

  20. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  1. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  2. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Greater Confinement Disposal Program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for improved LLW disposal at the Savannah River Plant include Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) for the higher activity fractions of this waste. GCD practices will include waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and stabilizing the emplacement with cement. Statistical review of SRP burial records showed that about 95% of the radioactivity is associated with only 5% of the waste volume. Trigger values determined in this study were compared with actual burials in 1982 to determine what GCD facilities would be needed for a demonstration to begin in Fall 1983. Facilities selected include 8-feet-diameter x 30-feet-deep boreholes to contain reactor scrap, tritiated waste, and selected wastes from offsite

  4. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  5. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  6. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  7. Influence of nutrient solutions in an open-field soilless system on the quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut red and green lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María C; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Selma, María V; Tudela, Juan A; Baixauli, Carlos; Gil, María I

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available about the impact of nutrient solution ion concentration on quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce grown in soilless systems in open field. Three lettuce genotypes, lollo rosso and red oak leaf as red-leafed genotypes and butterhead as green-leafed genotype, were studied. The influence of three nutrient solutions with low, medium and high ion concentrations, which varied in the macroanion (NO₃⁻) and macrocations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ and NH₄⁺), were compared in summer and winter. The nutrient solutions evaluated in this study for the production of lettuce in a soilless system did not strongly influence the quality characteristics of the raw material. When the ion concentration of the nutrient solution was increased, fresh weight decreased, although it depended on the genotype and season. Maturity index and dry matter content varied with the season but independently of the nutrient solution. In summer, maturity index was higher and dry matter lower than in winter. Initial texture and visual quality were not influenced by the nutrient solution. Medium ion concentration provided the highest content of vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Our observations pointed out that the genotype had a strong influence on the shelf life of the fresh-cut product with minor differences among nutrient solutions. In general, red-leafed lettuces showed the highest antioxidant content, helping the maintenance of sensory characteristics throughout storage. The combination of optimal nutrient solution ion concentration and suitable cultivar is considered essential to ensure lettuce post-cutting life. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  9. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  10. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  11. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  12. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  13. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C. V.; Howard, R.; Levine, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray images and magnetograms of several active regions and coronal holes are examined which support the interpretation that some of the dark X-ray gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions are foot points of open field lines inside the active regions. Characteristics of the investigated dark gaps are summarized. All the active regions with dark X-ray gaps at the proper place and with the correct polarity predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields are shown to be old active regions, indicating that field opening is accomplished only in a late phase of active-region development. It is noted that some of the observed dark gaps probably have nothing in common with open fields, but are either due to the decreased temperature in low-lying portions of interconnecting loops or are the roots of higher and less dense or cooler loops.

  14. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  15. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  16. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  17. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  18. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  19. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  20. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  1. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  2. Conservação de rúcula minimamente processada produzida em campo aberto e cultivo protegido com agrotêxtil Conservation of minimally processed rocket produced under open field conditions and non woven polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela F Gonzalez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de rúcula produzidas em campo aberto e sob cultivo protegido com agrotêxtil foram minimamente processadas, embaladas inteiras ou picadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e cobertas com filme de PVC de 14 micras. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (ambiente de cultivo, forma de preparo e refrigeração a 0(0C e 10(0C, com quatro repetições por tratamento, totalizando 32 bandejas. Os tratamentos foram armazenados a 0ºC e 10ºC por 10 dias, quando foram avaliadas as variáveis perda de massa (%; pH; sólidos solúveis; acidez titulável; cor e aparência. A conservação a 0ºC promoveu uma diminuição da perda de peso da rúcula minimamente processada. A utilização de folhas inteiras ou minimamente processadas foi significativa para sólidos solúveis sendo os maiores valores encontrados para as folhas inteiras. Para folhas picadas observou-se valores de acidez significativamente maiores para as produzidas sob ambiente natural. Independente da forma de preparo, a rúcula produzida em ambiente natural apresentou menor valor de pH. A cor e aparência da rúcula não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos.Leaves of rocket salad produced under open field and non woven polypropylene were minimally processed and packed entire or pricked in polyestyrene trays covered with PVC film of 14 micras. The treatments were stored at 0(0C and 10(0C per 10 days, when the variables weight loss (%; pH; soluble solids; titratable acidity; colour and appearance were evaluated. The conservation under 0(0C promoted a reduction of weight loss on rocket salad minimally processed. Using entire or minimally processed leaves were significant for soluble solids the biggest values being found for entire leaves. For pricked leaves bigger values of acidity were observed for the produced ones under natural environment. Independent of the preparation form rocket salad produced under natural environment presented minor

  3. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  4. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  5. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  6. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  7. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  8. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  9. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  10. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  11. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  12. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  13. Heideggerov koncept myslenia v inom počiatku a výklad základných vzťahov v otvorenom poli (Heidegger’s Concept of Thinking in Different Beginning and Interpretation of Ground Relations in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Motýľ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study author on a basis of selected passages from Heidegger’s Contributions to Philosophy (Beiträge zur Philosophie interprets Heidegger’s key moments in change of thinking in other beginning. Through analysis of ground attunement (die Grundbestimmung he clarifies a structure of this thinking. He claims that this thinking opens a possibility of interpretation of ground relations in open field and through interpretation of various moments of Da-sein characterizes their meaning.

  14. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening of the Antidepressant-like Activity of Two Hypericum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty percent methanol extract of H. quartinianum and H. revolutum was investigated using learned helplessness models of depression such as tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming tests (FST) and avoidance tests. In addition, locomotor activity was investigated with open field test (OFT). Mice (for TST, avoidance ...

  16. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (∼160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  17. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (~160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  18. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    -collisional continental and young Greater India basin lithosphere did not, inciting the rapid India-Asia convergence deceleration 8 Myr after collision. Subsequent absolute northward trench migration and slab overturning terminated Gangdese arc activity despite ongoing oceanic subduction.

  19. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  20. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  1. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  2. Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Data Base user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Greater-than-Class-C Low-level Waste (GTCC LLW) Data Base characterizes GTCC LLW using low, base, and high cases for three different scenarios: unpackaged, packaged, and concentration averages. The GTCC LLW Data Base can be used to project future volumes and radionuclide activities. This manual provides instructions for users of the GTCC LLW Data Base

  3. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  4. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  5. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  6. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  7. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  8. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  9. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  10. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  11. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  12. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  13. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  14. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  15. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  16. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  17. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  19. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  20. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  1. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  4. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  5. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  6. Professional performance attributes according to accounting entrepreneurs from greater São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias; Rafael Augusto Lourenço; Marcos Reinaldo Severino Peters; Carlos Eduardo Farcin Lavarda

    2015-01-01

    Accounting has a broad activity universe, which requires skilled professionals who are prepared to practice the profession. One possibility is to be an accounting entrepreneur, whose profile requires specific attributes and attitudes. The results reported on in this paper derive from a research developed using the oral history technique, concerning the identification and analysis of attributes valued in the performance of the profession by accounting entrepreneurs from greater São Paulo. A fi...

  7. Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Development: Perspective from the Greater Pearl River Delta (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoi, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by the University of Hong Kong. This thesis investigates the application and implications of supply chain management as a modern management model in regulating corporate outsourcing activities within the Greater Pearl River Delta. Globalisation has accelerated the application of supply chain management as a mechanism to enhance corporate performance. At the same time this rapid economic development has also accele...

  8. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  9. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  10. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  11. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  12. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  13. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  14. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  15. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  16. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  17. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  18. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  19. An ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoateng, Patrick; Adjei, Samuel; Osei-Safo, Dorcas; Kukuia, Kennedy K E; Karikari, Thomas K; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2017-09-26

    Desmodium adscendens extract (DAE) is used traditionally in Ghana for the management of psychosis. The present study aimed at providing pharmacological evidence for its ethnomedical use by testing the hypothesis that an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens may possess antipsychotic properties. The primary behavioral effects of DAE on the central nervous system of mice were investigated using Irwin's test paradigm. Novelty-induced and apomorphine-induced locomotor and rearing behaviors in mice were explored in an open-field observational test system. Apomorphine-induced cage climbing test in mice was used as the antipsychotic animal model. The ability of DAE to induce catalepsy and enhance haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also investigated in mice. The DAE produced sedation, cholinergic-, and serotonergic-like effects in mice when evaluated using the Irwin's test. No lethality was observed after 24 h post-treatment. The LD50 in mice was estimated to be greater than 3000 mg/kg. The DAE significantly decreased the frequency of novelty- and apomorphine-induced rearing and locomotor activities in mice. It also significantly lowered the frequency and duration of apomorphine-induced climbing activities in mice. It did not induce any cataleptic event in naïve mice but only significantly enhanced haloperidol-induced catalepsy at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. The ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens exhibited antipsychotic-like activities in mice. Motor side effects are only likely to develop at higher doses of the extract.

  20. Alternatives for packaging and transport of greater-than-class C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-06-01

    Viable methods for packaging greater-than-class C (GTCC) low-level wastes and for transporting those wastes from the waste generator sites or from an eastern interim storage site to the Yucca Mountain repository site have been identified and evaluated. Estimated costs for packaging and transporting the population of GTCC wastes expected to be accumulated through the year 2040 have been developed for three waste volume scenarios, for two preferred packaging methods for activated metals from reactor operations and from reactor decommissioning, and for two packaging density assumptions for the activated metals from reactor decommissioning. 7 refs. 7 tabs

  1. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection

  2. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection occur far more frequently, especially on open field lines, than can be

  3. Factors that influence soft tissue thickness over the greater trochanter: application to understanding hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Iris C; Minty, Lauren E; Laing, Andrew C

    2015-03-01

    Fall-related hip injuries are a concern for the growing population of older adults. Evidence suggests that soft tissue overlying the greater trochanter attenuates the forces transmitted to the proximal femur during an impact, reducing mechanical risk of hip fracture. However, there is limited information about the factors that influence trochanteric soft tissue thickness. The current study used ultrasonography and electromyography to determine whether trochanteric soft tissue thickness could be quantified reproducibly and whether it was influenced by: (1) gender; (2) hip postures associated with potential falling configurations in the sagittal plane (from 30° of extension to 60° of flexion, at 15° intervals), combined adduction-flexion, and combined adduction-extension; and (3) activation levels of the tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Our results demonstrated that soft tissue thickness can be measured reliably in nine hip postures and three muscle activation conditions (for all conditions, ICC >0.98). Mean (SD) thickness in quiet stance was 2.52 cm. Thickness was 27.0% lower for males than females during quiet stance. It was 16.4% greater at maximum flexion than quiet standing, 27.2% greater at maximum extension, and 12.5% greater during combined adduction-flexion. However, there was no significant difference between combined adduction-extension and quiet standing. Thickness was not affected by changes in muscle activity. Forces applied to the femoral neck during a lateral fall decrease as trochanteric soft tissue thickness increases; gender and postural configuration at impact could influence the loads applied to the proximal femur (and thus hip fracture risk) during falls on the hip. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  5. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  6. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  7. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  8. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  9. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  10. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  11. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Leveraging Enterprise Risk Management: Opportunity for Greater Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.; Baird, Robert; Neugebauer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) gained a foothold in higher education during the first decade of the 21st century. College and university governing board members came to their board service with the perspective and experience of having served on corporate boards and in corporate leadership positions where ERM was in active use. Trustees asked…

  13. 78 FR 17643 - Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation No. 15-2-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... reorganized its command and control structure. This regulation revision reflects the current organizational structure and is aligned with water management activities during recent flood and drought events in the... inter- divisional coordination of water management activities within the Greater Mississippi River Basin...

  14. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  15. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  16. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  17. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  19. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  20. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.