WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater nuclear transparency

  1. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  2. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  3. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  4. Exploring Quantitative Framework to Evaluate Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeemin; Yim, Mansung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a definition of nuclear transparency is elaborated and ways to represent a country's nuclear transparency are examined. For evaluating nuclear transparency, it is necessary to define three elements first; an information seeker who wants to see, an information seek whom an information seeker wants to see, and information related to nuclear materials and activities. The States with high capacity of civilian nuclear power had a tendency to follow IAEA safeguards agreements well. And it means that their levels of the transparency are relatively high. Besides, the data of international assurances is one of the good indicators to confirm States' transparency. The current study explored the use of two measures, IAEA safeguards and voluntary reporting as a way to represent nuclear transparency. Using these measures seemed to agree with the notion that nuclear transparency is important in the success of civilian nuclear power development

  5. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  6. Transparency in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with transparency schemes based on sharp cutoff models are discussed. The soft spheres model of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been used to explore the influence of the realistic nuclear density geometry on transparency. An average nuclear transparency and an average reaction transparency are defined and their dependence on target and projectile dimensions and on the hadron-nucleon collision cross section are described. The results are expected to be valid for projectile energies above several hundred MeV/nucleon through the ultrarelativistic regime. For uniform (hard sphere) nuclear profiles, methods for obtaining effective total transparencies are suggested

  7. Common Practices of Transparency in the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee; Oh, Kju Myeng

    2010-01-01

    Along with greater access to information, particularly through the Internet, there is the increasing demand of the public for transparency, particularly in matters and decisions affecting their lives. The public demands to know more about Nuclear Regulatory Organization's (NROs) and their activities resulting in more interactions with the public to help make nuclear safety activities more understandable and transparent. As a general concept, 'transparency' means literally that something can be seen through. The definition tells us that it is, more actively, to provide the public with factual information about our activities, and to respond promptly to 'the public's right to know' about the information acquired by NROs. NROs around the world recognize the importance of openness and transparency to the success of their programs to protect public health and safety. All agree that good practice in transparency and being proactive with information help to protect against perceptions of secrecy and to instil public confidence and accountability in what they do. On the other hand, NROs face many challenges in their quest to be open and transparent with their stakeholders. government, nuclear operators, NGOs, media, our colleagues, and particularly with the general public. The most frequently identified challenge was striking the right balance between openness and security-related considerations with many responders citing the need to protect proprietary information whilst still accommodating the public's desire to be well informed. Other challenges include deciding how much transparency is needed to satisfy the public and how information, that is often highly technical and complex, can be presented in a meaningful way through the use of clear and simple language. In this paper, we summarize the survey results done by WGPC on relevant practices of NRO's flux of work concerning public communication matters. By comprehensively searching the international status, we may have

  8. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation

  9. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation.

  10. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ( 31 P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the 31 P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. 1 H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T 1 and T 2 with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T 1 or T 2 , consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T 1 relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine γ-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T 1 with increasing magnetic field

  12. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  13. A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-01-01

    A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

  14. Transparency in Nuclear Regulation: Trends and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Seong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Recently, improving transparency (or openness) has been one of important issues related to nuclear safety worldwide. As for the transparency in nuclear regulatory activities in Korea, openness has been declared as one of five principles of the nuclear regulation in the 'nuclear safety policy statement' announced in 1994. Transparency has been discussed and emphasized in various international meetings such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, OECD/NEA meetings, etc. For example, Working Group on Public Communication of nuclear regulatory organizations (WGPC) of the OECD/NEA/CNRA held a workshop on 'the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities' in May 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. In this paper, definition of transparency and its international trends ranging from a general administration to nuclear safety activities are discussed based on the results of meetings and workshops held so far. Measures for improvement associated with transparency are also proposed

  15. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  16. A study on enhancing policy transparency in the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, S. W. [Korea Institute for National Unification, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Enhancing transparency in the nuclear field is a pending issue for the South Korea's nuclear community. International suspicions and mistrust of ROK's nuclear activities have been obstacles to the developments of South Korea's nuclear industry. South Korea's efforts have not been sufficient enough to ensure international community that its nuclear program will be used solely for peaceful purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a positive and creative research on the issue of transparency and provide policy options that are conducive to developing of South Korea's nuclear industry. Based on an in-depth study on transparency of national policies, this study presents a package of detail policy measures that can contribute to enhancing transparency in the nuclear filed. 75 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p,2p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure ... Nuclear; color transparency; protons; alternating gradient synchrotron; large angle. ..... Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Multi-particle Dynamics.

  18. Transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector: report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Based on several meetings, hearings of many actors involved in matters of transparency and secrets concerning the nuclear activity, and visits of ships carrying nuclear materials, this report aims at examining and analysing means to reconcile the transparency of nuclear information intended for the public with the confidentiality essential to transport security or nuclear activities. The authors also aim at a better understanding of these both notions of transparency and secret with respect to a legal and regulatory framework. In the following part of this report, the authors analyse recommendations which have been made in the past, and their consequences. They discuss possible appeal ways in front of a refusal to issue nuclear information because it is classified as secret. Remaining difficulties are identified as well as ways to overcome them

  19. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  20. The transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the French national plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR - Plan national de gestion des matieres et dechets nucleaires), its elaboration process, its content in terms of nuclear fuel cycle. Then, it describes the control by the ASN of the nuclear fuel cycle, the associated installations, the concerned transports, the 'cycle consistency' approach and its limitations. Propositions are stated aiming at the improvement of the transparency associated with the fuel cycle: to use the PNGMDR, to extend the investigation on the cycle consistency to imported materials and wastes, to improve the transparency on radioactive material transport

  1. report transparency and nuclear safety 2007- CISBIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of CISBIO, nuclear base installation, for the year 2007. CISBIO realizes at Saclay most of the radiopharmaceuticals and drugs distributed in France for the nuclear medicine. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Saclay transparency and nuclear safety report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Saclay CEA Centre, this report presents the various safety arrangements in the different basic nuclear installations it possesses. These arrangements can be administrative, technical, or related to emergency situations or to inspections. It describes the organisation of radioprotection in the Saclay CEA Centre, indicates highlights for 2009, and gives results of dose measurements performed on the personnel. It reports significant events regarding nuclear safety and radioprotection in the various installations, gives and comments release measurements results and their impact on the environment (gaseous and liquid releases). It gives an overview of radioactive wastes stored in the different installations

  3. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1992-08-01

    Data taking is now complete on a double beta decay experiment which has been carried out with collaborators from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the University of New Mexico, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and work is continuing on a second collaborative experiment, AGS experiment 850 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to study nuclear color transparency. In March, the experimental apparatus used to search for double beta decay in molybdenum 100 in the Consil silver mine in Osburn, Idaho was dismantled, and the data analysis is in its final stages. No evidence has been seen for the O + → O + mode of zero neutrino double beta decay collaborators with a 1σ lifetime limit of 3 x 10 22 years. This limit is 7.5 times greater than the limit we published previously in Physical Review Letters in 1989. Backgrounds have been simulated and fits are currently underway to a simulated O + → 2 + mode of zero neutrino double beta decay to improve on a very preliminary 1σ lifetime limit of 2.3 x 10 21 years presented at the April, 1992 meeting of the APS in Washington. A scintillating fiber detector with three Hamamatsu, H4140, 256 channel multianode phototubes has been built, instrumented, and tested in the May--July 1992 run in the EVA detector at Brookhaven Laboratory's AGS. Preliminary results from this detector have been disappointing. it is likely that the detector will have to be substantially redesigned before the 1993 AGS run

  4. Safeguards for nuclear material transparency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.A.; Wolford, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The US and the Russian Federation are currently engaged in negotiating or implementing several nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements. These involve placing nuclear material in specially designed containers within controlled facilities. Some of the agreements require the removal of nuclear components from stockpile weapons. These components are placed in steel containers that are then sealed and tagged. Current strategies for monitoring the agreements involve taking neutron and gamma radiation measurements of components in their containers to monitor the presence, mass, and composition of plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as well as other attributes that indicate the use of the material in a weapon. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will yield data containing information about the design of the weapon being monitored. In each case, the design data are considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. To prevent the disclosure of this information in a bilateral or trilateral inspection scenario, so-called information barriers have evolved. These barriers combine hardware, software, and procedural safeguards to contain the sensitive data within a protected volume, presenting to the inspector only the processed results needed for verification. Interlocks and volatile memory guard against disclosure in case of failure. Implementing these safeguards requires innovation in radiation measurement instruments and data security. Demonstrating their reliability requires independent testing to uncover any flaws in design. This study discusses the general problem and gives a proposed solution for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It uses historical examples to illustrate the evolution of other successful systems

  5. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  6. Development of a nuclear fuel cycle transparency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Tracia L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle transparency can be defined as a confidence building approach among political entities to ensure civilian nuclear facilities are not being used for the development of nuclear weapons. Transparency concepts facilitate the transfer of nuclear technology, as the current international political climate indicates a need for increased methods of assuring non-proliferation. This research develops a system which will augment current non-proliferation assessment activities undertaken by U.S. and international regulatory agencies. It will support the export of nuclear technologies, as well as the design and construction of Gen. IV energy systems. Additionally, the framework developed by this research will provide feedback to cooperating parties, thus ensuring full transparency of a nuclear fuel cycle. As fuel handling activities become increasingly automated, proliferation or diversion potential of nuclear material still needs to be assessed. However, with increased automation, there exists a vast amount of process data to be monitored. By designing a system that monitors process data continuously, and compares this data to declared process information and plant designs, a faster and more efficient assessment of proliferation risk can be made. Figure 1 provides an illustration of the transparency framework that has been developed. As shown in the figure, real-time process data is collected at the fuel cycle facility; a reactor, a fabrication plant, or a recycle facility, etc. Data is sent to the monitoring organization and is assessed for proliferation risk. Analysis and recommendations are made to cooperating parties, and feedback is provided to the facility. The analysis of proliferation risk is based on the following factors: (1) Material attractiveness: the quantification of factors relevant to the proliferation risk of a certain material (e.g., highly enriched Pu-239 is more attractive than that of lower enrichment) (2) The static (baseline) risk: the

  7. Nuclear safety: transparency in radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondy, J.Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The supervision of industry and defence on French radiation protection and withhold information during public inquiries in nuclear facilities questions make organizations anxious. Two examples are given: the first one concerns the file presented by EDF in november 1998 to get new release authorizations on the st Alban site, some information about tritium lacked( thirty analysis on tritium lacked for impact studies) and tritium is an element that represents 99.99% of released radioactivity by the nuclear power plant in the Rhone river. The Crirad organization asked for the public inquiry canceling. In vain. The second example is relative to the reprocessing plant of La Hague; at the end of 1999 the Cogema wished to extend its fuel range and increase its treatment capacity then it dropped off a file of public inquiry that did not take into account the increase of radioactive releases. The operator did not want the file to wear on this aspect, it won one's case. (N.C.)

  8. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  9. Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Durrant, S.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Marshak, M.; White, C.; Heppelmann, S.; Minor, E.D.; Wu, J.; Nicholson, H.; Sutton, C.S.; Russell, J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic (p,2p) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 (GeV/c) 2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θ c.m. =83.7 degree - 90 degree . The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c , the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θ c.m. ≅85 degree to θ c.m. ≅89 degree . At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θ c.m. . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  11. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of Nuclear Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Tazaki, Makiko; Keeney, Robin; Puckett, John; Stanbro, William; Nakhleh, Charles

    1998-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet no.21, which was signed in February 1996, 'The Joint Research on 'Transparency' in Nuclear Nonproliferation' under the 'Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation.' The scope of the research was a fundamental study on transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability of nuclear energy from a nuclear nonproliferation viewpoint. The research encompassed three main topics: the policy environment of transparency, the development of transparency options, and technical options for transparency. Each side performed independent research then joint workshops were held to exchange information and views. This paper summarizes the results of these workshops. (author)

  12. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  13. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  14. Q2 Dependence of Nuclear Transparency for Incoherent ρ0 Electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Arrington; Frank Dohrmann; Ahmed El Alaoui; Don Geesaman; Kawtar Hafidi; Roy Holt; Harold Jackson; David Potterveld; Brahim Mustapha; Paul Reimer; Elaine Schulte; Krishni Wijesooriya; Maurik Holtrop; Jacques Ball; Michel Garcon; Jean Laget; Franck Sabatie; Michel Guidal; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Borissov, A.; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Stepan Stepanyan; Lawrence Weinstein

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of exclusive incoherent electroproduction of ρ 0 (770) meson from 2 D, 12 C, and 63 Cu targets up to Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 are proposed using the CLAS detector. The objective of these measurements is to determine the Q 2 dependence of the nuclear transparency ratio for the two nuclear targets: 12 C and 63 Cu at fixed coherence length of quark-antiquark fluctuations of the virtual photon. A sizeable rise of the nuclear transparency is predicted and can be measured in this experiment. A relatively large increase of the nuclear transparency can be considered as a signature of the onset of color transparency

  15. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, R.; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakhleh, C.; Puckett, J.; Stanbro, W.

    1999-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ''The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation'' under the ''Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation''. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ''Development of Transparency Options.'' The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ''Technical Options for Transparency,'' was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  16. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: Annual activity report (January 2010 - December 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the operation of the French 'High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety' (HCTISN), of its missions, its organisation and its means, the progress report presents the High Committee activity for 2010 with summaries of its report on the transparency of nuclear material and waste management, its meetings, its work groups, its visits and participations to other events

  17. Nuclear transparency in 90 deg.c.m. quasielastic A(p,2p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, I.; Malki, A.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Asryan, G.; Barton, D.S.; Buktoyarova, N.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.S.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Averiche, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Shimanskiy, S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 deg. in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . Taking into account the motion of the target proton in the nucleus, the effective incident momenta extended from 5.0 to 15.8 GeV/c. First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. E850 covered a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provided more information regarding the nature of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90 deg. and the nuclear transparency deuterons were studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for lithium, aluminum, copper, and lead nuclei as well as for carbon. A determination of the (π + ,π + p) transparencies is also reported. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for carbon and aluminum increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is ∼80% of the constant A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to a value at least as small as that at 5.9 GeV/c, and is compatible with the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and strongly absorbed

  18. Nuclear Transparency with the gamma + n -> pi- + p Process in 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Lingyan Zhu; John Arrington; Todd Averett; Elizabeth Beise; John Calarco; Ting Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Marius Coman; Benjamin Clasie; Christopher Crawford; Sonja Dieterich; Frank Dohrmann; Kevin Fissum; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Kawtar Hafidi; Jens-Ole Hansen; Douglas Higinbotham; Holt, R.J.; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaochao Zheng; Jiang, X.; Edward Kinney; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; John LeRose; Nilanga Liyanage; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Mitchell, J.; Sirish Nanda; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Paul Reimer; Bodo Reitz; Arunava Saha; Elaine Schulte; Charles Seely; Simon Sirca; Steffen Strauch; Vincent Sulkosky; Branislav Vlahovic; Lawrence Weinstein; Krishni Wijesooriya; Claude Williamson; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hong XIANG; Wang Xu; Zeng, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the fundamental process γ n → π - p in 4 He. These measurements were performed at Jefferson Lab in the photon energy range of 1.6 to 4.5 GeV and at θ cm π = 70 o and 90 o . These measurements are the first of their kind in the study of nuclear transparency in photoreactions. They also provide a benchmark test of Glauber calculations based on traditional models of nuclear physics. The transparency results suggest deviations from the traditional nuclear physics picture. The momentum transfer dependence of the measured nuclear transparency is consistent with Glauber calculations which include the quantum chromodynamics phenomenon of color transparency

  19. New results of nuclear transparency to wide angle quasielastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasi-elastic (p, 2p) scattering in hydro- gen, deuterium and carbon at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center- of-mass scattering angles in the range 83.7 degrees to 90 degrees. We extracted the cross section ratios of quasi-elastic 12 C(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (C/H) and quasi-elastic D(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (D/H). The experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS accelerator using the EVA detector (experiment E850). For a detailed description of the experiment and the analysis. We determined that at incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c, the C/H ratio increases by a factor of 2 from θ cm = 89 degrees to θ cm 85 degrees, while at 7.5 GeV/c it is consistent with being flat. Further, at θ cm = 89 degrees the C/H ratio increases from 5.9 GeV/c to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%, while for lower θ cm the incoming momentum dependence is consistent with being flat. The rise of the C/H ratio with incoming momentum is similar to that observed in the previous measurement of the C/H ratio at θ cm near 90 degrees. The dependence of the C/H ratio on θ cm , was observed in our experiment for the first time. The D/H ratio does not depend on incoming momentum and θ cm Its absolute value is consistent with unity. The D/H ratio was measured in our experiment for the first time. The ratios discussed above are directly related to the nuclear transparency of 12 C and D. Nuclear transparency is a measure of the initial and final state interactions that the incoming and outgoing protons undergo before and after the main (p, 2p) reaction. The standard approach to nuclear transparency does not depend on the incoming momentum nor on θ cm in contradiction to the variation of the C/H ratio that we have observed. The incoming momentum dependence of the C/H ratio that we measured is similar to those of the inverse scaled pp differential cross section (s 10 (dσ/dt)) -1 where s and t are the Mandelstam variables

  20. Greater Transparency Needed

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Melino; Michael Parkin

    2010-01-01

    Financial market participants would benefit from a better understanding of how the Bank of Canada sets the overnight interest rate in response to economic developments. More accurate forecasts of the Bank’s future policy choices would lead to better financial decisions and better price and wage-setting decisions, making it easier for the Bank to hit its 2 percent inflation target. Currently, the Bank’s internal model predicts a path for the overnight rate that is inconsistent with the expecta...

  1. Studies on Enhancing Nuclear Transparency in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is defined as ''a cooperative process of providing information to all interested parties so that they can independently assess the safety, security, and legitimate management of nuclear materials'' by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Since the Asia- Pacific region has a broad spectrum of nuclear development underway and planned in the future, nuclear transparency is recognized as essential to provide additional assurance and enhance confidence building in this area. It is expected that elevated nuclear transparency should also supplement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. With this recognition, JAEA has committed various studies and activities for enhancing regional nuclear transparency mainly with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. The efforts include concept study, development of secure data transmission technologies at the Experimental Fast Reactor ''Joyo'' for the use of regional nuclear transparency, and support for Council for Security and Cooperation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) to develop internet-based transparency tools. JAEA also organized several workshops to discuss with stakeholder organizations to build acceptance for transparency tools and activities. Based on the past studies, JAEA, jointly with SNL, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), initiated a new phase of study in 2011 to design and establish an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) which was defined as ''a communication platform on which nuclear nonproliferation experts can provide and/or receive relevant information in a practical and sustainable manner''. During the period of two-year study, partner organizations identified essential elements to establish ISF and developed the requirements. Currently, JAEA and KINAC are planning to implement demonstration of ISF under Asia Pacific

  2. Measuring nuclear transparency from exclusive vector meson production in lepton-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, G.Y. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive {rho}{sup 0} meson production from E665 at Fermilab are reported. The data were collected on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead targets with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production channels as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. Ideas of systematic studies of color transparency in exclusive vector meson production at CEBAF are discussed.

  3. Measuring nuclear transparency from exclusive vector meson production in lepton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, G.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ 0 meson production from E665 at Fermilab are reported. The data were collected on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead targets with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production channels as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. Ideas of systematic studies of color transparency in exclusive vector meson production at CEBAF are discussed

  4. Measurement of Nuclear Transparency for the A(e,e'π+) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clasie, B.; Seely, J.; Qian, X.; Kramer, K.; Arrington, J.; El Fassi, L.; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H. C.; Gaskell, D.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the A(e,e ' π + ) process in 2 H, 12 C, 27 Al, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets. These measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory over a four momentum transfer squared range Q 2 =1.1 to 4.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The nuclear transparency was extracted as the super-ratio of (σ A /σ H ) from data to a model of pion-electroproduction from nuclei without π-N final-state interactions. The Q 2 and atomic number dependence of the nuclear transparency both show deviations from traditional nuclear physics expectations and are consistent with calculations that include the quantum chromodynamical phenomenon of color transparency

  5. Measurement of Nuclear Transparency for the A(e,e' pi+) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Clasie; X. Qian; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Boeglin; P. Bosted; A. Bruell; M. E. Christy; E. Chudakov; W. Cosyn; M. M. Dalton; A. Daniel; D. Day; D. Dutta; L. El Fassi; R. Ent; H. C. Fenker; J. Ferrer; N. Fomin; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. Gaskell; C. Gray; T. Horn; G. M. Huber; M. K. Jones; N. Kalantarians; C. E. Keppel; K. Kramer; A. Larson; Y. Li; Y. Liang; A. F. Lung; S. Malace; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. G. Meekins; T. Mertens; G. A. Miller; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Monson; T. Navasardyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; A. K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; A. W. Rauf; V. M. Rodriquez; D. Rohe; J. Ryckebusch; J. Seely; E. Segbefia; G. R. Smith; M. Strikman; M. Sumihama; V. Tadevosyan; L. Tang; V. Tvaskis; A. Villano; W. F. Vulcan; F. R. Wesselmann; S. A. Wood; L. Yuan; X. C. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the A(e,e' pi + ) process in 2 H, 12 C, 27 Al, 63 Cu and 197 Au targets. These measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory over a four momentum transfer squared range Q 2 = 1.1 - 4.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The nuclear transparency was extracted as the super-ratio of σ A σ H from data to a model of pion-electroproduction from nuclei without pi-N final state interactions. The Q 2 and atomic number dependence of the nuclear transparency both show deviations from traditional nuclear physics expectations, and are consistent with calculations that include the quantum chromodynamical phenomenon of color transparency

  6. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  7. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Thursday, June 16, 2011. Transparency in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    In a first session dedicated to modalities of transparency in the field of nuclear safety, members of the French Parliament hear and discuss the interventions of representatives of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), AREVA, EDF, the CEA, the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). The second session addresses the improvement of transparency and comprised interventions by representatives of the OECD and of local commissions of information (ANCCLI)

  8. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 - CISBIO; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 - CISBIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of CISBIO, nuclear base installation, for the year 2007. CISBIO realizes at Saclay most of the radiopharmaceuticals and drugs distributed in France for the nuclear medicine. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  9. The TSN bill concerning transparency and safety in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, M.; Lahorgue, M.B.; Strohl, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers together 3 articles whose common purpose is to shed light on the 13. June 2006 French law on transparency and safety in the nuclear sector. This law is fundamental because it gave, for the first time, the legal definitions of basic concepts like nuclear safety, public information or transparency. It also gave a series of principles on which the right in nuclear activities, has to rely: the principle of precaution, the principle of prevention, the principle of remedial action, the principle of who pollutes has to pay, and the principle of public information. The law gives also a clear scheme of the roles and responsibilities in the nuclear sector: the state, the government, the nuclear safety authority, the nuclear facility operator and the land (on which the nuclear facility stands) owner. (A.C.)

  10. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-10-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparancy is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determing σ sub(R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  11. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparency is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determining σ(sub R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  12. Measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ0 meson production in muon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, G.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive incoherent ρ 0 meson production off deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead, normalized to hydrogen, and coherent ρ 0 meson production off calcium and lead, normalized to carbon, in deep-inelastic muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were collected with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ''transparency and irreversibility'' of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities

  14. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Saclay; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Saclay for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially two public consultation on release authorizations and the Neurospin installations, the dismantling of the 49 nuclear installation, the shutdown of the learning reactor ULYSSE are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  15. No 2943. Project of law relative to nuclear transparency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This project of law comprises 5 titles dealing with: 1 - general dispositions: definition and scope of nuclear safety, security, radiation protection, operators liability, facilities in concern; 2 - the high nuclear safety authority: role and duties; 3 - public information in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection: information right of the public, local information commissions, high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information; 4 - basic nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive materials: applicable rules, police controls and measures, penal dispositions (investigations, sanctions); 5 - miscellaneous dispositions: changes made with respect to previous legislative texts. (J.S.)

  16. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  17. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Grenoble; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Grenoble for the year 2007. Since 2002 the Passage project aims to realize the decontamination and the dismantling of old nuclear installations of the CEA Grenoble. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the year 2007 saw two main steps of the Passage project: the decommissioning of the Siloette reactor, a public consultation about the Lama laboratory dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  18. Measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ0 meson production in muon-nucleus scattering at 470 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.; Aied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Averill, D.A.; Baker, M.D.; Baller, B.R.; Banerjee, A.; Bhatti, A.A.; Bratzler, U.; Braun, H.M.; Breidung, H.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T.J.; Clark, H.L.; Conrad, J.M.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dietrich, F.S.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Faller, F.; Fang, G.Y.; Figiel, J.; Finlay, R.W.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Griffioen, K.A.; Guo, R.S.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hantke, D.; Hicks, K.H.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Jin, Z.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kinney, E.R.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kunori, S.; Lancaster, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Madden, P.; Magill, S.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Otten, R.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Siegert, G.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Spentzouris, P.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R.A.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilson, R.; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S.A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhao, T.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear transparencies measured in exclusive incoherent ρ 0 meson production from hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead in muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were obtained with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the nuclear transparencies are observed as the virtuality of the photon increases, in qualitative agreement with the expectations of color transparency

  19. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2001-11-01

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  20. Enhancement of Nuclear Transparency of Pyroprocessing through Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Park, S. W.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, D. H.; Hurh, J. M.; Kim, I. T.; Kim, H. D.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-09-01

    - Analysis of international spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies and future collaboration · Collection of recent technology information of US, Japan and Europe · Discuss on future collaboration with US · Collection of active test results of other countries and compare with domestic results - Establishment of network regarding nuclear spent fuel treatment technology thru IPRC - Information exchange through international conference (IPRC) - Discuss with experts on active test results

  1. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. March 17, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 9 main topics: 1 - presentation by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) of a dismantling strategy for nuclear facilities, in particular taking into account a final state for the site and the information of populations; 2 - status of the next campaign of iodine tablets distribution; 3 - the management of ancient uranium mines and in particular the long-term environmental and health impact of mine tailings; 4 - the implementation of the high committee's recommendations; 5 - work progress of the working group on information transparency; 6 - Areva's invitation of the working group on information transparency to assist to the organisation of a Mox fuel convoy between Cherbourg and Japan; 7 - progress of the working group on the elaboration of a 'communication scale' comparable to the INES scale; 8 - presentation of the meetings organized by the ANCLI (French national association of local information commissions) about the implementation of the Aarhus convention; 9 - presentation by the IRSN (Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety) of its communication approach towards the public. (J.S.)

  2. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework

  3. Report on transparency and nuclear safety. Saclay 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the Saclay site, this report indicates the measures implemented regarding nuclear safety in the different Saclay basic nuclear installations, in terms of organization, general technical aspects, technical aspects associated with the different risks, emergency situation management, inspections, audits, and controls. It indicates the organisation of radiation protection, reports important events which occurred in 2010, and comments dose measurements performed on the different personnel (belonging to the CEA or out-sourced personnel). It reports and comments significant events about nuclear safety and radiation protection, and which occurred in the different installations. It reports and comments results of release measurements and of the impact of the centre on the environment (gas and liquid releases and their impacts on the environment, impacts due to radionuclide gas releases, gas and liquid radiological impact, chemical impact of gas and liquid releases, environment monitoring). It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the Saclay nuclear installations (measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably soils and waters, nature and quantities of stored wastes)

  4. Report on transparency and nuclear safety. Saclay 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the Saclay site, this report indicates the measures implemented regarding nuclear safety in the different Saclay basic nuclear installations, in terms of organization, general technical aspects, technical aspects associated with the different risks, emergency situation management, inspections, audits, and controls. It indicates the organisation of radiation protection, reports important events which occurred in 2009, and comments dose measurements performed on different personnel (belonging to the CEA or out-sourced). It reports and comments significant events about nuclear safety and radiation protection, and which occurred in the different installations. It reports and comments results of release measurements and of the impact of the centre on the environment (gas and liquid releases and their impacts on the environment, impacts due to radionuclide gas releases, gas and liquid radiological impact, chemical impact of gas and liquid releases, environment monitoring). It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the Saclay nuclear installations (measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably soils and waters, nature and quantities of stored wastes)

  5. On the way to greater transparency. Electricity labelling in Austria and Germany; Auf dem Weg zu mehr Transparenz. Stromkennzeichnung in Oesterreich und Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, Josefine; Puchbauer-Schnabel, Angela [Energie-Control Austria, Wien (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity markets and resulting emergence of competition have created a need for greater transparency towards consumers. The idea is to provide consumers with several criteria for selecting their electricity supplier, thus granting them an influence on production structures and allowing them to contribute to the development of a sustainable energy supply system. For this purpose the EU has set itself the goal of creating an appropriately transparent electricity labelling system involving the use of certificates of origin and has obliged the member states to transpose such requirements into national law. This article examines the relevant German and Austrian regulations and identifies points of departure for establishing a uniform procedure for the entire EU.

  6. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Saclay for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially two public consultation on release authorizations and the Neurospin installations, the dismantling of the 49 nuclear installation, the shutdown of the learning reactor ULYSSE are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map.

  8. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map

  9. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  10. No 2943. Project of law relative to nuclear transparency and safety; N. 2943. Projet de loi relatif a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This project of law comprises 5 titles dealing with: 1 - general dispositions: definition and scope of nuclear safety, security, radiation protection, operators liability, facilities in concern; 2 - the high nuclear safety authority: role and duties; 3 - public information in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection: information right of the public, local information commissions, high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information; 4 - basic nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive materials: applicable rules, police controls and measures, penal dispositions (investigations, sanctions); 5 - miscellaneous dispositions: changes made with respect to previous legislative texts. (J.S.)

  11. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Grenoble CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  12. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Saclay CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  13. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of April 29, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The committee members first discuss the report project concerning the State minister's and OPECST (parliamentary office of scientific and technological choices) chairman's submission regarding the transparency of the nuclear fuel cycle. They discuss the project of a portal web site gathering information on French nuclear power plant operations. They comment the 2009 ASN assessment on medical nuclear activities, the implementation of the Cancer Plan (presentation by the minister of public health, statements by the French nuclear safety authority or ASN, the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety or IRSN, and by associations of patients). They discuss the presentation by the ASN of a return on experience after the ATPu event and the presentation by the IRSN of technical form on the criticality risk. Other topics are addressed: extensions of storage sites under construction in La Hague, modification of the Grenelle II bill to improve public consultation in some procedures regarding base nuclear installations

  14. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2014 - Cadarache CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Cadarache CEA centre, of its activities and installations, gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Then it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2014 and have been declared to the ASN. Next, it discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre, indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and on the environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  15. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Saclay - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Saclay CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, technical general arrangements, technical arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and dosimetry results, internal dosimetry). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  16. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Saclay CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection (organisation, personnel dosimetry) and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2011. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid and gaseous releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, types and quantities of wastes stored in INBs

  17. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Grenoble CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection organisation and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2011. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid and gaseous releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, types and quantities of wastes stored in INBs)

  18. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    The pre-study report proposes that KASAM (Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, an independent committee attached to the Swedish Ministry of Environment) uses the RISCOM Model to support the transparency programme. Recurrent elements in the programme would then be: A clear description of background for the issue being addressed; Knowledge building activities; A hearing where the KASAM committee members and staff stretch the stakeholders. The transparency programme can combine the RISCOM Model with other approaches to citizen participation at occasions when this is deemed suitable. For example, focus groups, other forms of working groups and consensus conferences could be organized and linked to a 'RISCOM hearing'. Therefore, the pre-study report contains an overview section about methods for public participation. At this stage of the Swedish programme for nuclear waste management it is believed that KASAM can provide an arena for transparency which other stakeholders can trust not having hidden agendas or vested interested in the results. During the pre-study a number of stakeholders were approached to give their views about the format and contents of the transparency programme. The consultations showed great expectations on the programme and a large number of issues were raised that could be included in transparency creating activities. A typical activity will be relatively resource demanding, especially with respect to the time available for key stakeholders. Therefore, issues to be addressed must be critically prioritised. The pre-study report contains nine issues proposed for special efforts by KASAM: Deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal; Citizen participation and democracy; The roles of responsible authorities; Decommissioning of nuclear reactors; Site selection - on what basis?; Socioeconomic issues; Local environmental issues and regional environmental goals; Long term storage of spent nuclear fuel; Critical assumptions

  19. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. December 18, 2008 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 6 main topics: 1 - a presentation of nuclear medicine by Prof. Devaux, of its domains of application and the respect of radiation protection rules; 2 - the launching of a working group on the transparency/secrecy problem with nuclear activities; 3 - the elaboration of an environmental radioactivity index by the nuclear safety authority (ASN); 4 - the order addressed to the Cruas nuclear facility for the lack of standardized marking and maintenance of pipes used for the transport of explosive fluids; 5 - the consequences of the blocking of 2 fuel assemblies (out of 157) in the Tricastin reactor core; 6 - the flood at the Tricastin site, its origin and consequences. (J.S.)

  20. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Cadarache CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A first volume proposes a presentation of the Cadarache CEA centre, of its activities and installations, gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. It also reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and have been declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. It addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre, indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and on the environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. The second volume concerns some specific installations (INB 32 or ATPu, and INB 54 or LPC) which belong to AREVA NC. The same topics are addressed: presentation of the facilities, arrangements regarding safety and radiation protection, significant events related to safety and radiation protection, measurements of effluents and their impact on the environment, warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  1. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Grenoble CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Grenoble CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, human and organizational factors, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of radiological and chemical gaseous and liquid effluents, of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, waste production and removal, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  2. Topics in nuclear chromodynamics: Color transparency and hadronization in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    The nucleus plays two complimentary roles in quantum chromodynamics: (1) A nuclear target can be used as a control medium or background field to modify or probe quark and gluon subprocesses. Some novel examples are color transparency, the predicted transparency of the nucleus to hadrons participating in high momentum transfer exclusive reactions, and formation zone phenomena, the absence of hard, collinear, target-induced radiation by a quark or gluon interacting in a high momentum transfer inclusive reaction if its energy is large compared to a scale proportional to the length of the target. (Soft radiation and elastic initial state interactions in the nucleus still occur.) Coalescence with co-moving spectators is discussed as a mechanism which can lead to increased open charm hadroproduction, but which also suppresses forward charmonium production (relative to lepton pairs) in heavy ion collisions. Also discussed are some novel features of nuclear diffractive amplitudes--high energy hadronic or electromagnetic reactions which leave the entire nucleus intact and give nonadditive contributions to the nuclear structure function at low /kappa cur//sub Bj/. (2) Conversely, the nucleus can be studied as a QCD structure. At short distances, nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions necessarily involve hidden color, degrees of freedom orthogonal to the channels described by the usual nucleon or isobar degrees of freedom. At asymptotic momentum transfer, the deuteron form factor and distribution amplitude are rigorously calculable. One can also derive new types of testable scaling laws for exclusive nuclear amplitudes in terms of the reduced amplitude formalism

  3. Prospects for regional cooperation. Regional cooperation in remote monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have cooperated for a decade in development and testing of remote monitoring technologies in support of international safeguards. With this technology approaching maturity, the JAEA/SNL partnership now envisions regional cooperation to use these technologies to advance nuclear transparency and strengthen nonproliferation, as well. This presentation summarizes the technical evolution and notes the opportunity for regional cooperation to include institutions in the ROK, as well as Japan and the US. (author)

  4. HCTISN - High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety - Annual activity report - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This activity report first describes the Committee operation (missions, composition, organization and operation rules, and means). Then, it reports the Committee's activity during 2011: works related to the Fukushima accident, report and recommendations on transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector, report and recommendations on the search for a storage site for long life and low activity wastes, meetings and work-groups, and visits

  5. Committee for nuclear safety information and transparency. Activity annual report, June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the composition, organisation, missions and means of this institution, this report presents the main domain of activity (the transport of plutonium, the SOCATRI incident and submission to the State minister, the nuclear installation dismantling strategy), and the three working groups (transparency and secrets, Internet portal, environment radioactivity index). It reports the taking into account of recommendations previously expressed by the committee (about import and transport of plutonium between Great-Britain and France, about information of population and patients on radiological and nuclear medicine events)

  6. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Lewis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after

  7. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Annual activity report. June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document is the first activity report of the High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), created on June 18, 2008. The HCTISN is a French authority of information, dialogue and debate about the risks linked with nuclear activities and about their impacts on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. The committee has the ability to express his opinion and recommendations about any question on the above topics and to propose any measure aiming at warranting or improving the transparency in the nuclear domain. This activity report offers a synthetic overview of the actions already undertaken: the plutonium imports from UK, the contamination incident at the Socatri facility (a Areva-Eurodif daughter company located at the Tricastin site), and the dismantling strategy of basic nuclear facilities. It presents the composition, organization, missions and means of the Committee, the different working groups and the follow-up of the different recommendations emitted so far by the Committee. (J.S.)

  8. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Karita Research AB, Taeby (Sweden)), E-Mail: kjell.andersson@karita.se

    2009-12-15

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  9. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  10. Suggested Guidelines for Transparency and Participation in Nuclear Waste Management Programmes. Deliverable 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The ARGONA project intended to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. Thereby, studies have been done of the institutional and cultural context within which processes of participation and transparency take place in order to understand how the processes can be applied. The project also included studies of theory in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground, a number of case studies in Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden and UK, as well as implementation in Czech Republic to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. These proposed guidelines are thus the result of observations and conclusions made in these efforts, and should not be regarded as an attempt to give a comprehensive set of guidelines for nuclear waste management or even for the implementation of transparency and participation therein. However, it is the hope among the ARGONA participants that they can give relevant thoughts and stimulation to those involved in the nuclear waste management area, especially organizations that have, or may become, responsible for the implementation of processes of transparency and participation, such as implementing organizations, government agencies, regulators as well as regional and local communities. It should be recognized that some of the proposed guidelines may be more relevant for a certain type of bodies (such as an implementer) than for another type (such as local community) and vice versa. Some of the proposed guidelines are also relevant at broader societal level and for the European Union bodies. It will be up to the respective reader to judge the relevance for her or his organization. The suggested guidelines are followed by more detailed recommendations on how to combine the two basic forms of mediation that have been identified in ARGONA, namely mediation by demonstration and mediation by dialogue in Annex 1

  11. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. July 1, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 5 main points: 1 - radioactive waste management: status and steps of the June 28, 2006 law, ANDRA's projects of deep geologic disposal for long living/high-medium activity wastes and of low depth disposal for long living/low activity wastes, French nuclear safety authority (ASN) opinion about the sites choice, implementation of article 10 of the June 28, 2006 law relative to public information; 2 - progress of the working groups' works on transparency and secrecy, on the development of a communication scale, and on the creation of an Internet portal for the radio-ecological follow-up of nuclear sites; 3 - comments of the ASN's report on the nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2008; 4 - procedure of management of the radio-physicists shortage in order to warrant the patients' safety and information; 5 - miscellaneous points: project of European directive on nuclear safety, organisation of a visit day onboard of a ship for nuclear materials transportation, comments about the by-law from May 5, 2009, relative to the exemption to informing consumers about the addition of radionuclides to consumption and construction products. (J.S.)

  12. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. October 8, 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 3 main points: 1 - the progress of the different working groups work: elaboration of a communication scale, comparable to the INES scale, for the evaluation of environmental radioactivity, the realisation of a web site for the HCTISN, the question of transparency and secrecy around the maritime transportation of radioactive materials after the visit by the High Committee of two ships from the British INS company; 2 - the management of radioactive wastes with the concept of storage reversibility: political, technical and decisional aspects, position of the National Evaluation Committee for the researches and studies relative to radioactive materials and wastes management (CNE), position of the ANCLI (French national association of local information commissions), debate; 3 - the shortage of radio-physicists in France and the information of populations and patients (declaration of incidents). Some miscellaneous points are reported as well: the first draft of the first annual report of the HCTISN, development of a societal approach for the research programs of the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), validation of a collaboration proposal with the ANCLI. (J.S.)

  13. Transparency in nuclear warhead dismantlement -- Limited chain of custody and warhead signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiernan, G.; Percival, M.; Bratcher, L.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Safeguards, Transparency, and Irreversibility (STI) initiative is the development of a series of transparency measures that provide confidence that nuclear warheads are actually being dismantled and that the fissile material being removed from these dismantled weapons is not recycled into new production. A limited chain of custody (LCC) would follow a warhead from the time it is declared excess until it is actually dismantled and the fissile materials are stored. Measurement of warhead signatures is an option in LCC using radiation detection techniques to confirm that a warhead has been dismantled, without intrusive inspections within the dismantlement facility. This paper discusses LCC and warhead signatures as well as indicate first results of laboratory measurements related to warhead signatures

  14. Can the acceptance of nuclear reactors be raised by a simpler, more transparent safety concept employing improved containments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sociological and psychological findings are presented which describe problems society faces with risky technologies. It turns out that for a small but influential group of the society not only the risk, but also the transparency of the technology and the engineered safeguards are important. For this group an improvement of the transparency should raise the acceptance of the technology. However, for the majority of the public, broad discussions about a different more transparent safety concept could generate a feeling of insecurity, especially concerning existing nuclear power plants. In order to improve the transparency in engineered safeguards of nuclear reactors, four basic principles are introduced. Nuclear containments, which remain intact after failure of all emergency cooling systems resulting in a core meltdown accident with steam and hydrogen explosions, are in line with these principles. Such containments are under investigation in Germany right now. It is pointed out that the public should be informed prudently about this work to improve the containments, and the required transparency of the engineered safeguards should be underlined as a major goal. Vague descriptions, providing only superficially information about safer reactors, could easily cause misunderstandings. If one goes along this line a simpler and more transparent safety concept employing improved containments will have the potential to raise the acceptance of nuclear reactors. (orig.)

  15. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. November 20, 2009 meeting of the High Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment, and, depending on the events, some extraordinary meetings. This document is the proceedings of an extraordinary meeting about the information and transparency in relation with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at all stages of the fuel cycle. The reason of this meeting is a request from the French Minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea (MEEDDM) after the broadcast of a TV documentary entitled 'wastes: the nuclear industry nightmare' and the publication of a press article affirming that 'our nuclear wastes are hidden in Siberia'. The Minister expressed his wish to have the question of the international trade of nuclear materials examined by the HCTISN. The document is organized as follows: a first part presents the hearings of the general direction of energy and climate (DGEC), of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of EdF, of Areva, of the CEA, of the senior official for the defense and security of the MEEDDM, of Rosatom company and of Greenpeace organisation. A second part examines the incident which took place in October 2009 at the plutonium technology workshop (ATPu) of Cadarache, where about 22 to 39 kg of plutonium powder were discovered in the gloveboxes of this facility, decommissioned in 2005 and undergoing dismantlement today. This part presents the hearings of the CEA, of AREVA, of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the ASN, of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Areva and CEA, and of the local information commission (CLI) of Cadarache, in relation with

  16. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  17. Study of the Nuclear Transparency in $\\alpha$ + A Reactions at Energies $\\geq$ 12 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The question about transparency is crucial for heavy ion reaction studies. If the transparency is low at 10-15 GeV per nucleon then very large baryon densities can be achieved in this energy range, maybe enough to produce quark-gluon plasma in U+U collisions. We propose to measure, event by event, pseudo-rapidity and multiplicity distributions of singly charged relativistic particles (@b~$>$~0.7) globally and in selected regions of rapidity as well as multiplicities of recoiling protons (30-400~Me charged nuclear fragments. These studies will explore general features of @a+A reactions at energies @$>$~12~GeV/nucleon. The main goal of the experiment is to measure the transparency of nuclear matter in this energy range. The detector will be nuclear emulsion.

  18. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  19. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina; Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  20. JAEA's efforts for regional transparency in the area of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffheins, Barbara; Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko

    2014-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has undertaken a joint R and D project with the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) for the purposes of developing an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) for regional nonproliferation cooperation since July 2011. This project builds on nearly twenty years of technical cooperation between JAEA, its predecessor organizations and the DOE including the activities to define, develop and test transparency technologies and other multilateral efforts. The objective of current project is to design a viable information sharing process to support the goals of building confidence in the peaceful nature of regional nuclear programs. At the end of a two-year-effort, project partners, JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), have defined the comprehensive requirements for an ISF that will ensure nonproliferation transparency success and sustainability. In October 2011, a parallel project with the similar title and objective was launched under the arrangement between the US DOE/NNSA and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Since then, JAEA, SNL, the Korea Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) have jointly carried out the project in a form of informal, multilateral cooperation. The project partners have identified needs and audience for ISF, and initiated the discussion to develop requirements for ISF through workshops, meetings, regular telephone conferences, etc. The activities include conducting a survey to identify stakeholders' needs and requirements for an ISF, launching a website to practice information sharing concepts, and presenting papers. This paper provides the historical context of the current project to establish ISF, and reports the progress to date and speculates on future directions. (author)

  1. Establishment of the International Nuclear Education/Training and its Cooperation Framework for Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.

    2009-02-01

    This project covered development and implementation of international nuclear education/training programs, cooperation for nuclear human resource development and education/training. provision of MS and PhD courses for qualified students from developing countries, and strengthening of infrastructure for the nuclear education/training. The WNU one week summer course was held for domestic future generation in nuclear field. NTC operated the ANENT web portal and cyber platform, supported training on their use, and prepared a KAERI-IAEA Practical Arrangement for the promotion of web-base nuclear education/training. For FNCA, an analysis was conducted on the need of nuclear education/training in South East Asian countries. The bilateral cooperation included cooperation with Vietnam. provision of Korean experience for nuclear power personnel from Egypt, and commencing of cooperation with South Africa. Also, NTC participated in GENEP for sharing Korean experience in the nuclear human resource development project. KAERI-UST MA and PhD courses with 3 foreign students started in spring 2008 and implemented. The courses were advance nuclear reactor system engineering, accelerator and nano-beam engineering, and radiation measurement science. 13 international nuclear education/training courses (IAEA, KOICA, RCARO and bilateral) were implemented for 226 foreign trainees. A reference education/training program was developed, which consisted of 15 courses that can be customized to learner levels and project stages of countries in question (e.g. Middle East. Africa). A textbook entitled 'Research Reactor Design, Management and Utilization' was developed presenting Korean experience with research reactors

  2. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures in the different nuclear base installations (INB) of this site (measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits). It describes measures related to radiation protection: organisation, dosimetry results. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid, gaseous and chemical releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive waste management (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, type and quantities of wastes stored in INBs). It presents the different measures and actions related to information transparency

  3. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the modern society, there is increasing demands for greater transparency. It has been discussed with respect to corruption or ethics issues in social science. The need for greater openness and transparency in nuclear regulation is widely recognised as public expectations on regulator grow. It is also related to the digital and information technology that enables disclosures of every activity and information of individual and organisation, characterised by numerous 'small brothers'. Transparency has become a key word in this ubiquitous era. Transparency in regulatory activities needs to be understood in following contexts. First, transparency is one of elements to build public confidence in regulator and eventually to achieve regulatory goal of providing the public with satisfaction at nuclear safety. Transparent bases of competence, independence, ethics and integrity of working process of regulatory body would enhance public confidence. Second, activities transmitting information on nuclear safety and preparedness to be accessed are different types of transparency. Communication is an active method of transparency. With increasing use of web-sites, 'digital transparency' is also discussed as passive one. Transparency in regulatory process may be more important than that of contents. Simply providing more information is of little value and specific information may need to be protected for security reason. Third, transparency should be discussed in international, national and organizational perspectives. It has been demanded through international instruments. for each country, transparency is demanded by residents, public, NGOs, media and other stakeholders. Employees also demand more transparency in operating and regulatory organisations. Whistle-blower may appear unless they are satisfied. Fourth, pursuing transparency may cause undue social cost or adverse effects. Over-transparency may decrease public confidence and the process for transparency may also hinder

  4. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  5. Transparent Inflatable Column Film Dome for Nuclear Stations, Stadiums, and Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of previous articles, one of the authors published designs of the AB Dome which can cover a city, important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure. The AB Dome keeps the outside atmospheric conditions from the interior protecting a city from chemical, bacterial, and radioactive weapons (wastes. The design in this article differs from previous one as this design employs an inflatable columns which does not need an additional pressure (overpressure inside the dome and is cheaper in construction (no powered air pumping station and in operation (no special entrance airlock and permanent pumping expense. When dome is supported by columns, no overpressure is required inside the dome which is important when the dome covers a damaged nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor may produce radioactive gases and dust, and, as inflatable domes are not typically hermetically sealed, the increased pressure inside the dome can leak out gas and dust into the atmosphere. The suggested design does not have this drawback. Positive pressure gradients expel dust particles—neutral pressure gradients will not. (Negative pressure gradients may even be possible in certain configurations.

  6. A-dependence of nuclear transparency in quasielastic A(e,e'p) at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.G.; Lorenzon, W.; Arrington, J.

    1994-01-01

    The A-dependence of the quasielastic A(e,e'p) reaction has been studied with 3 H, C, Fe, and Au nuclei at momentum transfers Q 2 = 1, 3, 5, and 6.8(GeV/c) 2 . The authors extract the nuclear transparency T(A,Q 2 ), a measure of the average probability of escape of a proton from a nucleus A. Several calculations predict a significant increase in T with momentum transfer, a phenomenon known as color transparency. No statistically significant rise is seen for any of the nuclei studied

  7. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - 2015. Nuclear facilities exploited by CEA Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiberteau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the different basic nuclear installations (INB) of the Marcoule CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which were declared to the nuclear safety authority (ASN), and discusses how experience feedback has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the health, safety and work conditions committee (CHSCT) are given

  8. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of national nuclear transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, Y. L.; Kim, K. K.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. D.

    2007-12-01

    This study suggested the framework and the action plan in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through extra- contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies

  9. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of national nuclear transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, Y. L.; Kim, K. K.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. D

    2007-12-15

    This study suggested the framework and the action plan in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through extra- contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies.

  10. A Strategic Study for the enhancement of nuclear research and development transparency through the extra-contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. D.; Song, K. S.

    2008-12-01

    To devote efforts to international nuclear technology cooperation, the research team of this study surveyed the IAEA activities to find ones suitable for extra-contributions by Korea. Based on the survey, the team made inputs to the IAEA MSSP (Member State Support Program). After consultation with the IAEA secretariat, it was decided to hold a technical meeting for the Asia Pacific region in Korea during 2009. The Korean government contributed 93,000 dollars to the IAEA for this purpose. Also a workshop on the safeguards for a pyroprocessing was held in Korea during 2008. The financial contribution to the IAEA technical meeting is one of the efforts from Korea to increase its understanding on the transparency in domestic nuclear activities. The contribution to the workshop on the safeguards of a pyroprocessing is expected to be a seed for implementing a future domestic nuclear R and D plan. Also such a contribution will enhance its transparency in developing domestic nuclear fuel cycle technology. Further efforts are necessary to lead to safeguards technology development by contributing to future MSSPs on advanced fuel cycle facilities. It is recommended to continue these financial contributions including in-kind contributions to the IAEA by elaborating the accumulated experiences on nuclear transparency

  11. Meeting of the high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Proceedings of the June 18, 2008 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 3 main topics: 1 - the organization and stakes of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, 2 - the plutonium imports and transports from England to France and their conformability with respect to the maritime, nuclear safety and nuclear security regulations, 3 - the role and operation of the HCTISN. This document is the proceedings of this meeting. (J.S.)

  12. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James E.; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    verification. The remainder of this paper focuses on transparency and verification for nuclear arms and fissile material reductions.

  13. Experiments on exclusive proton and pion scattering for nuclear filtering and color transparency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    The color transparency of pions in various nuclei has been measured and compared with the proton transparency. The measurement results are consistent with semi-classical predictions that the pion transparency is larger than the proton transparency at the same incident momentum and their ratio becomes larger as the nucleus becomes heavier. The energy dependence of the transparency has been studied based on the semi-classical theory and the result shows that the transparency can be written into two factors. The physics interpretations of the two factors have been discussed. A new experimental apparatus, the Exclusive Variable Apparatus (EVA) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, along with unique electronic techniques chosen for enabling the EVA trigger system to fulfill physics requirements of the experiment, have been described

  14. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - 2013. Nuclear facilities exploited by CEA Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the different basic nuclear installations (INB) of the Marcoule CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings) and of measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results, main events). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2013 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of gaseous and liquid effluents, of their impact on the environment, and of surveys of the environment. It also presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on this site: arrangements aimed at limiting their volume, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. Remarks and recommendations of the CHSCT are given

  15. Report on transparency and nuclear safety - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the different nuclear base installations (INB) of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, gives an overview of measures regarding safety within these installations (organisation, general arrangements, arrangements related to different risks, defence in-depth, management of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second-level controls, arrangements and main events specific to the different installations and buildings, issues related to transports, soil radiological assessment) and measures related to radiation protection (organisation and results). It reports the significant events related to safety and radiation protection which occurred in 2012 and were declared to the ASN, and discusses how the return-on-experience has been used. It reports and comments the results of measurements of radiological and chemical gaseous and liquid effluents, of surveys of the environment. It also evokes important events related to these measurement and survey processes, presents the environmental management approach. The next part addresses the management of radioactive wastes: arrangements aimed at limiting the volume of warehoused wastes, and at limiting their impact on health and on the environment, nature and quantities of warehoused wastes. The different arrangements regarding transparency and information are reviewed (TSN report, newsletter, and so on)

  16. Color transparency and suppression of high-pT hadrons in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The production length l p of a leading (large z h ) hadron produced in hadronization of a highly virtual high-p T parton is short because of the very intensive vacuum gluon radiation and dissipation of energy at the early stage of the process. Therefore, the main part of nuclear suppression of high-p T hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions is related to the survival probability of a colorless dipole propagating through a dense medium. This is subject to color transparency, which leads to a steep rise with p T of the nuclear ratio R AA (p T ), in good agreement with the recent data from the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). No adjustment, except for the medium density, is made, and the transport coefficient is found to be q 0 =0.8 GeV 2 /fm. This is close to the value extracted from the analysis of BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data for J/Ψ suppression, but is an order of magnitude smaller than the value found from jet quenching data within the energy loss scenario. Although the present calculations have the status of a postdiction, the mechanism and all formulas have been published, and are applied here with no modification, except for the kinematics. At the same time, p T dependence of R AA at the energy of RHIC is rather flat due to the suppression factor steeply falling with rising x T , related to the energy conservation constraints. This factor is irrelevant to the LHC data, since x T is much smaller.

  17. Developing greater self-reliance in the nuclear sector in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Due to severe cuts and drastic decline in government subvention for the promotion of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in Ghana, a new law has been enacted which empowered Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) to encourage and promote the commercialisation of R and D results through its three institutes and five centres. Therefore, the Commission requested the International Atomic Energy Agency through the African Regional Co-operation Research Agreement (AFRA) for an expert team from NECSA, South Africa, to critically evaluate its R and D activities, core competencies and structures with the aim of refocusing them to be more responsive to end-user and national development needs. Strategic and marketing plans prepared for some related viable facilities were revised and recommendations that were made were implemented. The 30-kW research reactor designed mainly for neutron activation analysis was used to render analytical services to clients from industries and mining companies. In addition to the application of radioisotopes in plant investigations in the petroleum refinery, the reactor group generated US $30,000 in the year 2000, which is about 20% of the annual budget of the centre. In the same year, the 50-kCi gamma irradiation facility utilizing a Co-60 radioactive source generated US $14,250 and the use of non-destructive testing equipment yielded US $7,612. The Radiation Protection Institute through personal monitoring services and radionuclide contamination certification for food items generated an amount of US $60,000, which is 40.5% of the government subvention for personnel emolument and administrative expenses. Exhibiting greater commitment to commercialisation and with efforts made towards harnessing nuclear and biotechnology techniques for socio-economic benefits and self-reliance, GAEC has established a Business Development Unit (BDU). The Unit is to prepare Business Plans for identified demand-driven R and D activities and services, plan

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  19. Law n. 2006-686 of the 13 June 2006 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 64 articles of the law n.2006-686 on the nuclear security. It concerns the regulation in matter of safety and transparency, the Authority of Nuclear Safety, the public information, the base nuclear installations and the radioactive substances transport, the risks prevention and the penalties. (A.L.B.)

  20. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Thursday, June 16, 2011. Transparency in nuclear safety; Comptes rendus de l' Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques. Jeudi 16 juin 2011. Transparence en matiere de surete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    In a first session dedicated to modalities of transparency in the field of nuclear safety, members of the French Parliament hear and discuss the interventions of representatives of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), AREVA, EDF, the CEA, the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). The second session addresses the improvement of transparency and comprised interventions by representatives of the OECD and of local commissions of information (ANCCLI)

  1. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e,e'K+) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman; Dutta, D.; Arrington, J.; Fassi, L. El; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H. C.; Gaskell, D.; Jones, M. K.; Lung, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from A(e,e ' K + ) measurements on 12 C, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets. The measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory and span a range in four-momentum-transfer squared Q 2 =1.1-3.0 GeV 2 . The nuclear transparency was defined as the ratio of measured kaon electroproduction cross sections with respect to deuterium (σ A /σ D ). We further extracted the atomic number (A) dependence of the transparency as parametrized by T=(A/2) α-1 and, within a simple model assumption, the in-medium effective kaon-nucleon cross sections. The effective cross sections extracted from the electroproduction data were found to be smaller than the free cross sections determined from kaon-nucleon scattering experiments, and the parameter α was found to be significantly larger than those obtained from kaon-nucleus scattering. We have included similar comparisons between pion- and proton-nucleon effective cross sections as determined from electron-scattering experiments and pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus scattering data.

  2. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine [WIBERA/PWIBERA/PriceWaterhouseCoopers Deutsche Rev., Hannover (Germany); Nies, Alexander [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the

  3. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine; Nies, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    . In order to receive recommendations for an appropriate answer to this question regarding the German situation, the Federal Minister for the Environment has appointed 15 experts to build the 'Committee on a Selection Procedure for Disposal Sites', called the 'Committee' in this paper. The Committee's mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The procedure shall be built upon well founded criteria and derived in a sound and unprejudiced way. The Committee works independent of any ministerial or political instructions and comprises members of widely different views on nuclear energy in general and radioactive waste management in particular. Funding is available so that the Committee can initiate research projects and be supported by external expertise. It is scheduled that the Committee's final recommendations will be available by 2002. Experience in various countries has made increasingly clear during the recent years, that a scientifically sound and technically satisfying disposal concept is not sufficient in order to gain public acceptance for the selection of a disposal site. In this respect, the Committee considers public participation from the very beginning and in all phases of the selection procedure as an indispensable prerequisite. Only by transparency of the decision process, active public involvement and integration of their proposals chances increase to build up credibility of the responsible decision makers and confidence in their later decisions during the site selection procedure. The paper presents the present status of deliberations regarding public participation before site selection is actually started. It is stressed explicitly that the Committee's development process is not finalised and therefore all thoughts presented in this paper are of a preliminary nature and may be discarded in a later stage of development. In particular, the statements in this paper must not be

  4. Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTIN, LAURENCE; DAVIES, PETER; PREGENZER, ARIAN L.

    1999-01-01

    Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies

  5. Unnessecary nuclear controversy in Iran. Greater chances by an alternative energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersberger, Nikolaus

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is not an indispensable part of Iran's future energy supply. It can be phased out without endangering the reliability of supply. A nuclear controversy is unnecessary from an energy view. The supply sectors for which nuclear power is envisaged can be abandoned without any problem. Also, there is no inherent need for a high consumption growth rate. Enormous amounts of petroleum and natural gas could be saved if Iran were to use the available energy efficiency potential (and also renewable energy sources). Scenario analyses show a very diverse picture of the Iranian power supply system. They show no indication of the extremely urgent need for new power stations that is forecasted by the Iranian government. The number of new power plants that are required is much lower, even if a very conservative business-as-usual energy consumption scenario is assumed. On the other hand, if the current consumption trend continues, Iran's energy future will not be very promising: Already by 2040, Iran will become a net importer of petroleum. The dramatic increase in energy consumption will be made even more problematic by the decreasing petroleum production. Natural gas production can still be enhanced significantly, but consumption in Iran will be growing so rapidly that, after a period of high gas exports, Iran will soon have to import natural gas. (orig./RHM)

  6. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties

  7. Waste Oriented Innovation Culture-Transparency-Public Trust Cycle : Success Key for Nuclear Facility Management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susetyo Hario Putero; Haryono B Santosa

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive matter that is a primary material in a nuclear facility, including nuclear power generation, is a part of hazardous materials. Its existence will lead a controversy, although the precise management system for handling it is available. Public sometimes reject the nuclear technology due to the lack of understanding and wrong perception on that technology, especially the radioactive waste treatment. So, strategies should be designed for correcting public perception, until public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology in Indonesia increase. The innovation development on radioactive waste management was studied by observing and interviewing managements and operators of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan. The constructing of concept was based on study result. Based on assumption that the current state of the radioactive waste treatment is suitable and there is serious improvement of technology, therefore systematic and precise oriented corrective efforts of public perception could be done. Transparency, intensive communication, and public participation that show responsible action for emerging mutual trust are basic of strategy that should be developed. High level public acceptance on utilization of nuclear technology is expected to be able for stimulating and supporting sustainable technology innovation culture. (author)

  8. Actions of the French Nuclear Safety Authority in response to the growth in public demand for environmental transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clipet, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Transparency and Security Act 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 (TSN Act) reinforces the integrated approach to nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental concerns. The TSN Act guarantees 'the public's right to reliable and accessible information on nuclear security' (Article 1). ASN fosters the implementation of this information right. Concerning the environment, it ensures that the available information is accessible and shared. This concern applies first to its own information media and actions, but also to the stakeholders. ASN makes sure that the licensees fulfill the transparency duty required by the TSN Act and is watchful concerning the effectiveness of means implemented for the public access to information. ASN also promotes good practices in its annual report for the public information. With regard to the environment, ASN actions are primarily focused on limiting and supervising the effluents discharges resulting from nuclear activities; monitoring radioactivity in the environment; and preventing and managing emergency situations. One of the recent significant contributions to providing the public with reliable, centralized information is the launch of www.mesure-radioactivite.fr. This web-site issued by the national network under the aegis of ASN, gives the public access to the results of radioactivity measurements carried out by certified laboratories. ASN seeks to involve the public in projects with an important impact on the environment. It considers the Local Information Committees (CLI) as an important contributor to the 'ecological democracy' and invites periodically their representatives to take part in ASN inspections. ASN also encourages public debates. Besides, this is one of the axis of its strategic plan 2010-2012. (author)

  9. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p, 2p) reactions at large Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure the transparency of nuclei in the (p, 2p) quasi-elastic scattering process near 90 deg in the pp center-of-mass. The incident momenta went from 6 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which has more complete kinematic definition of quasi-elastic events. E850 covers a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provides more information regarding the nature of the unexpected fall in the transparency above 9 GeV/c. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. We use the transparencies measured in the five nuclei from Li to Pb to set limits on the rate of expansion for protons involved in quasi-elastic scattering at large momentum transfer. (author)

  10. Towards greater harmonization of the system of radiological protection: views from the global nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2008-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently under revision. At the governmental level, this is formally achieved through the revision of the IAEA Radiation Safety Standards. This process accounts for scientific developments on health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation as reported by UNSCEAR and by ICRP. In view of achieving a greater harmonization of the IAEA Global Safety Regime by integrating all safety fields, the novelty is that the revision needs to be driven in a top-down manner from the IAEA Safety Fundamentals (SF-1). This paper shows that IAEA BSS draft 1.0 was revised mainly using a bottom-up approach, from the new 2007 ICRP recommendations and upward. As this approach overwhelmed the benefits that come from the agreed top-down approach, BSS draft 1.0 contains many inconsistencies which do not lead to greater harmonization. This starts from the new ICRP approach on exposure situations, which cannot be common to all safety fields. Next, the new text on the Principles of Optimization and of Limitations is not fully consistent with SF-1. For planned exposure, dose constraint (DC) remains the No.1 issue as it cannot be clearly differentiated from limit or sub-limit. We see a continuously constructive role for DC only as a flexible tool that is part of Optimization. We noted that most of ICRP's guidance on emergency and existing exposure has not been integrated in BSS draft 1.0. The same applies to ICRP's guidance on non-human species. Behind this side step, there are considerable new and rather idealistic ICRP's concepts under development that pose issues. We advise caution before considering taking on board any of this new ICRP guidance. On the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance, we noted that BSS draft 1.0 departs from the current international consensus that led to IAEA Safety Standards (RS-G-1.7), thus requiring re-alignment. (author)

  11. Case study on traceable, transparent documentation to support decision-making on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Andrews, R.W.; Sevougian, S.D.; Dockery, H.A.; Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Gaither, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    The recent assessment of the Yucca Mountain potential repository attempted to develop transparent and traceable documentation. The assessment was largely successful in this effort, providing meaningful graphics and easy to understand descriptions of the analyses for multiple audiences. While there are obviously many areas in the modeling and data collection that could be improved with sufficient resources, the document has been well received as an accurate, understandable assessment of the analyses. A few difficulties were encountered in the efforts to produce transparent and traceable documentation of the performance assessment analyses. Streamlining the text from a typical technical document to more of a layman's document, was not always easy. The data transfer steps that are proceduralized were not always smooth, as we worked out some of the bugs in the data transfer system. For some of the graphics, there was a mismatch between the analyst's hardware/software and the production hardware/software, causing difficulties in printing the graphics. One thing that was clear as the many organizations worked to pull the document together, is that relationships between people are still necessary in spite of all the technology brought to bear on the problem. A high level of cooperation and integration is necessary for the process to work smoothly. Significant effort is being made to continue to improve the processes that lead to traceability. Multiple teams are taking the sequencing of models/data apart and finding all of the transfers required as the project moves toward Site Recommendation and potential licensing. Likewise, the effort to achieve transparency is evolving and will improve with the next iteration of the analyses

  12. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  13. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of December 16, 2010; Haut Comite pour la Transparence et l'Information sur la Securite Nucleaire. Reunion du 16 decembre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The discussion between members dealt with the following topics: the committee' program and implication with respect to the ACN approach (Aarhus Convention and Nuclear), the main orientations of the Transparency and Secret work group, the hearing of actors involved in a Tritium contamination incident in Valduc. These actors belonged to the CEA, to the 2M Process company, to the Nuclear safety authority or ASN, to the Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety or IRSN, or to the Delegate to radiation protection and nuclear safety for installations of interest for the defence or DSND. Then the committee addressed the issue of old uranium mines and of places of use of uranium mining tailings. The committee members discuss the results of investigations performed around the Tricastin site (studies on cancers, on the presence of uranium in underground water sheets). Other topics are addressed: waste transportation to Germany, the French-British nuclear cooperation, the creation of a web site

  14. Effect of NN correlations on predictions of nuclear transparencies for protons, knocked out in high Q2 (e,e'p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.; Taragin, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    We study the transparency T of nuclei for nucleons knocked out in high-energy semi-inclusive (e,e'p) reactions, using an improved theoretical input, discussed by Nikolaev et al. We establish that neglect of NN correlations between the knocked-out and core nucleons reduces nuclear transparencies by ∼15 % for light, to ∼10% for heavy nuclei. About the same is predicted for transparencies, integrated over the transverse or longitudinal momentum of the outgoing proton. Hadron dynamics predicts a roughly constant T beyond Q 2 ∼2 GeV 2 , whereas for all targets the largest measured data point Q 2 =6.7 GeV 2 appears to lie above that plateau. Large error bars on those data points preclude a conclusion regarding the onset of colour transparency. (orig.)

  15. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  16. Remote monitoring technologies and applications. JAEA-SNL technical cooperation experience in RM for nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, John

    2006-01-01

    In ten years of remote monitoring cooperation, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the JAEA (formerly JNC) have developed technology and demonstrated it at the Joyo Experimental Reactor. The program goals were to develop technology to support international safeguards, help evaluate and standardize the technologies for safeguards uses, and demonstrate them for potential regional cooperation. This paper described three generations of remote monitoring systems at the Joyo Fresh Storage and at one of the Joyo Spent Fuel Ponds. Communications and control methods within the facility and between the facility and the remote viewer have changed rapidly. The current configuration is similar to an international safeguards installation, but provides a foundation for transparency cooperation between the JAEA and SNL. Plans to expand this cooperation to other partners are noted. (author)

  17. 2009 transparency and nuclear safety report. CEA Cadarache. Volumes 1 + 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Cadarache site and of its nuclear installations, the first volume of this report describes the various measures concerning the site safety (safety organisation, general measures, measures related to various risks, inspections, control of emergency situations, audits and second level control, measures in basic nuclear installations) and radioprotection (organisation, significant facts, dosimeter results). It describes significant events which occurred in relationship with nuclear safety and radioprotection, presents results of measurements of releases and of their impact on the environment (chemical and radiological assessment). Then after a description of measures to limit the volume of stored radioactive wastes and their impact on health and on the environment, tables indicate the nature and quantities of wastes which are stored in the different basic nuclear installations of Cadarache. The second volume proposes the same information for two specific nuclear installations belonging to Areva and located in Cadarache, the INB 32 and 54 (INB stands for basic nuclear installation) for which a significant event occurred on the 6 October 2009. For these installations, release measurements concern gaseous and liquid releases

  18. 2007 transparency and nuclear safety report. CEA Cadarache. Volumes 1 + 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Cadarache site and of its nuclear installations, the first volume of this report describes the various measures concerning the site safety: safety organisation, general measures, measures related to various risks, control of emergency situations, inspections, audits and second level control, measures in basic nuclear installations. It describes the measures concerning the radioprotection on this site: organisation, significant facts, and dose measurement results. It describes significant events which occurred in relationship with nuclear safety and radioprotection, presents results of release measurements and of radiological and chemical assessments of the impact these releases on the environment. The report then describes measures implemented to limit the volume of stored radioactive wastes and also their impact on health and on the environment. It provides a series of tables indicating the nature and quantities of wastes which are stored in the different basic nuclear installations of Cadarache. It reports the recommendations expressed by the CHSCT (committee on hygiene, security and working conditions) after the 2006 report. The second volume proposes the same information for two specific nuclear installations belonging to Areva and located in Cadarache, the INB 32 and 54 (INB stands for basic nuclear installation), for which the significant events occurred on the 13. of March and on the 25. of May 2007. For these installations, release measurements concern gaseous and liquid releases

  19. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of September 10, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After the approval of its rules of procedure and the designation of the High committee office, the members of the committee discuss the following topics: the High committee communication rules, various issues regarding radioactive wastes (activity of the low level waste work group, recent decisions made by the government on the process of selection of a low level waste storage site, perspectives and modalities of a public hearing organised by the committee according to the mission defined in the waste bill). Then, they discuss the environmental monitoring issue: organisation and strategy of radioactivity control in France by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) and by the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), assessment of the radio-ecological status at the vicinity of basic nuclear installations

  20. Transparency and nuclear safety. Report 2009. INBs of the Marcoule Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a general presentation of the Marcoule Centre (missions, dismantling works, activities, Basic Nuclear Installations or INBs for 'installations nucleaires de base'), this report describes the various measures regarding security and radioprotection applied at Marcoule. It reports significant events which occurred in 2009 as far as nuclear security and radioprotection are concerned. It presents results of measurements of liquid and gaseous dismissals and of their impact on the environment. It indicates measures implemented for environmental control and management, and also to limit the volume and impacts on health and environment of radioactive wastes stored in the Centre installations

  1. Progress in Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for Nuclear Material Transparency Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, J.K.; White, G.K.

    2000-01-01

    Negotiations between technical representatives of the US and the Russian Federation in support of several pending nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements must take account of the need for assurances against the release of sensitive information. Most of these agreements involve storing nuclear material and in some cases nuclear components from stockpile weapons in specially designed containers. Strategies for monitoring the agreements typically include measuring neutron and gamma radiation from the controlled items to verify declared attributes of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will contain information about the design of the component being monitored, information considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. Safeguards have evolved to prevent disclosure of this information during inspections. These measures combine hardware, software, and procedural measures to contain the sensitive data, presenting only the results needed for verification. Custom features preserve data security and guard against disclosure in case of failure. This paper summarizes the general problem and discusses currently developing solutions for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It argues for the simplest possible implementation of several key system components

  2. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  3. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  4. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  5. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  7. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - NBI operated by the CEA in Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Marcoule CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits, and to nuclear base installations (INB). It describes measures related to radiation protection and some remarkable facts which occurred in 2010. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the site (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils)

  8. Report on transparency and nuclear safety 2015 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes, first, a presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, of its activities and installations. Then it gives a rather detailed overview of measures related to safety and to radiation protection within these activities and installations. Next, it reports significant events related to safety and to radiation protection which occurred in 2015 and which have been declared to the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). It discusses the results of release measurements (liquid and gaseous effluents, radiological assessment, and chemical assessment for various installations) and the control of the chemical and radiological impact of these gaseous and liquid effluents on the environment. Finally, it addresses the issue of radioactive wastes which are stored in the different nuclear base installations of the Centre. It indicates the different measures aimed at limiting the volume of these warehoused wastes and addresses their impact on health and environment. Nature and quantities of warehoused wastes are specified. Remarks and recommendations of the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (CHSCT) are given

  9. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. November 20, 2009 meeting of the High Committee; Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire. Reunion du Haut comite, 20 novembre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment, and, depending on the events, some extraordinary meetings. This document is the proceedings of an extraordinary meeting about the information and transparency in relation with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at all stages of the fuel cycle. The reason of this meeting is a request from the French Minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea (MEEDDM) after the broadcast of a TV documentary entitled 'wastes: the nuclear industry nightmare' and the publication of a press article affirming that 'our nuclear wastes are hidden in Siberia'. The Minister expressed his wish to have the question of the international trade of nuclear materials examined by the HCTISN. The document is organized as follows: a first part presents the hearings of the general direction of energy and climate (DGEC), of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of EdF, of Areva, of the CEA, of the senior official for the defense and security of the MEEDDM, of Rosatom company and of Greenpeace organisation. A second part examines the incident which took place in October 2009 at the plutonium technology workshop (ATPu) of Cadarache, where about 22 to 39 kg of plutonium powder were discovered in the gloveboxes of this facility, decommissioned in 2005 and undergoing dismantlement today. This part presents the hearings of the CEA, of AREVA, of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the ASN, of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Areva and CEA, and of the local information commission (CLI) of Cadarache

  10. Law n. 2006-686 of the 13 June 2006 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear (1); Loi n. 2006-686 du 13 juin 2006 relative a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the 64 articles of the law n.2006-686 on the nuclear security. It concerns the regulation in matter of safety and transparency, the Authority of Nuclear Safety, the public information, the base nuclear installations and the radioactive substances transport, the risks prevention and the penalties. (A.L.B.)

  11. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  12. Real-time environmental monitoring at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center. Using the internet to promote safety and environmental transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomatsu, Sheila; Nakashima Inoue, Naoko

    2000-12-01

    The report documents the results of an effort at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center (JNC/OEC) to provide via the Internet, in real-time, environmental monitoring data to promote safety and environmental transparency. Provided in Japanese as well as in English, the Internet site provides assurance that OEC nuclear operations are being conducted in a manner that is safe to both people in the surrounding area and the environment. This work conducted by Environmental Monitoring Team of the OEC Safety Administration Section fulfilled the assignment to release data real-time via the Internet tasked by the Information Disclosure Section of the JNC Headquarters Public Relations Division. The work conducted by the visiting exchange scientist fulfilled the experimental portion of Action Sheet 34 of the Agreement between JNC and DOE for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation. In Japan, the project for Action Sheet 34 Personnel Exchange on Remote Monitoring and Transparency' entailed both a study and an experiment on how remote monitoring technologies can be used to promote nonproliferation, environmental and safety transparency. Environmental airborne radionuclide monitoring falls under the definition of remote monitoring technology more broadly defined as 'remotely accessed unattended monitoring system technology'. (author)

  13. The work of the High Commission for transparency and information on nuclear safety concerning the management of radioactive materials and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2011-01-01

    Created by law in June 2006, the High Committee for Transparency and Information about Nuclear Security (HCTISN) is a pluralist instance dedicated to information, consultation and debates on issues related to nuclear activities and their impacts on environment and health. Currently chaired by a honorary senator, the High committee is composed of about forty persons who meet at least every three months. The subject of sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste is one of the main topical issues examined by the High committee. Since 2009, a dedicated think-tank has been set up to deal with questions of information, consultation and transparency all along the decision making process for the creation of a new storage installation for radioactive waste. In 2010, the High committee has been mandated by the Ministry in charge of nuclear safety to draw up a report on the transparency in the field of management of waste and materials produced at each stage of fuel cycle. Management of radioactive waste continues to raise discussion and rich debates within the High committee. In 2011, the High committee's intentions are to organize public information, consultations and debates about sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. (author)

  14. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. September 23, 2008 meeting; Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire. Reunion du 23 septembre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment. This meeting was organized around 6 main points: 1 - the terms of the High Committee operation and the internal rules for the meetings; 2 - the plutonium imports and transportation between Great Britain and France (contracts status, ship safety report, plutonium grade, return of plutonium-derived wastes): hearing of Areva, of the general direction of infrastructures, transports and sea (DGITM), of Greenpeace organisation, debate; 3 - the follow-up of the July 7, 2008 incident at the Socatri facility (Tricastin site (France)) where the overflow of a storage tank led to the spillage of a uraniferous solution on the ground: hearing of Areva (remedial action, re-start up of the facility, environmental monitoring, communication and transparency), hearing of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the local commission of information (CIGEET), of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Socatri company, of the direction of civil safety (DSC), debate about the information dissemination around this incident; 4 - Opinion of the High Committee about the plutonium transportation between Great Britain and France, and about the Socatri incident; 5 - referral to the High Committee of the radioecological follow up of all nuclear sites and of the quality of the information given to the public: ASN's reports about the radioecological follow-up of surface and ground waters and of the ancient radioactive waste storage sites, ASND's answer (Nuclear safety authority of defense), IRSN

  15. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  16. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  17. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  19. Color transparency in semi-inclusive electroproduction of ρ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.; Miller, G. A.; Strikman, M.

    2008-01-01

    We study the electroproduction of ρ mesons in nuclei at intermediate energies, deriving a treatment of the energy lost by the ρ in each step of multiple scattering. This enables a close match between calculations and the experimental kinematic conditions. A standard Glauber calculation is presented, and then the effects of color-transparency are included. The influence of poor experimental resolution on the extracted transparency is assessed. The effects of ρ meson decay inside the nucleus are examined, and are typically about 5% at most. This effect disappears rapidly as Q 2 increases from about 1 to 3 GeV 2 , causing a rise in the transparency that is not attributable to color transparency. The size of color transparency effects for C and Fe nuclei is studied for values of Q 2 up to 10 GeV 2 . The detailed results depend strongly on the assumed value of the ρN cross section. The overall effects of color transparency are greater than about 10% for both nuclear targets if Q 2 is greater than about 5 GeV 2

  20. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual report, February 1, 1995 - January 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes progress in data analysis for a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of molybdenum 100 and related work, Brookhaven National Laboratory's Experiment 850 on color transparency, and work on Brookhaven's EVA detector and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's B factory experiment. 6 refs

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating

  2. Opinion on the radio-ecological monitoring of waters around nuclear installations and on the management of old nuclear waste warehousing sites: 18 recommendations to improve information, transparency and dialogue with involved parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the different actors (agencies, institutions, companies) involved in the activities of the various French nuclear installations (base nuclear installations and those concerning the national defence), this report describes the radio-ecological monitoring performed around these nuclear sites: water surveillance on these sites and within their environment, regulatory requirements on effluents and surveillance, information provided by operators and by institutional organisations, assessment of the radio-ecological status of nuclear sites and of potential environmental and health impacts. It describes regulatory obligation in terms of public information, information and communication actions, and gives an assessment of the High committee about public information quality. It discusses ways to improve this quality for a higher transparency, to reinforce the role of local information commissions (CLI), and improve site monitoring. All these aspects are grouped in 18 recommendations

  3. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  4. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  5. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  6. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  7. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso

    2013-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community

  8. Notice about the transparency of the management of nuclear materials and wastes produced at the different steps of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    On behalf of the French minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea, and of the President of the Parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices, the high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) has examined the question of the international trade in relation with uranium processing, and with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at the different steps of the fuel cycle. The HCTISN has audited the French nuclear operators and administrations in concern and has visited some enrichment facilities in France and in UK. The aim of this notice is to answer some questions debated today: should reprocessed uranium and depleted uranium be considered as radioactive wastes? Do we send radioactive wastes to Russia? Is the resort to Russia for uranium enrichment a secret? Is the information spread by nuclear actors in agreement with citizens' expectations? To answer these questions, the document makes first a detailed presentation of the French fuel cycle, of the main radioelements and different uranium compounds involved. Then, the conditions of storage and transport of reprocessed and depleted uranium are presented as well. A third part presents the stakes linked with uranium supplies and the French policy implemented to secure these supplies in an international context. The forth part presents the definitions and decision principles implemented by the French legislation concerning the radioactive wastes and valorisable materials. The regulatory context of the main countries where uranium trades take place is presented as well. This part refers to the national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) established in agreement with the program law from June 28, 2006 and relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The last part is devoted to the quality of the information delivered to citizens. It presents a status and the difficulties

  9. Increasing transparency of nuclear-warhead and fissile-material stocks as a step toward disarmament -- Proposals for the NPT PrepCom, Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    These proposals made by the International Panel on Fissile Materials IPFM at a conference in Geneva, Switzerland, in April 2013 discuss how increasing transparency can help disarmament efforts. After a short introduction to IPFM and its mission, the action plan on nuclear disarmament is looked at and the various nations involved are listed. A set of baseline declarations proposed are discussed. These include warhead stocks, potential new declarations and fissile material stocks. Monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Authority IAEA is also reviewed. Preparations for future declarations concerning warhead and delivery systems locations, stockpile histories and fissile material production and disposal aspects are reported on. Finally, co-operative verification projects, warhead dismantlement and past fissile material production are examined

  10. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  11. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  12. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual progress report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1994-07-01

    During the past year, work has been nearly completed on a Physical Review paper with final results of a search for neutrinoless double-β decay of molybdenum 100 with collaborators from LBL, the University of New Mexico, and the Idaho Engineering Laboratory. Major part of this work was to carry out an extensive statistical analysis of the data. During the spring of 1994, Sean Sutton spent the majority of this time at Orsay, France working on NEMO 3, a next generation double-β decay experiment involving molybdenum 100 and other isotopes. Nicholson and Sutton have designed and built a scintillating fiber hadoscope used in the May--July AGS high energy physics run at BNL in AGS experiment 850 to measure color transparency. Professor Nicholson has had primary responsibility for the design, construction, and installation of this hodoscope and for overseeing the construction and installation of two scintillating counter upstream hodoscopes. To date, the fiber hodoscope had handled total beam rates exceeding 20 MHz with beam rates as high as 10 MHz on a single fiber. Light intensification and readout electronics to be used in the CsI(Tl) calorimeter in the SLAC B factory has just begun this summer

  13. HCTISN - High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety, Plenary meeting of the 3 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Eric; Schilz, Fabien; Piketty, Laurence; Martelet, Bertrand; Quintin, Christophe; Gauthier, Florence; Charles, T.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers a set of Power Point presentations. The first one, proposed by the ANDRA, addresses the challenges related to the long term management of dismantling wastes (quantities, perspectives for planning, optimization and R and D investments, ANDRA's missions, R and D themes, industrial developments, service providing). The second one, proposed by AREVA, addresses the dismantling of Areva's nuclear sites (challenges and peculiarities, organisation, overview of the different current dismantling projects in France). The third one, proposed by the ASN, discusses the current status, perspectives and challenges of dismantling (dismantling definition, objectives and strategies, ASN missions for the regulation, authorization, control, public information, and crisis management regarding dismantling, regulatory context with its procedures and for waste management, and installations being currently dismantled). The fourth one, proposed by the CEA, addresses the dismantling of CEA nuclear installations (presentation, challenges, strategy, organisation and financing of the A and D process (cleaning up and dismantling) within the CEA, a focus on the case of CEA installations in Grenoble, the return on experience within the CEA, R and D for A and D programs). The sixth presentation by EDF addresses the program of deconstruction of EDF generation-1 nuclear power plants (legal and financial framework and governance, dismantling policy and strategy, management of deconstruction waste, dismantling program for first-generation reactors and focus on the Brennilis and Chooz reactors, industrial and social challenges of operational practices). Proposed by the ministry of Ecology, the next presentation addresses the safety of nuclear installations and the return on experience after the intrusion in Tricastin (overview of regulation, progress in the implementation of PCMNIT regulation - protection and control of nuclear materials, of their installations and transport - by

  14. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  15. A CD-ROM About Radiation Protection Aspects of a Nuclear Accident: Towards more Openness and Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the 'Prefet', the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the 'gendarmerie' and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described : professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different -backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical. players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the countermeasures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities? The CD-ROM should help in gradually building up a shared interpretation or culture of the nuclear risk. This forum should promote debate that is

  16. Structure for Transparency in Nuclear Waste Management. Comparative Review of the Structures for Nuclear Waste Management in France, Sweden and the UK. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, Raul [Syncho Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents a comparison of the structures for nuclear waste management in France, Sweden and the UK. The source materials for this comparison are studies carried out in each of these countries by Syncho Ltd. over the past 5 years. The Swedish structural review was sponsored by SKI and SSI, and carried out as a pilot study during the years 1996 and 1997 as part of the RISCOM Pilot Project. The structural reviews of the British and French nuclear waste management systems have been in progress for the past two years (2001-2002) within the framework of RISCOM II, sponsored by the European Union. This report offers preliminary comparative views of the three systems. As with each of the individual studies more work and information are necessary to confirm and strengthen the findings. To set the context for this report it is important to remind the reader that the study in Sweden was undertaken 5 years ago, that the French case took place at the same time of significant structural changes in the country's nuclear waste management system and that the British case was undertaken at the same time of a far-reaching Government consultation process. In all cases the number of people interviewed was small. In summary, comparing the structures for transparency suggests that once existing channels for transparency are diagnosed, it should be possible to use benchmarks of good practice in one country to design methods to improve participation and communications in others. The framework used in this report allows making comparisons beyond factual reports of similarities or differences. An important conclusion of this report is that the democratic deficits that we experience today as citizens in all societies can be ameliorated if sufficient attention is paid to producing requisite organisations, with adequate communications, capable of bridging the gaps between the silent majorities and those experts and politicians responsible for policy decisions. It is the wisdom

  17. Structure for Transparency in Nuclear Waste Management. Comparative Review of the Structures for Nuclear Waste Management in France, Sweden and the UK. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Raul

    2002-11-01

    This report presents a comparison of the structures for nuclear waste management in France, Sweden and the UK. The source materials for this comparison are studies carried out in each of these countries by Syncho Ltd. over the past 5 years. The Swedish structural review was sponsored by SKI and SSI, and carried out as a pilot study during the years 1996 and 1997 as part of the RISCOM Pilot Project. The structural reviews of the British and French nuclear waste management systems have been in progress for the past two years (2001-2002) within the framework of RISCOM II, sponsored by the European Union. This report offers preliminary comparative views of the three systems. As with each of the individual studies more work and information are necessary to confirm and strengthen the findings. To set the context for this report it is important to remind the reader that the study in Sweden was undertaken 5 years ago, that the French case took place at the same time of significant structural changes in the country's nuclear waste management system and that the British case was undertaken at the same time of a far-reaching Government consultation process. In all cases the number of people interviewed was small. In summary, comparing the structures for transparency suggests that once existing channels for transparency are diagnosed, it should be possible to use benchmarks of good practice in one country to design methods to improve participation and communications in others. The framework used in this report allows making comparisons beyond factual reports of similarities or differences. An important conclusion of this report is that the democratic deficits that we experience today as citizens in all societies can be ameliorated if sufficient attention is paid to producing requisite organisations, with adequate communications, capable of bridging the gaps between the silent majorities and those experts and politicians responsible for policy decisions. It is the wisdom of the

  18. Through a glass darkly - the meaning of transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first discusses the word 'transparency'. It is a metaphor drawn from optics; it is a term used in social and political science; the international civil society organisation. 'Transparency International' sees it as the paradigm to fight corruption in the world. From this discussion, the paper offers a working definition applicable to a nuclear regulatory organisation. The paper describes a difference between having transparent process, which might be called passive transparency; and transparent engagement with stakeholders -- active transparency. It discusses some of the issues and problems that arise for a nuclear regulatory organisation seeking to operate transparently. Much of the difficulty with true transparency is that it reveals the 'untidiness' of life. 'We see now as through a glass darkly'. What is the general view of society and the cultural attitudes towards Government agencies revealing that they are not perfect'? Can you have a transparent nuclear regulator of a secretive industry and with other stakeholders having political agendas? How can a technical 'judgment call' ever be fully transparent? Can an active culture of transparency sometimes result in a mere public relations campaign? Can transparency in a nuclear regulatory create expectations amongst stakeholders that will prove impossible to meet? These questions are discussed with some real-life examples. The paper concludes with some suggested 'fundamentals' for transparency in nuclear regulatory organisations. (author)

  19. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  20. When safety rhymes with transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Marion; Larroque, Damien; Vandermersch, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Transparency and Nuclear Safety Act, which took effect in 2006, requires each operator to document the measures taken to ensure nuclear safety and radiological protection and to list incidents and accidents as well as actions taken to protect the environment. This specifies the nature and limits of radioactive and non-radioactive releases, the quantity of waste to be stored at the facility, actions taken to limit waste volume, and effects on health and the environment, especially on soil and water. (authors)

  1. Legal framework to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a national and an international trend towards administrative transparency. This trend has not stopped at. the Swiss border. Some cantons of Switzerland have already introduced the transparency principle at the cantonal level. At the federal level, the Swiss Confederation introduced on 1 July 2006 the new Federal 'Freedom of Information Act'. Also the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (I-ISK) falls under this rule. Before introduction of this law on transparency. most of the documents of Swiss federal Administration were treated as confidential. Access rights to official documents were granted only on certain conditions and in special cases. But there is a general interest, that the public should have the possibility to ask to look at the files of the administration. Since years, the administration had no longer been able to hide behind secretiveness. For instance, the introduction of Internet brought a lot of transparency. The administration had to explain what sort of job it is actually doing and how it is doing. Also, the media were and are increasing their research for information. In this context, the new law on transparency ('Freedom of Information Act') is rather an evolution than a revolution. The Freedom of Information Act guarantees the public access to official documents. Most of the documents of the Federal Administration are public. This access can be limited, differentiated or refused in certain cases. That means that the principle of proportionality between private interests and public transparency has to be applied. The real challenge for the authority is the trade off between the public's right to access information and the industrial legitimate efforts to protect industrial and trade secrets. In the nuclear field, the international principle of transparency has also become an important national principle for Switzerland and FISK. The Swiss Nuclear Energy Act says that 'The relevant authorities shall regularly inform the general

  2. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  3. Resolution proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks generated by the opening of the capital and the privatization of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The privatization of the French nuclear industry leads to three types of risks: the dilution of decision prerogatives (need of long-term investment for maintenance and safety purposes which are incompatible with immediate profits), incompatibility between private control and safety, and speculation (need of stable and durable financing for a sustainable safety). For these reasons, the French house of commons has created an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks linked with the capital opening and privatization of the French nuclear industry. (J.S.)

  4. Minister: Estonia, NATO await greater transparency from Zapad exercise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Eesti kaitseminister Jüri Luik kinnitas, et Eesti ja NATO jälgivad hoolikalt Venemaa sõjalise õppuse Zapad 2017 ettevalmistusi. Venemaalt ja Valgevenelt oodatakse rahvusvahelistest lepingutest kinnipidamist ning välisvaatlejate lubamist õppusele

  5. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  6. What are the communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? Report from a Team Syntegrity Meeting. The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Espejo, Raul; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2003-09-01

    The Team Syntegrity Meeting is a special part of the project. It aims for increased awareness among key stakeholder groups in Europe about how nuclear waste decision processes should be developed in order to increase transparency and trust. Team Syntegrity is conducted with a special meeting format. The self-organisation of the meeting is a strong positive feature of the format. Instead of having a project leader setting the agenda, the participants formulate their own topics of relevance starting from an opening question. This report documents the meeting that was held in Lanaken, Belgium on 14-17 May 2002. The opening question for the meeting was: What are communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? There are different opinions about how communication on nuclear waste issues should be done. There are differences between stakeholder groups, and there are different approaches taken in various countries. Still it should be possible to reach a deeper understanding of social communications, that is, understanding the requirements to have effective communications between policy makers, experts and stakeholders. The aim was thus not to develop common views on the nuclear waste problem as such, but rather common grounds for developing procedures for effective communication. Hopefully, this meeting made some progress in this direction. The call for the Team Syntegrity (TS) Meeting resulted in 105 Statements of Importance given in Appendix 2. Following the TS format the meeting then formed its own agenda by first producing 30 Aggregated Statements of Importance (Appendix 3), which were grouped into 12 Consolidated Statements of Importance or topics. The group discussions were thus held under the twelve topics of: Consultation, communication and participation; Mutual learning; Roles and arenas; Heritage; Transparency; Wider context; Process; Risk; Institutional cultures

  7. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  8. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  9. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  10. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  11. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  12. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  13. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  14. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  15. What are the communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? Report from a Team Syntegrity Meeting. The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Espejo, Raul [Syncho Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wene, Clas-Otto [Wenergy, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    The Team Syntegrity Meeting is a special part of the project. It aims for increased awareness among key stakeholder groups in Europe about how nuclear waste decision processes should be developed in order to increase transparency and trust. Team Syntegrity is conducted with a special meeting format. The self-organisation of the meeting is a strong positive feature of the format. Instead of having a project leader setting the agenda, the participants formulate their own topics of relevance starting from an opening question. This report documents the meeting that was held in Lanaken, Belgium on 14-17 May 2002. The opening question for the meeting was: What are communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? There are different opinions about how communication on nuclear waste issues should be done. There are differences between stakeholder groups, and there are different approaches taken in various countries. Still it should be possible to reach a deeper understanding of social communications, that is, understanding the requirements to have effective communications between policy makers, experts and stakeholders. The aim was thus not to develop common views on the nuclear waste problem as such, but rather common grounds for developing procedures for effective communication. Hopefully, this meeting made some progress in this direction. The call for the Team Syntegrity (TS) Meeting resulted in 105 Statements of Importance given in Appendix 2. Following the TS format the meeting then formed its own agenda by first producing 30 Aggregated Statements of Importance (Appendix 3), which were grouped into 12 Consolidated Statements of Importance or topics. The group discussions were thus held under the twelve topics of: Consultation, communication and participation; Mutual learning; Roles and arenas; Heritage; Transparency; Wider context; Process; Risk; Institutional cultures

  16. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  17. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  18. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  19. Gradually, the industry world opens for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article comments some noticeable evolutions of various industrial sectors towards information transparency. It indicates the four types of structures which exist in France for local information on nuclear installations (CLI and CI), on waste processing installations (CSS), and on industrial pollutions (SPPPI), comments the efforts made by the different actors and industries of the French nuclear sector (public debates, visits, legal framework, local commissions of information, authorities like ASN and IRSN), addresses the case of chemical industry (a slow implementation of transparency due to a different and more spread organisation), and outlines that the oil and gas industry presents less opportunities for a dialogue

  20. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  1. Frequency of occurrence of various nuclear reactions when fast neutrons (greater than or equal to 50 MeV) pass through tissue-equivalent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    Calculated results are presented for the frequency with which various partial nuclear-reaction cross sections are utilized when fast neutrons (less than or equal to 50 MeV) are transported through a tissue-equivalent phantom to obtain an indication of which cross sections are of most importance for radiotherapy applications and are therefore in need of experimental verification. (6 tables) (U.S.)

  2. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  3. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  4. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  5. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  6. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  7. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  8. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  10. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  11. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks Guest Feature Editors Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors Submission deadline: 15 June 2007 Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems. Scope of Submission The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics related to the interworking between core and edge networks. The core network

  12. Transparent data mining for big and small data

    CERN Document Server

    Quercia, Daniele; Pasquale, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on new and emerging data mining solutions that offer a greater level of transparency than existing solutions. Transparent data mining solutions with desirable properties (e.g. effective, fully automatic, scalable) are covered in the book. Experimental findings of transparent solutions are tailored to different domain experts, and experimental metrics for evaluating algorithmic transparency are presented. The book also discusses societal effects of black box vs. transparent approaches to data mining, as well as real-world use cases for these approaches. As algorithms increasingly support different aspects of modern life, a greater level of transparency is sorely needed, not least because discrimination and biases have to be avoided. With contributions from domain experts, this book provides an overview of an emerging area of data mining that has profound societal consequences, and provides the technical background to for readers to contribute to the field or to put existing approaches to prac...

  13. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  14. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  16. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety. Meeting of the High Committee on the 15 September 2011. Plenary meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After the opinion of the High Committee on public inquiries, several Power Point contributions are proposed. They respectively propose a presentation of the itinerant exhibition 'Radioactivity from Homer to Oppenheimer', an assessment of nuclear material stocks and flows for 2009 and 2010 (depleted uranium, recycled uranium, plutonium, uranium and plutonium exports, materials generated by the supply of the EDF fleet), a presentation of the Generation IV International Forum (with a presentation of the six concepts for fourth generation nuclear reactor: sodium fast neutrons, lead fast neutrons, gas fast neutrons, very high temperature and gas, super-critical water, molten salts), a discussion on the interest of fourth generation reactors and their associated fuel cycle (the example of ASTRID), several discussions (by EDF, by the ASN, by the IRSN) on an operation accident in the CENTRACO base nuclear installation in September 2011), and a description of the participation of the Gravelines Local Information Commission to the nuclear crisis exercise in January 2011

  17. Transparency demonstration of underground radiation and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, Barry D.; Hofer, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    One of the legacies of the nuclear weapon and nuclear power cycles has been the generation of large quantities of nuclear waste and fissile materials. As citizens of this planet, it is everyone's responsibility to provide for safe, secure, transparent, disposal of these waste nuclear materials. The Sandia Cooperative Monitoring Center sponsored a Transparency Monitoring Workshop where the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was identified as a possible transparency demonstration test bed. Three experiments were conceived as jumpstart activities to showcase the effective use of the WIPP infrastructure as a Transparency Demonstration Test Bed. The three experiments were successfully completed and demonstrated at the International Atomic Energy Association sponsored International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver Colorado November 1999. The design and coordination of these efforts is the subject of this paper

  18. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  19. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  20. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  1. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  2. National assembly constitution of the 4. of october 1958 eleventh legislature. Law project relative to the openness and safety in nuclear matter; Assemblee Nationale constitution du 4 octobre 1958 onzieme legislature. Projet de loi relatif a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This law project is the first text submitted to the Parliament in order to given a general frame to nuclear activities. It refers to principles of other activities areas such precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and public information principle. It extends the information right of citizens by creating an access right to information held by the operators of nuclear activities. A transparency high committee about nuclear safety is created whom mission is to contribute to public information on nuclear activities and to guarantee its quality and reliability. (N.C.)

  3. Radiation-shielding transparent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumeki, Asao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To obtain radiation-shielding transparent material having a high resistivity to the radioactive rays or light irradiation which is greater at least by two digits as compared with lead glass. Constitution : The shielding material is composed of a saturated aqueous solution zinc iodide. Zinc iodide (specific gravity of 4.2) is dissolved by 430 g into 100 cc of water at a temperature of 20 0 C and forms a heavy liquid with a specific gravity of 2.80. The radiation length of the heavy liquid is 3.8 cm which is 1.5 times as large as lead glass. The light transmission is greater than 95% in average. Furthermore, by adding hypophosphorous acid as a reducing agent to the aqueous solution of the lead iodide, the material is stabilized against the irradiation of light or radioactive rays and causes no discoloration for a long time. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  5. Openness and transparency: the road to public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaczko, G.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop on transparency of Nuclear Regulatory Activities was held from 22 to 24 May 2007, in Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan. The first session was devoted to clarifying the concept of transparency as used in the field of nuclear safety regulation. This document is the presentation of the chairman of the session and offers a global evaluation of the session. (A.L.B.)

  6. Limits of transparency of transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is essential for further progress in materials and applications. These materials have a sufficiently large band gap, so that direct optical transitions do not lead to absorption of light within the visible spectrum. Since the presence of free carriers is essential for conductivity and thus for device applications, this introduces the possibility of additional absorption processes. In particular, indirect processes are possible, and these will constitute a fundamental limit of the material. The Drude theory is widely used to describe free-carrier absorption, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. We will present calculations of phonon- and defect-assisted free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We will focus in detail on SnO2, but the methodology is general and we will also compare the results obtained for other TCO materials such as In2O3. These calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle and was supported by ARO and NSF.

  7. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... by providing them with tools that would be visible to the other students in the course, thus, making students’ ideas, thoughts and questions visible to the other students in the course. The paper concludes that use of digital media for transparency can support empowerment of students and inspiration among...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  8. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  9. 76 FR 24187 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... pipelines to post information regarding no-notice service.\\23\\ \\21\\ Transparency Provisions of Section 23 of... and any broker or exchange they use. This information would provide greater transparency regarding... the Commission explained in the Transparency NOI, obtaining EQR information from non-public utilities...

  10. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  11. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance

  12. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  13. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  14. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  15. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  16. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  17. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  18. Stakeholder involvement activities in Slovakia. NRA's Commitment to Transparent Regulatory Process. Stakeholder Involvement in the French Regulatory Process - From Public Information to Public Participation. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear decision making in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, Marta Chairperson; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority - NRA; Ferapontov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Session 2 focused on the regulatory perspectives related to stakeholder involvement in the regulatory decision-making process. Presentations provided the audience with information regarding the international and national legal framework implemented in the Slovak Republic, in France, in Japan and in Russia. Examples of stakeholder involvement, as well as some tools used for this purpose, were presented and discussed. The value of consistency and complementarity between international and national requirements was highlighted. Presentations and discussion confirmed the very close tie between the way the stakeholder involvement process is conducted and the public confidence and perception of reliability the regulatory body may gain, or lose. The four presentations confirmed that stakeholder involvement is a key challenge for maintaining regulatory body credibility, independence and legitimacy. All countries confirmed their commitment to trying to make their stakeholder involvement processes as open, visible, transparent and comprehensive as possible. Involvement represents a long and permanent process which requires investment of time, human resources and money, as well as the ability to reach out, to listen, to share, and to take input into account, while keeping in view the goal of delivering decisions that are as rational and objective as possible. Involving stakeholders is more than informing or communicating. The earlier the stakeholders are involved in the decision-making process, the greater the chance of success. If losing credibility is easy, all regulatory bodies agreed on the long process needed to recover it

  19. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  20. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  1. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry.'' The...

  2. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho

    2003-01-01

    Faced with problems of public acceptance most nuclear waste management organisations now acknowledge the importance of transparency in their pursuit of solutions for high-level nuclear waste disposal. To make progress the implementing organizations need the trust of other stakeholders in the decision-making process. For such trust these outside stakeholders need knowledge on the grounds for the judgments and decisions made in different scientific and technical disciplines. Transparency is, however, at least as important for the multidisciplinary expert communication itself. As a matter of fact, the transparency of the internal expert interaction processes is a prerequisite for the true transparency of the communication between the implementer and the external stakeholder groups. The introduced conceptual framework has been developed for the identification of the requirements of safety-informed communication in multidisciplinary expert work in nuclear waste management. The framework offers a common thinking model and common concepts which can be utilized in the development of the communication practices. The basis of the framework is on the possibility to understand the safety-critical significance of one's work. The transparency of communication is, for its part, based on making explicit the relevant knowledge necessary for gaining the understanding. This supplementary knowledge, which is related to the substance issues but is not scientific-technical by nature, enhances the experts' awareness of the context of their own contribution and of the background of the other experts' contributions. The common conceptualization and modelling of the knowledge-related dependencies between the tasks make it possible to realize the significance of the supplementary knowledge for transparent communication in actual situations. They also facilitate the recognition of the need for different types of supplementary knowledge in the interfaces between the tasks. By enhancing mutual

  3. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  4. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transport safety and struggle against malevolent acts: a synergy to be developed - Protecting transports against malevolent acts, Synergies between security and safety: lessons learned from the IAEA international conference, Role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety, Transparency and secret in the field of nuclear material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riac, Christian; Flory, Denis; Loiseau, Olivier; Mermaz, Frederic; Demolins, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The first article proposes an interview with the chief of the security department within the French ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transports and Housing who comments his missions and his relationships with the ASN and the French Home Office for the protection and control of nuclear materials. A second article discusses the lessons learned from an IAEA international conference about the relationship between the approaches to security and to safety. The third article briefly describes the role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety. The last article discusses how opposite notions like transparency and secret are managed in the case of nuclear material transport

  6. Situation of the environmental surveillance and situation of the water table and rivers labelling around nuclear sites and old radioactive waste storages. Report for the high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The High Committee for the openness and information on nuclear safety (H.C.T.I.S.N.) requested a study at I.R.S.N. concerning the situation of the surveillance of media and their quality and the diffusion of this information near the public, the identification of ground water or rivers that would present a radiological or chemical labelling, the link of these elements with the future national network of the radioactivity measurement in environment. This assessment must also allow to take stock of the situation relative to the surveillance of the quality of ground water that flow out of the level of old radioactive waste storages, especially registered in the ANDRA inventory. I.R.S.N. chose to limit its contribution: to the sites housing nuclear base installations and nuclear base installations that have been classified secret that come under the Minister in charge of energy; to old radioactive wastes storages located in these installations. (N.C.)

  7. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results

  8. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  9. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  10. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  11. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  12. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. Illusionary Transparency? Oil Revenues, Information Disclosure, and Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, Jerome Jeffison; Lujala, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    xperience shows that discovery of valuable natural resources can become a curse rather than a blessing, and transparency has been identified as key to better resource governance because it can limit opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. This article shows that information disclosure, in which many governments and donor institutions engage, does not automatically translate into transparency. Ghana has embedded transparency as one of its key principles in oil management. However, fiel...

  14. A meaning for transparency in decision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wene, C.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy System Technology; Espejo, R. [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Lincoln (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we discuss transparency in decision processes. We argue that transparency requires fostering, producing and maintaining distributed dialogues and communications between all those affected by (the stakeholders) and those producing these decisions (the decision makers and the actors/experts). The issues raised in these dialogues will not only refer to questions of technical efficiency, but also to what is right and fair and what is considered to be good in society. Social policies, particularly those of wide social significance, are in one form or another the outcome of multiple meaning creation processes, reflecting their multiple spheres of influence, from the local to the global, from the disciplinary to the multi- and transdisciplinary. Each of these processes requires transparency. This paper is focused on the structural requirements to make these dialogues and communications effective at all levels, taking into account the need for technical explanation, proof of authenticity and legitimacy of actions. Moreover it is concerned with the alignment of these meanings creation processes in order to increase the chances of having not only a distributed but also a coherent overall decision process. Our emphasis is in defining forms of interaction among stakeholders in order to ground the debate of the policy throughout the organisation, beyond senior levels of management. The aim is increasing the demands on those responsible for policy implementation, stretching them so that they offer the best of themselves. We argue that this is the basis for a structural mechanism for transparency. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual framework to study issues of transparency in policy making which is illustrated with reference to nuclear waste management in Sweden.

  15. A meaning for transparency in decision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.; Espejo, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss transparency in decision processes. We argue that transparency requires fostering, producing and maintaining distributed dialogues and communications between all those affected by (the stakeholders) and those producing these decisions (the decision makers and the actors/experts). The issues raised in these dialogues will not only refer to questions of technical efficiency, but also to what is right and fair and what is considered to be good in society. Social policies, particularly those of wide social significance, are in one form or another the outcome of multiple meaning creation processes, reflecting their multiple spheres of influence, from the local to the global, from the disciplinary to the multi- and transdisciplinary. Each of these processes requires transparency. This paper is focused on the structural requirements to make these dialogues and communications effective at all levels, taking into account the need for technical explanation, proof of authenticity and legitimacy of actions. Moreover it is concerned with the alignment of these meanings creation processes in order to increase the chances of having not only a distributed but also a coherent overall decision process. Our emphasis is in defining forms of interaction among stakeholders in order to ground the debate of the policy throughout the organisation, beyond senior levels of management. The aim is increasing the demands on those responsible for policy implementation, stretching them so that they offer the best of themselves. We argue that this is the basis for a structural mechanism for transparency. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual framework to study issues of transparency in policy making which is illustrated with reference to nuclear waste management in Sweden

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  18. The transparency trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  19. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  20. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  1. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  2. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  3. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  4. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  5. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  6. Quantum effects and colour transparency in charmonium photoproduction on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Zakharov, B.G.

    1991-01-01

    A rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of colour transparency effects in diffractive photoproduction of c-barc-pairs on nuclei was developed. The evolution of the c-barc wave function during propagating through a nucleus is rather a considerable distortion of its form, than a trivial attenuation. One of the manifestations of the quantum effects is a nuclear antishadowing of Ψ' yield, i.e. transparency above one. On the contrary, a considerable nuclear shadowing is predicted for the photoproduction of J/Ψ, which has a much smaller absorption cross section than Ψ'. 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  8. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  9. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  10. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  11. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  12. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  13. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  14. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  15. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  16. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  17. Transparency as an ethical safeguard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Frank, Lily E.; Haselager, Pim; Kirsh, David; Ham, Jaap; Spagnolli, Anna; Blankertz, Benjamin; Gamberini, Luciano; Jacucci, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Transparency seems to represent a solution to many ethic issues generated by systems that collect implicit data from users to model the user themselves based on programmed criteria. However, making such systems transparent -- besides being a major technical challenge - risks raising more issues than

  18. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  19. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, S C

    1999-04-01

    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  20. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  1. HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radev, R

    2002-01-01

    In February 1993, the Governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) signed a bilateral Agreement for the U.S. purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from 500 metric tons (MT) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons. The HEU Purchase Agreement serves important national security and nonproliferation policy imperatives for both countries since its implementation reduces the quantity of surplus Russian HEU that could be stolen and diverted for weapons use. In return, Russia receives much needed U.S. dollars over a 20-year delivery period. In 2001, Russia received over half a billion US dollars from the purchase of the LEU blended from 30 MT HEU. As part of this Agreement, transparency rights were agreed upon that provide confidence to both governments that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are being fulfilled. While the U.S. Department of State, in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible negotiating transparency rights associated with this nuclear material, the NNSA is responsible for implementing those rights. These rights allow U.S. and R.F., personnel (called ''monitors'') to visit the processing facilities and observe the steps for processing the HEU into fuel for nuclear reactors. In this fashion, the processing of HEU to LEU is made ''transparent.'' For DOE, there are three transparency objectives: (1) that the HEU is extracted from nuclear weapons, (2) that this same HEU is oxidized, and (3) that the HEU is blended into LEU. For MINATOM, the transparency objective is: (1) that the LEU is fabricated into fuel for commercial nuclear power reactors: The transparency is based on visits by designated transparency monitors (100 preapproved U.S. and Russian monitors) with specific rights to monitor and to access storage and processing areas to provide confidence that the nonproliferation goals

  2. Multifunctional transparent protective coatings on polycarbonates prepared using PECVD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocanu, V.; Stoica, A.; Kelar, L.; Franta, D.; Bursíková, V.; Mikšová, Romana; Peřina, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, SI5 (2012), s. 1460-1464 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : multilayered coatings * protective * transparent * polycarbonate Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012

  3. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  4. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  5. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  6. Creating internal culture to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, E.

    2007-01-01

    Among the keys to achieving public confidence, is openness and transparency to those one serves. As a Federal regulator entrusted by the American people to protect them against the hazards of radiation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recognizes the need for openness and a strong 'safety culture and climate' where there is a 'safety-first focus' by its employees as well as those it regulates. For the NRC and nuclear industry, safety culture is typically the assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisations and individuals which establishes nuclear safety as an overriding priority. Strong safety cultures include conservative decision making, strict adherence to procedures, questioning attitudes, and an environment in which employees feel free to raise safety concerns. A strong internal safety culture that is transparent to others helps the NRC to be more effective in carrying out its safety job to protect the public through its oversight of the nation's nuclear power plants and other civilian uses of nuclear energy. Creating the appropriate environment or culture and communicating NBC's contribution to safety can affect employee and ultimately public perceptions about the agency's commitment to safety in its daily activities. Where there is openness and transparency, trust and confidence are likely to follow. To assess and measure its safety culture, the NRC commissioned three independent surveys to be performed in conjunction with some use of focus groups over an 8-year period. The results identified strengths and weakness, and were compared to previous survey results as well as to other U.S. government organisations and national benchmarks. Perhaps the most surprising results came from the 2002 survey that found a third of NRC employees questioned the agency's commitment to safety, and almost half of the staff said that they did not feel it was safe to speak up in the agency. Some changes at the agency were made and the 2005 survey results showed

  7. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  8. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  9. Transparent doesn't always make it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, S. [Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The increasing drive for transparency in risk assessment, performance assessment, and decision-making in the controversial area of nuclear waste management has its foundation in the desire to foster the assumption that, if the outcome of the process is a clear result of the fully exposed contributory elements, then that outcome must be accepted as correct. This is in stark contrast to the general need for transparency in any analysis or decision process - to give the outcome credibility. Transparency in the nuclear waste decision arena is being cast as an end in itself, rather than as a tool to shape the product of the assessment or decision process. It is not enough to permit knowledge of exactly what was done to arrive at a particular result, since at best, this only leads to reproducibility. The challenge is to expose why certain steps or assumptions were chosen for pursuit, and what suites of relevant steps or assumptions were rejected and why. It is also important to demonstrate that the trail to the product - the assessment or decision - is complete. In the nuclear waste management field, the complete scope of the assessment or decision process is not always fully exposed because it does not include the assumptions that initiated the process or the possible consequences of the product. In both instances, this failure can serve to limit the steps or assumptions pursued in the process. This paper will describe and discuss examples from the nuclear waste management field and the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program that illustrate the need for transparency, but also demonstrate that transparency does not always lead to an acceptable product.

  10. Transparent doesn't always make it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing drive for transparency in risk assessment, performance assessment, and decision-making in the controversial area of nuclear waste management has its foundation in the desire to foster the assumption that, if the outcome of the process is a clear result of the fully exposed contributory elements, then that outcome must be accepted as correct. This is in stark contrast to the general need for transparency in any analysis or decision process - to give the outcome credibility. Transparency in the nuclear waste decision arena is being cast as an end in itself, rather than as a tool to shape the product of the assessment or decision process. It is not enough to permit knowledge of exactly what was done to arrive at a particular result, since at best, this only leads to reproducibility. The challenge is to expose why certain steps or assumptions were chosen for pursuit, and what suites of relevant steps or assumptions were rejected and why. It is also important to demonstrate that the trail to the product - the assessment or decision - is complete. In the nuclear waste management field, the complete scope of the assessment or decision process is not always fully exposed because it does not include the assumptions that initiated the process or the possible consequences of the product. In both instances, this failure can serve to limit the steps or assumptions pursued in the process. This paper will describe and discuss examples from the nuclear waste management field and the U.S. high-level nuclear waste program that illustrate the need for transparency, but also demonstrate that transparency does not always lead to an acceptable product

  11. Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where available and appropriate, EPA will use peer-reviewed information, standardized test methods, consistent data evaluation procedures, and good laboratory practices to ensure transparent, understandable, and reproducible scientific assessments.

  12. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  13. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance

  14. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  15. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  16. A Concise Dictionary of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Misun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an essay collection by Marek Bieńczyk, Przeźroczystość [Transparency]. The concept, placed in various context, shows various aspects and is seen in various shades. The author does not put forward a statement, but rather proposes a work to be done: to determine the modality of transparency. The concept initially seems to be mainly epistemological: the cognizant subject would like to make the world transparent, to discover all possible mysteries. Before that, however, the subject must know itself, and here the dream of trans­parency also plays the key role. Lack of epistemological transparency is the main cause of melancholy and its reverse — hysteria. The concept turns out to be important in the domain of love — the loer thinks that (she knows the desired person more better anybody else, that (she has entirely penetrated the subjectivity of the Other. Ultimately, however, the dream of transparency goes down to a slow demise of the subject: as self-discovery progresses, there is less and less of the discoverer. In conclusion of this work, the border of modality of the concept turns out to be horrifyingly obvious. The desire for transparency consequently searches not for knowledge, but for an escape whose name is death.

  17. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  18. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  20. Induced transparencies in metamaterial waveguides doped with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R; Brzozowski, Marek; Racknor, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The light-mater interaction in quantum dots doped artificial electromagnetic materials such as metamaterial waveguides has been studied. The effect of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the absorption coefficient of quantum dots in metamaterial waveguides is investigated. The waveguides are made by sandwiching a metamaterial slab between two dielectric material layers. An ensemble of quantum dots are deposited near the waveguide interfaces. The transfer matrix method is used to calculate the SSPs in the waveguide and the density matrix method and Schrödinger equation method are used to calculate the absorption spectrum. It is found that when the thickness of the metamaterial slab is greater than the SPP wavelength the SPP energy is degenerate. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength the degeneracy of SPP state splits into odd and even SPP modes due the surface mode interaction (SMI) of the waveguide. We also found that the absorption spectrum has a minima (transparent state) which is due to strong coupling between excitons in quantum dots and SPPs in the waveguide. This transparent state is called the SPP induced transparency. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength one transparent state in the absorption spectrum split into two transparent states due to the surface mode interaction. This type of transparency is called the SMI induced transparency. Transparent states can be achieved by applying pulse stress field or an intense laser pulse field. Hence present findings can be used to fabricate the metamaterial optical sensors and switches. (paper)

  1. Color transparency in incoherent electroproduction of ρ mesons off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchik, J.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    Color transparency (CT) phenomena in elastic electroproduction of vector mesons off nuclei are usually infected by the onset of coherence length (CL) effects. However, at low energies corresponding to the CLAS experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab), one can study practically the net CT effects, since CL is much shorter than the nuclear radius. We investigate various manifestations of CT effects using rigorous quantum mechanical approach based on the path integral technique. We include also the effects of ρ meson decay inside the nucleus leading to a rise of the nuclear suppression towards small values of Q 2 . Motivated by the last CLAS data we predict the A, Q 2 and l c dependence of nuclear transparency for ρ 0 mesons produced incoherently off nuclei. We also perform predictions for expected signal of CT corresponding to the planned JLab upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam.

  2. Color transparency in incoherent electroproduction of {rho} mesons off nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchik, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice, Slovakia and Czech Technical University, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 11519 Praque (Czech Republic); Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K. [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-04-15

    Color transparency (CT) phenomena in elastic electroproduction of vector mesons off nuclei are usually infected by the onset of coherence length (CL) effects. However, at low energies corresponding to the CLAS experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab), one can study practically the net CT effects, since CL is much shorter than the nuclear radius. We investigate various manifestations of CT effects using rigorous quantum mechanical approach based on the path integral technique. We include also the effects of {rho} meson decay inside the nucleus leading to a rise of the nuclear suppression towards small values of Q{sup 2}. Motivated by the last CLAS data we predict the A, Q{sup 2} and l{sub c} dependence of nuclear transparency for {rho}{sup 0} mesons produced incoherently off nuclei. We also perform predictions for expected signal of CT corresponding to the planned JLab upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam.

  3. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  4. Corporate transparency in a non-listed environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    Our aim is to examine the reduction of the cost-of-capital in non-listed companies (SME’s) through exercising a high level of corporate accounting transparency. We see a tendency towards greater stakeholder inclusivity, reflecting a shift away from the dominance of agency theory frameworks...... selected sample of 385 Danish annual financial reports (official paper-version). The proxies for transparency involve management commentary , accounting notes, number of text units in management commentary, use of numbers in management commentary and description of accounting practice. Our findings support...

  5. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  6. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  7. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  8. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2001-01-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  9. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  10. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm-2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  11. Issues in Canadian board transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency is considered one of the principles of good corporate governance. But what does it mean – in practice – especially when it comes to Board transparency – i.e. the ability of shareholders to gain knowledge about an organization’s corporate governance practices in order to make an informed assessment of Directors’ individual and collective roles and performance. In a preliminary investigation of Board transparency practices in Canadian listed firms (using data from 2003-2004, it was found that there were wide variations in the nature and quantity of corporate governance practices disclosed. The reasons for these variations are discussed and a number of recommendations for improved disclosure are presented.

  12. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV

    2000-04-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations

  13. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajen, Gaurav

    2000-01-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations (including

  14. Force Structure - Need for Greater Transparency for the Army's Grow the Force Initiative Funding Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaffe, Wendy; Baumgartner, Kelly; Coleman, Grace; Gannon, Barbara; Richardson, Terry; Smith, Kathryn; Thornton, Karen

    2007-01-01

    .... This planned expansion includes building six additional active modular brigade combat teams and additional modular support units, which will require a substantial increase in funding for personnel...

  15. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  16. Does doxastic transparency support evidentialism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate.......Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate....

  17. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  18. Medical radio-physics. Quality assurance. Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krembel, D.

    2009-07-01

    This short presentation, given by the national safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of July 1, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), recalls, first, the missions of the ASN in the medical domain (radiation protection, control and inspections). Then it presents the reactions of the ASN in response to the increase of the number of radiological accidents since 2005: regulation reminder, circular letters, guidebooks, communication to the public and to the mass media. Finally, it defines the main priorities of the ASN with respect to radiotherapy: increase of human resources (radio-physicists shortage), declaration of incidents/accidents, quality assurance for the control of radiation doses delivered to patients, inspection of radiotherapy centres, expertise of new devices, improvement of softwares safety and ergonomics. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear law - Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis and brief discussions of legal and regulatory texts related to nuclear activities, and of their consequences. Different domains are addressed: institutional aspects, transparency and public information, safety and radiation protection, control and physical protection of nuclear materials, trade and non proliferation, radioactive wastes (definition, management of used fuels and wastes), radiological accident, responsibility and insurance, and nuclear weapons

  20. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...

  1. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  2. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  3. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  4. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  5. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. PMID:25862425

  6. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hilsenrath PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  7. Measures of transparency for decommissioning of test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrusenko, B. A.; Smirnov, V. G.; Sherbina, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents non-traditional directions of activity of the Institute specialists to solve complicated scientific and technical tasks within the framework of observance of international obligations on non-proliferation. In the latest time much attention is paid to the reaching of mutual confidence between sides during a control over the observance of agreements regarding disarmament. How can we demonstrate implementation of agreements to each of both sides, not having leakage of confidential or, so called, 'sensitive' information? That means to ensure 'transparency' of activity, not doing a damage to both sides. It is needed to note that the meaning of the above term can be substantially varied, depending on what field of activity it is used in. For instance, the meaning of the transparency measures adopted in joint program of RFNC and SNL for future control of disassembling of nuclear weapon is represented as ''...measures which can be taken for building of the confidence of both sides, assuring that these sides reach mutual understanding, and one side can inspect activity of another side as well as its outcomes which are a part of lifetime cycle of nuclear weapon. We consider this meaning to be acceptable for objectives and principles indicated in joint Russian-Kazakhstani activity on decommisioning of the test site. Hereafter in this paper we will use terminology on the transparency measures which is adopted for future control of the nuclear weapon disassembling. The transparency measures application distates a necessity of development of documentation drawing system of individual procedures and operations, which has 'sensitive' information and to which some transporancy measures, and be in accord with the existent legislation of Russia and Kazakhstan. There is an example of nuclear device (ND) destruction in a tunnel 108 located on the former Semipalatinsk test site, that represents experience gained by specialists of RFNC-RITP in the field of the

  8. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena

  9. Outside finance, dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies optimal financial contracts and product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. When firms seeking outside finance resort to actively monitored debt in order to commit against opportunistic behaviour, the dominant lender can influence corporate transparency.

  10. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  11. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D' Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents

  12. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  13. Playing the numbers game: Dealing with transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachidi, S.; Huysman, M.H.; Berends, Hans; van de Weerd, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Our research focus is on unpacking the performativity of transparency in order to explain how digital technologies, formerly perceived as enablers of surveillance and control, afford opaqueness as much as transparency. We develop a sociomaterial perspective on transparency and investigate how

  14. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from...... of the transparency myth....

  15. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  16. Transparency in port-Hamiltonian based telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper we exploit a behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian based teleoperators. Furthermore we provide a transparency analysis of

  17. Transparency in Port-Hamiltonian-Based Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, Cristian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper, we exploit the behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian-based teleoperators. Furthermore, we provide a transparency analysis of

  18. Pixel masks for screen-door transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Mulder (Jurriaan); F.C.A. Groen; J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRendering objects transparently gives additional insight in complex and overlapping structures. However, traditional techniques for the rendering of transparent objects such as alpha blending are not very well suited for the rendering of multiple transparent objects in dynamic scenes.

  19. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  20. Project report about the motives of the future law project 'security and nuclear clearness'; Projet d'expose des motifs du futur projet de loi ''securite et transparence nucleaire''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    This project aims to prevent the hazards in relation with nuclear activities for man and his environment, as well to reinforce information on risks associated to these activities and on measures taken to avoid them. (N.C.)

  1. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ρ0 electroproduction off nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLAS Collaboration; El Fassi, L.; Zana, L.; Hafidi, K.; Holtrop, M.; Mustapha, B.; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, H.; Zheng, X.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Arrington, J.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Laget, J. M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e‧ρ0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced ρ0's on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ρA interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (lc), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). While the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no lc dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included the color transparency effects.

  2. Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs.

  3. Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs. PMID:23833548

  4. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  5. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  6. The Wisdom of the People: a Framework for Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Raul

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is an extension of work done in the context of the RISCOM Project. Its aim is elaborating communications requirements between citizens, experts and politicians in order to increase the transparency of decision processes. In RISCOM transparency was defined in the following terms: In a given policy area, transparency is the outcome of an ongoing process which increases the stakeholders' appreciation of related issues and provides them with channels to stretch the implementer to meet their requirements for technical explanations, proof of authenticity, and legitimacy of actions. Transparency requires a regulator to act as guardian of process integrity. This definition was tentatively applied to the Swedish Nuclear System, with particular emphasis in nuclear waste management. This paper elaborates further some of the components of the above definition, in particular it explores the factors which influence the boundary judgments for the policy area under consideration, the resources and communications required to increase the stakeholders' appreciation of this policy area, the design of channel capacity to stretch the implementer and the resources and organisational processes required to increase the quality of the interactions between experts and policy makers. Underpinning all the above elaborations is the consideration that transparency requires resources to support the self-regulation and self-organisation of stakeholders and experts in a context that clarifies and enforces the ethical concerns of society. In this paper I first discuss a set of key concepts that are used to elaborate the idea of transparency. Next I discuss the idea of a policy issue as an organisation involved in the social articulation of its meanings. In particular 1 explore means to influence the boundaries of these meanings based on wide social debates rather than exclusively on expert debates. The argument is grounded in the need to bootstrap the production of these meanings

  7. The Wisdom of the People: a Framework for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, Raul [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    2001-07-01

    This contribution is an extension of work done in the context of the RISCOM Project. Its aim is elaborating communications requirements between citizens, experts and politicians in order to increase the transparency of decision processes. In RISCOM transparency was defined in the following terms: In a given policy area, transparency is the outcome of an ongoing process which increases the stakeholders' appreciation of related issues and provides them with channels to stretch the implementer to meet their requirements for technical explanations, proof of authenticity, and legitimacy of actions. Transparency requires a regulator to act as guardian of process integrity. This definition was tentatively applied to the Swedish Nuclear System, with particular emphasis in nuclear waste management. This paper elaborates further some of the components of the above definition, in particular it explores the factors which influence the boundary judgments for the policy area under consideration, the resources and communications required to increase the stakeholders' appreciation of this policy area, the design of channel capacity to stretch the implementer and the resources and organisational processes required to increase the quality of the interactions between experts and policy makers. Underpinning all the above elaborations is the consideration that transparency requires resources to support the self-regulation and self-organisation of stakeholders and experts in a context that clarifies and enforces the ethical concerns of society. In this paper I first discuss a set of key concepts that are used to elaborate the idea of transparency. Next I discuss the idea of a policy issue as an organisation involved in the social articulation of its meanings. In particular 1 explore means to influence the boundaries of these meanings based on wide social debates rather than exclusively on expert debates. The argument is grounded in the need to bootstrap the production of these

  8. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  9. Measurement of transparency ratios for protons from short-range correlated pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O.; Hakobyan, H.; Shneor, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Weinstein, L. B.; Brooks, W. K.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Gilad, S.; Korover, I.; Beck, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Arrington, J. R.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear transparency, Tp (A), is a measure of the average probability for a struck proton to escape the nucleus without significant re-interaction. Previously, nuclear transparencies were extracted for quasi-elastic A (e ,e‧ p) knockout of protons with momentum below the Fermi momentum, where the spectral functions are well known. In this Letter we extract a novel observable, the transparency ratio, Tp (A) /Tp(12 C), for knockout of high-missing-momentum protons from the breakup of short-range correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in Al, Fe and Pb nuclei relative to C. The ratios were measured at momentum transfer Q2 ⩾ 1.5(GeV /c) 2 and xB ⩾ 1.2 where the reaction is expected to be dominated by electron scattering from 2N-SRC. The transparency ratios of the knocked-out protons coming from 2N-SRC breakup are 20-30% lower than those of previous results for low missing momentum. They agree with Glauber calculations and agree with renormalization of the previously published transparencies as proposed by recent theoretical investigations. The new transparencies scale as A - 1 / 3, which is consistent with dominance of scattering from nucleons at the nuclear surface.

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  11. Practice Variation in Big-4 Transparency Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws...... on a qualitative research approach, in which the content of transparency reports is analyzed and semi-structured interviews are conducted with key people from the Big-4 firms who are responsible for developing the transparency reports. Findings: The findings show that the content of transparency reports...... is inconsistent and the transparency reporting practice is not uniform within the Big-4 networks. Differences were found in the way in which the transparency reporting practices are coordinated globally by the respective central governing bodies of the Big-4. The content of the transparency reports...

  12. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Laurice; Weiss, Yael; Katzir, Tami; Bitan, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks) provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27) and 5th (N = 29) grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks), and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks). Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older readers. Moreover

  13. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  14. Accountability and Transparency: Essential Underpinnings of Quality Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everton, C.; Floyd, R.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of IAEA safeguards is to maintain confidence in the international community of the compliance of States with their respective non-proliferation commitments. The safeguards system for ensuring this compliance produces the most important output, the IAEA's compliance findings. Confidence in the findings of any compliance verification system requires some basic elements such as independence, accountability, transparency, and quality management systems. Quality management systems are an internal set of documents and procedures that, while clearly important, need to incorporate an external communication component in order to engender confidence as to how compliance is being managed and ensured. This paper will explore the importance of these fundamentals to confidence in IAEA safeguards compliance conclusions, with a focus on the external communication elements of accountability and transparency. Accountability and transparency will be considered with different communication channels through which safeguards implementation matters are explained and reported and at different levels, facility, State, regional, and the IAEA. This will include communications by: the IAEA and State authorities to the general public; State authorities to peers in other national safeguards authorities (regional and beyond); and, the IAEA and State authorities to the international community as represented through the Board of Governors and General Conference. Examples will be presented of good practices in these areas to encourage greater accountability and transparency in the work of safeguards. (author)

  15. Fool the Markets? Creative Accounting, Fiscal Transparency and Sovereign Risk Premia

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstin Bernoth; Guntram B. Wolff

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of official fiscal data and creative accounting signals on interest rate spreads between bond yields in the European Union. Our model predicts that risk premia contained in government bond spreads should increase in both, the official fiscal position and the expected "creative" part of fiscal policy. The relative importance of these two signals depends on the transparency of the country. Greater transparency reduces risk premia. The empirical results confirm the hyp...

  16. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  17. Promoting transparency, accountability, and access through a multi-stakeholder initiative: lessons from the medicines transparency alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Kohler, Jillian C; Forte, Gilles; Dimancesco, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Barriers to expanding access to medicines include weak pharmaceutical sector governance, lack of transparency and accountability, inadequate attention to social services on the political agenda, and financing challenges. Multi-stakeholder initiatives such as the Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) may help overcome these barriers. Between 2008 and 2015, MeTA engaged stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sectors of seven countries (Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia) to promote access goals through greater transparency. We reviewed archival data to document MeTA activities and results related to transparency and accountability in the seven countries where it was implemented. We identified common themes and content areas, noting specific activities used to make information transparent and accessible, how data were used to inform discussions, and the purpose and timing of meetings and advocacy activities to help set priorities and influence governance decisions. The cross-case analysis looked for pathways which might link the MeTA strategies to results such as better policies or program improvements. Countries used evidence gathering, open meetings, and proactive information dissemination to increase transparency. MeTA fostered policy dialogue to bring together the many government, civil society and private company stakeholders concerned with access issues, and provided them with information to understand barriers to access at policy, organizational, and community levels. We found strong evidence that transparency was enhanced. Some evidence suggests that MeTA efforts contributed to new policies and civil society capacity strengthening although the impact on government accountability is not clear. MeTA appears to have achieved its goal of creating a multi-stakeholder shared policy space in which government, civil society, and private sector players can come together and have a voice in the national pharmaceutical policy making process

  18. Medical radio-physics. Quality assurance. Transparency; Radiophysique medicale. Assurance de la qualite. Transparence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krembel, D.

    2009-07-15

    This short presentation, given by the national safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of July 1, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), recalls, first, the missions of the ASN in the medical domain (radiation protection, control and inspections). Then it presents the reactions of the ASN in response to the increase of the number of radiological accidents since 2005: regulation reminder, circular letters, guidebooks, communication to the public and to the mass media. Finally, it defines the main priorities of the ASN with respect to radiotherapy: increase of human resources (radio-physicists shortage), declaration of incidents/accidents, quality assurance for the control of radiation doses delivered to patients, inspection of radiotherapy centres, expertise of new devices, improvement of softwares safety and ergonomics. (J.S.)

  19. Transparency as Ideal and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) ideas and practices have significantly reshaped labour market policy. This article takes a closer look at some of the implications of NPM practices and “audit culture” at local Public Employment Service (PES) authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with staff...... of government” that make transparent and “legible” desirable traits in the individual. Such classificatory schemes, we argue, are integral parts of the operational procedures of NPM. Moreover, the analysis shows that the categories through which the individual moves are plastic and pliable in relation...... to political predicates and labour market fluctuations. In this process, employability and disability become floating categories...

  20. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  1. Nuclear law. January 2011 - July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Pierre; Di Costanzo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a synthesis of legal aspects concerning nuclear power in France. The following main points are reviewed: institutional aspects (notably the independence of the Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN); transparency and public information; nuclear safety and radiation protection; nuclear materials, their control and security aspects; transports; trade and non-proliferation agreements; radioactive wastes; radiation accidents; liabilities and insurance; nuclear arms

  2. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  3. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  4. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  6. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  7. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  8. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  9. Privacy-Preserving Transparency-Enhancing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pulls, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Transparency is a key principle in democratic societies. For example, the public sector is in part kept honest and fair with the help of transparency through different freedom of information (FOI) legislations. In the last decades, while FOI legislations have been adopted by more and more countries worldwide, we have entered the information age enabled by the rapid development of information technology. This has led to the need for technological solutions that enhance transparency, for exampl...

  10. Towards Transparency in Finance and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Vishwanath; Daniel Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    The study of transparency is increasingly a more topical, broadly relevant, but also more under-researched enterprise. The Asian financial crisis has highlighted not only the welfare consequences of financial sector transparency, sparking a series of yet unresolved debates, but has also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. Its significance has broadened geographically as well as across different sectors. It has been observed that curtailm...

  11. The Multi-Faceted Concept of Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Transparency has become a catchword and in the economic-political debate is often seen as a universal remedy for all sorts of problems. In this paper, we analyze and discuss the meaning and use of the concept of transparency in economic research. We look for common denominators across different areas where the concept is used, and find that transparency in essence is about reductions in information asymmetries, and therefore entails the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. Tra...

  12. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Liquidity and Transparency in Bank Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Ratnovski

    2013-01-01

    Banks may be unable to refinance short-term liabilities in case of solvency concerns. To manage this risk, banks can accumulate a buffer of liquid assets, or strengthen transparency to communicate solvency. While a liquidity buffer provides complete insurance against small shocks, transparency covers also large shocks but imperfectly. Due to leverage, an unregulated bank may choose insufficient liquidity buffers and transparency. The regulatory response is constained: while liquidity buffers ...

  14. NGOs Efficiency and Transparency Policy: The Colombian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Gálvez Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the influence of Colombian non-governmental organizations (NGOs in diverse social sectors of the country has increased. However, the legitimacy of this sector has been undermined by corruption. This distrust has questioned the efficiency of NGOs as social tools. Transparency as a mechanism against corruption and one of the tools that improves the functioning of an organization is considered. There is no doubt that Internet is an essential element in disseminating information to the different stakeholders of the organization. This paper sets out three main objectives: i the analysis of information disclosure through the Internet of Colombian NGOs, ii the analysis of the efficiency of these entities in reaching their social goals and, iii the analysis of the online transparency effect in a greater efficiency of the Colombian NGOs.

  15. Promoting transparency: The Korean national inspection experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Republic of Korea started the LAMA full-scope safeguards inspection with the TRIGA research reactor in 1976 when the nuclear industry was at its infancy. Over two decades of rapid economic growth was propelled by stable supply of electricity, substantially from nuclear energy. Today nearly half of the nations electricity comes from sixteen operating nuclear power plants (12 LWRs + 4 OLRs). Total number of facilities under IAEA inspection reaches 30 where the Agency conducts about 400 PDIs annually. Within the last decade, nuclear transparency in Korea has transformed into the international norm primarily from the needs of rapidly expanding domestic nuclear program. In addition, possibility of North/South mutual inspection helped initiate the national inspection regime in addition to the IAEA inspection. The Technology Center for Nuclear Control was established at KAERI in 1994 in order to maintain the nation's nuclear verification expertise in support of the Korean government. National inspections have been carried out simultaneously with the IAEA inspection since 1997 with trial facilities, and all domestic facilities are being inspected from this year. Necessary legal framework and working procedures were developed and field-tried for LWRs, OLRs, fuel fabrication plants and research reactor facilities. Although the inspection equipment and technology along with the safeguards criteria are quite similar to those of the Agency, it is essential to maintain the independent conclusion capabilities between IAEA and the national authority. Substantial improvements in the IAEA safeguards inspection goal attainments since 1997 are credited to the increasing safeguards awareness among operators and SSAC. Further work is necessary to develop the evaluation criteria based on the field inspection results to meet the national inspection goals. The Korean Government signed the Additional Protocol with IAEA on June, 1999 after much deliberation since it involves facilities

  16. 3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and...

  17. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, O M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  19. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards

  20. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jr, Thomas G [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  1. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Transparency and public value : Analyzing the transparency practices and value creation of public utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.C.; Meijer, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent transparency is a condition for the creation of public value. Transparency is usually narrowly defined as a tool for external stakeholders to monitor the internal workings of an organization, but public value management positions transparency as a broader

  3. ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2008. ASN annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    ASN is an independent administrative authority tasked, on behalf of the state, with regulating nuclear safety and radiation protection in order to protect workers, patients and the environment from the hazards involved in nuclear activities. It also contributes to informing the public. ASN, run by a five-member commission, regulates the whole of the sector, acting in a completely impartial manner. The ASN Commission presents its report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2008. Contents: A - Introduction: The year 2008. B - Key topics: 1. ASN actions to promote greater transparency; 2. EDF nuclear power plant ageing and operating life: the conditions for continued operation; 3. The prevention of malicious acts; 4. ASN regulation of the radiotherapy sector; 5. Regulating and monitoring the construction of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; 6. ASN's international nuclear safety responsibilities; 7. The new nuclear countries; 8. Decommissioning of basic nuclear installations and the low-level, long-lived waste disposal project. C - Overview: 1 - Nuclear activities: ionising radiations and health risks; 2 - Principles and stakeholders in the regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection; 3 - Regulation; 4 - Regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionising radiations; 5 - Environmental protection; 6 - Public information and transparency; 7 - International relations; 8 - Radiological emergencies; 9 - Medical uses of ionising radiations; 10 - Industrial and research activities; 11 - Transport of radioactive materials; 12 - EDF nuclear power plants; 13 - Nuclear fuel cycle installations; 14 - Nuclear research facilities and various nuclear installations; 15 - Safe decommissioning of basic nuclear installations; 16 - Radioactive waste and polluted sites. D - Appendices: List of basic nuclear installations; ASN decisions and opinions published in 2008 in its Official Bulletin; Acronyms, abbreviations and names

  4. Transparency When Things Go Wrong: Physician Attitudes About Reporting Medical Errors to Patients, Peers, and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; White, Andrew A; Yi, Jean C; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2017-12-01

    Transparent communication after medical error includes disclosing the mistake to the patient, discussing the event with colleagues, and reporting to the institution. Little is known about whether attitudes about these transparency practices are related. Understanding these relationships could inform educational and organizational strategies to promote transparency. We analyzed responses of 3038 US and Canadian physicians to a medical error communication survey. We used bivariate correlations, principal components analysis, and linear regression to determine whether and how physician attitudes about transparent communication with patients, peers, and the institution after error were related. Physician attitudes about disclosing errors to patients, peers, and institutions were correlated (all P's transparent communication with patients and peers/institution included female sex, US (vs Canadian) doctors, academic (vs private) practice, the belief that disclosure decreased likelihood of litigation, and the belief that system changes occur after error reporting. In addition, younger physicians, surgeons, and those with previous experience disclosing a serious error were more likely to agree with disclosure to patients. In comparison, doctors who believed that disclosure would decrease patient trust were less likely to agree with error disclosure to patients. Previous disclosure education was associated with attitudes supporting greater transparency with peers/institution. Physician attitudes about discussing errors with patients, colleagues, and institutions are related. Several predictors of transparency affect all 3 practices and are potentially modifiable by educational and institutional strategies.

  5. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  6. Facility operations transparency and remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, David

    2006-01-01

    Remote monitoring technologies offer many opportunities, not only to strengthen IAEA safeguards, but also to improve national, industrial and local oversight of various nuclear operations. Remote monitoring benefits in greater timeliness, reduced inspector presence and improved state-of-health awareness are well-known attributes. However, there is also the capability to organize data into a comprehensive knowledge of the 'normal operating envelope' of a facility. In considering future applications of remote monitoring there is also a need to develop a better understanding of the potential cost-savings versus higher up-front costs and potential long-term maintenance or upgrade costs. (author)

  7. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy, preservation of the environment, providing

  8. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy

  9. Transparent face recognition in the home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The BASIS project is about the secure application of transparent biometrics in the home environment. Due to transparency and home-setting requirements there is variance in appearance of the subject. An other problem which needs attention is the extraction of features. The quality of the extracted

  10. Transparency | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transparency means openness. It allows Canadians to hold the government accountable through the proactive release of information on government activities, programs, policies, and services in formats that are easy to find, access, and use. Transparency is the key element in the Government of Canada's Commitment to ...

  11. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    .... Therefore, a published budget that does not include significant cash or non-cash resources, including... transparency is a critical element of effective public financial management, helps build market confidence, and sets the stage for economic sustainability. Transparency also provides a window into government budgets...

  12. Substantive Transparency Requirements in International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Jens Hillebrand

    2017-01-01

    Few concepts in public governance evoke a more positive sentiment than transparency. Whether ultimately grounded in expediency or morality, transparency has emerged out of its municipal origins and been received at the international plane. This article examines the current state of evolution of the

  13. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  14. 18 CFR 358.7 - Transparency rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transparency rule. 358.7 Section 358.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transparency rule. (a) Contemporaneous disclosure. (1) If a transmission provider discloses non-public...

  15. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  16. Transparency in netchains : evaluation and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Schepers, H.E.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper was written for KLICT to evaluate the focus area Transparency in Netchains. It revisits the definitions and research agenda in the review paper with which the focal area started (Hofstede 2002). The definition of transparency has turned out to serve its purpose. The research has

  17. Can transparency be measured - a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simple answer to this question is no. But if you define the expression and decide transparency actually is, the answer might be different. Transparency means different things in different places. In one country transparency meant almost total access to anything that a government authority has in its possession. In another country transparency is more strict access to certain decisions, decisions makers or documents written with the sole purpose of informing the public. What variables could be found in the word transparent, what is a transparent regulator? In this short presentation we will deal with some important settings or fundamental prerequisites for a regulator calling itself transparent. Perhaps we should look at them in order of importance. Some days it is difficult to do all at once. As a final point, if we as regulators wish to call ourselves transparent in a future with diminishing national borders, fast electronic communication and increasing world wide media impact, what does the world require from us as regulators? (author)

  18. Organizational Transparency in the Internet Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    as a panacea to concerns about privacy, organizational conduct and accountability, this paper explores the boundary work that goes into doing and promising transparency Using insights from the literature on transparency, ´sociologies of translations' and process approaches to organization, this paper captures...

  19. Transparency, price-dependent demand and product variety

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yiquan; Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between transparency on the consumer side and product variety as analyzed in Schultz (2009). We identify two welfare effects of transparency. More transparency decreases price-cost margins which is beneficial forwelfare. On the other hand, more transparency reduces variety which can be positive or negative for welfare. Overall, more transparency is always welfareimproving.

  20. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  1. Competition for transparency as a carrier of competition. Transparency needs in the European wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Hanneke de; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses different transparency aspects regarding European wholesale electricity markets and discusses transparency issues to be solved. In Europe, currently some progress has been made with respect to market transparency but transparency issues related to transmission, system operation and regulation have received little attention so far. Transmission system operators (TSOs) and regulatory authorities need certain market information in order to secure efficient competition. However, TSOs and regulatory authorities need to communicate themselves in order to facilitate competition and decrease uncertainty among market participants. Furthermore, considering ongoing market integration both TSOs and regulatory authorities must exchange information amongst themselves in order to facilitate coordination and monitoring activities. The effect of a higher level of transparency on effective competition is depended on two categories of transparency aspects: aspects that are related to transparency in the sense of open and adequate communication (perspicuity) and aspects that are related to the easiness to understand (clarity). Transparency includes both aspects. Pursuing overall harmonization of the European transparency level is important to fully profit from a higher level of (international) harmonization. Effective harmonization requires harmonization on all communication aspects. For Europe, with its many immature markets, the dilemma remains whether it is preferable to have less transparency with a high level of harmonization or to have a higher level of transparency but a lower level of harmonization. (Author)

  2. Building infrastructure for new nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starz, A.; Aoki, M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, more than sixty countries have indicated that they are considering or launching nuclear power programmes. It has been more than a decade since a country commissioned its first nuclear power plant. In meantime, the global nuclear community has faced greater concerns about safety, security and non-proliferation, resulting in increased international obligations and a greater expectation for transparency and openness regarding nuclear power programmes. Many of these 'nuclear newcomers' are turning to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to understand the implications of the nuclear power option and to receive advice about how to proceed with implementing a national programme. In response to growing demand for assistance, the IAEA developed a comprehensive, phased approach to establishing the infrastructure necessary to support a national nuclear power programme. This 'Milestones' approach is described in Nuclear Energy Series Guide NG-G-3.1 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power' (2007). From establishing the national position and legal framework to nuclear safety, security and safeguards, the Milestones covers 19 issues that need to be addressed. This approach also places special emphasis on the need for involvement of the Government, utility, industry, academic, and other stakeholders in a national decision-making process. The IAEA is also helping 'newcomers' to better understand its Safety Standards, which were written from the perspective of operating nuclear power programmes. A new safety guide is in development which provides a Road-map to the safety standards and identifies the standards that are relevant for each phase consistent with the Milestones. Several countries in the Europe region are working with the IAEA to understand the issues associated with a nuclear power programme in preparation for making a knowledgeable commitment. The starting points and approaches vary widely: some are European

  3. Transparent fast neutron shielding material and shielding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashimoto, Tetsuji; Katase, Haruhisa.

    1993-01-01

    Polyisobutylene having a viscosity average molecular weight of 20,000 to 80,000 and a hydrogen atom density of greater than 7.0 x 10 22 /cm 3 is used as a fast neutron shielding material. The shielding material is excellent in the shielding performance against fast neutrons, and there is no worry of leakage even when holes should be formed to a vessel. Further, it is excellent in fabricability, relatively safe even upon occurrence of fire and, in addition, it is transparent to enable to observe contents easily. (T.M.)

  4. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  5. 76 FR 7522 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... transparency while retaining the protection of information that should be considered in the contracting process... the need for transparency in Government contracting information and believe these recommendations... Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...

  6. Eletronuclear's relationship with the Brazilian media: transparency and credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    In a capitalist economy the most valued assets are not money, shares or facilities, but credibility. Lack of money can ruin a company, but often it is reputation that delivers the final blow. It has become challenging to safeguard reputation in a world where Communication is increasingly connected and with such an intense and lightning fast flow of information. This is particularly true for the electricity sector - a commodity so prevalent in everyday modern life, but, whose business dealings, are hardly known by the general public. When it comes to nuclear energy, the challenge of establishing an effective Communication with transparency and credibility touches on even more complex elements. The topic of this paper is the scenario through which the Communication process, along with its characteristics and approaches, unfolds between the nuclear sector and the Brazilian media. (author)

  7. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  8. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  9. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

  10. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  11. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  12. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  13. Cooperative transparency for nonproliferation. Technology demonstrations at the Joyo test bed for advanced remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill, J. David; Hashimoto, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The term 'Transparency' has been used widely by many authors and practitioners for various purposes, and there is an assortment of definitions for the term. These definitions vary depending on the field in which the term is used and within the context of its usage. For the purposes of our current project on regional, cooperative nonproliferation transparency and remote monitoring, the relevant field is nuclear nonproliferation, and in this context, we define the term Cooperative Nonproliferation Transparency as: 'Providing sufficient and appropriate information to a cooperating party so that they can independently develop their own evaluation and assessment of the reviewed party regarding their consistency with nonproliferation goals.' Key aspects of cooperative nonproliferation transparency activities include mutually agreeing upon the type of information or data that will be shared, how it will be collected, and who has access to that information. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) has been exploring the possible use, development, and application of methods and technologies for Cooperative Transparency for Nonproliferation to support regional confidence building and cooperation n the peaceful use of nuclear energy throughout the East Asia region. (author)

  14. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Cadarache; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Cadarache for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the report discusses the beginning of the RJH reactor construction, the fourth generation reactors research programs, the implementing of la Rotonde the new radioactive wastes management installation, the renovation of the LECA. (A.L.B.)

  15. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Marcoule; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Marcoule for the year 2007. Since its creation in 1955 the center realizes industrial and scientific activities relative to the civil and military applications of the radioactivity. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the following two base activities are detailed: Atalante and Phenix. (A.L.B.)

  16. Lessons learnt by US nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, W.

    2007-01-01

    Transparency means to communicate to the constituents openly and honestly, as soon as appear credible information. The author deals the subject in four fold: experience in the United States that have taught how not to communicate about nuclear energy; the successfully apply of these lessons learned to subsequent events; the need for transparency reaffirmed by more recent events; ongoing efforts by the United States industry to strengthen the core principles of transparency. (A.L.B.)

  17. Transparent soil for imaging the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Downie

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology.

  18. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  19. Transparent Oxide Semiconductors for Emerging Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Transparent oxide electronics have emerged as promising materials to shape the future of electronics. While several n-type oxides have been already studied and demonstrated feasibility to be used as active materials in thin film transistors, high

  20. Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian Women Parliamentarians and Young Female University Students. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are ...

  1. On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy

  2. Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively

  3. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). ... conducting carbon nanotube film which is crack-resistant for solar cell applications. ... CA 90095, USA; Nanocomp Technologies, Inc, 162 Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03301 ...

  4. Building channels for transparent risk assessment. Final report RISCOM pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Espejo, R.; Wene, C.O.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in the Swedish programme for nuclear waste management have underlined the need for a broad consultation process with public participation. Decision procedures that provide transparency for people outside the groups of experts and political decision-makers must be developed. This report explores what this transparency means and how it could be enhanced. It is acknowledged that the concept of transparency includes three equally important aspects: factual issues, normative issues, and stakeholder''s authenticity. So far experts have dominated the decision process in the nuclear waste area. Value judgements of experts may appear as normative issues, for instance among other scientists; or they may be related to issues of authenticity, for instance when discussions take place with community stakeholders. The formal decision process must always be the basis for building transparency. Two dominant approaches are compared: the Swedish ''review/decide'' approach, and the ''inquiry/decide'' approach used in the UK. Suggestions are made as to how the best features of the two approaches could be combined. The report also includes a study on the systemic roles of SKI/SSI in the Swedish nuclear waste management system. This study identifies several systemic functions carried out by SKI/SSI. Awareness of these roles within SKI and SSI (and among other stakeholders) is crucial for transparency. This report argues that a key element in building transparency is to create mechanisms for ''stretching'' SKB. Various channels for stretching and providing new perspectives are explored. Among the procedures discussed are those concerned with hearings and dialogue. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is seen as the umbrella under which most of the stretching activities can take place. Team Syntegrity was used as a method to compare the Swedish and UK procedures. It is a non-hierarchical approach that enhances the effective contribution of a wide variety of

  5. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  6. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  7. Transparent wood for functional and structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  8. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  9. Contemplations on the further development of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Various considerations on the further development of nuclear law are made. The necessity is pointed out to do away with the 'jungle of regulations' and to regain more legal security and transparency in nuclear law. (HP) [de

  10. Transparency in Canadian public drug advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Transparency in health care resource allocation decisions is a criterion of a fair process. We used qualitative methods to explore transparency across 11 Canadian drug advisory committees. We developed seven criteria to assess transparency (disclosure of members' names, disclosure of membership selection criteria, disclosure of conflict of interest guidelines and members' conflicts, public posting of decisions not to fund drugs, public posting of rationales for decisions, stakeholder input, and presence of an appeals mechanism) and two sub-criteria for when rationales were posted (direct website link and readability). We interviewed a purposeful sample of key informants who were conversant in English and a current or past member of either a committee or a stakeholder group. We analyzed data using a thematic approach. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. We examined documents from 10 committees and conducted 27 interviews. The median number of criteria addressed by committees was 2 (range 0-6). Major interview themes included addressing: (1) accessibility issues, including stakeholders' degree of access to the decision making process and appeal mechanisms; (2) communication issues, including improving internal and external communication and public access to information; and (3) confidentiality issues, including the use of proprietary evidence. Most committees have some mechanisms to address transparency but none had a fully transparent process. The most important ways to improve transparency include creating formal appeal mechanisms, improving communication, and establishing consistent rules about the use of, and public access to, proprietary evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency with matched pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last several years there have been studies and experiments showing how, by applying an additional laser beam, optically-thick transitions may be rendered nearly transparent to probing radiation. This transparency results from a quantum interference, very much like a Fano interference, which is established by the additional laser. This talk describes the difference between the quantum interference as exhibited by an independent atom and by an optically-thick ensemble of atoms. We find that an ensemble of atoms establishes transparency through a strong nonlinear interaction which, for a lambda system, tends to generate a matching temporal envelope on the complementary transition. For a ladder system, phase conjugate pulses are generated and, after a characteristic distance, establish transparency. The transparency of an optically-thick medium is therefore not a Beer's law superposition of the independent atom response. To transmit a pulse through an otherwise opaque media, the front edge of the complementary pulse should lead, in the manner of open-quotes counter-intuitiveclose quotes adiabatic transfer, the front edge of the pulse which is to be rendered transparent. Thereafter the pulses should be matched or, for a ladder system, phase-conjugately matched

  12. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  13. Intelligent Agent Transparency in Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-UxV Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Joseph E; Rupp, Michael A; Chen, Jessie Y C; Barnes, Michael J; Barber, Daniel; Procci, Katelyn

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of level of agent transparency on operator performance, trust, and workload in a context of human-agent teaming for multirobot management. Participants played the role of a heterogeneous unmanned vehicle (UxV) operator and were instructed to complete various missions by giving orders to UxVs through a computer interface. An intelligent agent (IA) assisted the participant by recommending two plans-a top recommendation and a secondary recommendation-for every mission. A within-subjects design with three levels of agent transparency was employed in the present experiment. There were eight missions in each of three experimental blocks, grouped by level of transparency. During each experimental block, the IA was incorrect three out of eight times due to external information (e.g., commander's intent and intelligence). Operator performance, trust, workload, and usability data were collected. Results indicate that operator performance, trust, and perceived usability increased as a function of transparency level. Subjective and objective workload data indicate that participants' workload did not increase as a function of transparency. Furthermore, response time did not increase as a function of transparency. Unlike previous research, which showed that increased transparency resulted in increased performance and trust calibration at the cost of greater workload and longer response time, our results support the benefits of transparency for performance effectiveness without additional costs. The current results will facilitate the implementation of IAs in military settings and will provide useful data to the design of heterogeneous UxV teams. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Measurement of color transparency by C(p,2p) reactions at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    The subject of color transparency, the enhancement of the ability of hadrons to penetrate nuclear matter by kinematic selection, is both interesting and controversial. The description of the collision of hadrons with nucleons inside nuclei, and the connection with initial and final state interactions involve fundamental questions of quantum mechanics, and nuclear and particle physics. Interest in color transparency was greatly increased by AGS Experiment 834 which observed dramatic changes with incident momentum for a variety of nuclei. A new experiment, E850, has studied the (p,2p) quasi-elastic reaction near 90 degree cm for momenta between 5.9 and 9 GeV/c. The quasi-elastic reaction was compared to the elastic reaction on free protons to determine the transparency. With limited statistics, but with better kinematic definition in a new detector, the authors have confirmed the rise in Carbon transparency ratio seen in Expt 834. The Tr(D/H) for deuterium is consistent with no energy dependence. Unlike the free dσ/dt for hydrogen, the dσ/dt from protons in a nucleus is consistent with the exact s -10 scaling. This suggests two components to the pp scattering amplitude; one small and perturbative, the other spatially large and varying, but filtered away by the nuclear matter in the Carbon nucleus. The plan is to complete the repairs of the superconducting solenoid early this fall, reassemble the detector, and collect data starting next spring

  15. Does Pharmaceutical Pricing Transparency Matter? Examining Brazil's Public Procurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Saadat, Faridah; Byng, Danalyn; Martinez, Martha Gabriela

    2015-08-04

    We review procurement and pricing transparency practices for pharmaceutical products. We specifically focus on Brazil and examine its approach to increasing pricing transparency, with the aim of determining the level of effectiveness in lower prices using a tool (Banco de Preços em Saúde, BPS) that only reveals purchase prices as compared to other tools (in other countries) that establish a greater degree of price transparency. A general report of Preços em Saúde (BPS) and Sistema Integrado de Administração de Serviços Gerais (SIASG) pricing data was created for 25 drugs that met specific criteria. To explore the linear time trend of each of the drugs, separate regression models were fitted for each drug, resulting in a total of 19 models. Each model controlled for the state variable and the interaction between state and time, in order to accommodate expected heterogeneity in the data. Additionally, the models controlled for procurement quantities and the effect they have on the unit price. Secondary analysis using mixed effects models was also carried out to account for the impact that institutions and suppliers may have upon the unit price. Adjusting for these predictor variables (procurement quantities, supplier, purchasing institution) was important to determine the sole effect that time has had on unit prices. A total of 2 x 19 = 38 models were estimated to explore the overall effect of time on changes in unit price. All statistical analyses were performed using the R statistical software, while the linear mixed effects models were fitted using the lme4 R package. The findings from our analysis suggest that there is no pattern of consistent price decreases within the two Brazilian states during the five-year period for which the prices were analyzed. While the BPS does allow for an increase in transparency and information on drug purchase prices in Brazil, it has not shown to lead to consistent reductions in drug purchase prices for some of the most

  16. TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S./Russian HEU Purchase Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

    2005-01-01

    By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% 235 U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of inprocess containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine 235 U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site

  17. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the remaining parts of

  18. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the

  19. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2009-01-01

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  20. Innovative Payment Solutions in Agricultural Value Chain as a Means for Greater Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Tushar; Krishna, Nagahari; Vickers, Venetia; Menezes, Antonio; Raghavendra, M.

    2010-01-01

    The efforts for financial inclusion need to be designed with a vision beyond just the percentage of the country population with access to a bank account or a no frills account; to focus more on how this can enhance the capability and convenience for the un-banked and under-banked, specifically the small and marginal farmers in this case, to enable greater transparency, accountability, efficiency and convenient access to necessary facilities. The growth of ICT industry and mobile telecom revol...

  1. Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Nathalie; Ferrier, Alban; Thiel, Charles W.; Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E.; Cone, Rufus L.; Ikesue, Akio; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the 7F0→5D0 transition in Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ˜15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu3+ concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.

  2. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Organizational transparency is associated with mutual understanding and consensus between the organization and its constituents, but is typically defined as information disclosure. Such definitions pose the risk of simplification and provide incomplete understandings of the transparency phenomenon....... Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  3. Transparent Data Encryption -- Solution for Security of Database Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Dr. Anwar Pasha; Qureshi, Dr. Riyazuddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with Transparent Data Encryption which is a technology used to solve the problems of security of data. Transparent Data Encryption means encrypting databases on hard disk and on any backup media. Present day global business environment presents numerous security threats and compliance challenges. To protect against data thefts and frauds we require security solutions that are transparent by design. Transparent Data Encryption provides transparent, standards-based secur...

  4. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  6. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesshire, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  7. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in Europe - a common approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the European Union has adopted directives and implemented other measures which form the basis of a common approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection across all Member States. In particular, there are EU directives setting out radiation protection standards and establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. There are also arrangements in place to provide for an effective response to nuclear emergencies and to facilitate high quality research into nuclear and radiation protection related topics. Inevitably the stage of development in each area is somewhat different, but generally progress is ongoing in each area. From the point of view of a small country like Ireland, the development of common standards and arrangements across Europe is beneficial as they are based on the best available knowledge and expertise; they provide for greater transparency; they facilitate public confidence and make best use of the available resources. However, there are some areas in which common approaches could be further advanced. For example, the medical exposure of patients is increasingly of concern across Europe and the further development of common approaches in this area would be helpful. It would also be useful to develop a more integrated approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation and to better integrate nuclear and radiation issues with other public health and environment concerns. (author)

  8. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY:A CONCEPTUAL DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  10. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Marcoule for the year 2007. Since its creation in 1955 the center realizes industrial and scientific activities relative to the civil and military applications of the radioactivity. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the following two base activities are detailed: Atalante and Phenix. (A.L.B.)

  11. Report transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Cadarache for the year 2007. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. More especially the report discusses the beginning of the RJH reactor construction, the fourth generation reactors research programs, the implementing of la Rotonde the new radioactive wastes management installation, the renovation of the LECA. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear safety. Summary of the intermediate report of the special joint parliamentary committee on nuclear safety, present and future outlook of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, Claude; Bataille, Christian; Sido, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Following the Fukushima events, the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (OPECST) was officially asked at the end of March 2011 - jointly by the National Assembly Bureau and by the Senate Committee on the economy, sustainable development, territorial and regional planning - to carry out a study on nuclear safety, and the present and future outlook of the nuclear industry. To carry out this study, seven members of the National Assembly economic affairs and sustainable development committees were also involved, as well as eight members of the Senate Committee on the economy, sustainable development, territorial and regional planning. The first part of this study, devoted to nuclear safety, was completed on 30 June 2011 by the publication of an intermediate report. This report assembles and summarises the information collected during six public hearings and seven trips to nuclear sites. France is one of the nuclear countries where the management of safety is both the most demanding and the most transparent. In this respect, the independence of the Safety Authority is the best guarantee of strictness in the safety field and the existence of pluralistic bodies, such as the Local Information Committees, is the best guarantee of the transparency of safety. But no country can pride itself on being totally safe from a natural disaster of an unexpected scale. The French nuclear industry must therefore ratchet up one more notch its investment in safety and strengthen the means of university research. It must imagine events of even greater intensity, cascading accidents, with interactions between neighbouring industrial sites. Investment must be made by placing safety requirements above any economic consideration and in strict compliance with the specifications of public authorities supervising safety. (authors)

  13. The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajain, Arpit (New Delhi, India); Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud (Islamabad, Pakistan)

    2005-08-01

    According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).

  14. Tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, R E; Munsee, C L; Park, C-H; Hong, D; Wager, J F; Keszler, D A

    2004-01-01

    A SnO 2 transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) is demonstrated. The SnO 2 channel layer is deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then rapid thermal annealed in O 2 at 600 deg. C. The TTFT is highly transparent, and enhancement-mode behaviour is achieved by employing a very thin channel layer (10-20 nm). Maximum field-effect mobilities of 0.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained for enhancement- and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transparent nature and the large drain current on-to-off ratio of 10 5 associated with the enhancement-mode behaviour of these devices may prove useful for novel gas-sensor applications

  15. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  17. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, N.J.; Kuntz, J.D.; Roberts, J.J.; Hurst, T.A.; Drury, O.B.; Sanner, R.D.; Tillotson, T.M.; Payne, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed

  18. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  19. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  20. Workshop on regional cooperation in remote monitoring for transparency and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, John; Inoue, Naoko; Hori, Masato; Hashimoto, Yu; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2006-06-01

    The Workshop on Regional Cooperation in Remote Monitoring for Transparency and Nonproliferation on 8-9 February at O'arai, Japan, brought together remote monitoring experts to share technical experience and consider potential uses of remote monitoring for nuclear transparency and strengthened nonproliferation. Sponsored by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), this event gathered thirty five attendees from the JAEA, the Republic of Korea's National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). U.S. technical experts represented Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Workshop discussions and interactions met or surpassed all goals: On the technical front, the JAEA, NNCA, and SNL exchanged presentations on their respective uses and technical approaches to remote monitoring. These included systems for both international safeguards and transparency. The IAEA shared valuable guidance on future remote monitoring system requirements. Following the presentations SNL conducted training in remote monitoring for technical personnel. In parallel project planning discussions, the JAEA, NNCA, SNL and the U.S. DOE reaffirmed mutual interest in regional cooperation in remote monitoring that could eventuate in exchange of safeguards-related data. A productive off-the-record session by all parties considered the path forward and established intermediate steps and time scales. The 15 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Transparent Proxy for Secure E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalák, Juraj; Hudec, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the security of e-mail messages and e-mail server implementation by means of a transparent SMTP proxy. The security features include encryption and signing of transported messages. The goal is to design and implement a software proxy for secure e-mail including its monitoring, administration, encryption and signing keys administration. In particular, we focus on automatic public key on-the-fly encryption and signing of e-mail messages according to S/MIME standard by means of an embedded computer system whose function can be briefly described as a brouter with transparent SMTP proxy.

  2. Customer satisfaction: The role of transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  3. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  4. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2018-03-01

    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  5. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  6. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L.; Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors

  7. Transparency report delay and disclosure by Croatian audit firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Čular

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate transparency report (TR disclosure and determinants of TR delay, using Croatian listed companies and audit firms who audited Croatian listed companies in 2015. TR disclosure is measured using the TR index whereas the TR delay is measured as the number of days between the financial year-end and the publication date of the TR by an audit firms. We first analyzed the position and difference between audit firm indicators and types of audit firm using the following: number of certified auditors, number of employees, average net salary, total revenue, net profit, net working capital, total assets, total capital and financial ratio. Second, we used the TR index to determine the existence of TR elements and whether the audit firm made a disclosure. Finally, we used multiple regressions for modelling the TR delay as a function of the following variables: number of certified auditors, number of audits per year, return on assets and the TR index. Our results indicate that based on the TR index only 32% audit firms are transparent. Furthermore, the TR delay is shorter when audit firms have a greater number of certified auditors and a higher TR index, i.e. when audit firms incorporate more elements into the TR.

  8. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L., E-mail: binghu@umd.edu; Salamanca-Riba, L. G., E-mail: riba@umd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Mansour, A. [Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Zavalij, P. Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Rabin, O. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  9. Transparent ‘solution’ of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Jian-Feng; Wu, Xi; Zou, Hai-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1–2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells. (paper)

  10. A study of polaritonic transparency in couplers made from excitonic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Racknor, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-03-14

    We have studied light matter interaction in quantum dot and exciton-polaritonic coupler hybrid systems. The coupler is made by embedding two slabs of an excitonic material (CdS) into a host excitonic material (ZnO). An ensemble of non-interacting quantum dots is doped in the coupler. The bound exciton polariton states are calculated in the coupler using the transfer matrix method in the presence of the coupling between the external light (photons) and excitons. These bound exciton-polaritons interact with the excitons present in the quantum dots and the coupler is acting as a reservoir. The Schrödinger equation method has been used to calculate the absorption coefficient in quantum dots. It is found that when the distance between two slabs (CdS) is greater than decay length of evanescent waves the absorption spectrum has two peaks and one minimum. The minimum corresponds to a transparent state in the system. However, when the distance between the slabs is smaller than the decay length of evanescent waves, the absorption spectra has three peaks and two transparent states. In other words, one transparent state can be switched to two transparent states when the distance between the two layers is modified. This could be achieved by applying stress and strain fields. It is also found that transparent states can be switched on and off by applying an external control laser field.

  11. Proliferation resistance of advanced sustainable nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Aumeier, S.E.; McFarlane, H.F. [Argonne National Lab.-West (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation barriers of a pyro-process-based nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. While technical characteristics of the process raise new challenges for safeguards, others naturally facilitate the implementation of more integrated schemes for unattended continuous monitoring. In particular, the concept of operations accountability and model-assisted methods are revisited. While traditional safeguards constructs, such as material control and accountability, place greater emphasis on input/output characterization of nuclear processes, a model- based discrete event accountability approach could explicitly verify not only facility use but also internal operational dynamics. Under the proposed remote integral safeguards approach, transparency can be achieved efficiently, without divulging competitive or national security sensitive information. (author)

  12. Proliferation resistance of advanced sustainable nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Aumeier, S.E.; McFarlane, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation barriers of a pyro-process-based nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. While technical characteristics of the process raise new challenges for safeguards, others naturally facilitate the implementation of more integrated schemes for unattended continuous monitoring. In particular, the concept of operations accountability and model-assisted methods are revisited. While traditional safeguards constructs, such as material control and accountability, place greater emphasis on input/output characterization of nuclear processes, a model- based discrete event accountability approach could explicitly verify not only facility use but also internal operational dynamics. Under the proposed remote integral safeguards approach, transparency can be achieved efficiently, without divulging competitive or national security sensitive information. (author)

  13. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  15. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  16. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, B.W. [Caifornia Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  17. Fiscal Transparency, Elections and Public Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable variation in levels and changes in public employment within and between developed democracies. This article highlights the importance of fiscal transparency in determining changes in public employment. It argues that economic growth increases public employment under low fiscal...

  18. Providing Transparency to the Title IX Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry

    2017-01-01

    When U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos announced Sept. 7, 2017, that her department would revisit how Title IX rules are enforced with respect to campus sexual assault, she said the first step would be a "transparent notice and comment process" to replace the 2011 "guidance" (and follow up 2014 guidance) that has been…

  19. Tackling Production Techniques: Telling Tales with Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1986-01-01

    This lesson introduces students to procedures for creating both hand-drawn and machine-made transparencies and requires each of them to create one example to illustrate the same story. Detailed plans include performance objectives, materials needed, instructions for presenting the lesson, a sample student task card, and suggestions for evaluating…

  20. A TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENT E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain technologies and recently card readers with biometric authentication have been employed to achieve transparent polls. However, high level frauds still accompany results due to human control of these technological devices and have not generated the required trust resulting in a drastic decrease in voter ...

  1. Transparent and Flexible Supercapacitors with Networked Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, S; Sow, Chaitali; Kulkarni, G U

    2017-10-01

    Transparent and flexible energy storage devices have received immense attention due to their suitability for innovative electronics and displays. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate devices with high storage capacity and high degree of transmittance. This study describes a simple process for fabrication of supercapacitors with ≈75% of visible transparency and areal capacitance of ≈3 mF cm -2 with high stability tested over 5000 cycles of charging and discharging. The electrodes consist of Au wire networks obtained by a simple crackle template method which are coated with MnO 2 nanostructures by electrodeposition process. Importantly, the membrane separator itself is employed as substrate to bring in the desired transparency and light weight while additionally exploiting its porous nature in enhancing the interaction of electrolyte with the active material from both sides of the substrate, thereby enhancing the storage capacity. The method opens up new ways for fabricating transparent devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Listed Firm's Level of Stakeholder Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how Danish listed firms comply with the Danish Corporate Governance Code's recommendations regarding the categories: Role of shareholders, role of stakeholders and transparency. It is shown that the number of recommendations can be explained by six different underlying facto...

  3. Can Nudges Be Transparent and Yet Effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bruns (Hendrik); E. Kantorowicz-Reznichenko (Elena); K. Klement (Katharina); M. Luistro Jonsson (Marijane); B. Rahali (Bilel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstract‘Nudges’ receive growing attention as an effective strategy to alter people's decisions without significantly changing economic incentives or limiting options. However, being often very subtle and covert, nudges are also criticized as unethical. By not being transparent about the

  4. Practice variation in Big-4 transparency reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Jeppesen, K.K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach The study draws on a

  5. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  6. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transparent conducting materials: Overview and recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Illiberi, A.; Hovestad, A.; Barbu, I.; Klerk, L.; Buskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to

  8. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  9. Collinear light scattering using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Sokolov, A.V.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes two types of nonlinear optical processes which are based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These are: (1) Collinear generation of FM-like Raman sidebands and (2) a type of pondermotive light scattering which is inherent to the interaction of slow light with cold atoms. Connections to other areas of EIT-based nonlinear optics are also described

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  11. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  12. Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament: The new agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1994-01-01

    The themes chosen for this Conference are highly topical and timely. They reflect the new disarmament agenda, an agenda that is far more fluid and offers greater scope for innovation than in recent decades. The linkage of the three themes, disarmament, transparency in armaments and regional dialogue, is also prescient. For it is only through addressing security and disarmament issues together that we can hope to take advantage of the new remarkable opportunities to make progress and to break new ground that are presented by the change in the global security climate. This Conference will make an important contribution to advancing understanding and moulding new ways of thinking on these issues. That is much to the credit of the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs, the Government of Japan, and the authorities of the city of Hiroshima

  13. Radiation effect on the proliferating capillaries in rat transparent chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, H.; Yamada, K.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1976-01-01

    The revascularization of the devascularized area in rat transparent chambers by the proliferating blood vessels was studied quantitatively on the changes of vascularity. On the vascularizing border, a hypervascular zone about 0.5 mm wide was formed. The border advanced constantly at 0.020 cm a day. Vascular density was fixed in the repaired area. The vascular length and repaired area increased in parabolic curves. The chambers were irradiated with single doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 rad of 60 Co γ-rays, and the effects on the advance of the border were examined. With 200 rad and more, significant inhibition, greater with bigger doses, was seen in the advance of the borders. Regression of the borders also occurred. Irradiation with over 1000 rad destroyed the hypervascular zones. (author)

  14. Radiation effect on the proliferating capillaries in rat transparent chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Yamada, K; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1976-08-01

    The revascularization of the devascularized area in rat transparent chambers by the proliferating blood vessels was studied quantitatively on the changes of vascularity. On the vascularizing border, a hypervascular zone about 0.5 mm wide was formed. The border advanced constantly at 0.020 cm a day. Vascular density was fixed in the repaired area. The vascular length and repaired area increased in parabolic curves. The chambers were irradiated with single doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 rad of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, and the effects on the advance of the border were examined. With 200 rad and more, significant inhibition, greater with bigger doses, was seen in the advance of the borders. Regression of the borders also occurred. Irradiation with over 1000 rad destroyed the hypervascular zones.

  15. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  16. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  17. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rothenberger

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  18. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  19. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  20. Transparency in Supply Chains: Is Trust a Limiting Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Frentrup, Mechthild; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    Transparency has gained much relevance in food chains. This paper summarizes the determinants of transparency and points out that transparency in the sense of effective information exchange needs trust as a mediator in order to become a powerful tool in supply chain management. In addition to that this paper analyses the characteristics of trust and highlights the reciprocal and dynamic mechanisms of trust on transparency and vice versa. It is argued that both constructs should be enhanced at...